Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*d   

da    de    di    do    dr    du    

*da₁   PAN *da, locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du). Formosan;  PMP *daₐ, locative case marker for plural personal names. WMP

*dabuk₁   PMP *dabuk₁, pound, beat. WMP OC

*dabuk₂   PPH *dabuk₂, dust. WMP;  PPH *ma-dabuk, crumbly, friable. WMP

*dabuŋ   PPH *dabuŋ, bamboo shoot. WMP

*dabuq   PWMP *dabuq, to fall. WMP;  PWMP *ma-dabuq, to fall. WMP

*dada₁   PCMP *dada₁, to pull, haul, drag. CMP

*dada₂   PPH *dada₂, term of reference for older female relative. WMP

*dadaN   PAN *dadaN, old, of things; ancient times. Formosan;  PMP *dadan, old, of things; ancient times. WMP

*dagdag   PPH *dagdag, to drop, to fall down. WMP

*dagepak   PWMP *dagepak, loud slap. WMP

*dag(e)qún   PPH *dag(e)qún, year. WMP

*dág(e)saq   PPH *dág(e)saq, to wash ashore, as driftwood. WMP

*dágus₁   PPH *dágus₁, continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation. WMP

*dagus₂   PPH *dagus₂, to lodge, stay in someone else’s house. WMP

*dahak   PWMP *dahak, phlegm; cough up phlegm. WMP

*dahemuR   PWMP *dahemuR, dew. WMP

*dahun   PMP *dahun, leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘ table’ for eating. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *daun, leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects. CMP;  PEMP *raun, leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects. SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-dahun, leaf. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-dahun, to have or sprout leaves. WMP;  PWMP *maR-dahun, to leaf out, sprout leaves. WMP;  PMP *dahun-dahun, foliage, leaves. WMP;  POC *raun-raun, foliage, leaves. OC;  PMP *dahun nu taliŋa, the auricle or shell of the ear. WMP;  POC *raun ni taliŋa, the auricle or shell of the ear. OC

*dajam   PAN *dajam, accustomed to, tame. Formosan;  PAN *ma-dajam, accustomed to, tame. Formosan OC

*dajem   PAN *dajem, chills, as of malaria. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-dajem, chills, as of malaria. WMP

*dakdak   PWMP *dakdak, slam down with force. WMP

*dakél   PPH *dakél, big, large (in size or quantity). WMP;  PPH *ma-dakél, many. WMP;  PPH *ka-dakel-án, majority, largest part. WMP

*dakep   PAN *dakep, catch, seize; embrace. Formosan WMP;  POC *rakop, embrace. OC;  PAN *d<um>akep, to catch, capture; embrace. Formosan WMP;  PAN *dakep-en, be caught, captured. Formosan WMP

*dakeS   PAN *dakeS, a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp.. Formosan

*da(ŋ)ket   PMP *da(ŋ)ket, stick, adhere to. WMP CMP;  POC *rago, to stick, adhere. OC

*daki   PAN *daki, dirt on skin; dandruff. Formosan;  PMP *daki, dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth. WMP CMP

*dakiS   PAN *dakiS, climb, ascend. Formosan WMP;  PAN *d<um>akiS, climb, ascend. Formosan

*dakit   PMP *dakit, join along the length; raft. WMP CMP;  POC *rakit, join along the length, raft. OC

*dákit   PPH *dákit, ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.). WMP

*dakuC   PAN *dakuC, snatch, grab. Formosan WMP CMP

*dalág   PPH *dalág, mudfish, murrel. WMP

*dalágan   PPH *dalágan, rushing of water; rapids, cascade. WMP

*dalak   PWMP *dalak, thunder. WMP

*dálaw   PPH *dálaw, pay a visit, drop by to see someone. WMP

*dalayap   PAN *dalayap, kind of citrus tree and fruit. Formosan WMP

*daldál   PPH *daldál, talkative, loquacious. WMP

*dalej   PWMP *dalej, house. WMP

*dalem   PAN *dalem, in, inside; deep. Formosan;  PMP *dalem, ins, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.). WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *ralom, ins, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings. OC;  PMP *i dalem, below, beneath; in. WMP;  POC *i rarom, below, beneath; in. OC;  PAN *ma-dalem, deep. Formosan WMP;  POC *ma-ralom, deep. OC;  PWMP *pa-dalem, in. WMP;  PWMP *dalem-en, in. WMP;  PMP *dalem qatay, hold with in (of emotions, thoughts)?. WMP;  POC *ralom qate, (gloss uncerta in). OC

