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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*k   

ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    

*ka₁   PAN *ka₁, conjunctive particle, and. Formosan WMP OC

*ka₂   PAN *ka₂, conditional, if. Formosan WMP OC

*ka₃   PAN *ka₃, oblique case marker for plural personal names. Formosan WMP

*ka₄   PMP *ka₄, 2sg. subject pronoun. WMP CMP OC

*ka₅   POC *ka₅, ( human) member of a category. OC

*ka-₁   PAN *ka-₁, marker of past time in temporal expressions. Formosan WMP

*ka-₂   PAN *ka-₂, stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions. Formosan WMP

*ka-₃   PPH *ka-₃, stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker. WMP

*ka-₄   PPH *ka-₄, mate, partner, cohort. WMP

*ka-₅   PAN *ka-₅, formative for abstract nouns of quality. Formosan WMP

*ka-₆   PWMP *ka-₆, manner in which an action is carried out. WMP

*ka-₇   PMP *ka-₇, past participle/ achieved state. WMP OC

*ka- -an₁   PAN *ka- -an₁, marker of the adversative passive. Formosan WMP

*ka- -an₂   PAN *ka- -an₂, formative for nouns of location. Formosan WMP

*ka- -an₃   PAN *ka- -an₃, formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal). Formosan WMP

*kabá   PPH *kabá, anxious, nervous. WMP

*kábag   PPH *kábag, gas pains. WMP

*kabal₁   PAN *kabal₁, clothing. Formosan WMP

*kabal₂   PWMP *kabal₂, invulnerable, invulnerability. WMP

*kaban₁   PWMP *kaban₁, companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend. WMP;  PMP *maR-kaban, to be friends with, to be a companion of. WMP

*kaban₂   PWMP *kaban₂, storage chest. WMP

*kabáŋ   PPH *kabáŋ, spotted, dappled. WMP

*kabaR   PAN *kabaR, clothing. Formosan

*kabasi   PWMP *kabasi, kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp.. WMP

*kabat₁   PWMP *kabat₁, wrap, bundle up. WMP

*kabat₂   POC *kabat₂, canoes joined together lengthwise (?). OC

*kabatíti   PPH *kabatíti, a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp.. WMP

*kabe₁   POC *kabe₁, a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets. OC

*kabe₂   POC *kabe₂, wing. OC

*kabég   PPH *kabég, large fruit bat. WMP

*kabej   PWMP *kabej, tie up, tie by wrapping around. WMP

*kab(e)liŋ   PPH *kab(e)liŋ, kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin. WMP

*kab(e)lít   PPH *kab(e)lít, touch someone lightly, as to get attention. WMP

*kab(e)lit   PPH *kab(e)lit, to touch lightly. WMP

*kabi   POC *kabi, to catch, as in a trap. OC

*kábig   PPH *kábig, to turn around, as a boat. WMP;  PPH *kabíg-en, to turn around, as a boat. WMP

*kabiR   PWMP *kabiR, draw toward oneself; annex, make subject. WMP

*kabit₁   PAN *kabit₁, hook. Formosan WMP

*kabít₂   PPH *kabít₂, to lead, support (as a feeble person). WMP

*kabit₃   PPH *kabit₃, a vine: Caesalpinia bonduc. WMP

*kabkáb   PPH *kabkáb, dig a hole, hollow something out. WMP

*kaboRa   POC *kaboRa, catfish. OC

*kabu-kabu   PMP *kabu-kabu, the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra. WMP CMP

*kabuq   PMP *kabuq, ladle, dipper, scoop, cup. WMP;  POC *kapuq, ladle, dipper, scoop, cup. OC

*kabuR   PPH *kabuR, to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm. WMP

*kabuRaw   PPH *kabuRaw, kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix. WMP

*kabus₁   PMP *kabus₁, run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor. WMP CMP

*kabus₂   PAN *kabus₂, shrimp, lobster. Formosan

*kabut   PMP *kabut, fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry. WMP;  POC *kaput₂, fog, haze, mist. OC

*kacaw   PWMP *kacaw, disturb. WMP

*kaCu   PAN *kaCu, bring, carry. Formosan;  PMP *katu, send. WMP CMP;  PAN *k<in>aCu, was brought; what was brought. Formosan;  PAN *k<um>aCu, to bring, to carry along. Formosan;  PAN *pa-kaCu, to send. Formosan WMP

*kada   POC *kada, stalk or cluster of fruit. OC

*kadadak   PWMP *kadadak, colic, choleric diarrhoea. WMP

*kadapuR   POC *kadapuR, rain cloud. OC

*kadaqdaq   PWMP *kadaqdaq, colic, choleric diarrhoea. WMP

*kad(e)rit   PWMP *kad(e)rit, sound of grating. WMP

*kadik   POC *kadik, large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant. OC

*kadkad   PPH *kadkad, dig a hole. WMP

*kadro   POC *kadro, neck. OC

*kaen   PAN *kaen, eat. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *ma-kaen, will eat (?). Formosan WMP OC;  PPh *maka-kaen, eat. WMP;  PPH *maki-kaen, to eat together, join others in eating. WMP;  PMP *ma-ŋaen, to eat. WMP;  POC *maŋan, to eat. OC;  PPH *maR-kaen, to eat. WMP;  PAN *pa-kaen, to feed. Formosan WMP OC;  PAN *pa-kaen-en, to feed, be fed. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋaen, food. WMP CMP;  POC *paŋan, food; to feed. OC;  PWMP *pa-ŋaen-an, food (?). WMP;  PAN *p<in>a-kaen, was fed by someone. Formosan WMP;  PAN *Si-kaen, eat. Formosan;  PMP *hi-kaen, (??). WMP;  PAN *ka-kaen-an, place where one eats. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ka-kaen-en, edible things, food. Formosan WMP;  PAN *k<in>aen, eat. Formosan WMP;  PMP *k<in>aen, eat. WMP;  POC *k<in>an, food; m eat. OC;  PAN *k<um>aen, to eat. Formosan WMP;  PMP *kaen-a, eat it (imper.). WMP CMP;  PAN *kaen-an, place where one eats; food. Formosan WMP OC;  PAN *k<in>aen-an, eat. Formosan;  PAN *kaen-ay, will eat. Formosan;  PAN *kaen-en, eat. Formosan WMP;  PSHWNG *kanon₁, to eat, consume. SHWNG;  POC *kanon₂, flesh; kernel. OC;  PAN *kaen-i, eat it!. Formosan WMP;  POC *kani, to eat. OC;  POC *kani-a, eat it. OC;  PMP *kaen kaen, (gloss uncertain). WMP SHWNG;  POC *kani kani, to eat, keep on eating. OC

*kagkag   PPH *kagkag, to dry something in the sun. WMP

*kahir   PWMP *kahir, scratch the ground, as a chicken does. WMP

*kahiR   PWMP *kahiR, scratch the ground, as a chicken does. WMP

*kahiw haŋin haŋin   PWMP *kahiw haŋin haŋin, type of lichen. WMP

*kahug   PWMP *kahug, to mix, mingle. WMP

*kahuS   PAN *kahuS, scoop up. Formosan;  PAN *k<um>ahuS, scoop up. Formosan

*kai   POC *kai, ( human) member of a category. OC

*kaija   PAN *kaija, when? (in the past). Formosan;  POC *ka-ica, when?. OC

*kain   PWMP *kain, woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing. WMP

*kak   PAN *kak, sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc.. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*kaka₁   POC *kaka₁, flaky skin disease. OC

*kaka₂   PAN *kaka₂, elder sibling. Formosan;  PMP *kaka₂, elder sibling of the same sex. WMP CMP OC;  PPH *kaka-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*kaka₃   POC *kaka₃, fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds. OC

*kakaCu   PAN *kakaCu, spider. Formosan

*kakak   PAN *kakak, caw, cackle. Formosan;  PMP *kakakₐ, to cackle. WMP CMP OC

*kakaŋ   PWMP *kakaŋ, bridle, as for a horse. WMP

*kakap   PWMP *kakap₁, kind of large, edible marine fish. WMP

*kakaq   PMP *kakaq, split. WMP CMP OC

*kakas(-i)   POC *kakas(-i), to split. OC

*kakawa₁   PWMP *kakawa₁, spider. WMP

*kakawa₂   POC *kakawa₂, goby, blenny. OC

*kalába   PPH *kalába, honeycomb. WMP

*kalabaw   PCEMP *kalabaw, rat, mouse. CMP;  POC *kalapo, rat, mouse. OC

*kaladi   PWMP *kaladi, taro sp., probably Colocasia antiquorum. WMP

*kalalaŋ   PWMP *kalalaŋ, narrow-necked water jar. WMP

*kalamansíq   PPH *kalamansíq, citrus tree with fruit like a lemon. WMP

*kalamata   PWMP *kalamata, plait. WMP

*kalamay   PWMP *kalamay, sticky confection made of rice and coconut. WMP

*kalamuntiŋ   PWMP *kalamuntiŋ, kind of plant, unident.. WMP

*kalantas   PPH *kalantas, Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp.. WMP

*kalaqabusi   POC *kalaqabusi, a shrub: Acalypha sp.. OC

*kalasag   PWMP *kalasag, type of shield. WMP

*kalasaR   PWMP *kalasaR, floor beam. WMP

*kalat   PWMP *kalat, thick, heavy rope. WMP

*kalatkat   PPH *kalatkat, climb up, as a vine. WMP

*kalaw   PAN *kalaw, bird sp.. Formosan;  PMP *kalaw, a bird: the hornbill. WMP CMP

