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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*ŋ   

ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋo    ŋu    

*ŋa   PMP *ŋa, linker for multiples of ten. WMP CMP OC

*ŋabŋab   PAN *ŋabŋab, bite off the surface of something. Formosan WMP

*ŋadaq   PWMP *ŋadaq, look upward. WMP

*ŋadas   PMP *ŋadas, palate. WMP CMP;  POC *ŋadasₐ, gums. OC

*ŋajan   PAN *ŋajan, name. Formosan WMP;  PMP *ŋajan, name. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *ŋacan, name. OC;  PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an), to name, give a name to; to call by name. WMP;  PMP *i-pa-ŋajan, to name, give a name to. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-ŋajan(-an), namesake (?). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-ŋaran, name. WMP;  PAN *pu-ŋajan, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ŋajan-an, to give a name to someone or something. WMP

*ŋajay   PAN *ŋajay, saliva, drivel. Formosan WMP

*ŋajes   PPH *ŋajes, gums. WMP

*ŋak   PMP *ŋak, raucous sound. WMP CMP OC

*ŋakŋak   PMP *ŋakŋak, raucous sound. WMP;  PCEMP *ŋaŋak, raucous sound. OC

*ŋali-ŋali   POC *ŋali-ŋali, move about in restless anger. OC

*ŋalŋal   PAN *ŋalŋal, to chew, masticate. Formosan WMP

*ŋalŋál   PPH *ŋalŋál, cry out, bellow, moan. WMP

*ŋalu   POC *ŋalu, wave, breaker (?). OC

*ŋani   PPH *ŋani, indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor. WMP

*ŋaniq   PPH *ŋaniq, even. WMP

*ŋaŋ   PMP *ŋaŋ, inarticulate sound. WMP OC

*ŋaŋa₁   POC *ŋaŋa₁, bitter, poisonous. OC

*ŋaŋa₂   PAN *ŋaŋa₂, open the mouth. Formosan;  PMP *ŋaŋa₂, open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc.. WMP CMP OC

*ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ   PMP *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ, inarticulate sound. WMP;  PCEMP *ŋaŋaŋ, inarticulate sound. CMP OC

*ŋapa₁   POC *ŋapa₁, fathom. OC

*ŋapa₂   POC *ŋapa₂, long. OC

*ŋapa₃   POC *ŋapa₃, lime gourd (for betel chew). OC

*ŋaqŋaq₁   PWMP *ŋaqŋaq₁, open the mouth, gape. WMP

*ŋaqŋaq₂   PPH *ŋaqŋaq₂, to chew betel. WMP

*ŋara   POC *ŋara, complain loudly. OC

*ŋarab   PPH *ŋarab, blade, cutting edge of knife, etc.. WMP

*ŋaraŋara   POC *ŋaraŋara, to swim. OC

*ŋarŋar   PMP *ŋarŋar, fragment, split-off piece. WMP;  PCEMP *ŋaŋar, fragment, piece of something. CMP

*ŋaRaq   PMP *ŋaRaq, wild duck. WMP CMP OC

*ŋasŋas   PMP *ŋasŋas, crush with the teeth. WMP;  PCEMP *ŋaŋas, chew something tough, as sugarcane. OC

*ŋata   POC *ŋata, hole, hollow. OC

*ŋatŋat   PWMP *ŋatŋat, to chew off. WMP

*ŋatu   PPH *ŋatu, above, on top. WMP;  PPH *i-ŋatu, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*ŋau₁   POC *ŋau₁, to chew, chew off. OC;  POC *ŋau-ŋau, to chew. OC

*ŋau₂   POC *ŋau₃, to hit, strike. OC

*ŋawŋaw   PAN *ŋawŋaw, sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person. Formosan WMP

*ŋayaw   PAN *ŋayaw, headhunting. Formosan;  PMP *kayaw, headhunting. WMP;  PMP *ma-ŋayaw, go headhunting. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ŋayaw, headhunting expedition. WMP

*ŋazel   PWMP *ŋazel, dull, blunt. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ŋazel, dull, blunt. WMP


 

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋo    ŋu    

ŋe

*ŋeCŋeC   PAN *ŋeCŋeC, gnash the teeth. Formosan WMP;  POC *ŋoŋot-i, to gnaw, nibble. OC

*ŋek₁   PMP *ŋek, grunt. WMP CMP;  POC *ŋok, grunt. OC

*ŋek₂   POC *ŋek₂, to squeal, cry out, as a pig. OC

*ŋekŋek   PMP *ŋekŋek, mumble, etc.. WMP;  POC *ŋoŋok, breath loudly, snore. OC

*ŋeni   PMP *ŋeni, beg, ask for. WMP;  POC *ŋoni, beg, ask for. OC

*ŋeŋ   PMP *ŋeŋ, buzz, hum. WMP CMP

*ŋeŋe   POC *ŋeŋe, to shout, to argue with. OC

*ŋeŋeŋ   PMP *ŋeŋeŋ, buzz, hum. WMP;  POC *ŋoŋoŋ, hoot, as an owl. OC

*ŋepŋep   PMP *ŋepŋep, to gasp, have difficulty breathing. WMP;  POC *ŋoŋop, gasp. OC

*ŋerŋer   PAN *ŋerŋer, growl. Formosan WMP

*ŋesŋes   PAN *ŋesŋes, to pant, be out of breath. Formosan WMP

*ŋetŋet   PAN *ŋetŋet, gnaw, nibble. Formosan WMP;  POC *ŋoŋot-i, to gnaw, nibble. OC


