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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*p   

pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

*pa₁   PAN *pa₁, still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else). Formosan WMP

*pa-₁   PMP *pa-₁, numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral). WMP CMP OC

*pa-₂   PAN *pa-₂, causative prefix. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *p<in>a-, caused (something to happen). WMP;  PAN *pa-ka-, causative of stative verbs. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *paka-, causative prefix. OC

*pa₂   POC *pa₂, get, take, bring. OC;  POC *pa-i, get, bring, take. OC

*pacek   PAN *pacek, wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel. Formosan WMP CMP

*paCak   PAN *paCak, spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal. Formosan WMP

*pada   PWMP *pada, same, equal, like. WMP;  PPH *i-pada, to compare. WMP;  PWMP *pada pada, equally, without distinction. WMP

*padaŋ   PWMP *padaŋ, uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass ( Imperata cylindrica). WMP

*padaw   PWMP *padaw, sail. WMP

*padek   PWMP *padek, rice husk. WMP

*pa(n)dek   PWMP *pa(n)dek, speck. WMP

*padem   PWMP *padem, to extinguish, douse a fire. WMP

*padeŋ   PAN *padeŋ, to extinguish, douse a fire. Formosan WMP

*pa(n)det   PWMP *pa(n)det, compact, compressed, packed in tightly. WMP

*padpád   PPH *padpád, be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift. WMP

*pa(n)duŋ   PWMP *pa(n)duŋ, floor. WMP

*paen   PAN *paen, bait. Formosan WMP CMP;  PPH *i-paen, to use as bait. WMP;  PPH *paen-an, to bait a trap, set the bait for. WMP

*pagal   PMP *pagal, neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences. WMP CMP

*pagas   PPH *pagas, hoarse, husky (of the voice). WMP

*pagel   PWMP *pagel, tired, exhausted. WMP

*pageq   PWMP *pageq, firm, steady, strong. WMP

*pag(e)qúŋ   PPh *pag(e)qúŋ, land turtle. WMP

*pager   PMP *pager, enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field. WMP CMP

*pagi   PWMP *pagi, later, tomorrow, in the future. WMP

*pagpág   PPH *pagpág, brush or shake off dust or dirt. WMP;  PPH *i-pagpág, to brush or shake off dust or dirt. WMP

*pagpag   PWMP *pagpag, to slap something hard. WMP

*pagu   PWMP *pagu, loft, attic. WMP

*pagut   PWMP *pagut, snap at with the mouth. WMP

*paheku   PAN *paheku, bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum. Formosan;  PWMP *paku, fern. WMP CMP

*pahid   PWMP *pahid, wipe off. WMP

*pahuq₁   PMP *pahuq₁, mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima. WMP CMP

*pahuq₂   PWMP *pahuq₂, kind of marine fish. WMP

*pai₁   PMP *pai₁, where?. WMP OC

*pai₂   POC *pai₂, to weave, plait (as a basket, door, fence). OC

*paid   PAN *paid, fan. Formosan WMP

*pajale   POC *pajale, walk about, take a walk. OC

*pajay   PAN *pajay, rice in the field; rice plant. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  PAN *ka-pajay-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP

*pajiS   PAN *pajiS, enemy. Formosan

*paju   POC *paju, eyebrow. OC

*pak   PMP *pak, sound of a clap or smack. WMP CMP

*paka-   

*pakal   PWMP *pakal, to caulk, fill a hole. WMP

*pakan   PMP *pakan, the weft thread in weaving. WMP CMP

*pakaw   PWMP *pakaw, handle of an implement. WMP

*pakáw   PPH *pakáw, bow-legged. WMP

*pakpak₁   PAN *pakpak₁, to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping. Formosan WMP;  POC *papak-i, to slap. OC;  PWMP *ma-makpak, to slap, flap the wings. WMP;  PPH *p<al>akpak, clap. WMP

*pakpak₂   PWMP *pakpak₂, bark of a tree; peel off bark. WMP

*pakul   PMP *pakul, a fish: triggerfish sp.(?). WMP;  POC *bakul₂, a fish: triggerfish sp.(?). OC

*pakum   POC *pakum, Pandanus dubius. OC

*pakut   PMP *pakut, to bind together. WMP OC

*pala   POC *pala₁, platform. OC

*pala pala₁   PWMP *pala pala₁, scaffolding, support. WMP

*pala pala₂   PPh *pala pala₂, temporary shed. WMP

*palaj₁   PMP *palaj₁, palm of hand, sole of foot. WMP CMP OC

*palaj₂   PWMP *palaj₂, luck, fortune. WMP

*palaja   POC *palaja, rabbitfish: Siganus sp.. OC

*palak   PMP *palak, shout in anger. WMP CMP

*palala   POC *palala, bald; a bald person. OC

*palantik   PWMP *palantik, curve. WMP

*palaŋ₁   PMP *palaŋ₁, thwart, crosspiece. WMP OC

*palaŋ₂   PWMP *palaŋ₂, spotted. WMP

*palapaq   PWMP *palapaq, spices, condiments. WMP

*palaq   PWMP *palaq, vagina, vulva. WMP

*palaqpaq   PMP *palaqpaq, midrib of coconut leaf. WMP;  POC *balapaq, mid-rib of coconut leaf. OC

*palata   PMP *palata, fish sp.. WMP OC

*palaw   PWMP *palaw, small river fish. WMP

*paleCuk   PAN *paleCuk, shoot, sound of shooting. Formosan WMP

*paletik   PWMP *paletik, spring-spear, spring- gun. WMP

*pale(n)tik   PWMP *pale(n)tik, spring-set spear trap. WMP

*pali   PCEMP *pali₁, side, half. CMP OC

*paliaRua   POC *paliaRua, a vine: Merremia peltata. OC

*palij   PWMP *palij, blow. WMP

*paliŋ   PMP *paliŋ, turn (as the prow of a boat). WMP CMP

*paliq₁   PAN *paliq₁, an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas. Formosan WMP

*paliq₂   PWMP *paliq₂, wound. WMP

*palis₁   PWMP *palis₁, blow. WMP

*palis₂   PWMP *palis₂, bad luck. WMP

*palis₃   PPh *palis₃, animal sacrifice. WMP

*paliSi   PAN *paliSi, taboo, ritual purify; purifying rite. Formosan WMP;  POC *pali₂, taboo. OC;  PAN *paliSi-en, taboo. Formosan WMP

*palit   PPh *palit, exchange. WMP

*palo₁   POC *palo₁, steer a boat. OC

*palo₂   POC *palo₂, wither, wilt. OC

*palpal₂   PWMP *palpal₂, flat, even, level. WMP

*palpál₁   PPH *palpál₁, hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill. WMP

*palpál₂   PPH *palpál₂, tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground. WMP

*palpal₁   PWMP *palpal₁, trimmed short, as grass; bare (of a field). WMP

*palú   PPH *palú, kind of fish or eel. WMP

*palu₁   PMP *palu₁, sago flour. WMP CMP

*palu₂   PWMP *palu₂, adze. WMP

*palu₃   PAN *palu₃, to hammer, pound, hit. Formosan;  PMP *palu, to hammer, to hit with a hard implement. WMP CMP OC;  PAN *palu-palu, pound, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*palu₄   POC *palu₄, to make war on, fight with. OC

*páluŋ   PPH *páluŋ, cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb. WMP

*paluŋ₁   PWMP *paluŋ₁, feeding trough. WMP;  PWMP *paluŋ-an, feeding trough. WMP;  PWMP *paluŋ-en, feeding trough. WMP