*kalawit   PWMP *kalawit, hook. WMP

*kalayu   PWMP *kalayu, a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa. WMP

*kal(e)bit   PPH *kal(e)bit, touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger. WMP;  PPH *kal(e)bit-en, touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger. WMP

*kal(e)dít   PPH *kal(e)dít, to make an incision to draw blood. WMP

*kalem   PMP *kalem, dark. WMP CMP

*kali   PAN *kali₁, canal, ditch. Formosan WMP CMP

*kali-   PAN *kali-, prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-). Formosan WMP SHWNG

*kalia   POC *kalia, large fish, probably grouper. OC

*kalih   PAN *kalih, a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers. Formosan;  PMP *kali₂, a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *kali ~ keli, to dig. OC;  PMP *ma-ŋali, to dig, dig up. WMP CMP;  PAN *ka-kalih, dig. Formosan;  PMP *ka-kali, dig. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋali, dig. WMP;  PAN *k<um>ali, to dig up, excavate, as tubers. Formosan WMP;  PAN *k<in>alih-an, place that has been dug up. Formosan;  PMP *k<in>ali-an, place that has been dug up. WMP

*kalik   POC *kalik, wooden headrest. OC

*kalika   POC *kalika, rock cod, grouper. OC

*kalikiq   PWMP *kalikiq, kind of edible fruit. WMP

*kalim-petpet   PWMP *kalim-petpet, firefly. WMP

*kaliŋ   PWMP *kaliŋ, bunch, cluster, as of fruit. WMP

*kaliŋaw   PWMP *kaliŋaw, to forget, be forgotten. WMP

*kaliŋkiŋ   PWMP *kaliŋkiŋ, little finger, pinky. WMP

*kalis   PWMP *kalis, hard. WMP

*kalít   PPH *kalít, to cheat, deceive. WMP

*kalo   POC *kalo, neck. OC

*kalu   PMP *kalu, to stir. WMP CMP;  POC *kalu, stir, mix. OC

*kaluban   PPH *kaluban, sheath for bolo or knife. WMP

*kalug   PPH *kalug, to shake something, as an egg or coconut. WMP

*kalumpaŋ   PMP *kalumpaŋ, a tree: Sterculia foetida. WMP CMP

*kaluŋ   PWMP *kaluŋ, curve. WMP

*kaluŋkuŋ   PAN *kaluŋkuŋ, deep resounding sound. Formosan WMP

*kam- -an   PWMP *kam- -an, formative for collateral kin. WMP

*kamaguŋ   PPH *kamaguŋ, large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor. WMP

*kamaliR   PMP *kamaliR, bachelor’s house, men’s house. WMP CMP OC

*kamandag   PPH *kamandag, venom of a poisonous snake or insect. WMP

*kamansi   PPH *kamansi, the seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi. WMP

*kamansiq   PPH *kamansiq, the seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi. WMP

*kamantigi   PPH *kamantigi, a plant: Impatiens balsamina. WMP

*kamaŋ   PWMP *kamaŋ, creep, crawl. WMP

*kamaŋa   PPH *kamaŋa, kind of useful stone. WMP

*kamaŋi   PWMP *kamaŋi, a strongly-scented scent: Ocimum sanctum L.. WMP

*kamaRi   POC *kamaRi, a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata. OC

*kamas   PWMP *kamas, scratch. WMP

*kamatu   POC *kamatu, double-headed parrotfish. OC

*kamay   PAN *kamay, hand. Formosan WMP SHWNG OC

*kamaya   PAN *kamaya, plant sp.: Diospyros discolor. Formosan WMP

*kambu   PMP *kambu, lower stomach, bladder. WMP CMP

*kambur   PMP *kambur, mix. WMP CMP

*kambuR   PMP *kambuR, sprinkle, scatter ( seed, etc.). WMP OC

*kam(e)qáw   PPH *kam(e)qáw, kind of urn for storing food. WMP

*kamet   PMP *kamet, do with the hand. WMP SHWNG

*kamiá   PPH *kamiá, ginger plant with fragrant white flower. WMP

*kamiri   PMP *kamiri, the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana. WMP CMP

*kamisu   POC *kamisu, spittle; to spit. OC

*kamit   PMP *kamit, scratch. WMP OC

*kamkam   PWMP *kamkam, to seize, take by force. WMP;  PPH *kamkam-en, to appropriate to oneself illegally. WMP

*kampi   PPH *kampi, to defend. WMP;  PPH *k<um>ampi, to join, unite with in taking sides. WMP

*kampil   PWMP *kampil, plaited palm leaf bag or pouch. WMP

*kampis   PMP *kampis, deflate, shrink. WMP CMP

*kampit   PMP *kampit, to adhere, stick to. WMP;  POC *kabit₂, to adhere, stick to. OC

*kampuŋ   PCEMP *kampuŋ, abdomen, belly. CMP SHWNG;  POC *kabuŋ, stomach of an animal. OC

*kamu₁   POC *kamu₁, sheath of a coconut?. OC

*kamu₂   POC *kamu₃, chew, move to and fro in the mouth. OC

*kamuniŋ   PMP *kamuniŋ, a tree: Murraya sp.. WMP CMP

*kamwa-kamwa   POC *kamwa-kamwa, Ficus sp.. OC

*kana-   POC *kana-, classifier for edible possession. OC

*kana₁   POC *kana, food₁. OC

*kana₂   POC *kana₂, enemy. OC

*kanadem   PPH *kanadem, a tree: Diospyros sp.. WMP

*kana-kana   POC *kana-kana, to think, ponder. OC

*kanam   POC *kanam, sing; song. OC

*kanaŋa   PMP *kanaŋa, a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata. WMP CMP

*kanap₁   PMP *kanap₁, creep, crawl. WMP OC

*kanap₂   PPH *kanap₂, dark, obscure. WMP

*kanari   PMP *kanari, tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*kanarum   PMP *kanarum, tree sp.. WMP OC

*kanawa   PMP *kanawa, a tree: Cordia spp.. WMP OC

*kanaway   PMP *kanaway, kind of white bird: probably gull sp.. WMP SHWNG;  POC *kanawe, kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp.. OC

*kandaŋ   PWMP *kandaŋ, enclosure, pen for animals. WMP

*kandiŋ   PWMP *kandiŋ, goat. WMP

*kandis   PWMP *kandis, a tree: Garcinia sp.. WMP

*kandoRa   PCEMP *kandoRa, cuscus, phalanger. CMP SHWNG;  POC *kadoRa, cuscus, phalanger. OC

*kanduŋ   PWMP *kanduŋ, womb?. WMP

*kaniá   PPH *kaniá, own, one’s own; self. WMP

*kani-kani   POC *kani-kani, scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs. OC

*kanisu   PEMP *kanisu, to spit at (as an insult?). SHWNG OC

*kanoŋ   POC *kanoŋ, flesh, meat, coconut flesh. OC;  POC *kanoŋ qi mata, eyeball. OC

*kantuk   PWMP *kantuk, nod the head in drowsiness. WMP

*kanúmay   PPH *kanúmay, kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp.. WMP

*kanuqus   PWMP *kanuqus, squid, cuttlefish. WMP

*kanus   PEMP *kanus, spittle; to spit (intr.). OC;  PEMP *kanus-i, to spit (trans.). SHWNG OC

*kaNasay   PAN *kaNasay, a fish: the mullet. Formosan;  PMP *kanasay, a fish, the mullet. WMP CMP;  POC *kanase, a fish, the mullet. OC

*kañu-kañu   POC *kañu-kañu, to shake, as a house in an earthquake. OC

*kañul   POC *kañul, to shake, as the earth in an earthquake. OC;  POC *kañul-kañul, to shake repeatedly. OC

*kaŋ   PMP *kaŋ, animal sound. WMP CMP OC

*kaŋa   PMP *kaŋa, be open">open, as the mouth. WMP CMP OC

*kaŋaRi   POC *kaŋaRi, tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune. OC

*kaŋeqa   PMP *kaŋeqa, fissured, slightly cracked. WMP CMP

*kaŋkaŋ₁   PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₁, spread the legs wide. WMP

*kaŋkaŋ₂   PAN *kaŋkaŋ₂, resounding sound. Formosan WMP OC

*kaŋkaŋ₃   PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃, cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis. WMP CMP

*kaŋkaŋ₄   PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₄, kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk. WMP

*kao   POC *kao, heron, probably Egretta sp.. OC

*kapak   PMP *kapak, beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping. WMP CMP;  POC *kabak, beat, flap the wings. OC;  POC *kaba-kabak, flap the wings repeatedly. OC

*kapal   PWMP *kapal, thick, as a plank. WMP;  PWMP *ma-kapal, thick, as a plank. WMP

*kapaq-kapaq   PPH *kapaq-kapaq, to grope, fumble about. WMP

*kapas kapas   PWMP *kapas kapas, a marine fish, probably the silver bream. WMP

*kápaw   PPH *kápaw, come to the surface. WMP

*kapay   PMP *kapay, flutter the wings. WMP;  POC *kape₁, flutter the wings. OC

*kape₂   POC *kape₂, crab taxon, probably a rock crab ( Grapsidae). OC

*ka(m)pet   PMP *ka(m)pet, plug. WMP OC

*kapét   PPH *kapét, hold onto, cling to. WMP;  PPH *kapét-en, cling to. WMP

*kapika   POC *kapika, the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense. OC

*kapiku   POC *kapiku, the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense. OC

