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Updated: 1/27/2020


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


ha    he    hi    hu    

*ha   PMP *ha₁, marker of a tag question. WMP CMP

*ha-   PMP *ha-₁, adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure. WMP;  POC *a-, adjectival prefix. OC

*hábas   PPh *hábas, tumor in the mouth of an animal. WMP

*habed   PWMP *habed, hindrance, obstacle. WMP

*habél   PPH *habél, weave cloth. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-habel, weave cloth. WMP;  PPh *maR-habél, to weave, be weaving. WMP;  PPh *habel-án, loom for weaving cloth. WMP;  PWMP *habel-en, be woven. WMP

*habhab   PPH *habhab, to gulp, devour, eat like a pig. WMP

*habuk   PMP *habuk, powder. WMP

*hábuŋ   PPH *hábuŋ, temporary hut, shelter. WMP

*hacuk   PWMP *hacuk, enter, penetrate. WMP

*hadas   PWMP *hadas, anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare. WMP

*hadawiq   PPH *hadawiq, far, distant. WMP

*hadiq   PWMP *hadiq, no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives). WMP

*hag(e)kes   PPH *hag(e)kes, wrap around; hug. WMP

*hagetik   PWMP *hagetik, tick of ticking. WMP

*hagetuk   PWMP *hagetuk, knock. WMP

*haguk   PWMP *haguk, deep throaty sound. WMP

*hakep   PWMP *hakep, grasp, embrace. WMP

*hakhak   PWMP *hakhak, laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter. WMP

*hakut hakut   PWMP *hakut hakut, kind of mason bee or wasp. WMP

*halaw   PWMP *halaw, drive away (as animals). WMP

*halem   PMP *halem, night, dark. WMP CMP

*halhál   PPH *halhál, to pant, as a dog with open mouth. WMP

*halin   PMP *halin, move, transfer. WMP CMP

*haluh   PWMP *haluh, large lizard sp.. WMP

*hamak   PWMP *hamak, mat. WMP

*hambej   PWMP *hambej, wrap around; band around something. WMP

*hambeŋ   PWMP *hambeŋ, obstruct, block the way. WMP

*hambin   PWMP *hambin, carry in the folds of the clothing. WMP

*hambúg   PPh *hambúg, proud, boastful. WMP

*hametak   PWMP *hametak, kind of legume. WMP

*hampak   PPh *hampak, slap, smack. WMP

*hampaŋ   PWMP *hampaŋ, easy, promiscuous (of women). WMP

*hampil   PMP *hampil, go together. WMP CMP

*hampir   PWMP *hampir, near, close by. WMP

*hampul   PWMP *hampul, heave upward. WMP

*hamuk   PMP *hamuk, attack, run amuck. WMP CMP

*handem   PMP *handem, think, understand. WMP;  POC *adom, think, understand. OC

*hantaD   PWMP *hantaD, visible, in full view. WMP

*hantatadu   PWMP *hantatadu, large stinging green caterpillar. WMP

*hanunaŋ   PMP *hanunaŋ, a tree: Cordia dichotoma. WMP CMP

*háŋad   PPH *háŋad, to lift the head, raise the head. WMP

*haŋak   PWMP *haŋak, out of breath, gasping. WMP;  POC *aŋak, out of breath, gasping. OC

*haŋes   PPH *haŋes, to breathe heavily or with difficulty. WMP

*haŋet   PPH *haŋet, to gnaw, chew on. WMP

*haŋga   PWMP *haŋga, until, as far as. WMP

*haŋin   PMP *haŋin, wind. WMP CMP;  POC *aŋin, wind. OC;  PPh *ma-haŋin, windy. WMP;  PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin, expose to the wind. WMP;  POC *paka-aŋin, cause the wind to blow. OC;  PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin, go out for some fresh air. WMP;  POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin, refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air. OC;  PWMP *ka-haŋin-an, struck by the wind. WMP;  PWMP *haŋin-an, filled with air, bloated. WMP;  PWMP *haŋin-en, suffer illness. WMP;  PMP *haŋin-haŋin, gust, draft, current of air; rumor. WMP CMP;  POC *aŋin-aŋin, gust, draft, current of air. OC

*haŋit   PMP *haŋit, anger. WMP;  POC *aŋit, anger. OC

*haŋus₁   PWMP *haŋus₁, gasp for breath. WMP;  PWMP *haŋus-en, sniffle. WMP

*haŋus₂   PMP *haŋus₂, odor of burnt food. WMP CMP

*haŋút   PPh *haŋút, chew on, gnaw on. WMP

*hápaR   PPH *hápaR, chase, pursue. WMP;  PPH *hapáR-en, chase. WMP

*hapejes   PMP *hapejes, smart. WMP CMP

*hapejis   PMP *hapejis, smart. WMP CMP

*hap(e)lít   PPh *hap(e)lít, to whip. WMP

*hapen   PMP *hapen, fishing line. WMP;  PEMP *apen, fishing line. SHWNG;  POC *apon, fishing line. OC

