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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*C   

Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

*CabCab   PAN *CabCab, clap, beat, hack. Formosan WMP CMP

*Cabu   PAN *Cabu, to wrap. Formosan;  PAN *C<um>abu, to wrap. Formosan

*CaCaw   PAN *CaCaw, pupil of the eye. Formosan WMP

*Cakaw   PAN *Cakaw, steal. Formosan;  PMP *takaw₁, steal. WMP CMP;  POC *tako, steal or rob. OC;  PAN *ma-Cakaw, to steal. Formosan;  PMP *ma-takaw, stolen. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nakaw, steal. WMP;  PWMP *mana-nakaw, thief. WMP;  PMP *pa-nakaw, steal. WMP;  POC *panako, steal. OC;  POC *painako, steal. OC;  POC *penako, steal. OC;  PAN *C<in>akaw, what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive). Formosan;  PWMP *t<in>akaw, stolen; stolen goods. WMP;  PAN *Cakaw-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PWMP *takaw-an, stolen goods (?). WMP;  PWMP *takaw-en, be stolen. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-takaw-an, the place where something is stolen (nonpast local passive). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-takaw-en, be stolen (nonpast direct passive). WMP

*Caki   PAN *Caki, feces, excreta. Formosan;  PMP *taki, feces, excreta. WMP OC;  PAN *C<um>aki, defecate. Formosan WMP

*Cali   PAN *Cali, cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta. Formosan

*Caliŋa   PAN *Caliŋa, ear. Formosan;  PMP *taliŋa, ear; kind of tree fungus. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *taliŋa, ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish. OC;  PAN *Caliŋa nu kaSiw, wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks. Formosan;  PMP *taliŋa nu kahiw, wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks. WMP

*CaliS   PAN *CaliS, rope, cord, twine, string. Formosan;  PMP *talih, rope, cord, twine, string. WMP CMP;  POC *tali₁, rope, string, cord. OC;  PMP *ta-talih, cord. WMP CMP;  PWMP *talih-an, mooring place, place where a boat is tied. WMP;  PWMP *talih-en, to be manufactured, of string or rope. WMP;  PAN *C<in>aliS, was made into rope; what was made into rope. Formosan;  PMP *t<in>alih, was made into rope; what was made into rope. WMP;  PAN *C<um>aliS, to tie with rope, fasten with rope. Formosan;  PMP *t<um>alih, to twist into rope (?). WMP;  PWMP *ma-nalih, make a rope or string, make something into rope or string. WMP;  PWMP *pa-nalih, material used to make rope. WMP;  PWMP *pa-talih, twine together, as strands of rope. WMP;  PWMP *talih pusej, umbilicus, navel cord. WMP

*CaluN   PAN *CaluN, fallow land; secondary forest. Formosan;  PMP *talun₁, fallow land; secondary forest. WMP OC;  PPh *talun-an, clear land for cultivation. WMP;  PPH *talun₂, wild fowl, jungle fowl. WMP;  PPH *ka-talun-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*CaNem   PAN *CaNem, grave; to bury. Formosan;  PMP *tanem, grave; to bury; to plant. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tanom, to bury; to plant. OC;  PPH *i-tanem, to bury, to plant. WMP;  PWMP *ma-tanem, able to plant or bury. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nanem, to bury; to plant. WMP;  PWMP *maR-tanem, to bury, to plant. WMP;  PWMP *pa-nanem, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *taR-tanem, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *ka-tanem-an, area that is planted(?). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *t<in>anem, what has been planted (?). WMP;  PAN *t<um>anem, to plant. Formosan WMP;  PAN *tanem-an, area that is planted(?). Formosan WMP;  PAN *CaNem-en, what is buried or planted. Formosan WMP;  PMP *tanem-i, to plant on or in. WMP SHWNG

*CaNum   PAN *CaNum, carry water. Formosan;  PMP *tanum₁, fill with water. WMP

*Caŋelaj   PAN *Caŋelaj, elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea. Formosan;  PMP *taŋelaj, elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea. WMP