*kapin   PWMP *kapin, extra, surplus, in addition to. WMP

*kapis   PWMP *kapis, kind of shell. WMP

*kapit   PAN *kapit, fasten together by sewing or tying. Formosan;  PMP *kapit, pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house. WMP CMP OC

*kapkap   PAN *kapkap, feel in the dark, grope. Formosan WMP

*kapua   PAN *kapua, silk cotton, kapok. Formosan

*kapuk   PWMP *kapuk, silk-; silk- cotton tree. WMP

*kapuru   POC *kapuru, soot. OC

*kapuR   PMP *kapuR, lime, calcium carbonate. WMP CMP OC

*kapus   PPH *kapus, to run out of supplies, lack something needed. WMP

*kaput   PMP *kaput₁, tie or clasp together; to button. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-ŋaput, to clasp, tie together. WMP;  PWMP *kaput-an, a fasten or button, fastening or closing device. WMP

*kapút   PPH *kapút, to touch or hold. WMP

*kápuy   PPH *kápuy, weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform. WMP;  PPH *ma-kápuy, weak, feeble, unable to perform. WMP

*kapwa   POC *kapwa, belly. OC

*kaq(e)pi   PMP *kaq(e)pi, brace, splint. WMP OC

*kaqiŋ   PPH *kaqiŋ, kind of large openwork basket. WMP

*kaqis   PWMP *kaqis, scratch up the ground, as chickens. WMP;  PWMP *kais-an, to scratch up the ground, as chickens. WMP

*kaqit   PMP *kaqit, to hold or pull with a hook. WMP OC

*kara   PPH *kara, tortoise shell (?). WMP

*karagwam   POC *karagwam, seaweed, seagrass. OC

*karak₁   POC *karak₁, strong southeast trade wind. OC

*karak₂   POC *karak₂, ringworm. OC

*kara-karawa   POC *kara-karawa, blue-green. OC

*karamea   POC *karamea, tongue. OC

*karani   POC *karani, near. OC

*karanzaŋ   PWMP *karanzaŋ, rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc.. WMP

*karaŋ   PMP *karaŋ, coral, limestone. WMP CMP

*karaŋi   POC *karaŋi, near. OC

*karasi   POC *karasi, to scrape off, peel off. OC

*karat₁   PWMP *karat₁, rust. WMP

*karat₂   POC *karat₂, a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta. OC

*karawina   POC *karawina, blue-green. OC

*karis   PMP *karis₁, scratch, scrape. WMP CMP;  POC *kari, to scratch, scrape. OC

*karkar   PAN *karkar, scratch up the earth, as a fowl. Formosan WMP OC;  POC *kakar-i, to scratch up the earth, as a fowl. OC

*karus   PWMP *karus, to scratch, scrape. WMP

*karut₁   PAN *karut₁, scrape, rasp. Formosan WMP;  POC *kadrut, to scratch an itch. OC

*karut₂   POC *karut₂, coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut. OC

*kaRa   PEMP *kaRa, member of the parrot family. SHWNG;  POC *kaRa, male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus. OC

*kaRaC   PAN *kaRaC, to bite. Formosan;  PMP *kaRat, to bite. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-ŋaRat, to bite. WMP;  PPH *kaRat-en, to be bitten. WMP;  PAN *kaRaC-i, bite (imperative). Formosan;  POC *kaRati, to bite. OC;  PAN *ma-kaRaC, to be bitten. Formosan;  PMP *ma-kaRat, to be bitten. WMP;  PAN *k<um>aRaC, to bite. Formosan;  PMP *k<um>aRat, to bite. WMP;  PAN *k<in>aRaC-an, the bite of an animal. Formosan

*kaRadkad   PPH *kaRadkad, sound of grinding or grating. WMP

*kaRaka   POC *kaRaka, to crawl. OC

*kaRakap   PMP *kaRakap, crab sp.. WMP OC

*kaRaskas   PPH *kaRaskas, rustling sound. WMP

*kaRaw₁   PAN *kaRaw₁, to scratch an itch. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *kaRo, to scratch. OC;  PAN *k<um>aRaw, to scratch an itch. Formosan

*kaRaw₂   PWMP *kaRaw₂, chicken flea, itch mite. WMP

*kaRem   PWMP *kaRem, capsize, of a boat; sink. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋaRem, to sink something; to destroy. WMP

*kaReteŋ   PWMP *kaReteŋ, marine fish: sea perch. WMP

*kaRi₁   PAN *kaRi₁, word, speech, language. Formosan WMP

*kaRi₂   POC *kaRi₂, bivalve species used as a scraper. OC

*kaRiŋ   PWMP *kaRiŋ, dry. WMP

*kaRiqit   PMP *kaRiqit, scratch of scratching. WMP CMP

*kaRiskis   PPH *kaRiskis, scrape, scratch. WMP

*kaRitkit   PPH *kaRitkit, sound of grating, rain pounding, etc.. WMP

*kaRkaR   PWMP *kaRkaR, to dry something in the sun. WMP

*kaRu₁   POC *kaRu₁, to swim. OC

*kaRu₂   POC *kaRu₂, say, tell; speak. OC

*kaRud   PMP *kaRud, scrape, grate, rasp. WMP OC

*kaRuki   PMP *kaRuki, sand crab. WMP OC

*kaRuŋkuŋ   PWMP *kaRuŋkuŋ, throat. WMP

*kaRus   PAN *kaRus, scrape. Formosan WMP OC

*kaRuskus   PPH *kaRuskus, dull rustling sound. WMP

*kasambiʔ   PMP *kasambiʔ, a tree: Schleichera trijuga. WMP CMP

*kasaw₁   PMP *kasaw₁, rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*kasaw₂   PMP *kasaw₂, kind of reed-like plant (?). WMP;  POC *kaso₁, reed. OC

*kasay   PPH *kasay, weakness, as from hunger. WMP

*kasep   PWMP *kasep, plant sp.. WMP

*kasi   POC *kasi, to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp.. OC

*kasika   POC *kasika, a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp.. OC

*kasíli   PPH *kasíli, kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster. WMP

*kaskás   PPH *kaskás, swift, fast, speedy. WMP;  PPH *kaskás-án, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*kaskas₁   PMP *kaskas₁, loosen, untie. WMP CMP

*kaskas₂   PMP *kaskas₂, scrape, scratch. WMP;  POC *kakas, scrape, scratch. OC

*kaso   POC *kaso₂, coconut leaf basket. OC

*kasu   POC *kasu, smoke. OC

*kasuli   PWMP *kasuli, freshwater eel. WMP

*kaS(e)pal   PAN *kaS(e)pal, thick, of solid objects. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-kapal, thick, of solid objects. WMP

*kaSiw   PAN *kaSiw, wood; tree. Formosan;  PMP *kahiw, wood; tree. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *kayu, wood; tree. CMP SHWNG;  POC *kayu, wood; strong; stiff; penis (colloquial). OC;  PPH *ma-kahiw, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋahiw, to gather wood, as for fuel; gather firewood. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋahiw, one who gathers fire wood (?). WMP;  PWMP *sa-ŋ-kahiw, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *k<um>aSiw, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *k<um>ahiw, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-kahiw-an, woods, forest. WMP;  PWMP *kahiw-an, wood. WMP;  PAN *kaSiw-en, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PWMP *kahiw-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *kaSi-kaSiw, wood. Formosan;  PMP *kahi-kahiw, wood. WMP;  POC *kayu-kayu, wood. OC

*kaSkaS   PAN *kaSkaS, scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food. Formosan;  PMP *kahkah, scratch up the soil. WMP

*kaSu   PAN *kaSu, 2sg., you. Formosan;  PMP *kahu, 2sg., you. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *ko, 2sg., you. OC;  PAN *i-kaSu, 2sg., you. Formosan;  PMP *i-kahu, 2sg., you. WMP CMP;  POC *iko, 2sg., you. OC;  PWMP *s-ikaw, 2sg., you. WMP

*kata   PPH *kata, sound of rapid talking. WMP

*katadu   PMP *katadu, large green hairless stinging caterpillar. WMP CMP

*katae   POC *katae, free side of canoe, opposite the outrigger. OC

*kataman   PMP *kataman, door, doorway. WMP OC

*katambak   PWMP *katambak, fish sp.. WMP

*katana   PPH *katana, the castor bean plant: Ricinus communis L.. WMP

*kataŋ   PPH *kataŋ, crab sp.. WMP

*kataŋan   PWMP *kataŋan, a tree: Jatropha curcas L.. WMP

*kataŋ-kataŋ   PPH *kataŋ-kataŋ, bob on the surface of the water; float. WMP

*katapa   POC *katapa, frigate bird. OC

*katapaŋ   PMP *katapaŋ, tree sp.. WMP OC

*katawa   PAN *katawa, castor bean: Ricinus communis L.. Formosan WMP

*katawan   PMP *katawan, fish sp.. WMP OC

*káti   PPH *káti, domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl. WMP

*kati₁   PCMP *kati₁, to call a dog. CMP

*kati₂   POC *kati₂, to bite. OC

*katik   PMP *katik, high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant. WMP CMP

*katimun   PMP *katimun, tree sp.. WMP CMP

*kátiq   PPH *kátiq, domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl. WMP;  PPH *pa-ŋátiq, domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap. WMP

*katiR   PMP *katiR, canoe hull, small outrigger canoe. WMP;  POC *katiR, (small) outrigger canoe or canoe hull. OC

