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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*e   

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

*e   POC *e, numeral prefix; cardinal numeral marker. OC

*ebek   PWMP *ebek, thud. WMP

*ebuk   PMP *ebuk, dust, powder. WMP CMP

*ebun   PMP *ebun, heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather. WMP;  POC *opun, heap, pile. OC

*ebuq   PWMP *ebuq, gut a fish, eviscerate. WMP

*ebuR   PMP *ebuR, sow, strew, scatter. WMP CMP

*ebus   PWMP *ebus, finished, gone. WMP


 

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ed

*edaŋ   PWMP *edaŋ, light, radiance; shine. WMP

*edaq   PMP *edaq, vetative; don't. WMP CMP

*edeg   PWMP *edeg, back (of humans or animals). WMP

*edem₁   PWMP *edem₁, overcast; dull lustre. WMP;  PWMP *ma-edem, overcast; dull lustre. WMP

*edem₂   PAN *edem₂, soak, dye. Formosan WMP

*eden   PWMP *eden, to brood, sit on eggs. WMP


 

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eg

*egaŋ   PWMP *egaŋ, dry, dried up. WMP

*egap   PWMP *egap, gasp, open the mouth to breathe. WMP;  PWMP *um-egap, gasp. WMP

*egik   PMP *egik, high-pitched throaty sound. WMP CMP

*e(ŋ)guk   PMP *e(ŋ)guk, make a gurgling sound. WMP CMP


 

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ej

*ejaq   PWMP *ejaq, vetative; don't. WMP

*e(ŋ)juŋ   PWMP *e(ŋ)juŋ, nose. WMP


 

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ek

*e(ŋ)kab   PWMP *e(ŋ)kab, open, uncover. WMP

*e(ŋ)kak   PMP *e(ŋ)kak, choke, gasp, struggle for breath. WMP CMP;  PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak, choke, gasp, struggle for breath. WMP

*ekal   PPH *ekal, to remove, take off or out. WMP

*ekaŋ   PWMP *ekaŋ, hoot, croak. WMP

*ekap   PMP *ekap, gasp for air. WMP CMP

*e(ŋ)keb   PMP *e(ŋ)keb, a cover, to cover. WMP CMP;  POC *okop, cover with something (?). OC

*e(ŋ)kek   PMP *e(ŋ)kek, subdued laughter; sobbing. WMP CMP

*ekeŋ   PMP *ekeŋ, stiff. WMP CMP

*ekep   PMP *ekep, brood, sit on eggs. WMP CMP

*eket   PWMP *eket, stick, adhere. WMP

*e(ŋ)kik   PMP *e(ŋ)kik, shrill cry. WMP CMP

*ekit   PMP *ekit, squeak, shriek. WMP CMP

*ekuk   PMP *ekuk, croak. WMP CMP

*ekup   PWMP *ekup, enclose, cover. WMP


 

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el

*elak   PMP *elak, separate two things. WMP CMP

*eleb   PWMP *eleb, knee. WMP

*elem₁   PMP *elem₁, shade, darkness. WMP CMP

*elem₂   PWMP *elem₂, cautious, suspicious. WMP

*elet₁   PMP *elet₁, borrow, be in debt. WMP CMP

*elet₂   PWMP *elet₂, exert strength or effort. WMP

*eliŋ   PMP *eliŋ, high-pitched sound. WMP CMP

*eluŋ   PMP *eluŋ, bend, curve. WMP CMP


 

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em

*ema₁   PMP *ema₁, father's sister, possibly address term. WMP CMP;  PMP *ema-q, father's sister, possibly address term. WMP CMP

*ema₂   PWMP *ema₂, kiss. WMP

*embaq   PWMP *embaq, bring, take along. WMP

*embaw   PWMP *embaw, high, on top. WMP

*embej   PWMP *embej, bind the waist; band around the waist. WMP

*embeŋ   PMP *embeŋ, a dam; to dam a stream. WMP CMP;  POC *opoŋ, block, obstruct. OC