*dalig   PPH *dalig, buttress root. WMP

*dalih   PWMP *dalih, to assume, act on a supposition, be the reason for an action, escuse for something. WMP;  PWMP *dalih-an, reason, pretext, excuse for doing something. WMP

*dalij   PMP *dalij, buttress root. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *ralic, buttress root. OC

*dalikan   PMP *dalikan, trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed. WMP CMP

*daliŋ   PWMP *daliŋ, buttress root. WMP

*dalíq   PPH *dalíq, quick, do quickly; do in a short time. WMP

*dalis   PAN *ma-dalis, smooth, slippery. Formosan;  POC *maralis, slippery. OC

*dalit₁   PMP *dalit₁, glue, paste, plaster, caulk. WMP CMP

*dalit₂   PMP *dalit₂, smooth, slippery. WMP;  PMP *ma-dalit, smooth, slippery. OC

*dalit₃   PPH *dalit₃, venom, poison. WMP

*dalu₁   PMP *dalu₁, a flying white ant or termite. WMP CMP

*dalu₂   PWMP *dalu₂, jealousy; anger; a quarrel. WMP

*dalupániq   PPH *dalupániq, kind of freshwater fish. WMP

*dalúpaŋ   PPH *dalúpaŋ, kind of shrub. WMP

*damaR₁   PAN *damaR₁, tree resin used in torches (?). Formosan WMP;  POC *ramaR, light, luminosity. OC;  POC *ma-ramaR, to shine; shining, bright. OC

*damaR₂   PPH *damaR₂, to stay up all night, continue until daybreak. WMP

*damay   PWMP *damay, peace, empathy, harmony between parties. WMP

*damdam   PWMP *damdam, fever, illness. WMP CMP

*damuq   PAN *damuq, menstrual blood?. Formosan

*damwa   POC *damwa, forehead. OC

*dana   PWMP *dana, old, of things. WMP

*danáq₁   PPH *danáq₁, beaten track, footprints making a trail. WMP

*danáq₂   PPH *danáq₂, that, those. WMP

*danaw   PAN *danaw, lake. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *rano, lake. OC

*daní   PPH *daní, soon, presently; almost. WMP

*danug   PPH *danug, to punch, hit with the fist. WMP

*daNum   PAN *daNum, fresh water. Formosan;  PMP *danum, fresh water. WMP;  POC *ranum, fresh water. OC;  PWMP *ma-nanum, pour water on. WMP;  PAN *pa-daNum, to irrigate. Formosan;  PMP *pa-danum, to irrigate. WMP;  PAN *pu-daNum, to water, irrigate. Formosan;  PAN *danum-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP

*daŋanan   PWMP *daŋanan, handle">handle of a knife or sword. WMP

*daŋaq   PWMP *daŋaq, wide open. WMP

*daŋaw   PPH *daŋaw, handspan. WMP

*daŋdaŋ   PAN *daŋdaŋ₁, broil; warm oneself or something near a fire. Formosan;  PMP *daŋdaŋ₁, warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire. WMP CMP OC;  PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ, expose to the heat of a fire or the sun. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-daŋdaŋ, expose to the heat of a fire or the sun. WMP;  PPH *maR-daŋdaŋ, expose to fire. WMP;  PWMP *d<in>aŋdaŋ, warm. WMP;  PAN *daŋdaŋ-an, place something near a fire. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en, to be dried near a fire or by the sun. WMP

*daŋi   PCEMP *daŋi, near. CMP;  POC *raŋi, near. OC

*daŋkaq   PMP *daŋkaq, branch. WMP CMP

*daŋkeq   PMP *daŋkeq, branch, twig. WMP OC

*daŋuy   PWMP *daŋuy, to swim. WMP

*dapa   PAN *dapa, palm of the hand. Formosan WMP

*da(m)paD   PMP *da(m)paD, flat, level. WMP CMP

*dapak   PPH *dapak, marine fish, probably snapper sp.. WMP

*dapal   PWMP *dapal, width of the palm (?). WMP

*dapaN   PAN *dapaN, sole of the foot; footprint. Formosan;  PMP *dapan, sole of the foot. WMP

*dapaR   PMP *dapaR, flat, level, even. WMP;  POC *rapaR, flat, level, even. OC

*dápat₁   PPH *dápat₁, to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely. WMP