*katita   POC *katita, putty nut: Parinari laurinum. OC

*katkat₁   PWMP *katkat₁, to lift, raise up. WMP;  PWMP *kakat-en, lift. WMP

*katkat₂   PAN *katkat₂, come undone, of stitches. Formosan WMP

*katou   POC *katou, kind of hermit crab. OC

*katud   PWMP *katud, plant sp.. WMP

*katúday   PPH *katúday, a plant: Sesbania grandiflora. WMP

*katuk   PMP *katuk, knock. WMP OC

*katúk   PPH *katúk, knock on the head; crazy, insane. WMP

*kau₁   POC *kau₁, lime, coral limestone. OC

*kau₂   POC *kau₂, to catch, as with a hook. OC

*kaubebe   POC *kaubebe, butterfly. OC

*kauŋ   PMP *kauŋ, reverberate, of a sound. WMP CMP OC

*kaup   PWMP *kaup, handful of something. WMP

*kauru   POC *kauru, bamboo sp.. OC

*kaus   PWMP *kaus, scrape. WMP

*kauS   PAN *kauS, scoop up, as with a fish net. Formosan;  PAN *k<um>auS, to scoop up, as with a fish net. Formosan

*kawa   PWMP *kawa, spider. WMP

*kawa-kawa   POC *kawa-kawa, rock cod, grouper sp.. OC

*kawaŋ   PWMP *kawaŋ, apart, separated. WMP

*kawaq   PWMP *kawaq, cauldron; caldera, volcanic crater (?). WMP

*kawar   POC *kawar, to crawl. OC

*kawaS₁   PAN *kawaS₁, year, season; sky, heaven. Formosan

*kawaS₂   PAN *kawaS₂, talk, talk about, discuss. Formosan

*kaway₁   PMP *kaway₁, wave the hand or arms; call by waving. WMP CMP

*kaway₂   PMP *kaway₂, tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.. WMP;  POC *kawe₂, tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun. OC

*kaway₃   PAN *kaway₃, net bag used by men for carrying things on back. Formosan

*kawayan   PAN *kawayan, bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa. Formosan WMP CMP

*kawe   POC *kawe, carry, carry away. OC

*kawil₁   PAN *kawil₁, fishhook. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-ŋawil, to fish with hook and line. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋawil, hook and line fishing. WMP

*kawil₂   PWMP *kawil₂, bound together. WMP

*kawiŋ   PWMP *kawiŋ, link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance. WMP

*kawit   PAN *kawit, hook. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-ŋawit, to hook, catch with a hook. WMP;  PWMP *maR-kawit, to hook. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋawit, hook. WMP;  PWMP *kawit-an, to hook something. WMP;  PWMP *kawit-en, to hook something. WMP;  PWMP *kawit-kawit, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*kawitan   PPH *kawitan, rooster, cock. WMP

*kawkaw₁   PAN *kawkaw₁, sickle for harvesting grain. Formosan

*kawkaw₂   PPH *kawkaw₂, dig a hole, as by scratching. WMP

*kaya   PWMP *kaya, able, capable, strong, wealthy. WMP

*kayab   PWMP *kayab, to flap, flutter, wave. WMP

*kayajo   POC *kayajo, outrigger boom. OC

*kayaŋ   PWMP *kayaŋ, swing the arms. WMP

*káyas   PPH *káyas, whittle, shave wood with knife. WMP

*kayat   PPH *kayat, to climb vertically (as ladder, tree). WMP;  PPH *i-kayat, to climb vertically (as ladder, tree). WMP;  PPH *ma-ŋayat, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *k<om>ayat, to climb vertically (as ladder, tree). WMP

*kaykáy   PPH *kaykáy, scratch up, sweep or rake up. WMP

*kayu kayu   POC *kayu kayu, strong, tough, inflexible. OC

*kazaŋ₁   PWMP *kazaŋ₁, long; stilts (?). WMP;  PPH *kadaŋ-kádaŋ, stilts. WMP

*kazaŋ₂   PMP *kazaŋ₂, palm leaf awning, usually on boats. WMP CMP

*kazupay   PCEMP *kazupay, rat. CMP SHWNG;  POC *kasupe, rat. OC


 

TOP      ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    

ke

*kebá   PPH *kebá, for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound. WMP

*kebel   PWMP *kebel, invulnerable, invulnerability. WMP

*kebet₁   PMP *kebet₁, tie by binding around. WMP;  POC *kobot, tie by binding. OC

*kebet₂   PPH *kebet₂, to subside, of a swelling. WMP

*kebil   PPH *kebil, to touch. WMP

*kebit   PMP *kebit, touch or tap so as to draw someone's attention. WMP CMP;  POC *kobit₂, to touch. OC

*kebkeb   PMP *kebkeb, to enclose, shut in. WMP;  POC *kokop, to enclose, shut in’. OC

*kebuR   PMP *kebuR, agitated, of water. WMP;  POC *kopuR, agitated, of water. OC

*ke(n)dem   PPH *ke(n)dem, dark; darkness. WMP

*kedeŋ   PMP *kedeŋ, to stand; stretch out, as the body. WMP CMP;  POC *kodoŋ, straight; to straighten. OC

*kedi   PAN *kedi, small in size or amount. Formosan WMP CMP

*kedik   PWMP *kedik, small in size or amount. WMP

*kedip   PAN *kedip, to blink. Formosan WMP

*kedit   PWMP *kedit, small in size or amount. WMP

*kedked   PPH *kedked, to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed. WMP

*keja   POC *keja, intense green or blue-green. OC

*keju   POC *keju, back of the head. OC

*kek   PMP *kek, squawk. WMP CMP OC

*keke₁   POC *keke₁, to crunch; sound of crunching. OC

*keke₂   POC *keke₂, to coil, bend. OC

*kekekeke   POC *kekekeke, kind of plover and its cry. OC

*kekes   PWMP *kekes, shrink, decrease. WMP

*ke(k)kek   PMP *ke(k)kek, to cluck. WMP CMP OC

*kelaŋ   PWMP *kelaŋ, dry. WMP

*kelap₁   PWMP *kelap₁, dim, of light. WMP

*kelap₂   PMP *kelap₂, shine, sparkle, twinkle. WMP OC

*kelaq   PMP *kelaq, crack, split. WMP CMP OC

*kelaqat   PPH *kelaqat, sudden, abrupt, unexpected. WMP

*kelas   PMP *kelas, to peel, skin off. WMP OC

*kelaw   PWMP *kelaw, amaze, astonish. WMP

*keleb   PPH *keleb, to shut, close. WMP

*keléb   PPH *keléb, to lie face down, lie prone. WMP

*kelem   PAN *kelem, dark, overcast, visually obscure. Formosan WMP

*kelen   PCMP *kelen, groin, inner thigh where it joins the trunk. WMP CMP

*keleŋ₁   PMP *keleŋ₁, cut into pieces. WMP OC

*keleŋ₂   PWMP *keleŋ₂, inclination, leaning to the side. WMP

*kelep   PWMP *kelep, dim, of light. WMP

*keles   PPH *keles, to subside, shrink, reduce in size. WMP

*keli   PCEMP *keli, to dig up. CMP OC

*kelip   PAN *kelip, to blink. Formosan WMP

*kelkel   PPH *kelkel, to cuddle, cradle, as a baby. WMP

*keluk   PWMP *keluk, bend, curve. WMP

*keluŋ₁   PWMP *keluŋ₁, coil, curl, undulation. WMP

*keluŋ₂   PPH *keluŋ₂, ^ shield. WMP

*kembaŋ   PWMP *kembaŋ, swollen, expanding outward. WMP

*kembuŋ   PMP *kembuŋ, swollen, filled out. WMP;  POC *kobuŋ, swollen. OC

*kemel   PMP *kemel, take in the hand, clasp, grasp. WMP CMP;  POC *gomol, squeeze, hold tight, clutch. OC

*kemes   PMP *kemes, grip, compress, squeeze. WMP;  POC *komos, grip, compress, close in on. OC

*kemet   PPH *kemet, do with the hand. WMP

*kemi   PMP *kemi, suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting. WMP OC;  POC *komi, suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting.

*kemiq   PMP *kemiq, urinate. WMP CMP

*kemkem₁   PWMP *kemkem₁, hold in the fist. WMP

*kemkem₂   PAN *kemkem₂, bite down hard. Formosan WMP

*kempeŋ   PWMP *kempuŋ, lower stomach, bladder. WMP

*kempu   PMP *kempu, grandchild. WMP;  POC *mo-kobu, grandchild. OC

*kemuR   PMP *kemuR, to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle. WMP;  POC *gomuR, to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle. OC

*kemut   PWMP *kemut, teem, swarm. WMP

*ken   PWMP *ken, it is said, people say...... WMP

*kena₁   PMP *kena₁, be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋena, to hit, to strike. WMP;  PWMP *pa-kena, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*kena₂   PWMP *kena₂, dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing. WMP

*kenas   PMP *kenas, preserved">preserved meat or fish. WMP CMP

*kendal   PMP *kendal, a tree: Cordia spp.. WMP CMP

*kenduŋ   PWMP *kenduŋ, tree sp.. WMP

*kenduR   PWMP *kenduR, loose, slack. WMP

*keniŋ   PWMP *keniŋ, eyebrow. WMP

*kenu   PWMP *kenu, it is said, people say...... WMP

*keñat   PWMP *keñat, tough, elastic (of flesh). WMP

*keñej   PMP *keñej, sink, drown. WMP CMP

*keŋ₁   PMP *keŋ₁, hollow, resounding sound. WMP OC

*keŋ₂   PMP *keŋ₂, stiff, as a corpse. WMP CMP

*keŋkeŋ₁   PAN *keŋkeŋ₁, hollow, resounding sound. Formosan WMP OC

*keŋkeŋ₂   PMP *keŋkeŋ₂, stiffs, stiffening of the limbs. WMP CMP

*keŋkeŋ₃   PMP *keŋkeŋ₃, shrink. WMP CMP OC

*kepal   PPH *kepal, thick (of objects). WMP

*ke(m)pal   POC *ke(m)pal, lump, clod, as of earth. WMP

*kepay kepay   PWMP *kepay kepay, to flap (wings, fins of fish, etc.). WMP

*kepek   PWMP *kepek, flap the wings. WMP

*kepel   PWMP *kepel, compressed in the fist; what is compressed in the fist, as a ball of rice. WMP