*paluŋ₂   PPH *paluŋ₂, wave at sea, sea swell. WMP

*palus   POC *palus, scratch, scrape. WMP OC

*pampám   PPH *pampám, prostitute. WMP

*pana   POC *pana, go, move. OC

*panahik   PMP *panahik, climb. WMP CMP;  POC *panek, climb. OC

*panapa   POC *panapa, needle fish sp.. OC

*panaq   PAN *panaq, throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *p<in>anaq, shoot with a bow. Formosan;  PAN *p<um>anaq, shoot with a bow. Formosan;  PWMP *ma-manaq, shoot an arrow. WMP

*panas₁   PMP *panas₁, warm, hot. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *panas-i, to heat up, warm up. WMP OC;  PMP *ma-panas, warm, hot. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PCEMP *panas-panas, somewhat warm (?); very warm (?). CMP OC;  POC *ma-panas-panas, warm, hot. OC;  POC *pa-panas, warm, hot. OC

*panas₂   PMP *panas₂, type of ginger. WMP CMP

*panaw   PMP *panaw₁, fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *panaw-en, be affected by tinea. WMP

*panay   PMP *panay, dish, bowl (of clay or wood). WMP CMP

*pandak   PMP *pandak, short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person. WMP CMP

*panduŋ   PPH *panduŋ, head covering. WMP

*panes   PWMP *panes, warm, hot. WMP

*pani₁   POC *pani₁, give. OC

*pani₂   POC *pani₂, apply oil or paint to the body. OC

*panij   PAN *panij, wing. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *banic, wing. OC

*paniki   PMP *paniki, fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.. WMP CMP SHWNG

*paniŋ   PCEMP *paniŋ, bait; fodder; to feed animals. CMP;  POC *baniŋ, bait. OC

*panit   PWMP *panit, to skin, flay. WMP

*pantad   PWMP *pantad, sand. WMP

*pantaR   PPH *pantaR, coarse sand, gravel. WMP

*pantay   PWMP *pantay, flat, level (of ground). WMP

*pantek   PWMP *pantek, spotted, dappled. WMP

*pantuk   PPH *pantuk, peak, summit. WMP

*panúqus   PPh *panuqus, stench, sour smell. WMP

*paNaw   PAN *paNaw, go, walk away, depart. Formosan;  PMP *panaw₂, go, walk away, depart. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *pano, go. OC

*paNid   PAN *paNid, wing. Formosan;  PMP *panid, wing. WMP CMP OC

*paNiŋ   PAN *paNiŋ, door. Formosan

*pañaRu   PMP *pañaRu, give birth. WMP OC

*paŋ   PMP *paŋ, bang! loud popping sound. WMP OC

*paŋ-   PWMP *paŋ-, nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action. WMP

*paŋa₁   PAN *paŋa₁, fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*paŋa₂   POC *paŋa₃, gape, be open. OC

*paŋah   PPH *paŋah, jaw, jawbone. WMP

*paŋan   PMP *paŋan, food; to feed. WMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *p<in>aŋan, food; to feed, nourish. WMP OC;  PWMP *paŋan-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *maŋan, food, to feed. ;  POC *paŋan-i, feed. OC

*paŋánay   PPH *paŋánay, first-born child, eldest child. WMP

*paŋaŋap   POC *paŋaŋap, gape, open the mouth wide. OC

*paŋaq   PMP *paŋaq, fork. WMP CMP

*paŋasih   PWMP *paŋasih, rice wine. WMP

*paŋat   PWMP *paŋat, to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce. WMP

*paŋgaga   PWMP *paŋgaga, a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica. WMP

*paŋgaŋ   PWMP *paŋgaŋ, roast over a fire, toast. WMP

*paŋgaw   PWMP *paŋgaw, sleeping platform. WMP

*paŋguŋ   PWMP *paŋguŋ, heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out. WMP;  PWMP *paŋguŋ-an, elevated place. WMP

*paŋi   PWMP *paŋi, a tree: Pangium edule. WMP

*paŋil   PWMP *paŋil, ankle. WMP

*paŋkal   PWMP *paŋkal, visible tree roots above the ground. WMP

*paŋkaq   PWMP *paŋkaq, strike against. WMP

*paŋku   PWMP *paŋku, carry in front of one; hold in the lap. WMP

*paŋoda   POC *paŋoda, hunt for shellfish on the reef. OC

*paŋpaŋ   PWMP *paŋpaŋ, steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain). WMP;  PWMP *paŋpaŋ-an, embankment, cliff. WMP;  PPh *ka-paŋpaŋ-an, riverbank. WMP

*paŋudaN   PAN *paŋudaN, pandanus. Formosan;  PMP *paŋdan, pandanus. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *padran, pandanus. OC

*paŋusi   POC *paŋusi, blow the nose. OC

*pa(m)pa   PMP *pa(m)pa, a tree: Vitex pubescens. WMP CMP

*papa   PMP *papa₂, father. WMP OC

*papaba   POC *papaba, slipper lobster; crayfish. OC

*papag   PPH *papag, bamboo platform, shelf. WMP

*papak   PMP *papak, to break, chip off. WMP;  POC *babak, to break, chip off. OC

*papan   PMP *papan, plank, board; floor boards of house. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *baban, board, plank, side of canoe. OC

*papaq   PMP *papaq₁, frond of a palm. WMP OC

*papaR   PCEMP *papaR, cheek. CMP;  POC *babaR, side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe. OC

*pa(m)pet   PWMP *pa(m)pet, stop. WMP

*papi   POC *papi, cook in an earth oven. OC

*papo   POC *papo₃, coral reef. OC

*paqa₁   PAN *paqa₁, thigh. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*paqa₂   PMP *paqa₂, stalk or stem of a plant. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*paqaRok   POC *paqaRok, snatch, seize, rob. OC

*paqeju   PAN *paqeju, gall, gall bladder. Formosan

*paq(e)liŋ   PPh *paq(e)liŋ, visible defect of the eyes. WMP

*paqet   PMP *paqet, wood-working tool: chisel. WMP;  POC *paqot, wood-working tool: chisel. OC

*paqiC   PAN *paqiC, hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness. Formosan;  PMP *paqit₂, bitter(ness). WMP CMP;  PAN *ma-paqiC, bitter. Formosan;  PMP *ma-paqit, bitter. WMP OC;  PPh *paqit-an, a plant: Lunasia amara. WMP

*paqid   PWMP *paqid, wiping off. WMP;  PWMP *ma-maʔid, to wipe, wipe off. WMP

*paqis   PWMP *paqis, cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves. WMP;  PWMP *p<in>aqis, cook. WMP

*paqit   PWMP *paqit₁, kind of freshwater fish. WMP

*paqo   POC *paqo, a plant: Heliconia spp.. OC

*paqpaq₁   PAN *paqpaq₁, chew. Formosan;  PMP *paqpaq₁, premasticate food for infant. WMP

*paqpaq₂   PMP *paqpaq₂, midrib of coconut frond. WMP OC

*paqud   PWMP *paqud, pull inward or towards oneself. WMP

*paqus₂   PCEMP *paqus₂, to tie, bind. CMP OC

*para   PMP *para, coconut embryo. WMP OC

*para-₁   PWMP *para-, prefix of repeated action. WMP

*paraq paraq   PWMP *paraq paraq, trellis for plants to grow up. WMP

*paraqu   PMP *paraqu, boat. WMP CMP OC

*parara   POC *parara, thunder. OC

*paras₁   PWMP *paras₁, shave. WMP

*paras₂   PWMP *paras₂, face, looks, appearance. WMP

*parásan   PPH *parásan, rattan sp.. WMP

*parawan   PWMP *parawan, kind of tree. WMP

*parek   PPH *parek, murky, as water or other liquid. WMP;  PPH *ma-parek, murky, full of sediment. WMP

*parelak   PWMP *parelak, garden, orchard. WMP

*pari₁   POC *pari₁, scrape, grate. OC

*pari₂   POC *pari₂, to divide, share out (as an inheritance?). OC

*paria   PWMP *paria, bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.. WMP

*pariama   PWMP *pariama, a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades. WMP