*hap(e)rus   PPh *hap(e)rus, rub, massage. WMP

*hapin   PMP *hapin, liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat. WMP CMP;  PPH *hapin-an, to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for. WMP;  PPh *hapin-en, be lined by. WMP

*hapRus   PPh *hapRus, rub, massage. WMP

*hapun   PMP *hapun₁, dew. WMP CMP

*hápun   PPh *hápun, to roost, of chickens; time of roosting. WMP;  PPH *hapun-an, roost. WMP

*haq(e)muq   PPH *haq(e)muq, tame, docile, mild-mannered. WMP;  PPH *ma-haq(e)muq, tame, docile. WMP;  PPH *h<um>aq(e)muq, to become tame or gentle. WMP

*haq(e)was   PPH *haq(e)was, to climb down, dismount; unload. WMP

*hárab₁   PPH *hárab₁, for fish to prey on other fish. WMP

*hárab₂   PPH *hárab₂, pasturage; grazing. WMP

*haruqan   PWMP *haruqan, mudfish. WMP

*haRemaŋ   PMP *haRemaŋ, kind of marine eel. WMP CMP

*haRezan   PMP *haRezan, notched log ladder. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PEMP *aRezan, notched log ladder. WMP SHWNG;  PMP *haRezan na batu, stone stairs. WMP CMP

*hasaŋ   PMP *hasaŋ, gills. WMP CMP;  PEMP *asaŋ₂, gills. SHWNG OC;  PWMP *hasaŋ-an, have gills. WMP;  PEMP *asaŋ-i, gills of. CMP OC

*haseg   PWMP *haseg, stuff or squeeze in, be squeezed in. WMP

*hasek₁   PMP *hasek₁, dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick. WMP CMP;  POC *asok, plant in holes in the ground. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁, to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick. WMP

*hasek₂   PMP *hasek₂, press in, cram, crowd. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hasek₂, press, cram in with force. WMP;  PWMP *hasek-i, press, cram in with force. WMP

*hasuk   PWMP *hasuk, enter, penetrate, insert. WMP

*hataq   PWMP *hataq, raw, uncooked. WMP;  PMP *ma-hataq, raw, uncooked. WMP CMP OC;  POC *mataq, raw, unripe. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-hataq, use while still ripe. WMP

*hátaR   PPH *hátaR, to divide into shares, give out portions. WMP

*hatay   PWMP *hatay, expression of warning: watch out!. WMP

*hátuŋ   PPH *hátuŋ, fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire. WMP

*hawan   PWMP *hawan, atmosphere, space between earth and sky. WMP;  PWMP *hawan hawan, atmosphere, space between earth and sky. WMP

*hawaw   PPH *hawaw, thirst. WMP

*hayep   PPh *hayep, animal. WMP

*hayun   PWMP *hayun, shake, sway, swing. WMP

*hayup   PWMP *hayup, to blow. WMP

*háyup   PPH *háyup, animal. WMP


TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    


*hebás   PPh *hebás, evaporate, dry up. WMP;  PPh *maR-hebás, to evaporate, cause to dry up. WMP;  PPh *h<um>ebás, to subside, dry up. WMP

*he(m)bek   PWMP *he(m)bek, sob, mumbled complaint. WMP

*hebun   PMP *hebun, group, pile. WMP OC

*hedaw   PMP *hedaw, stop, cease, of rain. WMP OC

*hediq   PWMP *hediq, no, not. WMP

*hekas   PWMP *hekas, release, loosen, untie. WMP

*helek   PPh *helek, sleep. WMP

*heluŋ   PWMP *heluŋ, shade, shelter. WMP

*hemel   PWMP *hemel, touch, hold. WMP

*hemis   PMP *hemis, sweet taste. WMP CMP;  PEMP *emis₂, sweet taste. SHWNG;  PAN *ma-hemis, sweet. Formosan WMP;  PCEMP *ma-emis, sweet; insipid, as fresh water. CMP;  POC *mamis, sweet, fresh (of water). OC