*ke(m)pes   PWMP *ke(m)pes, deflate. WMP

*kepik   PMP *kepik, dent. WMP OC

*ke(m)pis   PWMP *ke(m)pis, shrink, shrivel. WMP

*kepit   PAN *kepit, press together; pressed together. Formosan;  PMP *kepit, press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs. WMP CMP;  POC *kobit₁, press together; pressed together. OC

*kepkep   PMP *kepkep, to seize, hug, embrace. WMP;  POC *kop-i, to hold close. OC

*kepkép   PPH *kepkép, for the hair to lie down flat. WMP

*kepuk   PMP *kepuk, beat, crunch, break. WMP CMP

*kepuŋ   PWMP *kepuŋ, surround, besiege. WMP

*kepuq   PWMP *kepuq, enclose, encircle. WMP

*ke(m)pus   PMP *ke(m)pus, come to an end. WMP CMP OC

*kerap   PMP *kerap, shine, sparkle, twinkle. WMP OC

*keret   PAN *keret, to sever, cut off. Formosan WMP

*keriq   PAN *keriq, chatter. Formosan WMP

*keriqik   PMP *keriqik, shrill sound. WMP CMP

*kerit   PMP *kerit, scratch, grate. WMP CMP;  POC *korit, scrape, grate, as coconut preparatory to cooking. OC

*kerud   PWMP *kerud, scrape, grate. WMP

*kerus₁   PWMP *kerus₁, scrape, grate. WMP

*kerus₂   PWMP *kerus₂, rustling sound, as of leaves in wind. WMP

*kerut   PWMP *kerut, shriveled, wrinkled. WMP

*keRa   PCEMP *keRa, hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata. CMP OC

*keRan₁   PAN *keRan₁, scab on a wound. Formosan WMP

*keRan₂   PCEMP *keRan₂, hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata. CMP SHWNG

*keRaŋ₁   PMP *keRaŋ₁, deep reverberating sound. WMP CMP OC

*keRaŋ₂   PAN *keRaŋ₂, scab, crust on a wound. Formosan WMP

*keRaŋ₃   PAN *keRaŋ₃, dry. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *koRaŋ₁, dried up, scorched, shrivelled. OC

*keRas   PMP *keRas, hard, strong, inflexible; vehement. WMP CMP

*keRaw   PPH *keRaw, to dry up. WMP

*keRe   POC *keRe, vulva, vagina. OC

*keRet   PAN *keRet, cut something slender or soft; reap crops. Formosan WMP;  POC *koRot, cut off. OC;  PAN *k<um>eRet, cut something slender. Formosan;  PAN *keRet-en, be cut. Formosan

*keRiŋ   PWMP *keRiŋ, dry. WMP

*keRiw   PAN *keRiw, hemp plant; hemp. Formosan

*keRkeR   PAN *keRkeR, shake, tremble. Formosan WMP

*ke(R)lap   PMP *ke(R)lap, flash, shine. WMP OC

*keRteŋ   PMP *keRteŋ, kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp.. WMP OC

*keRuŋ   PAN *keRuŋ, sound">resound. Formosan WMP

*keRut   PMP *keRut, to gnaw, sound of gnawing on something. WMP OC

*kesap   PWMP *kesap, blink, wink. WMP

*kese   PCEMP *kese, keep to oneself; be different; alone. CMP OC;  PCEMP *kese-kese, varied, different (?). CMP OC

*keseR   PAN *keseR, strength, vigor, force. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-keseR, vigor. Formosan WMP;  PAN *pa-ka-keseR, (gloss uncertain). Formosan

*kesiŋ   PWMP *kesiŋ, laugh. WMP

*keskes₁   PAN *keskes₁, scratch, scrape. Formosan WMP;  POC *kokos, scratch, scrape. OC

*keskes₂   PWMP *keskes₂, wrap tightly around. WMP

*ketak   PWMP *ketak, to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound. WMP

*ketas   PWMP *ketas, to cut, sever. WMP

*keteb   PMP *keteb, to bite. WMP CMP

*keted   PWMP *keted, large leg muscle. WMP

*keteg   PWMP *keteg, beating of the heart; pulse. WMP

*ketek   PWMP *ketek, sound of dull clucking. WMP

*ketél   PPH *ketél, to pinch off. WMP;  PPH *ketel-én, pinch. WMP

*keteŋ   PMP *keteŋ, straight. WMP OC

*ketep₁   PMP *ketep₁, to bite. WMP CMP

*ketep₂   PWMP *ketep₂, reaping knife; to reap grain. WMP

*keter   PWMP *keter, to shiver, quiver. WMP

*keti   PWMP *keti, dry up; low tide. WMP

*ketik   PWMP *ketik, snap the fingers; the sound produced by snapping the fingers. WMP

*ketil   PAN *ketil, pinch off. Formosan WMP OC

*ketiR   PWMP *ketiR, avoid someone out of fear. WMP

*ketket   PWMP *ketket, to bite, gnaw. WMP

*ketuk   PMP *ketuk, to knock, pound. WMP CMP

*ketun   PAN *ketun, cut, sever. Formosan;  PAN *k<um>etun, chop up, as firewood. Formosan

*ketuq   PMP *ketuq, pick, pluck, break off. WMP CMP

*ketut   PWMP *ketut, flatulence, fart. WMP

*kezap   PWMP *kezap, to flicker. WMP

*kezat   PWMP *kezat, startled. WMP

*kezem   PAN *kezem, close the eyes. Formosan WMP

*kezeŋ   PMP *kezeŋ, to stand; straighten out. WMP

*kezep   PWMP *kezep, to blink, wink, momentarily close the eye. WMP

*kezet   PWMP *kezet, jerk, startled. WMP

*kezuC   PAN *kezuC, to jerk suddenly, jump when startled. Formosan;  PMP *kezut₁, to start, jump when startled. WMP

*kezut   PWMP *kezut₂, to pinch, as with the nails. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋezut, to pinch someone or something. WMP;  PPH *k<um>ezut, to pinch. WMP;  PWMP *kedut-en, to pinch someone. WMP


 

TOP      ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    

ki

*ki-   PAN *ki-, prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun). Formosan WMP

*ki₁   POC *ki₁, allative marker: to, toward. OC

*ki₂   PAN *ki₂, oblique case marker for personal nouns. Formosan;  PMP *ki₂ₐ, oblique case marker for singular personal nouns. WMP CMP OC

*kiab   PWMP *kiab, fan; to fan. WMP

*kiajo   POC *kiajo, outrigger boom. OC

*kiak   PMP *kiak, to squawk, as a frightened chicken. WMP OC

*kiap   PWMP *kiap, to wave the hand, to fan oneself. WMP

*kiaw   PAN *kiaw, puling sound of a bird. Formosan WMP OC

*kibak   PWMP *kibak, to flap, clash together. WMP

*kibkíb   PPH *kibkíb, nibble or gnaw at. WMP

*kibul   PPH *kibul, short-tailed; cropped, of the tail. WMP

*kicak   PWMP *kicak, sound of frightened cheeping. WMP

*kicaq   PWMP *kicaq, sound of chattering or loud talk. WMP

*kicaw   PWMP *kicaw, soothing sound of humming activity, twittering, etc.. WMP

*kicek   PWMP *kicek, shrill cry. WMP

*kiCiŋ   PAN *kiCiŋ, body part. Formosan WMP

*kidam   PWMP *kidam, miss, crave, long for something. WMP

*kidas   PPH *kidas, moving about rapidly or restlessly. WMP

*kiday   PWMP *kiday, eyebrow. WMP

*kidelap   PWMP *kidelap, glitter, flash, sparkle. WMP

*kidelat   PWMP *kidelat, lightning. WMP

*kidem   PWMP *kidem, close the eyes. WMP

*kidi   PMP *kidi, to tickle. WMP CMP OC

*kiDkiD   PMP *kiDkiD, to file, rasp. WMP SHWNG;  POC *kikir, a file, rasp. OC

*kiduŋ   PWMP *kiduŋ, chant or sung narrative. WMP

*kiet   PWMP *kiet, creaking sound; to creak. WMP

*kihik   PWMP *kihik, to peep, squeak. WMP

*kik   PMP *kik, a peep, squeak, giggle. WMP CMP OC

*kikau   POC *kikau, Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita. OC

*kiki₁   POC *kiki₁, kingfisher, Halcyon spp.. OC

*kiki₂   POC *kiki₂, small, stunted. OC

*kikik   PMP *kikik, to squeak, as a mouse; to giggle. WMP CMP OC

*kikit   PMP *kikit, small, trifling. WMP OC

*ki(k)kik   PWMP *ki(k)kik, marine fish sp.. WMP

*kikuR   PAN *kikuR, tail. Formosan CMP

*kikuʔ   PWMP *kikuʔ, crooked, winding. WMP

*kilab   PMP *kilab, flash, sparkle. WMP CMP

*kilala   PAN *kilala, to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive. Formosan WMP OC;  PWMP *ma-kilala, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *pa-kilala, (gloss uncertain). WMP OC;  PWMP *ma-ŋilala, to notice, take note of; recognize. WMP;  PWMP *ka-kilala-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *k<um>ilala, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *kilala-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP OC