*pariaq   PWMP *pariaq, the bitter melon: Momordica charantia. WMP

*parij   PWMP *parij, ditch, canal. WMP

*parik   PWMP *parik, ditch, canal. WMP

*pariuk   PAN *pariuk, earthenware cooking pot. Formosan WMP CMP

*paro   POC *paro, to scrape. OC

*parpar   PWMP *parpar, flat, even, level. WMP

*parud   PMP *parud, rasp, file. WMP CMP

*paR-₁   PWMP *paR-, verb. WMP;  PWMP *paR- ... -an, verb. WMP

*paR-₂   PAN *paR-₂, divide into x (x = numeral). Formosan WMP

*paRa₂   PMP *paRa₂, collective particle. WMP SHWNG

*paRa₁   PAN *paRa₁, storage shelf; attic, loft. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *paRa, baRa, storage shelf above the hearth. OC;  PMP *paRa paRa, storage shelf; attic, loft. WMP CMP

*paRa-₂   PCEMP *paRa-, reciprocal prefix. CMP OC

*paRada   PMP *paRada, handle of an axe or adze. WMP;  POC *paRara, handle of an axe or adze. OC

*paRaek   PMP *paRaek, hoarse. WMP;  POC *paRak, hoarse. OC

*paRaq   POC *paRaq₁, to swell, boil. OC

*paRas   POC *paRas, to step, tread on something. OC

*paRatpat   PWMP *paRatpat, a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.. WMP

*paRaw   PAN *paRaw, hoarse. Formosan WMP

*paR(e)bu   PPh *paR(e)bu, one of the four principal rafters. WMP

*paRepat   PWMP *paRepat, a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.. WMP

*paRi   POC *paRi₃, cut or lop off branches. OC

*paRi-   PEMP *paRi-, prefix of reciprocal or collective action. SHWNG OC

*paRigi   PWMP *paRigi, artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch. WMP

*paRiS   PAN *paRiS, sting. Formosan;  PMP *paRih, sting. WMP;  PCEMP *paRi, sting. CMP SHWNG;  POC *paRi, sting. OC;  PMP *paRih manuk, ray. WMP OC

*paRo₁   POC *paRo₁, drill through, pierce, perforate. OC

*paRo₂   POC *paRo₂, snatch, seize, rob. OC

*paRut   PMP *paRut, pluck, uproot. WMP OC

*pasa   POC *pasa, swamp. OC

*pasaŋ₁   PMP *pasaŋ₁, pair, matching set. WMP CMP OC

*pasaŋ₂   PWMP *pasaŋ₂, insert, wedge in; prepare something for use. WMP

*pasaŋ₃   PWMP *pasaŋ₃, stake a bet in gambling. WMP

*pasaŋ₄   PWMP *pasaŋ₄, flood tide. WMP

*pasaqaN   PAN *pasaqaN, shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole. Formosan;  PMP *pasaqan, carry on the shoulders. WMP CMP

*pasa(rR)   POC *pasa(rR), a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus. OC

*pasek   PAN *pasek, wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost. Formosan WMP;  PCEMP *pasekₐ, drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops). CMP;  POC *pasok, to plant (crops). OC

*pasi   POC *pasi, to plant yams. OC

*pasiR   PWMP *pasiR, sandbank, shoal in river or sea. WMP;  PWMP *pasiR-an, sandbar, shoal in river or sea. WMP

*paspas₁   PAN *paspas₁, beat out, thresh. Formosan WMP

*paspas₂   PWMP *paspas₂, to brush away dust or dirt. WMP;  PPH *paspas-an₁, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*paspas₃   PWMP *paspas₃, ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof. WMP;  PWMP *papas-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*paspás₄   PPH *paspás₄, do something quickly, in a hurry. WMP;  PPH *paspas-an₂, to speed up, increase the pace of something. WMP

*pasu₁   PAN *pasu₁, cheek bone. Formosan WMP CMP

*pasu₂   POC *pasu₂, forehead; eyebrow. OC

*pasu₃   POC *pasu₃, give birth to, have a child. OC

*pasuk   PAN *pasuk, enter. Formosan WMP;  PMP *p<um>asuk, to enter. WMP CMP

*pasuŋ   PMP *pasuŋ, cheek bone. WMP CMP

*pásuq   PPH *pásuq, to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn. WMP;  PPH *ma-pásuq, scald. WMP;  PPH *ka-pasuq-an, affected by heat (?). WMP;  PPH *pasúq-en, to roast; singe, cauterize. WMP

*patániq   PPH *patániq, lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus. WMP

*pataq   PMP *pataq, break, broken, cut through. WMP CMP

*pa(n)tar₁   PMP *pa(n)tar₁, level, flat. WMP CMP

*pa(n)tar₂   PMP *pa(n)tar₂, shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*pataR₁   PMP *pataR₁, shelf. WMP OC

*pataR₂   PWMP *pataR₂, level ground; plain. WMP

*pataS   PAN *pataS, tattoo. Formosan;  PAN *p<um>ataS, to tattoo, make designs. Formosan;  PAN *pataS-an, tattoo. Formosan

*patáw   PPH *patáw, buoy. WMP

*pated   PWMP *pated, chop, hack off. WMP;  PWMP *pated-en, be cut or snapped. WMP

*patek   PWMP *patek, click. WMP

*patelaŋ   PWMP *patelaŋ, striped, in bands of different color. WMP

*pati   POC *pati, break off, snap off. OC

*patí   PPH *patí, also, including. WMP

*patik   PWMP *patik, mottled pattern. WMP

*pa(n)tik   PWMP *pa(n)tik, tap of ticking, flipping, light tapping. WMP

*patiukan   PWMP *patiukan, kind of honey bee. WMP

*patoto   PEMP *patoto, sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe. SHWNG OC

*patpat   PWMP *patpat, cutting, slashing, as in clearing land. WMP;  PPH *patpát-en, to cut, slash, as in clearing land. WMP

*patu₁   POC *patu₁, joint, node. OC

*patu₂   POC *patu₃, hard, firm. OC

*pa(n)tuk₁   PWMP *pa(n)tuk₁, apex, peak. WMP

*pa(n)tuk₂   PAN *pa(n)tuk₂, to knock, strike against. Formosan WMP OC

*patuŋ   PWMP *patuŋ, large, thick, bamboo sp.. WMP

*patuRu   PMP *patuRu, a cycad: Cycas rumphii. WMP OC

*pau   POC *pau, a plant: Kleinhovia hospita. OC

*pauq   PMP *pauq, a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia. WMP;  POC *paoq (ʔ), a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia. OC

*pawíkan   PPH *pawíkan, sea turtle. WMP

*paya   PMP *paya, kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy. WMP OC

*payan   PCEMP *payan, bait. CMP;  POC *bayan₃, bait. OC

*payapay   PPH *payapay, to wave, flap. WMP

*payaq   PWMP *payaq, difficult, taxing (of work); serious (of illness). WMP

*paypáy   PPH *paypáy, to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself. WMP

*payu   PWMP *payu, agreement, consensus; harmony (especially in material exchanges). WMP

*payuŋ   PWMP *payuŋ, umbrella, parasol. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-mayuŋ, to use an umbrella or parasol. WMP;  PWMP *payuŋ-an, to hold an umbrella or parasol over someone. WMP

*payupas   PWMP *payupas, sweep. WMP


 

TOP      pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

pe

*pea   POC *pea, where?. OC

*pecel   PWMP *pecel, squeeze with the hand. WMP

*peceq   PAN *peceq₁, break into several large pieces. Formosan;  PMP *peceq₂, break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg. WMP;  POC *posaq, break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg. OC;  POC *ma-posaq, broken. OC