*embet   PWMP *embet, bind the middle. WMP

*embut   PWMP *embut, to pound, of the pulse. WMP;  PWMP *embut-embut, fontanel. WMP

*emeg   PWMP *emeg, damp, moist. WMP

*emis   PMP *emis₁, sweet taste. WMP CMP SHWNG

*emit   PMP *emit, small in quantity, few; trifling amount. WMP CMP

*empas   PWMP *empas, fall away, crumble (as a wall). WMP

*empeŋ   PMP *empeŋ, block, obstruct, dam a stream. WMP CMP

*empu   PMP *empu, grandparent/ grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PWMP *empu-an, object of respect; distinguished or respected person. WMP;  PWMP *empu-ni-a, owner, possessor. WMP;  PWMP *empú-ŋ, grandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative). WMP;  PMP *empu-q, grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative). WMP CMP;  PMP *maki-empu, grandchild. WMP;  POC *mokobu, grandchild. OC;  PWMP *paki-empu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-empu-an, what is honored, object of honor or respect. WMP;  PMP *t-empu, grandparent/ grandchild (ref.). WMP SHWNG

*emun   PWMP *emun, if. WMP

*emuŋ   PWMP *emuŋ, gather, collect together. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-emuŋ, to gather, collect together. WMP

*emuR   PMP *emuR, hold in the mouth. WMP CMP;  POC *omuR, hold in the mouth. OC


 

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en

*-en   PAN *-en, marker of direct passive. Formosan WMP

*ena   PMP *ena, catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc.. WMP;  POC *ona₂, spear; sharpened pitfall stake. OC

*enap   PMP *enap, scale of a fish. WMP CMP

*enat   PPH *enat, to pull something toward oneself. WMP;  PPH *enat-en, to pull something toward oneself. WMP

*enda   PWMP *enda, no, not. WMP

*endaŋ   PWMP *endaŋ, stop, come to a stop. WMP;  PWMP *endaŋ endaŋ, stop. WMP

*enduR   PMP *enduR, thunder. WMP CMP

*endut   PWMP *endut, spring, springing back when pressed down. WMP

*enem   PAN *enem, six. Formosan WMP CMP;  PEMP *onəm, six. SHWNG;  POC *onom, six. OC;  PAN *a-enem, six (of humans). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *iŋg-enem, six times. WMP;  PMP *ika-enem, six. WMP CMP;  POC *ika-onom, six. OC;  PWMP *ka-enem, do six times. WMP;  PAN *maka-enem, six times (frequentative multiplicative). Formosan WMP;  PMP *pa-enem, divide into six (?). WMP CMP;  PMP *paka-enem, six times. WMP;  POC *paka-onom, six times. OC;  PAN *paR-enem-en, do six times. Formosan WMP;  PPh *enem-an, group of six. WMP;  PMP *enem ŋa puluq, six. WMP CMP;  POC *onom ŋa puluq, six. OC;  PMP *enem enem, six by six, six at a time. WMP;  POC *onom onom, six by six, six at a time. OC

*enep   PPh *enep, keep to oneself. WMP

*entul   PWMP *entul, bounce, rebound. WMP

*enzak   PWMP *enzak, step, tread; stamp. WMP

*enzi   PWMP *enzi, term of address to girls. WMP;  PWMP *enzi-q, term of address to girls. WMP


 

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*eñat   PWMP *eñat, stretch. WMP

*eñep   PMP *eñep, sunken, submerged. WMP CMP


 

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*eŋap   PMP *eŋap, gasp for breath. WMP OC

*eŋaq   PWMP *eŋaq, wide open (mouth). WMP

*eŋeŋ   PWMP *eŋeŋ, buzz, hum. WMP

*eŋes   PPh *eŋes, sniffle, snore. WMP

*eŋga   PWMP *eŋga, no, not. WMP

*eŋgem   PMP *eŋgem, hold something inside the mouth. WMP;  POC *oŋkom, hold in the mouth. OC