*kilan   PWMP *kilan, span">handspan. WMP

*kilaŋ   PWMP *kilaŋ, kind of fermented drink. WMP

*kilap   PMP *kilap, flash, sparkle. WMP CMP

*kilas   PWMP *kilas, quick, fast. WMP

*kilat   PMP *kilat₂, open the eyes wide. WMP OC

*kilaw₁   PPH *kilaw₁, eat raw meat. WMP;  PPH *kilaw-en, to eat raw fish or meat. WMP

*kilaw₂   PWMP *kilaw₂, luminous, brilliant, full of light. WMP

*kilaw₃   PCEMP *kilaw₃, corner of the eye. CMP;  POC *kilo, corner of the eye. OC

*kilay   PWMP *kilay, wag, shake back and forth. WMP

*kilep   PMP *kilep, glance, glimpse. WMP CMP OC

*kili   POC *kili, to turn over, to dig by turning over, as rocks. OC

*kiliD   PWMP *kiliD, edge. WMP

*kilig   PWMP *kilig, shudder. WMP

*kilik₁   PMP *kilik₁, to tickle. WMP CMP OC

*kilik₂   PWMP *kilik₂, carried under the arm or on the hip. WMP;  PWMP *kilik-en, be carried under the arm. WMP

*kili-kíli   PPH *kili-kíli, armpit. WMP

*kililíŋ   PPH *kililíŋ, ringing of a bell. WMP

*kiliŋ   PMP *kiliŋ, leaning sideways, listing (as a boat). WMP CMP

*kilíŋ₁   PPH *kilíŋ₁, ringing of a bell. WMP

*kilíŋ₂   PPH *kilíŋ₂, bamboo sp.. WMP

*kilít   PPH *kilít, to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm. WMP

*kilkil   PWMP *kilkil, gnaw meat off bones. WMP

*kiluŋ   PAN *kiluŋ, curve. Formosan WMP OC

*kiluq   PMP *kiluq, to bend, curve; bent, curved, crooked. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *ma-kiluq, bent, crooked, twisted. WMP OC;  PWMP *k<um>iluq, to wind, turn. WMP;  PWMP *kiluq kiluq, winding, full of curves or deviations. WMP

*kima   PMP *kima, giant clam, Tridacna gigas. WMP CMP OC

*kimat   PPH *kimat, flash, sparkle, twinkle. WMP

*kimay   PPH *kimay, deformation of the body. WMP

*kimet   PMP *kimet, blink; flash. WMP OC

*kimit   PPH *kimit, blink, wink, close the eye briefly. WMP

*kimpal   PWMP *kimpal, lump, lumpy. WMP;  PWMP *kimpal kimpal, lump. WMP

*kimpaŋ   PWMP *kimpaŋ, lame, walk with a limp. WMP

*kimut kimut   PWMP *kimut kimut, twitch, jerk; keep moving the lips. WMP

*kindaŋ-kindaŋ   PWMP *kindaŋ-kindaŋ, rock or hover back and forth. WMP

*kindat   PWMP *kindat, raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?). WMP

*kinelaw   PWMP *kinelaw, dazzling light. WMP

*kiniŋ   PWMP *kiniŋ, eyebrow. WMP

*kinit   PMP *kinit, pinch, nip, pluck. WMP OC

*kiñam   PWMP *kiñam, to try, taste. WMP

*kiñaŋ   PWMP *kiñaŋ, quartz crystal (?). WMP

*kiŋ   PMP *kiŋ, ring. WMP CMP

*kiŋeR   PAN *kiŋeR, to hear. Formosan WMP

*kiŋkiŋ₁   PAN *kiŋkiŋ₁, ring. Formosan WMP CMP

*kiŋkiŋ₂   PWMP *kiŋkiŋ₂, hop on one leg. WMP

*kiŋkiŋ₃   PMP *kiŋkiŋ₃, little finger, pinky. WMP CMP;  PWMP *k<al>iŋkiŋ, little finger. WMP

*kipak   PWMP *kipak, flap the wings. WMP

*kipau   POC *kipau, Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita. OC

*kipay   PWMP *kipay, wave back and forth. WMP

*ki(m)pes   PMP *ki(m)pes, deflate, shrink. WMP CMP

*kipit   PAN *kipit, narrow; pinch between tongs, etc.. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *kibit, narrow. OC

*kiput   PMP *kiput, narrow. WMP CMP

*kiras   PMP *kiras, scar. WMP OC

*kiray   PWMP *kiray, eyebrow. WMP

*kirig   PWMP *kirig, shudder. WMP

*kirik   PMP *kirik, to tickle. WMP OC

*kiRa   POC *kiRa, a bird, tern sp.. OC

*kiRak   POC *kiRak, parrot sp., possibly Eclectus parrot. OC

*kiRam   PMP *kiRam, axe or adze. WMP OC

*kiRay   PMP *kiRay, pandanus sp., used in making mats. WMP CMP;  POC *kiRe, a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant. OC;  POC *kiRe-kiRe, pandanus sp.. OC

*kiRim   PAN *kiRim, seek, search, look for. Formosan;  PAN *ma-kiRim, found?. Formosan;  PAN *k<um>iRim, to seek, search, look for. Formosan;  PAN *kiRim-en, look. Formosan

*kiRkiR   PAN *kiRkiR, rasp, file. Formosan WMP CMP

*kiRus   PAN *kiRus, scrape. Formosan WMP

*ki(n)sap   PWMP *ki(n)sap, blink, wink, flicker, flash. WMP

*kisaw   PPH *kisaw, sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water. WMP

*kisay   PPH *kisay, tear a leaf or cloth into strips. WMP

*kiseg   PMP *kiseg, twist spasmodically, wriggle. WMP;  POC *kisog, twist spasmodically, wriggle. OC

*kis(e)láp   PPH *kis(e)láp, sparkle, glitter. WMP

*kisi   PCMP *kisi, pick out with the fingers. CMP

*kiskis   PAN *kiskis, to shave, scrape off. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *kiskis-an, to scrape off. WMP;  PWMP *kiskis-en, to scrape off. WMP;  PPH *kiskis-an, to cut the hair short. WMP

*kiSkiS   PAN *kiSkiS, scrape off. Formosan WMP CMP

*kita   PAN *kita₂, to see. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PPH *i-pa-kita, to show, display. WMP;  PWMP *ma-kita, see. WMP;  PWMP *maka-kita, able to see. WMP;  PAN *pa-kita, to show. Formosan WMP;  PAN *k<um>ita, to see. Formosan WMP;  PAN *kita-en, see. Formosan WMP

*kitáŋ   PPH *kitáŋ, long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line. WMP

*kitek   PWMP *kitek, to tickle. WMP

*kiteŋ   PWMP *kiteŋ, marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus. WMP;  POC *kitoŋ, Rabbit fish: Siganus punctatus (family siganidae). OC

*kitey   PWMP *kitey, suspension bridge. WMP

*kitik₁   PMP *kitik₁, to tickle. WMP CMP

*kitik₂   PMP *kitik₂, to tick, make a ticking or light knocking sound. WMP OC

*kitiŋ   PWMP *kitiŋ, small in amount. WMP

*kitkit   PMP *kitkit, to bite, gnaw. WMP CMP

*kiud   PMP *kiud, movement in coitus; sexual intercourse. WMP;  POC *kiur, movement in coitus. OC

*kiuk   PMP *kiuk, peep, cheep. WMP CMP OC

*kiuq   PMP *kiuq, movement in coitus; sexual intercourse. WMP;  POC *kiuq, movement in coitus; sexual intercourse. OC

*kiut   PWMP *kiut, movement in coitus; sexual intercourse. WMP

*kiwal   PPH *kiwal, sinuous, winding. WMP

*kiwih   PPH *kiwih, twisted or crooked mouth. WMP

*kiwiwi   POC *kiwiwi, shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover. OC

*kiwkiw₁   PAN *kiwkiw, to wave, wag ( tail); to stir (people) up. Formosan WMP

*kiwkiw₂   PPH *kiwkiw₂, to stir, mix in. WMP;  PPH *kiwkiw-en, to stir, mix in. WMP

*kizab   PWMP *kizab, sparkle, flash; lustre. WMP

*ki(n)zak   PMP *ki(n)zak, tread, step. WMP CMP

*kizap   PWMP *kizap, sparkle, flash. WMP

*kizem   PWMP *kizem, close the eyes. WMP

*ki(n)zep   PWMP *ki(n)zep, blink, wink. WMP


 

TOP      ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    

ko

*koba   POC *koba, hermit crab. OC

*kodos   POC *kodos, go straight; straighten. OC

*koe   POC *koe, 2sg., you. OC

*koi   POC *koi, coconut shell. OC

*kojom   POC *kojom, sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick. OC;  POC *kojom-i, to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick. OC