*pecut   PWMP *pecut, a whip. WMP

*peCik   PAN *peCik, snap, as the fingers or a slingshot. Formosan WMP CMP

*pedek   PAN *pedek, wink, blink. Formosan WMP

*pedel   PAN *pedel, to wring out, as water from wet clothes. Formosan

*pedet   PMP *pedet, tight in tightly. WMP CMP

*pedped₁   PAN *pedped₁, press together, pack solid. Formosan WMP

*pedped₂   PWMP *pedped₂, come to an end. WMP

*pegeŋ   PWMP *pegeŋ, hold firmly, concentrate. WMP

*peget   PWMP *peget, triggerfish. WMP

*pegpeg   PWMP *pegpeg, to box, give a blow. WMP

*peka   PMP *peka, separate, disconnect. WMP CMP OC

*pekak   PWMP *pekak, to cackle. WMP

*pekaŋ   PMP *pekaŋ, stretch open or apart. WMP OC

*pekaq   PWMP *pekaq, split. WMP

*pekaw   PWMP *pekaw, ritual shout(?). WMP

*pekel   PPH *pekel, squeeze, press together. WMP

*peket   PMP *peket, sticky, adhesive. WMP CMP

*pekpek₁   PAN *pekpek₁, beat, hit. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ma-mekpek, to beat or pound. WMP;  PAN *p<um>ekpek, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PWMP *p<um>ekpek, thing used to knock or pound. WMP

*pekpek₂   PWMP *pekpek₂, swarm together. WMP

*pekuq₁   PMP *pekuq₁, bend, curve. WMP OC

*pekuq₂   PWMP *pekuq₂, nape of the neck. WMP

*pela pela   POC *pela pela, shout, exclaim. OC

*pelaqam   PWMP *pelaqam, suffer in silence, conceal an illness. WMP

*peled   PWMP *peled, astringent taste, as of unripe bananas. WMP

*pelet   PWMP *pelet, acrid or bitter taste. WMP

*pelpel   PWMP *pelpel, crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full. WMP

*peluk   PMP *peluk, bend, curve. WMP CMP

*pelus   PAN *pelus, slip off. Formosan WMP

*pened₁   PWMP *pened₁, stopped up, plugged. WMP;  POC *bonor₂, stopped up, plugged. OC

*pened₂   PMP *pened₂, formal gathering, as of chiefs. WMP;  POC *ponor, formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos. OC

*penpen₁   PWMP *penpen₁, to provision, fill up. WMP

*penpen₂   PWMP *penpen₂, cover nose and mouth with hand. WMP

*penuq   PMP *penuq, full, of a container. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *ponuq, full, of a container. OC;  PMP *ma-penuq, full. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-penuq, to fill. WMP;  PPH *na-penuq, filled. WMP;  PMP *pa-penuq, to fill, cause to become full. WMP;  POC *pa-ponuq, to fill, cause to become full. OC;  PWMP *ka-penuq-an, act of filling?. WMP;  PWMP *p<in>enuq, filled. WMP;  PWMP *p<um>enuq, to fill, make complete. WMP;  PWMP *penuq-an, to fill. WMP;  PWMP *penuq-en, to fill; fill it!. WMP;  PMP *penuq sakay, overwhem in numbers?. WMP;  POC *ponuq sake, full to the top. OC

*peñu   PAN *peñu, the green turtle. Formosan;  PMP *peñu, the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *poñu, the green turtle, Chelonia mydas. OC

*peŋ   PMP *peŋ, dull sound. WMP CMP

*peŋa   PMP *peŋa, fork of a branch. WMP CMP

*pera   PWMP *pera, dry, grainy, brittle. WMP

*periŋ   PMP *periŋ, bamboo sp.. WMP CMP OC

*perper₁   PPH *perper₁, complete an activity, see through to completion. WMP

*perper₂   PWMP *perper₂, to urge, press on insistently. WMP

*perus   PAN *perus, slip or slide off. Formosan WMP

*peRaw   PWMP *peRaw, hoarse, husky, of the voice. WMP

*peRcik   PWMP *peRcik, splash, spatter. WMP

*pe(R)cit   PMP *pe(R)cit, squeeze, squirt out. WMP;  POC *posit₂, squeeze, squirt out. OC

*peReq   PAN *peReq, squeeze out juice, wring out water. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-meReq, to squeeze out juice, wring out water. WMP

*peRes   PAN *peRes, squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *poRos, squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing. OC;  PWMP *ma-meRes, to squeeze out juice, wring out water. WMP

*peRpeR   PWMP *peRpeR, to box, give a blow. WMP

*peRsa   PPH *peRsa, boil, abscess. WMP

*pe(R)tak   PWMP *pe(R)tak, knock; pop, burst. WMP

*pes   PMP *pes, sound of escaping air, etc.. WMP CMP

*pesak   PMP *pesak, break into several large pieces; hatch. WMP CMP

*pesi   POC *pesi, coastal tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata. OC

*pesit   PWMP *pesit, blind. WMP

*pespes   PAN *pespes, squeeze, massage. Formosan;  PMP *pespes, squeeze out; massage. WMP;  POC *popos, squeeze out. OC;  PAN *p<um>espes, to massage. Formosan;  PAN *pa-pespes, to massage. Formosan;  PAN *p<in>espes, massage. Formosan;  PAN *pespes-i, massage (imperative). Formosan

*pesu₁   PMP *pesu₁, hole in something. WMP;  POC *posu, have a hole; be perforated. OC

*pesu₂   PCMP *pesu₂, fart, stomach gas. CMP

*pesuk   PMP *pesuk, have a hole; be perforated. WMP;  POC *posuk, have a hole; be perforated. OC

*peSiq   PAN *peSiq, squeeze out juice; squirt out. Formosan

*peta   PMP *peta, shatter, break. WMP OC

*petak   PWMP *petak, squawk. WMP

*peteŋ   PWMP *peteŋ, dusky, twilight, as near the end of day. WMP

*pe(n)tik   PWMP *pe(n)tik, spot, dot. WMP

*petpet₁   PWMP *petpet₁, flatten; press down in order to squeeze in. WMP

*petpet₂   PWMP *petpet₂, stuffed, crowded; blocked, clogged. WMP

*petpet₃   PPH *petpet₃, piece of something that has been cut. WMP

*petuk   PWMP *petuk, beat, throb, pulse. WMP

*peu   PCMP *peu, to bind together in a sheaf. CMP

*pezem   PWMP *pezem, close the eyes. WMP

*pezeŋ   PMP *pezeŋ, close the eyes. WMP CMP


 

TOP      pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

pi

*pi-   PAN *pi-, causative of location. Formosan

*pia₁   POC *pia, where?. OC

*pia₂   PMP *pia₂, goodness. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *ma-pia, good. WMP CMP

*pia₃   PMP *pia₃, to want, desire. WMP OC

*piad   PAN *piad, dish, plate. Formosan

*piak   PMP *piak, baby chick; peeping of chick. WMP OC

*pian   PMP *pian, want, desire, wish or long for. WMP OC

*piaŋa   PPH *piaŋa, a tree: Ganua obovatifolia.(Merr.), Sapotaceae. WMP

*piay   PWMP *piay, kind of fern: Acrostichum aureum. WMP

*picak   PMP *picak, crush, press in. WMP OC

*picek₁   PWMP *picek, blind in one eye. WMP

*picek₂   PWMP *picek₂, dented, having an indentation. WMP

*picik   PMP *picik, splash, spray, sprinkle. WMP CMP OC

*picit   PMP *picit, squeeze out. WMP OC

*picuk   PWMP *picuk, dent, dented. WMP

*pidek₁   PWMP *pidek₁, blink, wink. WMP

*pidek₂   PPH *pidek₂, eyelash. WMP

*pidem   PWMP *pidem, close the eyes. WMP

*pideŋ   PWMP *pideŋ, to extinguish, douse a fire. WMP

*pidpid   PWMP *pidpid, next to. WMP;  PWMP *p<al>idpid, border, side, edge. WMP

*pidut   PPH *pidut, to pinch, hold between the fingers. WMP

*piek   PMP *piek, peep, cheep. WMP;  POC *piok, peep, cheep. OC

*piet   PPH *piet, narrow, tight. WMP

*pigeŋ   PWMP *pigeŋ, to grip, grasp tightly. WMP

*pihak   PWMP *pihak, one side, one half. WMP;  PWMP *pihak-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*pijax   PAN *pijax, interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *pica, how much?, how many?. OC;  PPH *ika-pija, which number is it?. WMP;  PWMP *ka-pija, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *ga-pica, how much?, how many?. OC;  PAN *maka-pija, (for) how many days?. Formosan WMP;  PAN *pa-pija, how many? (of people). Formosan WMP;  PMP *paka-pija, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *paka-pica, how many times?. OC;  PAN *pija pija, some, several. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *pica pica, a few, several (?). OC