*dápat₂   PPH *dápat₂, to treat with medicine. WMP

*dapat₃   PPH *dapat₃, to lie flat; flat area. WMP

*dapat₄   PPH *dapat₄, should, ought to. WMP

*dapdáp   PPH *dapdáp, cut chips or bits from something, scrape off. WMP

*dapdap₁   PMP *dapdap₁, a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica. WMP;  POC *rarap, a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica. OC

*dapdap₂   PWMP *dapdap₂, to grope. WMP

*dapet   PMP *dapet, to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely. WMP CMP

*da(m)pil   PWMP *da(m)pil, nudge, bump against another person. WMP

*dapit   PWMP *dapit, transport someone across a river (?). WMP

*dapít   PPH *dapít, place, location, direction. WMP

*dapu   PPH *dapu, be attracted to, swarm around, as ants do on finding food. WMP

*dapuR₁   PMP *dapuR₁, hearth. WMP CMP;  POC *rapuR, hearth. OC;  PWMP *dapuR-an, hearth, cooking place. WMP;  PPH *d<um>apuR, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *dapuR dapuR, external part of something. WMP

*dapuR₂   PAN *dapuR₂, pile up, as stones. Formosan WMP

*daput   PPH *daput, however, provided that. WMP

*daqan   PMP *daqan₁, branch, bough. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *raqan, branch, bough. OC;  PMP *daqan kahiw, branch of a tree. WMP;  POC *raqan kayu, branch of a tree. OC

*daqaN   PAN *daqaN, old, ancient. Formosan;  PMP *daqan₂, old, ancient; formerly. WMP

*daqaNi   PAN *daqaNi, day. Formosan;  PMP *daqani, day. WMP;  POC *raqani, day. OC

*daq(e)taR   PPH *daq(e)taR, floor. WMP

*daqiS   PAN *daqiS, forehead; face. Formosan;  PMP *daqih, forehead; face. WMP;  PCEMP *daqi, forehead; face. CMP;  POC *raqe, forehead. OC

*daqu₁   PMP *daqu₁, a tree: Dracontomelum edule. WMP CMP

*daqu₂   PAN *daqu₂, soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria. Formosan

*daRa₁   PAN *daRa₁, Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana. Formosan

*daRa₂   PMP *daRa₂, maiden, virgin, unmarried girl. WMP CMP;  PWMP *da-daRa, maiden, virgin, unmarried girl. WMP;  PWMP *ka-daRa-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *d<um>aRa, maiden. WMP

*daRaq   PAN *daRaq, blood; to bleed; menstruate. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *draRaq, blood. OC;  PAN *ma-daRaq, blood. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maR-daRaq, to bleed. WMP;  PMP *daRa-daRaq, blood. WMP CMP

*daRat   PMP *daRat, littoral sea, sea near the shore. WMP CMP;  POC *raRat, sea coast (?). OC;  PPh *ka-daRát-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*daRayaʔ   PWMP *daRayaʔ, teem, swarm. WMP

*daRehuŋ   PWMP *daRehuŋ, deep booming sound. WMP

*daReq   PAN *daReq, soil, probably clay. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*daRi   PMP *daRi, a fish: Scomberoides sp.. WMP OC

*daRiŋ   PAN *daRiŋ, groan, moan. Formosan WMP

*daRiq   PAN *daRiq, soil, probably clay. Formosan

*da(ŋ)sek   PWMP *da(ŋ)sek, crowd, push together. WMP

*das(e)qaR   PPH *das(e)qaR, food laid out for a feast. WMP

*daSdaS   PAN *daSdaS, chest (anat.). Formosan;  PWMP *dahdah, chest (anat.). WMP

*dataR   PAN *dataR, flat, flat or level land. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *rataR, flat or level land. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-dataR, to make level or flat, as in levelling land. WMP;  PAN *ka-dataR-an, plain, region of level land. Formosan WMP

*dateŋ   PMP *dateŋ, to arrive, reach a place. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maka-dateŋ, able to arrive. WMP;  PWMP *d<um>ateŋ, to arrive. WMP;  PWMP *ka-dateŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *dateŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *dateŋ-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*datu   PMP *datu, lineage priest (?). WMP CMP OC

*daup₁   PPH *daup₁, to cover, covering. WMP

*daup₂   PPH *daup₂, to bring the hands together. WMP

*dawak   PWMP *dawak, curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance. WMP