*koka   POC *koka, a tree: Macaranga spp., Euphorbiaceae. OC

*koki   POC *koki, lame; to limp. OC

*koko   POC *koko, kind of house spider. OC

*koŋa   POC *koŋa, kind of marine fish. OC

*koŋe   POC *koŋe, squeal, as in excitement. OC

*kopu   POC *kopu, low cloud, mist, fog. OC

*koran   POC *koran, ember, glowing coal. OC

*koraŋa   POC *koraŋa, a fish, small emperor. OC

*kori   POC *kori, scrape, shave. OC

*koro₁   POC *koro₁, 2dl. pronoun. OC

*koro₂   POC *koro₂, fortified place; village. OC

*koro₃   POC *koro₃, mountain, hilltop. OC

*koron   POC *koron, to lie, tell a lie. OC

*kororo   POC *kororo, honey. OC

*koRa   POC *koRa, wild mango: Mangifera minor. OC

*koRo   POC *koRo, pubic hair. OC

*kosa   POC *kosa, kind of parrotfish. OC

*koso   POC *koso, a cough; to cough. OC

*koti   POC *koti, to cut, cut off. OC

*koto   POC *koto, obsidian spear point (?). OC


 

TOP      ka    ke    ki    ko    ku    kw    

ku

*ku   PAN *ku, oblique of common nouns (cf. *ki, *ka). Formosan WMP

*-ku   PAN *-ku, 1sg genitive ( marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me). Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *-gu, 1sg possessive pronoun; my. OC;  PMP *ni-ku, 1sg genitive ( marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me). WMP

*kua kua   POC *kua kua, kind of pheasant-: pheasant- dove?. OC

*kua₁   PWMP *kua₂, whatchamacallit, filler for word that cannot be recollected. WMP;  PWMP *kua-n, quotative. WMP

*kua₂   PMP *kua₁, how?, How is it? What is the matter?. WMP OC

*kuak   PMP *kuak, deep cry; bird with deep cry. WMP CMP OC

*kuan₁   PAN *kuan₁, hamlet; kin-based residential unit. Formosan CMP

*kuan₂   PWMP *kuan₂, to speak, talk, say. WMP

*kuaw   PAN *kuaw, kind of bird and the sound of its call. Formosan WMP

*kubal   PWMP *kubal, callus. WMP

*kubalan   PPH *kubalan, a marine fish sp.. WMP

*kub(e)las   PPH *kub(e)las, slip down, subside. WMP

*kub(e)li   PPH *kub(e)li, take cover, hide behind. WMP

*kubet-kubet   PPH *kubet-kubet, wrinkled, of the skin, as from age. WMP

*kubit   PWMP *kubit, touch lightly. WMP

*kubkub₁   PPH *kubkub₁, to surround, lay siege to. WMP;  PPH *k<um>ubkub, to surround, hedge in, be siege. WMP;  PPH *kubkub-en, surround. WMP

*kubkub₂   PMP *kubkub₂, cover, coating. WMP;  POC *kukup-i, to cover something. OC

*kubkub₃   PPH *kubkub₃, to dig. WMP

*kubu   PMP *kubu, field hut in the rice fields. WMP CMP

*kubuŋ₂   PPH *kubuŋ₂, protective covering or enclosure; mosquito net. WMP

*kubuq   PPH *kubuq, hunchbacked, stoop- shouldered. WMP

*kubut   PPH *kubut₂, keep a mistress (?). WMP

*kuCkuC   PAN *kuCkuC, roll up, curl up tightly. Formosan

*kuCux   PAN *kuCux, head louse. Formosan;  PMP *kutu₁, head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water). WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *ma-kuCu, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *ma-kutu, having lice, lice-infested. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋutu, to de louse. WMP;  PWMP *maR-kutu, to de louse. WMP;  PWMP *kutu-an, to de louse someone. WMP;  PWMP *kutu-en, to have lice. WMP;  PWMP *k<in>utu, lice-infested. WMP;  PAN *k<um>uCu, to de louse. Formosan;  PMP *k<um>utu, to de louse. WMP

*kude   POC *kude, hourglass drum. OC

*kudem   PAN *kudem, dark. Formosan OC

*kuden   PAN *kuden, clay cooking pot. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*kudeŋ   PAN *kudeŋ, clay cooking pot. Formosan WMP

*kudin   PMP *kudin, clay cooking pot. WMP CMP

*kudis   PAN *kudis, scurfy skin disease; scabies. Formosan WMP

*kudkud   PAN *kudkud, hoof, lower leg of an ungulate. Formosan WMP CMP

*kuDkuD   PMP *kuDkuD, to scrape, rasp, grate, as in grating coconuts. WMP;  PWMP *kuDkuD-an, grater, grate, as for coconuts. WMP;  PPH *kudkud-én, to scratch, scrape off. WMP;  POC *kukur, scrape. OC

*ku(n)dul   PWMP *ku(n)dul, dull, blunt. WMP

*kuduŋ   PWMP *kuduŋ, head cover for women. WMP

*kugem   PWMP *kugem, hold in the fist. WMP

*kuhit   PWMP *kuhit, tap, touch, or reach in with the finger. WMP

*kuhul   PWMP *kuhul, edible snail sp.. WMP

*kuja   PAN *kuja, how?, how is it? what is the matter?. Formosan;  PMP *kuja, how?, how is it? what is the matter?. WMP;  POC *kuca, how?. OC;  PAN *k<in>uja, what has been said/done (to cause someone to react)?. Formosan WMP;  PAN *k<um>uja, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-kuja, what are you doing? what’s happening?. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋuja, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *saŋ-kuja, how much/how many?. WMP

*kuk   PMP *kuk, sound of sob, croak, etc.. WMP CMP OC

*kuka   POC *kuka, crab (generic). OC

*kukkuk   PWMP *kukkuk, to cluck, of chickens. WMP

*kukun   PMP *kukun, tree sp.: Schoutenia ovata. WMP CMP

*kukuŋ   PWMP *kukuŋ, stiffs, stiffening of the limbs. WMP

*ku(ŋ)kuŋ   PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ, deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry. Formosan WMP CMP

*kukuŋ₁   PAN *kukuŋ₁, small bird that produces a deep resounding call. Formosan WMP

*kukuq   PMP *kukuq, stick to, adhere firmly. WMP OC

*kukut   POC *kukut, to hang, suspend. OC

*kulabo   POC *kulabo, a fish: Lethrinidae spp.. OC

*kulaC   PAN *kulaC, bracket fungus, Polyporus spp.. Formosan;  PMP *kulat₂, bracket fungus, Polyporus spp.. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-kulat, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*kulad   PWMP *kulad, scar. WMP

*kula-la(m)baR   PWMP *kula-la(m)baR, bat sp.. WMP

*kulambar   PWMP *kulambar, fish sp.. WMP

*kulaŋut   PPH *kulaŋut, dried nasal mucus. WMP

*kulap   PPH *kulap, dim, not well-lit. WMP

*kulasa   PWMP *kulasa, fatty hump on the back of a buffalo, etc.. WMP

*kulasísi   PPH *kulasísi, small parrot or parakeet kept as a pet. WMP

*kulat   PMP *kulat₁, < a class="findlink" href="acd-ak_o.htm#open">open the eyes. WMP CMP

*kulay₁   PAN *kulay₁, worm, insect. Formosan

*kulay₂   PWMP *kulay₂, wilt, droop, as flowers. WMP

*kulem   PWMP *kulem, dark, dim. WMP

*kuliC   PAN *kuliC, rind, peeling of fruits or tubers. Formosan;  PMP *kulit, skin; hide; rind; bark. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *kulit, skin, bark, peel, shell. OC;  POC *kuli-kulit, skin disease. OC;  PWMP *kulit-an, to be skinned, have the skin removed. WMP;  PWMP *kulit-en, to skin, remove the skin. WMP;  PAN *ma-kuliC, skinny, thin, underweight. Formosan;  PWMP *ma-ŋulit, to skin or peel, remove the skin or peeling. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋulit, person who peels; thing used to peel (?). WMP

*kulili   PPH *kulili, fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture. WMP

*kuliliŋ₁   PMP *kuliliŋ, round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around. WMP OC

*kuliliŋ₂   PPH *kuliliŋ₂, to ring, of a small bell. WMP

*kulintaŋ   PWMP *kulintaŋ, a percussive musical instrument or ensemble: the gamelan. WMP

*kulintas   PPH *kulintas, necklace. WMP

*kuliqik   PWMP *kuliqik, screech, as a hawk. WMP

*kulkul   PWMP *kulkul, bend the limbs, curl up the body. WMP

*kulu   PMP *kulu₁, a tree: Artocarpus sp.. WMP CMP

*kulu₂   POC *kulu₂, coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened. OC

*kulub₁   PWMP *kulub₁, ridge. WMP

*kulub₂   PWMP *kulub₂, to slow cook in a tightly covered vessel. WMP;  PWMP *kulub-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*kulubuŋ   PWMP *kulubuŋ, head covering for women. WMP

*kuluŋ   PMP *kuluŋ, curl, curve. WMP CMP

*kuluR   PMP *kuluR, breadfruit. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*kulut   PMP *kulut, curly-. WMP OC;  PPH *kulut-én, to curl, make curly. WMP

*kuman   PMP *kuman, tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse. WMP CMP

*kumaŋ   PMP *kumaŋ, hermit crab. WMP CMP OC

*kumbal   PMP *kumbal, dry sago branch. WMP CMP

*kumeS   PAN *kumeS, pubic hair. Formosan

*kumi   PMP *kumi, moustache. WMP OC

*kumis   PMP *kumis, moustache, beard. WMP CMP OC

*kumiS   PAN *kumiS, pubic hair. Formosan

*kumkum   PWMP *kumkum, fold the arms over the chest; fold the wings, of a bird. WMP