*pijiko   POC *pijiko, flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood. OC

*pijir, pijir-i   POC *pijir, pijir-i, braid, twist together. OC

*pijo   POC *pijo, kind of reed or cane, including Saccharum spontaneum. OC

*pijpij   PAN *pijpij, close together. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-pizpiz, close. Formosan WMP

*pik   PWMP *pik, click. WMP

*pika   POC *pika, sand, sandbank. OC

*pikak   PMP *pikak, make a harsh throaty sound. WMP CMP

*pikaŋ   PMP *pikaŋ, spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point. WMP CMP

*pikat   PWMP *pikat, sap used as birdlime. WMP;  PWMP *mamikat, snare birds with bird lime. WMP

*pikel   PMP *pikel, bend, curve. WMP CMP OC;  POC *biko, bent, twisted. OC

*pi(ŋ)keR   PMP *pi(ŋ)keR, bend, turn. WMP CMP OC

*piket₁   PWMP *piket₁, horsefly, large biting fly. WMP

*piket₂   PWMP *piket₂, sticky, adhesive. WMP;  PWMP *mamiket, snare birds with bird lime. WMP

*piki   PPH *piki, kind of cloth. WMP

*pikik   PMP *pikik, chirp, squeak. WMP CMP

*pikit   PMP *pikit, sticking to, attached to, joined. WMP;  POC *bikit, attached to. OC

*pikpik   PAN *pikpik, sound of patting or tapping. Formosan WMP;  POC *pipik, beat lightly. OC;  PPh *p<al>ikpik, fin of a fish. WMP

*piku   PAN *piku, bend, curve. Formosan WMP

*pi(ŋ)kuk   PMP *pi(ŋ)kuk, bend, curve. WMP OC

*pikul   PMP *pikul, bend, curve. WMP CMP

*pikuq₁   PAN *pikuq₁, to bend, curve; bent, curved. Formosan WMP OC

*pikuq₂   PPH *pikuq₂, kind of children’s game. WMP

*pikut   PMP *pikut, to bend over, as a person. WMP CMP

*píkut   PPH *píkut, forced marriage; to force into marriage. WMP

*píla   PPH *píla, clay. WMP

*pilak   PWMP *pilak₁, force open. WMP

*pilantik   PWMP *pilantik, spring-set spear trap. WMP

*pilaq   PMP *pilaɁ, scar. WMP OC

*pilat   PWMP *pilat, scar. WMP

*piliq   PAN *piliq, to choose, to select; to pick out. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PPH *i-piliq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-piliq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-miliq, to choose, select, pick out. WMP;  PAN *ma-piliq, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *ma-piliq, choosy, fussy, fastidious. WMP;  PWMP *maR-piliq, to choose, select, pick out. WMP;  PWMP *na-piliq, was chosen; what was chosen, one’s preference. WMP;  PWMP *pa-miliq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *pa-piliq, let someone choose, let someone make a choice. WMP;  PPH *paR-piliq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *ka-piliq-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *pa-miliq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *p<in>iliq, was chosen; what was chosen. WMP;  PAN *p<um>iliq, to choose, select, pick out. Formosan WMP;  PMP *piliq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP OC;  PWMP *piliq-en, select. WMP;  PAN *piliq-i, choose it!. Formosan WMP OC;  PMP *piliq piliq, (gloss uncertain). WMP OC

*pilis   PWMP *pilis, temple, side of the head. WMP

*pílit   PPH *pílit, to insist; to force, compel someone to do something. WMP;  PPH *pilit-en, force someone to do something. WMP

*pilit₁   PMP *pilit₁, paste, stick to. WMP OC

*pilit₂   POC *pilit₂, to peel by hand. OC

*pilolo   POC *pilolo, curved, crooked. OC

*pilpil   PWMP *pilpil, pound on, hit, beat, or crush. WMP

*pilu   PMP *pilu, a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally. WMP OC;  POC *pilu-pilu, small trevally varieties. OC

*piluk   PAN *piluk₁, crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ta-piluk, sprained, twisted, as the ankle. WMP

*pilul   POC *pilul, curly, of the hair. OC

*piluq   PMP *piluq, to fold. WMP OC

*pindaŋ   PWMP *pindaŋ, preserved meat. WMP

*pindaq   PWMP *pindaq, to move, change location. WMP

*pini   PWMP *pini, a bird, the swallow. WMP;  PWMP *kala-pini, a bird, the swallow. WMP

*pinis   PWMP *pinis, a bird, the swallow. WMP

*pinsan   PPH *pinsan, first cousin. WMP

*pintal   PWMP *pintal, to twist strands together (?). WMP

*pintás   PPH *pintás, curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with. WMP

*pintuq   PPH *pintuq, loft in house where unmarried girls reside. WMP

*pinu   POC *pinu, fold over. OC

*pinuan   POC *pinuan, a tree: Macaranga spp.. OC

*pinut   POC *pinut, skin, bark. OC

*piNay   PAN *piNay, lame, crippled. WMP;  PAN *ma-piNay, lame, crippled. Formosan;  PMP *ma-pilay, lame, crippled. WMP;  PPH *na-pílay, was lame. WMP;  PPH *piláy-en, to cripple, disable someone. WMP

*piŋ(e)qut   PMP *piŋ(e)qut, nasal mucus, snot. WMP CMP

*piŋi   PAN *piŋi, cheek. Formosan WMP

*piŋil   PWMP *piŋil, ankle. WMP

*piŋkaw   PMP *piŋkaw, bent, crooked. WMP;  POC *piko, bent, crooked. OC

*piŋkíq   PPH *piŋkíq, strike two hard objects together to produce a spark. WMP

*piŋkuŋ   PWMP *piŋkuŋ, curve. WMP

*piŋus   PMP *piŋus, nasal mucus, snot. WMP CMP

*pipi₂   PAN *pipi₂, female genitalia (child’s word?). Formosan WMP

*pipiq   PWMP *pipiq, flat. WMP

*pipiqit   PWMP *pipiqit, kind of small bird, probably finch or sparrow. WMP

*pipirua   POC *pipirua, whirlwind, waterspout. OC

*pipis₁   PMP *pipis₂, to crush or mash between two hard surfaces. WMP CMP

*pipit₁   PWMP *pipit₁, kind of wind instrument. WMP

*pipit₂   PWMP *pipit₂, genitals of a young child. WMP

*piqak   PWMP *piqak, to split, separate sections. WMP

*piqek   PMP *piqek, baby chick; to peep, of chicks. WMP;  PWMP *piqek-piqek, peeping of peeps. WMP

*piqpiq   PPH *piqpiq, wash clothes by pounding on river rocks. WMP

*piras   POC *piras, immature stage of coconut or areca nut (?). OC

*piri   POC *piri, pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm. OC

*pirit   PMP *pirit, plait a cord, twist, wrap around. WMP OC;  POC *piri-piri, twine round and round; thing made by braiding. OC