*dáwat   PPH *dáwat, to receive; to ask for. WMP;  PPH *ma-dawat, to get, obtain. WMP;  PPH *dawat-en, to receive, accept. WMP

*dawdaw   PPH *dawdaw, kind of marine snail. WMP

*dawiN   PAN *dawiN, far. Formosan

*daya   PAN *daya, upriver, toward the interior. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *raya, upriver, toward the interior. OC;  PWMP *di-daya, above, in the interior. WMP

*dáyaw   PPH *dáyaw, to praise someone. WMP

*dayket   PPH *dayket, sticky, glutinous, adhesive. WMP

*dáyu   PPH *dáyu, stranger, foreigner; guest. WMP


 

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

de

*debak   PWMP *debak, pound, thud. WMP

*debdeb   PAN *debdeb, chest. Formosan WMP

*debek   PMP *debek, smack against. WMP CMP

*dedap   PMP *dedap, a tree: Erythrina spp.. WMP CMP SHWNG

*degaq   PWMP *degaq, clatter of a stick poking around in something. WMP

*de(ŋ)guk   PMP *de(ŋ)guk, deep throaty sound. WMP CMP

*deguʔ   PWMP *deguʔ, sound of swishing water. WMP

*dekak   PWMP *dekak, laugh, as of laughter. WMP

*dekdek   PMP *dekdek, pulverize, crush by pounding. WMP;  PCEMP *dədək, pound. CMP

*dekeC   PAN *dekeC, paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice). Formosan;  PMP *deket₁, paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice). WMP CMP;  PPH *i-deket, to stick, adhere. WMP;  PPH *ma-deket, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *pa-dekeC, to stick or paste on. Formosan;  PMP *pa-deket, to stick or paste on. WMP;  PWMP *d<um>eket, to stick to something, adhere. WMP;  PWMP *deket-en, be stuck to by something. WMP;  PWMP *deket deket, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*dekep   PWMP *dekep, embrace. WMP

*deket₁   PWMP *deket₂, ignite, set aflame. WMP

*deket₂   PPH *deket₃, blackened, as the teeth with betel stains. WMP

*dekiŋ   PAN *dekiŋ, to bark, of a deer. Formosan WMP

*de(ŋ)kit   PMP *de(ŋ)kit, touch. WMP CMP

*deku   PMP *deku, bent, curved. WMP;  POC *roku, bent, curved. OC

*dekuk   PMP *dekuk, bow, bend downward. WMP CMP;  POC *rokuk, bend over. OC

*dekuŋ   PMP *dekuŋ, to bend over. WMP;  POC *rokuŋ, bend, curve. OC

*delek   PWMP *delek, thunder. WMP

*delem   PMP *delem, dark of the moon, moonless night. WMP;  POC *drolom, dark. OC

*delep   PMP *delep, submerge, sink. WMP CMP

*deles   PAN *deles, bowstring. Formosan WMP;  POC *rolos, bowstring. OC

*demdem₁   PAN *demdem₁, brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still. Formosan WMP;  POC *rodrom₂, to brood, keep still. OC

*demdem₂   PAN *demdem₂, gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *rodrom₁, dark, cloudy. OC;  PAN *ma-demdem, gloom. Formosan WMP

*denden   PPH *denden, to move aside; make room for, as by moving a little. WMP

*denet   PPH *denet, to touch, come in contact with. WMP

*deŋan   PMP *deŋan, with, in conjunction with; companion. WMP;  POC *droŋan, with, in conjunction with; companion. OC;  PWMP *man-deŋan, go with, accompany someone. WMP;  PWMP *maR-deŋan, do something simultaneously. WMP

*deŋdeŋ₁   PPH *deŋdeŋ₁, to cook vegetables. WMP

*deŋdeŋ₂   PAN *deŋdeŋ₂, thunder; roaring or thunderous sound. Formosan WMP

*deŋen   PWMP *deŋen, with, in conjunction with; companion. WMP

*deŋeR   PAN *deŋeR, to hear; sound. Formosan;  PMP *deŋeR, to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *roŋoR, to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight. OC;  PWMP *ma-deŋeR, audible. WMP;  PPH *maka-deŋeR, to be able to hear. WMP;  PPH *maki-deŋeR, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *man-deŋeR, to hear. WMP;  PWMP *maR-deŋeR, listen to, heed. WMP;  PWMP *pa-deŋeR, (gloss uncertain). WMP SHWNG;  POC *pa-roŋoR, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PWMP *paka-deŋeR, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *paka-roŋoR, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PWMP *ka-deŋeR-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *d<um>eŋeR, to hear. WMP;  PPH *deŋeR-en, to listen to. WMP