 

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋo    ŋu    

ŋi

*ŋiak   PWMP *ŋiak, cry loudly. WMP

*ŋiaŋ   PWMP *ŋiaŋ, whine. WMP

*ŋiaw   PWMP *ŋiaw, meow of a cat. WMP

*ŋiCŋiC   PAN *ŋiCŋiC, show annoyance or irritation. Formosan;  PMP *ŋitŋit₂, annoyance, irritation. WMP

*ŋidam   PWMP *ŋidam, cravings of a pregnant woman. WMP

*ŋidaw   PAN *ŋidaw, toothless. Formosan WMP

*ŋijuŋ   PMP *ŋijuŋ, nose. WMP CMP

*ŋik   PMP *ŋik, squeal, screech, shriek, etc.. WMP OC

*ŋikŋik   PMP *ŋikŋik, squeal, screech, shriek, etc.. WMP OC;  POC *ŋiŋik, high-pitched cry.

*ŋilu   PAN *ŋilu, painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-ŋilu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *ma-ŋilu, painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ŋilu-an, have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound. WMP

*ŋina   PPH *ŋina, price, worth, cost. WMP

*ŋiŋ   PMP *ŋiŋ, buzz, hum. WMP OC

*ŋiŋi   PWMP *ŋiŋi, grin, show the teeth. WMP

*ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ   PMP *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ, buzz, hum. WMP;  POC *ŋiŋiŋ, buzz, hum. OC

*ŋipen   PAN *ŋipen, tooth. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *ŋipon, tooth. OC

*ŋiqik   PWMP *ŋiqik, to scream, of an animal. WMP

*ŋisa   POC *ŋisa, name. OC

*ŋisi   PMP *ŋisi, to grin, show the teeth. WMP CMP OC

*ŋisŋis₁   PMP *ŋisŋis₁, grin, show the teeth. WMP CMP;  POC *ŋiŋis, grin, show the teeth. OC

*ŋisŋis₂   PPH *ŋisŋis₂, high-pitched vocalization. WMP

*ŋiSŋiS   PAN *ŋiSŋiS, beard. Formosan

*ŋitŋit₁   PAN *ŋitŋit₁, gnaw. Formosan WMP;  POC *ŋiŋit-i, to husk a coconut with the teeth. OC

*ŋitŋit₂   PPH *ŋitŋit₃, pitch black, as a moonless night. WMP


 

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋo    ŋu    

ŋo

*ŋodra   POC *ŋodra, grunt; snore. OC

*ŋodro   POC *ŋodro, grunt; snore. OC

*ŋoRo   POC *ŋoRo, to snore, grunt, etc.. OC


 

TOP      ŋa    ŋe    ŋi    ŋo    ŋu    

ŋu

*ŋuda   PMP *ŋuda, young, of plants. WMP CMP

*ŋuhed   PPH *ŋuhed, young, immature, primarily of plants. WMP;  PPH *ma-ŋuhed, young, immature, primarily of plants. WMP;  PPH *ka-ŋuhed-an, young. WMP

*ŋuk   PMP *ŋuk, grunt, moan, etc.. WMP OC

*ŋukŋuk   PMP *ŋukŋuk, grunt, moan, etc.. WMP;  POC *ŋuŋuk, grunt, moan. OC

*ŋulŋul₁   PMP *ŋulŋul₁, arthritic or rheumatic pain. WMP;  POC *ŋuŋul, arthritic or rheumatic pain. OC

*ŋulŋul₂   PWMP *ŋulŋul₂, to wail, cry out in grief. WMP

*ŋuŋ   PMP *ŋuŋ, buzz, hum. WMP OC

*ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ   PMP *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ, buzz, hum. WMP;  PCEMP *ŋuŋuŋ, buzz, hum. CMP OC

*ŋurut   PMP *ŋurut, growl, whine. WMP;  POC *ŋuru, to growl, as a dog. OC

*ŋuRuR   POC *ŋuRuR, to moan, groan, grunt. OC

*ŋusŋus   PAN *ŋusŋus, to snore, growl, grunt. Formosan WMP

*ŋusŋús   PPH *ŋusŋús, to grate, scour, rub hard on something. WMP

*ŋusuq   PAN *ŋusuq, nasal area; snout. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*ŋuSuN   PAN *ŋuSuN, nosebleed. Formosan

*ŋuSuR   PAN *ŋuSuR, nasal mucus. Formosan;  PMP *ŋuhuR, nasal mucus. WMP

*ŋutŋut₁   PWMP *ŋutŋut₁, mumble, whimper. WMP

*ŋutŋut₂   PMP *ŋutŋut₂, throbbing pain. WMP;  POC *ŋuŋut₁, pain. OC

*ŋutŋut₃   PWMP *ŋutŋut₃, to smoulder, of a fire. WMP

*ŋutŋut₄   PMP *ŋutŋut₄, to gnaw. WMP;  POC *ŋuŋut₂, to gnaw, chew at. OC;  PPh *ŋutŋut-en, to chew or gnaw on something. WMP

*ŋutu   POC *ŋutu, louse. OC

*ŋuyaq   PWMP *ŋuyaq, to chew, masticate. WMP

*ŋuy(e)qa   PWMP *ŋuy(e)qa, vex, torment. WMP

*ŋuyŋuy   PPH *ŋuyŋuy, whine, whimper, as a child. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_n4.htm