*piro   POC *piro, twist together. OC;  POC *piro-a, twist together. OC

*piRa   POC *piRa₂, sailfin tang: Zebrasoma veliferum. OC

*piRaq   PPH *piRaq₁, squeeze out juice, wring out water. WMP

*piRaS   PAN *piRaS, roe, eggs of fish or crustacean. Formosan;  PMP *piRah, roe, eggs of fish or crustacean. WMP;  POC *biRa, roe, eggs of fish or crustacean. OC;  PAN *piRaS-an, be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean. Formosan;  PMP *piRah-an, be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean. WMP

*piReket   PWMP *piReket, sticky, adhesive. WMP

*piRpiR₁   PWMP *piRpiR₁, side, edge, border. WMP

*piRpiR₂   PWMP *piRpiR₂, to shake off water droplets. WMP

*pi(R)sa   PWMP *pi(R)sa, boil, carbuncle. WMP

*piRu-piRu   POC *piRu-piRu, sailfish: Istiophoridae. OC

*pis   PWMP *pis, hiss. WMP

*pisak   PPH *pisak₂, muddy. WMP

*pisan   PWMP *pisan, to unite, unify; first cousin. WMP

*pisaq   PWMP *pisaq, to split. WMP

*pisaw   PMP *pisaw, kind of knife or machete. WMP OC

*pisel   PAN *pisel, pinch, squeeze; knead. Formosan WMP;  PPH *pisel-en, to squeeze or press with the hand. WMP

*pis(e)ŋí   PPH *pis(e)ŋí, cheeks. WMP

*pisi ni mata   POC *pisi ni mata, eyelash. OC

*pisi₁   POC *pisi₁, entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap. OC

*pisi₂   POC *pisi₂, to fart. OC

*pisik   PWMP *pisik₁, split, cleave. WMP

*pisiko   POC *pisiko, flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood. OC

*piso₁   POC *piso₁, kind of wild cane with edible flower head. OC

*piso₂   POC *piso₂, navel. OC

*pispis₁   PAN *pispis₁, hair on the temples. Formosan WMP

*pispis₂   PWMP *pispis₂, shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada. WMP

*pispis₃   PWMP *pispis₃, to sprinkle, shake off water. WMP;  PWMP *pispis-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*pispis₄   PMP *pispis₄, to squeeze. WMP;  POC *pipis, to squeeze. OC

*piSpiS   PAN *piSpiS, cheeks, temples. Formosan;  PMP *pihpih, cheeks, temples. WMP CMP

*pit   PWMP *pit, peep, twitter. WMP

*pi(n)tak   PMP *pi(n)tak, split. WMP OC

*pitak₁   PMP *pitak₁, mud. WMP CMP OC

*pitak₂   PWMP *pitak₂, storage container for paddy. WMP

*pitak₃   PMP *pitak₃, split. WMP OC

*pi(n)tas   PWMP *pi(n)tas, to cut across, cut off. WMP

*pite   POC *pite, squeeze to extract juice. OC

*pitek   PPh *pitek, mud. WMP

*piti   POC *piti, to crack. OC

*pi(n)tik   PMP *pi(n)tik, throb, beat. WMP OC

*pitik   PMP *pitik₁, to fillip, flick with the finger. WMP CMP;  POC *pidik, to fillip, flick with the finger. OC

*pitolon   POC *pitolon, hungry. OC

*pitpit₁   PWMP *pitpit₁, kind of small bird and its cry. WMP

*pitpit₂   PAN *pitpit₂, pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off. Formosan WMP;  POC *bibit, pinch, squeeze. OC;  PAN *pitpit-en, pinch. Formosan WMP

*pitpit₃   PAN *pitpit₃, to beat, whip. Formosan WMP

*pitu   PAN *pitu₁, seven. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *im-pitu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *ka-pitu, seven times. WMP OC;  PWMP *ma-pitu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *maka-pitu, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maR-pitu, divide into seven parts (?). WMP;  PAN *pa-pitu, seven (of humans). Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PMP *paka-pitu, seven times. WMP OC;  PAN *pi-pitu, seven each. Formosan WMP;  PMP *pitu ŋa puluq, seven. WMP OC;  PMP *pitu ŋa Ratus, seven hundred (700). WMP CMP;  PAN *saka-pitu, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PAN *Sika-pitu, seven. Formosan;  PMP *ika-pitu, seven. WMP OC;  PAN *ti-pitu, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PAN *ka-pitu-an, seven. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *pitu-en, be divided into seven parts. WMP;  PAN *pitu pitu, seven by seven, seven at a time. Formosan WMP SHWNG OC

*pituŋ   PMP *pituŋ, bamboo sp.. WMP OC

*piuk   PAN *piuk, dent, dimple. Formosan WMP

*piuk-piuk   PWMP *piuk-piuk, peeping of chick. WMP

*piut   PMP *piut, relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation. WMP CMP

*pizak   PWMP *pizak, to step, tread on. WMP

*pizet   PWMP *pizet, squeeze between thumb and finger. WMP

*pi(n)zit   PWMP *pi(n)zit, squeeze between thumb and finger. WMP


 

TOP      pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

po

*poipoi   POC *poipoi, pandanus sp.. OC

*poki   POC *poki, clear the ground for a garden site. OC

*poku   POC *poku, round object; young coconut. OC

*polok   POC *polok, to grow (of plants). OC

*polos₁   POC *polos₁, cut across. OC

*polos₂   POC *polos₂, stripes, striped. OC

*poma   POC *poma, kind of seaweed used to paint canoes. OC

*poro poro   POC *poro poro, shatter. OC

*poso   POC *poso, to hold. OC

*potu   POC *potu₂, bulge, swelling. OC

*pout   POC *pout, be or feel cold. OC


 

TOP      pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

pu

*pu-   PAN *pu-, causative of motion. Formosan

*pua   POC *pua₂, to carry on the shoulder. OC

*puaŋ   PMP *puaŋ, title of respect. WMP CMP

*puaR   POC *puaR, break, crush, smash. OC

*puas   PWMP *puas, to relent or subside of appetite, passions, storms, etc.. WMP

*pucek   PMP *pucek, press in by force. WMP CMP

*pucuk   PWMP *pucuk, sprouting tip of a plant. WMP

*pucut₁   PMP *pucut₁, spurt out. WMP OC

*pucut₂   PWMP *pucut₂, take away from, dispossess. WMP

*puCaq   PAN *puCaq, foam, froth, lather. Formosan WMP

*pudak   PWMP *pudak, light-skinned, pale. WMP

*pudaw   PPH *pudaw, whitish, grayish. WMP

*pudpud   PPH *pudpud, worn out by overuse; broken; blunt. WMP;  PPH *ma-pudpud, worn out, worn down, as by overuse. WMP;  PPH *pa-pudpud-en, to wear something down (?). WMP

*pudu   PAN *pudu, fruit of the betel pepper. Formosan WMP

*pudul   PMP *pudul, blunt, dull. WMP;  POC *burul₁, blunt, dull. OC

*puduN   PAN *puduN, ball of thread; spool. Formosan;  PMP *pudun, wind thread, etc. into a ball; spool. WMP CMP

*-pudus   PMP *-pudus, whirlwind, whirlpool. WMP;  POC *-purus, whirlwind, whirlpool. OC

*puéj   PPH *puéj, part of the lower body. WMP

*puek   PWMP *puek, owl. WMP

*pueq   PWMP *pueq, lord, master. WMP

*puet   PWMP *puet, buttocks. WMP

*pugad   PPH *pugad, nest, as of a bird. WMP;  PPH *pugad-an, nest, nesting place. WMP

*pug(e)rút   PPH *pug(e)rút, destitute, without means of support. WMP

*pugiq   PPH *pugiq, to start the weaving of cloth. WMP

*pugut   PWMP *pugut, headless, decapitated. WMP;  PPH *pugut-an, to behead, decapitate. WMP