*Caŋila   PAN *Caŋila, ear. Formosan;  PMP *taŋila, ear. WMP OC

*Caŋis   PAN *Caŋis, weep, cry; mourn; to beseech. Formosan;  PMP *taŋis, weep, cry; mourn. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *ma-Caŋis, cry. Formosan;  PMP *ma-taŋis, cry. WMP;  PMP *ma-naŋis, to weep, to cry. WMP CMP;  PAN *pa-Caŋis, to make someone cry; to let someone cry. Formosan;  PMP *pa-taŋis, to make someone cry; to let someone cry. WMP;  PMP *paka-taŋis, to make someone cry; to let someone cry. WMP OC;  PWMP *pa-naŋis, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *C<um>aŋis, to weep, cry, mourn. Formosan WMP;  PAN *Caŋis-an, to cry over something or someone. Formosan;  PMP *taŋis-an, to cry over something or someone. WMP;  PWMP *taŋis-en, to cry over something or someone (?). WMP;  PMP *taŋis-i, to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead. WMP CMP OC;  POC *taŋis-ia, to cry for someone or something. OC;  PMP *taŋis-taŋis, to weep continuously or incessantly. WMP;  POC *taŋi-taŋis, cry continually, weep a lot. OC

*Capa   PAN *Capa, to smoke fish or meat for preservation. Formosan;  PMP *tapa₁, to smoke fish or meat for preservation. WMP CMP;  PWMP *man-tapa, to smoke fish or meat for preservation. WMP;  PWMP *tapa-an, smoke. WMP;  PPh *tapa-en, smoke. WMP;  PAN *C<in>apa, smoke. Formosan;  PMP *t<in>apa, smoke. WMP

*Capaŋ   PAN *Capaŋ, a patch, as on clothing. Formosan;  PMP *tapaŋ₁, a patch, as on clothing. WMP

*Capel   PAN *Capel, a patch; to patch. Formosan;  PMP *tapel, a patch, as on clothing. WMP CMP

*Capuh   PAN *Capuh, sweep. Formosan;  PAN *Ca-Capuh, broom. Formosan;  PAN *C<um>apu, to sweep. Formosan

*Caqi   PAN *Caqi, feces, excrement. Formosan;  PMP *taqi, feces, excrement. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *C<in>aqi, small intestine. Formosan;  PMP *t<in>aqi, small intestine. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *C<um>aqi, to defecate. Formosan;  PMP *t<um>aqi, to defecate. WMP;  PWMP *taqi nu bituqen, shooting star. WMP;  PWMP *taqi nu Caliŋa, ear wax, cerumen. WMP;  PMP *taqi nu haŋin, wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds. WMP CMP;  PWMP *taqi nu kuku, dirt under the nails. WMP;  PMP *taqi nu lalej, dark mole. WMP CMP;  PAN *pu-Caqi, to defecate. Formosan

*CaqiS   PAN *CaqiS, to sew. Formosan;  PMP *tahiq, to sew. WMP;  PAN *Ca-CaqiS, sew. Formosan;  PAN *CaqiS-an, sew. Formosan;  PMP *taqih-an, sew. WMP;  PAN *C<um>aqiS, to sew. Formosan;  PAN *C<in>aqiS, sew. Formosan

*Caqu   PAN *Caqu, to know how, be able to, be skilled at. Formosan;  PMP *taqu₂, to know how, be able to, be skilled at. WMP OC;  PWMP *ka-taqu₁, know. WMP;  PWMP *ka-taqu-an, know. WMP;  PAN *ma-Caqu, know. Formosan;  PMP *ma-taqu₁, know. WMP OC;  PAN *Caqu-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *taqu-an, to know. WMP

*CaSaw   PAN *CaSaw, open-. Formosan;  PMP *tahaw, outdoors, outside. WMP;  PAN *ka-CaSaw-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP

*Cau   PAN *Cau, person, human being. Formosan;  PMP *tau₁, person, human being. WMP CMP OC;  PAN *ka-Cau-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *ka-tau-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *k<in>a-Cau-an, nature, character. Formosan;  PMP *k<in>a-tau-an, nature, character. WMP;  PPh *ma-tau, crowded with people. WMP;  PAN *Cau Cau, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *tau tau, human effigy; pupil of the eye. WMP;  PMP *tau-mata, person, human being. WMP CMP OC

*Cawa   PAN *Cawa, to laugh. Formosan;  PMP *tawa₁, to laugh. WMP CMP;  PAN *Ca-Cawa, to laugh. Formosan;  PMP *ta-tawa, to laugh. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tawa, to laugh. WMP;  PAN *ma-Cawa, to laugh. Formosan;  PMP *ma-tawa, to laugh. WMP;  PPh *maka-tawa, to laugh. WMP;  PWMP *maR-ka-tawa, to laugh. WMP

*CawiN   PAN *CawiN, year. Formosan

*Cazem   PAN *Cazem, sharp (of point or blade). Formosan;  PMP *tazem, sharp. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tazem, sharp. WMP;  PWMP *ma-tazem, sharp (of blade or point). WMP;  PWMP *pa-tazem, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *t<in>azem, sharp. WMP;  PAN *t<um>azem, sharp. Formosan WMP


 

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Ce

*Cebak   PAN *Cebak, smack against. Formosan;  PMP *tebak, fall with a loud smack. WMP

*Cebej   PAN *Cebej, spring of water, spring water. Formosan;  PMP *tebej, spring of water. WMP

*Cebiq   PAN *Cebiq, split, divide, break off. Formosan;  PMP *tebiq, split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut. WMP CMP;  POC *topiq, split, divide, break off. OC

*Cebuj   PAN *Cebuj, natural spring, fresh water spring. Formosan WMP;  POC *topuc, natural spring, fresh water spring. OC

*Cebuk   PAN *Cebuk, thud. Formosan;  PMP *tebuk₂, fall with a dull thud. WMP

*CebuN   PAN *CebuN, smoke. Formosan

*Cebuŋ   PAN *Cebuŋ, to meet, come together. Formosan

*CebuS   PAN *CebuS, sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum. Formosan;  PMP *tebuh₂, sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum. WMP SHWNG OC

*CegCeg   PAN *CegCeg, beat, pound, hit. Formosan;  PMP *tegteg, knock, pound, beat. WMP

*CekCek   PAN *CekCek, pierce, penetrate. Formosan;  PMP *tektek₂, pierce, penetrate. WMP

*Ceked   PAN *Ceked, to rest, take a break from work or other activity. Formosan

*CekeS   PAN *CekeS, kind of very slender bamboo. Formosan

*Celaq   PAN *Celaq, crack, split, fissure. Formosan;  PMP *telaq₁, split, crack, fissure. WMP CMP

*CelCel   PAN *CelCel, beat, pound. Formosan WMP

*Cemel   PAN *Cemel, grass, herbs; medicine. Formosan;  PAN *Ceme-Cemel, uncultivated land. Formosan

*Cenek   PAN *Cenek, thorn. Formosan WMP OC

*CeRab   PAN *CeRab, a belch. Formosan;  PMP *teRab, a belch. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *toRap, belch. OC

*Cesek   PAN *Cesek, insert, pierce, penetrate. Formosan;  PMP *tesek, pierce, penetrate. WMP


 

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Ci

*Cidu   PAN *Cidu, spoon, ladle, dipper. Formosan;  PMP *tidu, spoon, ladle. CMP

*Cikel   PAN *Cikel, return, go back. Formosan WMP

*CiŋaS   PAN *CiŋaS, food particles caught between the teeth. Formosan;  PMP *tiŋah, food particles caught between the teeth. WMP