*deŋkul   PWMP *deŋkul, to bend, fold. WMP

*deŋut   PWMP *deŋut, restless, impatient, annoyed. WMP

*de(m)paD   PWMP *de(m)paD, flat and wide. WMP

*depah   PAN *depah, fathom. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *ropa, fathom. OC;  PPH *i-depa, extend the arms sideways. WMP;  PPH *man-depa, to measure in fathoms. WMP;  PPH *maR-depa, extend both arms sideways. WMP;  PWMP *d<um>epa, to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms. WMP;  PWMP *depa-en, to measure by fathoms. WMP;  PWMP *depa-i, to measure by fathoms. WMP

*depdep   PMP *depdep, tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica. WMP CMP

*depel   PPH *depel, to touch. WMP

*depen   PMP *depen, mat. WMP CMP

*depuk   PMP *depuk, snap, crack. WMP CMP

*de(m)pul   PMP *de(m)pul, dull, blunt. WMP CMP

*depuŋ   PAN *depuŋ, venomous snake. Formosan WMP

*deruŋ   PAN *deruŋ, deep booming boom. Formosan WMP

*deRaŋ   PWMP *deRaŋ, red. WMP

*deRas   PMP *deRas, hasten. WMP;  POC *roRas, hasten. OC

*deRdeR   PAN *deRdeR, thunder. Formosan WMP

*deReŋ   PMP *deReŋ, roar of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc.. WMP;  POC *roRoŋ, roaring roar. OC

*deRep   PWMP *deRep, communal help. WMP

*deR(e)qas   PPH *deR(e)qas, second pounding of rice. WMP

*deRes   PMP *deRes, swift. WMP OC;  POC *roRos, a current; to flow.

*deRiŋ   PWMP *deRiŋ, to ring, buzz, etc.. WMP

*deRu   PWMP *deRu, roll of thunder. WMP

*deRuŋ₁   PAN *deRuŋ₁, distant rolling thunder. Formosan WMP

*deRuŋ₂   PMP *deRuŋ₂, a tree: Trema orientalis. WMP CMP

*desdés   PPH *desdés, push down, trample down, as vegetation. WMP

*desdes   PPH *desdes, to rub, rub together. WMP

*desek   PWMP *desek, to press down, press together. WMP

*desuR   PWMP *desuR, onom. for dull sound. WMP

*detdet   PAN *detdet, packed tightly together. Formosan WMP


 

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

di

*di   PAN *di, locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du). Formosan WMP

*-di   PMP *-di, 3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?). WMP CMP;  PMP *a-di, that, there. WMP CMP;  POC *ari, demonstrative: this (?). OC;  PMP *i-di, that, there. WMP;  POC *iri, that, there. OC

*dian   PMP *dian, no, not. WMP CMP

*didis   PWMP *didis, kind of civet cat. WMP

*dikeC   PAN *dikeC, sticky, adhesive. Formosan;  PMP *diket, sticky, adhesive. WMP CMP

*dik(e)lém   PPH *dik(e)lém, dark, obscure, cloudy. WMP;  PPH *ma-diklém, dark, obscure, cloudy. WMP

*dikén   PPH *dikén, pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc.. WMP

*dikiq   PMP *dikiq, small. WMP;  POC *rikiq, small. OC

*dikit   PAN *dikit, little, few, small in amount. Formosan WMP;  POC *rikit, little, small. OC;  PWMP *dikit dikit, little by little. WMP

*dilam   PPH *dilam, to stick out the tongue. WMP

*dilap₁   PMP *dilap₁, sparkle, shine. WMP CMP

*dilap₂   PWMP *dilap₂, to lick. WMP

*dilaq₁   PAN *dilaq₁, to lick. Formosan;  PMP *dilaq₁, tongue; tongue of tongue-and-groove joint in carpentry. WMP;  PAN *d<um>ilaq, to lick. Formosan;  PMP *d<um>ilaq, to lick (?). WMP;  PWMP *anak nu dilaq, uvula. WMP

*dilaq₂   PWMP *dilaq ni buqaya, plant sp. (lit. crocodile tongue). WMP;  PWMP *dilaq-dilaq, plant sp. (?). WMP