*puhaR   PWMP *puhaR, smoke out bees. WMP

*pui   POC *pui₁, bunch, cluster (as of fruit). OC

*puja   PAN *puja, navel, umbilical cord. Formosan

*pujek   PAN *pujek, navel, umbilical cord. Formosan

*pujuq   PPH *pujuq, island. WMP

*puk   PMP *puk₂, pop!, plop!, splash!. WMP OC

*puka   POC *puka, to fall. OC

*pukak   PWMP *pukak, female genitalia, vulva. WMP

*pukaŋ   PWMP *pukaŋ, crotch. WMP

*pu(ŋ)kaq   PMP *pu(ŋ)kaq, break off. WMP CMP

*pukaq   PMP *pukaq, break off. WMP CMP

*pukas₁   PWMP *pukas₁, nudity, exposure of the body. WMP

*pukas₂   PWMP *pukas₂, release, loosen, untie. WMP

*pukaw₁   PAN *pukaw, night-. Formosan;  PAN *ma-pukaw, dim, of vision. Formosan

*pukaw₂   PWMP *pukaw₂, dazed, in a trance. WMP

*pukaw₃   PWMP *pukaw₃, to wake someone up. WMP

*puket₁   PMP *puket₁, dragnet. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *pukot, dragnet. OC;  PWMP *ka-puket, catch fish with a dragnet. WMP;  PWMP *ma-muket, to fish with a dragnet. WMP;  PWMP *pa-muket, to fish with a dragnet. WMP;  PWMP *pa-puket, to fish with a dragnet. WMP;  PWMP *p<in>uket, was caught with a dragnet. WMP;  PWMP *puket-en, to be caught with a dragnet. WMP

*puket₂   PWMP *puket₂, stick, cling to. WMP

*puki   PAN *puki, vulva, vagina. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*puko   POC *puko, morning; tomorrow. OC

*pukpuk   PAN *pukpuk, to hammer, pound, beat. Formosan WMP OC;  PPH *p<aR>ukpuk, sound of knocking or bubbling. WMP;  PWMP *pukpuk-en, beat. WMP;  PWMP *ma-mukpuk, to strike, beat, hit. WMP

*pukul   PWMP *pukul, hit with a stick. WMP

*pukuR   POC *pukuR, cough; to cough. OC

*pula₁   PMP *pula₁, red. WMP SHWNG

*pula₂   POC *pula₂, a strand creeper, convolvulus. OC

*pula₃   POC *pula₃, sea cucumber, sea slug. OC

*pula₄   POC *pula₄, to swell, become turgid. OC

*pulád   PPH *pulád, feather vane on an arrow. WMP

*pulaŋ   PWMP *pulaŋ, return, go back. WMP

*pulaq   PMP *pulaq, red. WMP SHWNG

*pulaw   PPH *pulaw, stay awake all night, as in a vigil for the dead. WMP

*pules   PMP *pules, twist, wring. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-mules, to twist or wring. WMP

*pulesit   PWMP *pulesit, slip out or away. WMP

*puli   PPH *puli, replacement. WMP

*pulí   PPH *pulí, inherited characteristic; bloodline. WMP

*pulih-an   PPH *pulih-an, to replace someone, fill a vacancy. WMP

*pulij   PPH *pulij, fall and continue rolling downhill. WMP

*pulin   PPH *pulin, to roll down or over something. WMP

*puliŋ₁   PMP *puliŋ₁, turn round, rotate. WMP;  POC *buliŋ, turn over, roll over; transform; upside down. OC

*puliŋ₂   PWMP *puliŋ₂, foreign object in the eye. WMP

*pulipis   PWMP *pulipis, cowlick. WMP

*puliq   PWMP *puliq, return to its previous condition. WMP

*pulis   PMP *pulis, twist, wring. WMP CMP

*pulit   PMP *pulit, twine around. WMP CMP

*pulpul₁   PWMP *pulpul₁, to pluck, as fruit; strip off leaves. WMP

*pulpul₂   PWMP *pulpul₂, to plaster over something. WMP

*pulu   PAN *pulu₁, handle. Formosan WMP

*puluC   PAN *puluC, a plant: Urena lobata. Formosan WMP CMP

*puluŋ   PAN *puluŋ, collection, gathering, assembly. Formosan WMP

*puluq   PAN *puluq₁, group of ten. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *im-puluʔ, ten times (?). WMP;  PWMP *ma-puluq, ten. WMP;  PAN *sa-puluq, ten. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq, ten. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *Sika-puluq, ten. Formosan;  PMP *ika-puluq, ten. WMP;  PWMP *puluq-an, ten at a time (?). WMP;  PWMP *puluq-en, divided into ten parts (?). WMP

*pulut   PMP *pulut, birdlime, sticky sap of breadfruit, etc.. WMP CMP;  POC *bulut, birdlime. OC

*puna   PMP *puna₂, source, origin. WMP OC

*punaŋ   PMP *punaŋ, source, origin. WMP;  POC *puna₁, base of a tree; beginning; origin. OC

*punas   PMP *punas, wipe off, wipe out. WMP OC

*punay   PAN *punay, greenish fruit dove. Formosan WMP;  POC *bune, fruit dove, probably Treron spp.. OC;  PAN *puna-punay, greenish fruit dove. Formosan;  PMP *punay punay, greenish fruit dove. WMP;  POC *bune bune, greenish fruit dove. OC

*puncek   PWMP *puncek, peak, summit. WMP

*puncu   PWMP *puncu, peak, summit, top. WMP

*pundut   PWMP *pundut, pick up with the fingers. WMP

*puni   PMP *puni₁, tree fern. WMP CMP

*punit   PPH *punit, a tear, small hole, or rip. WMP

*punpun   PWMP *punpun, assemble, gather. WMP

*punti₁   PAN *punti₁, banana. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *pudi, banana. OC

*punti₂   PWMP *punti₂, kind of marine fish. WMP

*puntuk   PWMP *puntuk, top, tip, apex. WMP

*punuq   PAN *punuq₁, brain, marrow. Formosan

*puNi   PAN *puNi, whiteness. Formosan;  PAN *ma-puNi, white. Formosan

*puŋa   POC *puŋa₂, crowded; mass of people. OC

*puŋan   PPH *puŋan, to rest the head against something; pillow. WMP

*puŋao   POC *puŋao, affines of the first ascending or zero generation. OC

*puŋa-puŋa   POC *puŋa-puŋa, hill, mountain. OC

*puŋaw   PWMP *puŋaw, lonely, forlorn. WMP

*puŋgal   PWMP *puŋgal, prune, cut off the tip. WMP

*puŋgel   PWMP *puŋgel, prune, cut off the tip. WMP

*puŋgu   PWMP *puŋgu, cut short, as a bird’s tail. WMP

*puŋguk   PWMP *puŋguk, tailless, of birds. WMP

*puŋgul   PMP *puŋgul, prune, cut off the tip. WMP CMP

*puŋpuŋ₁   PWMP *puŋpuŋ₁, stump, remnant. WMP

*puŋpuŋ₂   PWMP *puŋpuŋ₂, bunch, cluster, as of fruit. WMP

*puŋsu   PWMP *puŋsu, termite mound. WMP

*puŋuh   PMP *puŋuh, bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.). WMP SHWNG;  POC *puŋu, bunch, cluster. OC

*puŋuN   PAN *puŋuN, bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.). Formosan;  PMP *puŋun, bunch, cluster. CMP OC