*eŋik   PWMP *eŋik, high-pitched sound of complaint. WMP

*eŋit   PPH *eŋit, laugh; laughter. WMP

*eŋkaŋ   PWMP *eŋkaŋ, spread the legs. WMP

*eŋkaq   PWMP *eŋkaq, breathe quickly or deeply. WMP

*eŋkel   PMP *eŋkel, bent, stooped. WMP CMP;  POC *oŋkol, bend, stoop over. OC

*eŋkeŋ   PMP *eŋkeŋ, moan, hum, howl. WMP CMP

*eŋker   PWMP *eŋker, low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar. WMP

*eŋkus   PWMP *eŋkus, snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils. WMP

*eŋkut   PMP *eŋkut, guttural sound. WMP CMP

*eŋus   PPh *eŋus, sniffle, pant. WMP

*eŋut   PMP *eŋut, complain loudly. WMP CMP


 

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ep

*epak   PWMP *epak, break, crack, split. WMP

*epan   PWMP *epan, start a fire. WMP

*epaŋ   PMP *epaŋ, notch; notched. WMP CMP

*epap   PWMP *epap, clap, flap, slap. WMP

*epeŋ   PMP *epeŋ, make a dull sound in the ears. WMP CMP

*epid   PWMP *epid, braid, intertwine. WMP

*epiq   PMP *epiq, burnt food which adheres to the pot. WMP CMP

*epis   PPH *epis, fibrous material at base of coconut frond. WMP

*epit₁   PMP *epit₁, burnt food which adheres to the pot. WMP CMP

*epuk   PMP *epuk, pop. WMP CMP

*epus   PMP *epus, stump, stub; finish, complete. WMP CMP;  POC *opus, finish something. OC

*eput   PWMP *eput, puff, blow suddenly. WMP


 

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er

*erak   PWMP *erak, harsh loud sound. WMP

*erit   PCEMP *erit, scratch, scrape. CMP;  POC *orit, scratch, scrape, peel. OC

*erut   PWMP *erut, rumbling sound. WMP


 

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eR

*eRes   PMP *eRes, shrink (of living things). WMP CMP

*eRiq   PAN *eRiq, sword grass: Imperata cylindrica. WMP CMP SHWNG


 

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es

*esa   PAN *esa, one. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *a-esa, one (of humans). Formosan WMP;  PCEMP *asa₂, one (of humans). CMP SHWNG;  PPh *maka-esa, once. WMP;  PMP *esa esa, one by one. WMP CMP

*esak   PMP *esak, cooked, ripe. WMP;  PMP *ma-esak, cooked, ripe. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *maosak, cooked, ripe. OC

*esek   PMP *esek₁, crowd. WMP;  POC *osok, crowd. OC

*esem   PWMP *esem, sour. WMP;  PWMP *ma-esem, sour. WMP

*eseŋ   PMP *eseŋ, blow the nose by pinching off one nostril. WMP CMP

*esuŋ   PMP *esuŋ, rice mortar. WMP CMP


 

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et

*etak   PWMP *etak, notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis. WMP

*eták   PPh *eták, bush knife, machete. WMP

*etas   PWMP *etas, slash, chop away. WMP

*eteb   PWMP *eteb, cut off, prune. WMP

*etek   PWMP *etek, knock. WMP;  PWMP *ŋ-etek, knock lightly. WMP

*etel   PMP *etel, constipation; packed hard and firm. WMP CMP

*e(n)teŋ   PMP *e(n)teŋ, stare, look fixedly at. WMP CMP;  POC *otoŋ, stare at. OC

*eter   PMP *eter, shake, vibrate, tremble. WMP CMP

*etes₁   PMP *etes₁, chop, hack, cut off. WMP CMP

*etes₂   PWMP *etes₂, cross a river. WMP

*etik   PWMP *etik, little, few; small amount. WMP;  PWMP *sa-etik, a little bit. WMP

*etip   PWMP *etip, burnt rice which adheres to the pot. WMP

*etuk   PMP *etuk, knock, pound, thud. WMP CMP


 

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ez

*ezan   PMP *ezan, notched log ladder. WMP CMP

*e(n)zuk   PWMP *e(n)zuk, proffer, offer. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_e1.htm