*henaq   PPh *henaq, think, consider; thought, idea. WMP

*hendek   PPh *hendek, moan, groan. WMP

*heñat   PWMP *heñat, stretch. WMP

*heŋak   PMP *heŋak, out of breath. WMP OC

*heŋit   PPH *heŋit, laughter; to laugh. WMP

*hepak   PWMP *hepak, split, break off. WMP

*heqe   PMP *heqe, yes; expression of agreement. WMP CMP;  POC *oqo, yes. OC

*heqeguk   PMP *heqeguk, deep guttural sound. WMP CMP

*heReŋ   PMP *heReŋ, groan, moan, roar, growl. WMP;  POC *oRoŋ, roar, shout. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-heReŋ, to groan, moan, roar. WMP

*heRuŋ   PWMP *heRuŋ, roar. WMP

*hesek₁   PPH *hesek₁, to plant seeds by dibbling. WMP;  PPh *hesek-án, field made by dibbling. WMP

*hesek₂   PAN *hesek₂, drive in stakes or posts. Formosan;  PMP *esek₂, drive in stakes or posts. WMP


TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    


*hibun   PMP *hibun, cover with earth. WMP;  POC *ipun₂, cover with earth. OC

*hidap   PWMP *hidap, suffer, bear hardships. WMP

*hidem   PWMP *hidem, keep something to oneself; silent, secret. WMP

*hideRáq   PPh *hideRáq, lie down. WMP;  PPh *maR-hideRáq, to lie down. WMP

*hig(e)pít   PPh *hig(e)pít, pinch or squeeze between two surfaces. WMP;  PPh *hig(e)pít-en, pinch. WMP

*higút   PPH *higút, to tie up, tighten a rope. WMP;  PPH *higut-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*hikhik   PWMP *hikhik, snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter. WMP

*hikñat   PPh *hikñat, stretch. WMP

*hilab   PPH *hilab, abdominal pain. WMP

*hilah   PWMP *hilah, drag, pull. WMP

*hilap   PPH *hilap₃, slice, cut (as meat). WMP;  PPH *maŋ-hilap, to cut or slice meat. WMP;  PPH *hilap-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *hilap-en, to cut, slice (as meat). WMP

*hilat   PMP *hilat, wide open, of the eyes. WMP CMP

*hiláw   PPh *hiláw, raw, unripe. WMP

*hilek   PPH *hilek, a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens. WMP

*hili   PMP *hili, village, town. WMP CMP;  PPh *ka-hili-an, village. WMP

*hiliŋ   PWMP *hiliŋ, see, examine, look at closely. WMP

*hilít   PPh *hilít, outskirts, edge of settlement. WMP

*hilu   PWMP *hilu, poison. WMP;  PWMP *ma-hilu, poison. WMP

*hílut   PPh *hílut, set. WMP;  PPh *hílut-en, to massage, set bones. WMP

*himatún   PPh *himatún, notice, observe. WMP

*hínam   PPh *hínam, crave, desire, intensely. WMP

*hintay   PWMP *hintay, wait for, spy on. WMP

*hinuR   PPH *hinuR, ripe, ripen, of fruit; reach a ‘ripe’ stage, of a head cold, a boil, etc.. WMP;  PPH *ma-hinuR, ripe. WMP

*hinzam   PWMP *hinzam, borrowing, lending. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hinzam, borrow. WMP;  PWMP *maR-hinzam, lend, borrow (?). WMP;  PAN *pa-hinzam, lend. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *hinzam-an, person or place from which something is borrowed. WMP;  PWMP *hinzam-en, thing borrowed. WMP;  PWMP *hinzam-i, borrow from (someone). WMP

*híŋak   PPh *híŋak, sound of rushing water or air. WMP

*hipaR   PMP *hipaR₁, sibling-. WMP CMP;  POC *ipaR-, sibling-. OC

*hipaʔ   PMP *hipaʔ, lie in wait for, ambush. WMP

*hipes   PPH *hipes, to fall silent; keep quiet about something; keep a secret. WMP

*hipun₁   PMP *hipun₁, tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn. WMP CMP;  PEMP *ipun₁, tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn. SHWNG

*hípun₂   PPh *hípun₂, small shrimp. WMP

*hipuq   PPh *hipuq, feel, touch. WMP

*hiqepet   PWMP *hiqepet, tight, tightness. WMP

*hiras   PMP *hiras, cut off. WMP CMP

*hírig   PPh *hírig, lean, incline. WMP

*hírud   PPh *hírud, scrape or rub off. WMP

*hiRét   PPh *hiRét, constrict; constriction. WMP;  PPh *hiRet-an, tighten. WMP

*hisep   PAN *hisep, suck, inhale. Formosan WMP;  POC *isop, suck, inhale. OC

*hisuq   PMP *hisuq, scrub oneself by scrubbing. WMP CMP;  PEMP *isug, scrub oneself by scrubbing. SHWNG OC