*pupu₁   PMP *pupu₁, pick, pluck (as fruit). WMP OC

*pupu₂   POC *pupu₃, bladder. OC

*pupula   POC *pupula, raised flesh over a wound. OC

*pu-pulan   POC *pu-pulan, herring: Megalops cyprinoides. OC

*pupuR   PCEMP *pupuR, rinse the mouth, gargle. CMP OC

*puqas   PMP *puqas, to abate, of strong feelings. WMP CMP

*puqi   POC *puqi, to rinse, wash. OC

*puqpuq₁   PMP *puqpuq₁, pick, pluck (as fruit). WMP OC

*puqpuq₂   PWMP *puqpuq₂, wash private parts (?). WMP

*puqpuq₃   PWMP *puqpuq₃, hit, strike. WMP

*puqulu   POC *puqulu, leaf of the betel pepper. OC

*puqun   PMP *puqun, base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *puqun nu kahiw, tree (lit. ‘foundation/ origin of wood’). WMP OC;  PMP *puqun nu laŋit, horizon (lit. ‘foundation/ beginning of the sky’); stranger, foreigner. WMP OC;  PWMP *ka-puqun, lineage, genealogy?. WMP;  PWMP *p<am>uqun, foundation, first part?. WMP;  PWMP *puqun-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *puʔun-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*pura   POC *pura, to arrive, appear, come into view. OC

*pure   POC *pure, navel. OC

*puri   POC *puri, to roll, roll over. OC

*puro   POC *puro₂, foam, bubbles. OC;  POC *puro puro, foam, bubbles. OC

*purpur   PWMP *purpur, powder. WMP;  PWMP *ma-murpur, to powder, put powder on someone. WMP

*pururuŋ   POC *pururuŋ, glow or flame of fire. OC

*puRa-puRas   POC *puRa-puRas, whale. OC

*puRas   POC *puRas, spray water from the mouth. OC

*puRcit   PMP *puRcit, spurt or gush out. WMP OC

*puRe₁   POC *puRe₁, be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current. OC

*puRe₂   POC *puRe₂, beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae. OC

*puRu   PMP *puRu₁, a skin disease: framboesia, yaws. WMP CMP

*puRuk   POC *puRuk, to spray spittle, etc. from the mouth for magical purposes. OC

*puRuq   PAN *puRuq, a bird, the quail. Formosan WMP

*pus   PMP *pus, hiss, whizzing sound. WMP CMP

*pusa₁   POC *pusa₁, originate; related by common origin; be born. OC

*pusa₂   POC *pusa₂, rotten. OC

*pusa₃   POC *pusa₃, heart. OC

*puseD   PWMP *puseD, whirlpool, eddy, vortex. WMP

*pusej   PMP *pusej, navel, umbilicus; mid-point or center of something. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *pusoc, navel, umbilicus. OC;  PPH *p<in>usej, kind of weaving pattern for basketry. WMP

*pusek   PPH *pusek, to enter, insert. WMP

*pus(e)qun   PPH *pus(e)qun, hypogastrium, abdomen below the navel. WMP

*pus(e)quŋ   PPH *pus(e)quŋ, hypogastrium, abdomen below the navel. WMP

*pusi   POC *pusi, to blow, as the wind. OC

*pusiŋ   PPH *pusiŋ, to wean a baby from breast-feeding. WMP

*pusiRa   POC *pusiRa, starling: Aplonis spp.. OC

*pusít   PPH *pusít, squid. WMP

*puso₁   POC *puso₁, white. OC

*puso₂   POC *puso₃, heart. OC

*puspus₁   PWMP *puspus₁, finished, completed; all gone. WMP

*puspus₂   PWMP *puspus₂, to beat, thrash. WMP

*puspus₃   PWMP *puspus₃, withered, of leaves. WMP

*pusuŋ₁   PWMP *pusuŋ₁, tie up. WMP

*pusuŋ₂   PMP *pusuŋ₂, heart; heart of banana. WMP CMP

*pusuq₁   PMP *pusuq₁, heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant. WMP CMP

*pusuq₂   PMP *pusuq₂, sticky rice cake. WMP CMP

*puSaN   PAN *puSaN, twice. Formosan;  PAN *ma-puSaN, twenty. Formosan

*put   PWMP *put₁, puff. WMP

*puta   POC *puta, fishnet float. OC

*putaR   PMP *putaR, to turn. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PWMP *ma-mutaR, to turn. WMP

*putat   PMP *putat, trees in the genus Barringtonia. WMP OC

*puteq   PAN *puteq, gummy secretion. Formosan WMP

*puteR   PWMP *puteR, to turn. WMP

*putik₁   PWMP *putik₁, ocular cataract. WMP

*putik₂   PWMP *putik₂, to pick, pluck fruit. WMP

*putik₃   PPH *putik₃, mud. WMP

*putiq   PMP *putiq, white. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PWMP *ka-putiq, white. WMP;  PWMP *ma-mutiq, white. WMP;  PMP *ma-putiq, white. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PWMP *ka-putiq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *putiq-an, white. WMP;  PWMP *putiq-en, white. WMP;  PWMP *ma-putiq-putiq, whitish, somewhat white. WMP;  PWMP *putiq mata, cowardly; shameful. WMP;  PMP *pa-putiq, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP

*pu(n)tir   PWMP *pu(n)tir, small bag, pouch. WMP

*putput₁   PAN *putput₁, to pluck, pull out. Formosan WMP OC

*putput₂   PMP *putput₂, puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun. WMP CMP;  PPh *p<aR>utput, gaseous defecation. WMP;  PWMP *puput-an, blow. WMP

*putput₃   PWMP *putput₃, to end, finish, complete something. WMP

*putud   PPH *putud, to snap, break off. WMP

*putun   PAN *putun₂, to break off, cut off, as a limb. Formosan;  PMP *putul, to break off, cut off. WMP;  POC *butun₂, to break, cut. OC

*putuŋ₁   PMP *putuŋ₁, bamboo used as a storage container. WMP CMP

*putuŋ₂   PWMP *putuŋ₂, to shorten, cut short or abbreviate. WMP;  PWMP *putuŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*putus₁   PWMP *putus, decide, conclude. WMP

*putus₂   PWMP *putus₂, to snap, break off. WMP

*putut₁   PWMP *putut₁, to snap, break off. WMP

*putut₂   PWMP *putut₂, cut short, bobbed; short in stature. WMP

*púyat   PPH *púyat, insomnia, sleeplessness. WMP;  PPH *ma-púyat, sleepy. WMP;  PPH *puyat-en, to keep someone awake, not let them sleep. WMP

*puyu₁   PWMP *puyu₁, a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus. WMP;  PWMP *puyu-puyu, a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus. WMP

*puyu₂   PWMP *puyu₂, vortical design or motion. WMP

*puyud   PPH *puyud, wear the hair in a bun or topknot. WMP

*puyuŋ   PWMP *puyuŋ, improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things. WMP

*puyuq   PWMP *puyuq, a bird, the quail. WMP

*pu(n)zut   PWMP *pu(n)zut, pick up. WMP


 

TOP      pa    pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

pw

*pwajaR   POC *pwajaR, clap hands. OC

*pwaka   POC *pwaka, come into view. OC

*pwalaq   POC *pwalaq, to split wood. OC

*pwano-pwano   POC *pwano-pwano, a plant: Guettarda speciosa. OC

*pwaŋa   POC *pwaŋa, hole, cavern. OC

*pwasa   POC *pwasa, sore on skin. OC

*pwasa(r,R)   POC *pwasa(r,R), to slap, hit. OC

*pwasa(rR)   POC *pwasa(rR), large pandanus sp.. OC

*pwatika   POC *pwatika, potato yam, aerial yam: Dioscorea bulbifera. OC

*pwatu   POC *pwatu, elbow, knee; joint, node. OC

*pwau   POC *pwau, head. OC

*pwipipi   POC *pwipipi, kind of shore bird, possibly snipe. OC

*pwirip   POC *pwirip, parrot, probably Trichoglossus sp.. OC

*pwiRa   POC *pwiRa, elephantiasis. OC

*pwosa   POC *pwosa, to appear. OC

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_p.htm