*dilat   PWMP *dilat, to lick. WMP

*diláw   PPH *diláw, turmeric; yellow. WMP

*dilep   PMP *dilep, flash, sparkle, shine. WMP CMP;  POC *rilop, flash. OC

*dilis   PPH *dilis, long- jawed anchovy. WMP

*diNaŋ   PAN *diNaŋ, rust. Formosan

*diŋa   PMP *diŋa, to hear, listen. WMP CMP

*diŋan   PWMP *diŋan, friend, companion. WMP

*diŋdiŋ₁   PMP *diŋdiŋ₁, wall of a house; partition off. WMP;  PCMP *dindiŋ₁, wall; wall in, screen off. CMP;  POC *ridriŋ, wall of a house. OC

*diŋdiŋ₂   PMP *diŋdiŋ₂, cold. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PCEMP *ma-dindiŋ, cold. CMP;  POC *maridriŋ, cold. OC

*diŋeR   PMP *diŋeR, hear. WMP CMP

*diŋin   PMP *diŋin, cold. WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-diŋin, cold. WMP CMP

*diŋkit   PWMP *diŋkit, touching or joined along the length. WMP

*diq   PPh *diq, particle of negation. WMP

*diqaq   PMP *diqaq, good. WMP CMP OC

*diqdiq   PMP *diqdiq, to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water. WMP;  POC *ririq, to boil, effervesce. OC

*diq(e)pit   PWMP *diq(e)pit, join, fasten together, probably lengthwise. WMP

*diRi   PAN *diRi, to stand. Formosan WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-diRi, to stand, be standing. WMP CMP;  PEMP *ma-riRi, to stand, be standing. SHWNG

*diRus   PAN *diRus, bathe. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *riRus, to bathe. WMP OC

*disdis   PAN *disdis, cut, slice. Formosan WMP;  PEMP *riris, cut, slice. SHWNG

*disúl   PPH *disúl, kind of herb with medicinal value. WMP

*ditaq   PMP *ditaq, a tree: Alstonia scholaris. WMP CMP

*dítaq   PPH *dítaq, snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows. WMP

*diteq   PAN *diteq, sticky substance. Formosan CMP


 

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

do

*dodok   PCMP *dodok, to pierce, stab. CMP


 

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

dr

*(dr,d)aula   POC *(dr,d)aula, frigate bird. OC

*drali   POC *drali, slitgong. OC

*d(r)amut   POC *d(r)amut, lime spatula. OC

*draŋi   POC *draŋi, day. OC

*druru   POC *druru, owl. OC


 

TOP      da    de    di    do    dr    du    

du

*du   PWMP *du, locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di). WMP

*dua   PAN *dua, over there, yonder. Formosan

*dudu   PMP *dudu, thunder. WMP CMP

*dúdun   PPh *dúdun, grasshopper, locust. WMP

*duduq   PWMP *duduq, breast. WMP

*duduy   PPH *duduy, term of endearment for a little boy. WMP

*dug(e)mún   PPH *dug(e)mún, lair of a wild pig for giving birth. WMP

*dúhul   PPH *dúhul, to hand something to someone. WMP

*dukduk₁   PAN *dukduk₁, ginger. Formosan

*dukduk₂   PPH *dukduk₂, to pound repeatedly, crush. WMP

*dukduk₃   PWMP *dukduk₃, to sit, be seated. WMP

*du(ŋ)kuŋ   PAN *du(ŋ)kuŋ, bend, curve. Formosan WMP

*dukuq   PMP *dukuq, bend over, stoop. WMP;  POC *rukuq, bend over, stoop. OC

*dúkut   PPH *dúkut, to draw out; to pickpocket someone. WMP

*dukut₁   PWMP *dukut₁, lonely. WMP

*dukut₂   PMP *dukut₂, grass. WMP CMP;  PWMP *dukut-en, be overgrown with grass or weeds. WMP