*hitaq   PPh *hitaq, groin, crotch. WMP

*hitu   PMP *hitu, fish">catfish. WMP CMP

*hituq   PMP *hituq, fish">catfish. WMP CMP

*hius   PWMP *hius, leak out, of air. WMP

*hiwal   PWMP *hiwal, shake or move from side to side. WMP

*híwaq   PPh *híwaq, cut, carve, slice (meat or fish). WMP;  PPh *hiwáq-an, cut, carve, slice (meat or fish). WMP;  PPh *hiwáq-en, be slice, carved, sliced (meat or fish). WMP

*hiwiʔ   PWMP *hiwiʔ, crooked, twisted (of the twist). WMP

*hizaw   PWMP *hizaw, fighting green with greenish feathers on light background. WMP


TOP      ha    he    hi    hu    


*huab   PWMP *huab₁, vapor. WMP;  PWMP *ma-huab₂, vapor. WMP

*huaR   PMP *huaR, a vine: Flagellaria indica. WMP CMP

*hubád   PPh *hubád, untie, unravel. WMP;  PPh *maR-hubád, untie, unravel. WMP;  PPh *hubád-en, untie. WMP

*hubun hubun   PWMP *hubun hubun, fontanel. WMP

*hubun₁   PMP *hubun₁, fontanel. WMP CMP

*hubun₂   PMP *hubun₂, heap, pile, collection. WMP CMP;  POC *upun₂, heap, pile. OC

*hubuq   PPH *hubuq, move something to another place. WMP;  PPH *hubuq-en, move something to another place. WMP

*hu(ŋ)kab   PWMP *hu(ŋ)kab, open, uncover. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hukab, to open. WMP;  PWMP *hukab-en, open. WMP

*hukad   PPH *hukad, to untie, unpack, undo. WMP

*hukaq   PAN *hukaq, loosen, open. Formosan WMP CMP

*hukas   PWMP *hukas, loosen, untie, undress; to separate. WMP;  PWMP *maR-hukas, to separate, untie. WMP;  PWMP *hukas-en, be separated, untied. WMP

*hukay   PWMP *hukay, dig up something buried, disinter. WMP;  PWMP *hukay-an, dug up. WMP

*hukuq   PWMP *hukuq, hunched, bent over. WMP

*hulas   PPH *hulas, sweat, perspiration. WMP

*hulhul₁   PAN *hulhul₁, to bark, of a dog. Formosan WMP

*hulhul₂   PPH *hulhul₂, to come loose, as a belt. WMP

*humbak   PWMP *humbak, wave, billow, swell at sea. WMP;  PWMP *humbak-humbak, rise and fall like the swells at sea. WMP;  PWMP *ma-humbak, full of waves, as a stormy sea. WMP

*huna   PMP *huna, first, before, anterior in time. WMP;  PMP *h<um>una, to do or go first. WMP OC

*hunus   PWMP *hunus, mercy killing; put someone out of their misery. WMP

*húnus   PPH *húnus, a tithe, share given for help in harvesting the crops. WMP

*huñat   PPh *huñat, to stretch, straighten out. WMP

*huñaw   PWMP *huñaw, wash the hands or face. WMP

*huñus   PMP *huñus, to molt, shed the skin. WMP;  POC *uñus, to molt, shed the skin. OC

*húŋut   PPH *húŋut, coconut shell bowl or water scoop. WMP

*hupak   PWMP *hupak, split, peel off. WMP

*huqem   PWMP *huqem, to soak. WMP

*hurus   PWMP *hurus, slip or slide down or along. WMP

*huRaC   PAN *huRaC, artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon. Formosan;  PMP *uRat, artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *uRat, artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy. OC;  PWMP *uRat-en, full of veins or tendons. WMP;  PMP *uRat uRat, veins, sinews (collective). WMP OC;  PWMP *uRat i daRaq, artery, major blood vessel. WMP;  PMP *uRat i lima, lines in the palm of the hand. WMP CMP

*huRuŋ   PMP *huRuŋ, roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death). WMP;  POC *uRuŋ, groan, roar. OC

*húRut   PPH *húRut, to pull on or out with the fingers. WMP

*hutek   PMP *hutek, brain; marrow. WMP CMP

*hutuk   PWMP *hutuk, bend, flex. WMP

*huy   PMP *huy, exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc.. WMP CMP;  POC *ui, exclamation. OC

*huyaŋ   PWMP *huyaŋ, shake, sway, rock. WMP

*huyáp   PPh *huyáp, count, enumerate. WMP

*huyug   PWMP *huyug, shake, sway, stagger. WMP

*huyuŋ   PMP *huyuŋ, shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake. WMP CMP

*huzam   PWMP *huzam, borrowing. WMP;  PWMP *h<um>uzam, to borrow. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 1/27/2020
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_h.htm