*kumpáy   PPH *kumpáy, kind of grass. WMP

*kumpul   PWMP *kumpul, bunch or cluster of things; to gather. WMP

*kumpuŋ   PMP *kumpuŋ, maimed, amputated, of a limb. WMP;  POC *kubuŋ₁, maimed, amputated, of a limb. OC

*kumput   PMP *kumput, maimed, amputated, of a limb. WMP;  POC *kubut₁, maimed, amputated, of a limb. OC

*kumuR   PMP *kumuR, gargle, rinse the mouth. WMP OC

*kumut   PWMP *kumut, to wrap in a blanket to keep warm. WMP

*kundul   PWMP *kundul, the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida. WMP

*kunduR   PWMP *kunduR, the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida. WMP

*kunem   PWMP *kunem, cloud. WMP

*kunij   PMP *kunij, turmeric: Curcuma longa. WMP CMP;  PWMP *k<in>uñij-an, material that has been colored yellow with turmeric. WMP

*kunkun   PMP *kunkun, shrink. WMP OC

*kunu₁   POC *kunu₁, jealous. OC

*kunu₂   PMP *kunu₂, it is said, people say...... WMP OC

*kunuq   PPH *kunuq, it is said, people say...... WMP

*kunut   PMP *kunut, pinch. WMP OC

*kuNkuN   PAN *kuNkuN, Formosan hill partridge. Formosan

*kúñat   PPH *kúñat, tough, rubbery, elastic. WMP

*kuŋ   PMP *kuŋ, bark of cooing or barking. WMP CMP OC

*kuŋkuŋ₁   PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁, deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages. Formosan WMP CMP

*kuŋkuŋ₂   PMP *kuŋkuŋ₂, curve, curved; hollow. WMP CMP

*kuŋkuŋ₃   PMP *kuŋkuŋ₃, shrink. WMP OC

*kuŋkuŋ₄   PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄, surrround in order to confine or protect. WMP

*kuŋkuŋ₅   PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₅, small bird and its call. WMP

*kúpaŋ   PPH *kúpaŋ, a tall tree: Parkia spp.. WMP

*kúpas   PPH *kúpas, to fade. WMP

*kupiŋ   PWMP *kupiŋ, sticking out or turned forward, of ears. WMP

*kupit   PAN *kupit, press together, close tightly. Formosan WMP

*kúpit   PPH *kúpit, pilfering, filching, stealing small amounts. WMP

*kupkup₁   PWMP *kupkup₁, cover with a thin layer. WMP

*kupkup₂   PPH *kupkup₂, to wrap, encircle, as with the arms or wings. WMP

*kupkup₃   PMP *kupkup₃, to clutch, hold tightly. WMP;  POC *kukup, to clutch, hold tightly. OC;  PWMP *k<um>upkup, to take care of, protect. WMP

*kupkup₄   PPH *kupkup₄, close-cropped, of hair; bald. WMP

*kupuk   POC *kupuk, emit smoke or steam. OC

*kupuR   POC *kupuR, pigeon or dove sp.. OC

*kupwena   POC *kupwena, kind of long rectangular fishing net. OC

*kur   PMP *kur, word used to call chickens, etc.. WMP CMP

*kurap   PAN *kurap, ringworm. Formosan WMP

*kurapu   PWMP *kurapu, a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod. WMP

*kurat   POC *kurat, the dye produced from the Morinda citrifolia. OC

*kuray   PWMP *kuray, veining pattern on wood or other material. WMP

*kureb   PWMP *kureb, lie face downward. WMP

*kure(n)dut   PWMP *kure(n)dut, wrinkled, as the skin. WMP

*kur(e)qit   PMP *kur(e)qit, scratch mark, line. WMP CMP

*kuretret   PPH *kuretret, to wrinkle, be wrinkled, as the skin. WMP

*kuriak   PWMP *kuriak, cry, shout. WMP

*kuriap   POC *kuriap, dolphin. OC

*kuriat   PWMP *kuriat, creak, sound of a cricket. WMP

*kurin   PWMP *kurin, clay cooking pot. WMP

*kuriŋ   PWMP *kuriŋ, striped with red and black. WMP

*kuriqik   PWMP *kuriqik, screech, as a hawk. WMP

*kuris₁   PAN *kuris₁, scurfy skin disease; scabies. Formosan WMP

*kuris₂   PWMP *kuris₂, scratch, mark with a line. WMP

*kur(i)siŋ   PWMP *kur(i)siŋ, crack. WMP

*kurit   PPH *kurit, line, mark. WMP

*kurkur   PAN *kurkur, dig in the soil. Formosan WMP

*kuru₁   PMP *kuru₁, word used to call chickens, etc.. WMP CMP

*kuru₂   PWMP *kuru₂, thin, lean. WMP

*kurud   PWMP *kurud, scrape. WMP

*kuruk   PWMP *kuruk, to call chickens, cry for calling chickens. WMP

*kurukuru   POC *kurukuru, kind of dove or pigeon. OC

*kuruŋ   PWMP *kuruŋ, cage, as for an animal; to enclose in a cage or pen. WMP;  PWMP *kuruŋ-an, cage; stockage. WMP

*kuruq   PMP *kuruq, noise, clamor. WMP OC

*kururu₁   POC *kururu₁, thunder. OC

*kururu₂   POC *kururu₂, owl sp.. OC

*kurut   PMP *kurut, curly-. WMP CMP OC

*kuRan   PWMP *kuRan, scab. WMP

*kuRapu   PMP *kuRapu, a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp.. WMP OC

*kuRapuq   PWMP *kuRapuq, a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp.. WMP

*kuRaw   PMP *kuRaw, edible marine fish. WMP;  POC *kuRo, marine fish sp.. OC

*kuRi   PAN *kuRi, rake. Formosan;  PAN *ka-kuRi, a rake. Formosan;  PAN *k<um>uRi, to rake. Formosan

*kuRiat   PWMP *kuRiat, creak, squeak. WMP

*kuRis   PWMP *kuRis, scratch, mark with a line. WMP

*kuRiut   PWMP *kuRiut, creak, squeak. WMP

*kusik   PMP *kusik, scream of a monkey. WMP CMP

*kuskus₁   PWMP *kuskus₁, rising of smoke or steam. WMP;  PWMP *kuskus-an₂, basketlike container used to steam rice. WMP

*kuskus₂   PWMP *kuskus₂, to scrape out. WMP;  PPh *kuskus-an₂, to scrape or scrub out, remove by scraping. WMP

*kusu₁   PMP *kusu₁, rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands. WMP CMP

*kusu₂   POC *kusu₂, to spit. OC

*kusupe   POC *kusupe, rat. OC

*kusut   PWMP *kusut, tangle. WMP

*kuSa   PAN *kuSa, work. Formosan WMP CMP

*kuSkuS₁   PAN *kuSkuS₁, claw, talon, fingernail. Formosan;  PMP *kukuh, claw, talon, fingernail. WMP CMP OC;  PAN *k<aN>uSkuS, claw, talon, fingernail. Formosan;  PMP *k<an>uhkuh, claw, talon, fingernail. WMP

*kuSkuS₂   PAN *kuSkuS₂, scrape. Formosan;  PMP *kuhkuh, scrape. WMP;  PAN *k<ar>uSkuS, scrape, scratch something from a surface. Formosan;  PWMP *k<ar>uhkuh, scrape, scratch something from a surface. WMP;  PAN *k<um>uSkuS, to scrape. Formosan

*kuta   POC *kuta, staple food (?). OC

*kuták   PPH *kuták, to cackle, of a hen. WMP

*kutaña   PMP *kutaña, ask, inquire about. WMP SHWNG;  PWMP *maR-kutaña, ask, inquire about. WMP

*kutay   PPH *kutay, kind of citrus fruit, Philippine orange. WMP

*kuti   PAN *kuti, vulva, vagina. Formosan

*kútib   PPH *kútib, move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something. WMP

*kutil   PWMP *kutil, wart. WMP

*kutím   PPH *kutím, to nibble at, peel with the teeth. WMP

*kutiŋ   PWMP *kutiŋ, cat, kitten. WMP

*kutiŋ   PWMP *kutiŋ, kind of beetle or bedbug. WMP

*ku(n)tit   PWMP *ku(n)tit, follow, come after (in sequence). WMP

*kutkut₁   PWMP *kutkut₁, dig. WMP

*kutkut₂   PAN *kutkut₂, scrape off. Formosan WMP

*kutu   POC *kutu₂, break, cut off, sever. OC

*kutug   PWMP *kutug, shake something to determine its unseen contents. WMP

*kutuk₁   PWMP *kutuk₁, oath; curse. WMP

*kutuk₂   PWMP *kutuk₂, to knock, pound. WMP

*ku(n)tus   PMP *ku(n)tus, break under tension. WMP CMP

*kuya   PAN *kuya₁, defect. Formosan

*kuykúy₁   PPH *kuykúy₁, chigger or similar insect. WMP

*kuykúy₂   PPH *kuykúy₂, scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it. WMP

*kuyu   PWMP *kuyu, shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls. WMP

*kúyug   PPH *kúyug, to lead in walking; to accompany. WMP

*kuyuk   PWMP *kuyuk, sound used to call puppies. WMP

*kuyuŋ   PWMP *kuyuŋ, shake, sway, stagger. WMP

*kuyup   PWMP *kuyup, dripping wet. WMP

*kuyut   PWMP *kuyut, shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls. WMP

*ku(n)zit   PWMP *ku(n)zit, busy, diligent. WMP

*kuzut   PWMP *kuzut, pinch. WMP


 

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kw

*kwarara   POC *kwarara, shark sp.. OC

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_k.htm