*dulaŋ   PPH *dulaŋ, tray or low table. WMP

*dulaq   PMP *dulaq, saliva; to spit. WMP CMP

*dulas   PMP *dulas, to slip or slide. WMP;  POC *drulas, to slip or slide. OC

*dulaw   PPH *dulaw, yellowish-, yellowish- brown, as dry leaves. WMP

*duldúl   PPH *duldúl, to force, achieve by force. WMP

*dulem   PPH *dulem, darkening, obscuring of light. WMP

*dúlis   PPH *dúlis, shooting star, meteor. WMP

*dúlit   PPH *dúlit, shooting star, meteor. WMP

*dulit₁   PWMP *dulit₁, stick, adhere. WMP

*dulit₂   PPH *dulit₂, smudge, dirty spot. WMP

*duluk   PPH *duluk, to clean up a swidden after burning. WMP

*duluŋ   PWMP *duluŋ, prow of a canoe. WMP

*duluR   PWMP *duluR, accompany, go together with. WMP

*dulut   PPH *dulut, to serve food, dish up food. WMP

*duma   PAN *duma, someone; other people; be different. Formosan WMP

*dumpul   PMP *dumpul, dull, blunt. WMP CMP

*dumul   PWMP *dumul, touch with the lips (?). WMP

*duniq   PWMP *duniq, rainbow. WMP

*dunuŋ   PPH *dunuŋ, knowledge, skill, intelligence. WMP

*duŋduŋ   PMP *duŋduŋ, shelter. WMP;  POC *ruruŋ, shelter. OC

*duŋkuk   PMP *duŋkuk, hunch. WMP CMP

*duŋun   PWMP *duŋun, a shore tree: Heritiera littoralis. WMP

*duŋus   PPH *duŋus, snout, nose. WMP

*dura   PWMP *dura, to shy away, of animals. WMP

*durus   PWMP *durus, slide down. WMP

*duRduR   PWMP *duRduR, thunder. WMP

*duRi   PAN *duRi, thorn. Formosan;  PMP *duRi, thorn, splinter, fish bone. WMP CMP;  POC *ruRi, thorn; splinter; fish bone. OC;  PWMP *ma-duRi, thorn. WMP;  PWMP *duRi-an, a tree and its fruit, the durian: Durio zibethinus. WMP

*dusuk   PMP *dusuk, enter, penetrate. WMP CMP

*duSa   PAN *duSa, two. Formosan;  PMP *duha, two. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *rua, two. OC;  PAN *da-duSa, two, of people. Formosan;  PMP *da-duha, two, of people. WMP;  POC *ra-rua, two, of people. OC;  PAN *du-duSa, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *du-duha, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *in-duha, twice. WMP;  PPH *ipi-duhá, second time (?). WMP;  PWMP *ka-duha, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *ka-du-duhá, soul, spirit of a living person. WMP;  PWMP *ka-duha-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *maka-duha, do something twice (?). WMP;  PCEMP *maka-dua, do something twice (?). CMP;  PWMP *man-duha, divide into two parts. WMP;  PWMP *maŋa-duha, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *maŋa-ua, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PWMP *maR-duha, divide into two. WMP;  PAN *mi-da-duSa, do something with someone else, perform an action together. Formosan;  PAN *paka-duSa, twice, do something twice. Formosan;  PMP *paka-duha, twice, do something twice. WMP;  PCEMP *paka-dua, twice. CMP;  POC *paka-rua, twice, do something twice. OC;  PAN *pin-duSa, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *pin-duha, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *Sika-duSa, second. Formosan;  PMP *ika-duha, second. WMP;  PCEMP *ka-dua, second. CMP;  POC *ka-rua, second. OC;  PWMP *taR-duha, two each?. WMP;  PPH *d<um>uhá, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *duha-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *duSa-en, be divided into two. Formosan;  PMP *duha-en, be divided into two. WMP;  PWMP *duha-i, share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?). WMP;  PAN *duSa duSa, two by two, two at a time; two each. Formosan;  PMP *duha duha₁, two by two, two at a time; two each; both. WMP;  PCEMP *dua-dua, two by two, two at a time; two each. CMP;  POC *rua rua₁, two by two, two at a time. OC;  PMP *duha duha₂, doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds. WMP;  POC *rua rua₂, doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds. OC

*dutdut   PMP *dutdut, pluck, pull out. WMP;  POC *rurut, pluck, pull out. OC

*dúyan   PPH *dúyan, swinging cradle for an infant. WMP

*duyuŋ₁   PWMP *duyuŋ₁, sloping, bent downward. WMP

*duyuŋ₂   PMP *duyuŋ₂, dugong. WMP;  PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂, dugong. CMP SHWNG;  POC *ruyuŋ₂, dugong. OC

*duyuR   PPH *duyuR, coconut shell receptacle for food or water. WMP

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_d.htm