*Ciqaw   PAN *Ciqaw, fish sp.. Formosan;  PMP *tiqaw₂, goat fish, family Mullidae. WMP CMP;  POC *tiqo, goat fish, family Mullidae. OC


 

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Cu

*-Cu   PAN *-Cu, spatio- deixis and spatio- temporal reference: that; there, then. Formosan;  PWMP *-tu, this. WMP;  PMP *a-tu, away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer. WMP OC;  PWMP *di-tu, there (2p). WMP;  PAN *i-Cu, that (2p). Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *si-tu, there (2p). WMP;  PMP *wa-tu, away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer. WMP OC

*Cubuq   PAN *Cubuq, plant sprout. Formosan;  PMP *tubuq, tumbuq, grow, germinate, sprout. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tubuq, tupuq, to grow, spring up. OC;  POC *paka-tupuq, make something grow. OC;  PAN *C<um>ubuq, to sprout, to grow. Formosan;  PMP *t<um>ubuq, to sprout, to grow. WMP;  PPh *pa-tubuq, let something grow, make something grow. WMP;  PWMP *pa-tubuq-en, let something grow, make something grow. WMP;  PWMP *tubuq-an, place where something grows or is added. WMP

*CugCug₁   PAN *CugCug₁, hit something against something else. Formosan;  PMP *tugtug₂, beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding. WMP

*CugCug₂   PAN *CugCug₂, knock or bump the head. Formosan;  PMP *tugtug₁, knock or bump the head. WMP;  PAN *C<um>ugCug, knock or bump the head. Formosan;  PMP *t<um>ugtug, knock or bump the head. WMP

*Cukul   PAN *Cukul, huddle, bow the head. Formosan WMP

*Culi   PAN *Culi, deaf. Formosan;  PMP *tuli₁, earwax; deaf. WMP CMP;  POC *tuli₁, deaf. OC

*Cumay   PAN *Cumay, Formosan black bear. Formosan

*Cumek   PAN *Cumek, pulverize; crumble. Formosan WMP

*CumeS   PAN *CumeS, clothes louse; body louse. Formosan;  PMP *tumah, clothes louse; body louse. WMP;  PCEMP *tuma, clothes louse; body louse. CMP OC

*CuNuh   PAN *CuNuh, roast food over a fire. Formosan;  PMP *tunu, roast food over a fire. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *C<in>uNuh, roast. Formosan;  PMP *t<in>unuh, roast. WMP;  PAN *C<um>uNuh, to roast (intr.). Formosan;  PMP *t<um>unuh, to roast (intr.). WMP;  PAN *CuNuh-an, to roast. Formosan;  PAN *tunuh-an, to roast. WMP;  PAN *ki-CuNuh, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PAN *ki-tunuh, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *ma-CuNuh, roast. Formosan;  PAN *ma-tunuh, roast. WMP SHWNG;  PMP *ma-nunuh, to roast. WMP SHWNG;  PWMP *maR-tunuh, to roast. WMP;  PPh *tunuh-en, roast. WMP;  POC *tunu tunu, roast food over a fire. OC

*CuŋCuŋ   PAN *CuŋCuŋ, make a booming sound. Formosan WMP

*CuqelaN   PAN *CuqelaN, condylar bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish. Formosan;  PMP *tuqelan, condylar bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish. WMP

*Curis   PAN *Curis, scratch a line. Formosan;  PMP *turis₂, scratch a line. WMP CMP

*CuSuR   PAN *CuSuR, string together, as beads. Formosan;  PMP *tuhuR, string. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tuRi₁, to string (beads, fish, etc.); to skewer (candlenuts, etc.). OC;  PAN *CuSuR-en, be strung, be skewered. Formosan WMP;  PAN *C<um>uSuR, to string beads, etc.. Formosan

*Cuzuq   PAN *Cuzuq, index finger. Formosan;  PMP *tuzuq₂, to point out, instruct. WMP CMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_c2.htm