Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*q   

qa    qe    qi    qo    qu    

*qa   PPH *qa, particle expressing confirmation: indeed. WMP

*qa₁   PAN *qa₁, locative particle. Formosan WMP OC

*qa₂   PAN *qa₂, interrogative particle. Formosan

*qabaŋ₁   PAN *qabaŋ₁, boat, canoe. Formosan WMP

*qabaŋ₂   PWMP *qabaŋ₂, float. WMP;  PWMP *qabaŋ qabaŋ, float. WMP

*qabaRa₁   PAN *qabaRa₁, shoulder. Formosan;  PMP *qabaRa₁, shoulder; carry on the shoulder. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qapaRa₁, shoulder; carry on the shoulder. OC;  PAN *qabaRa-an, shoulder (?). Formosan WMP

*qabaRa₂   PMP *qabaRa₂, topmost hand of banana stalk. WMP;  POC *qapaRa₂, topmost hand of banana stalk. OC

*qabaS   PAN *qabaS, notch cut in a tree. Formosan WMP

*qabated   PMP *qabated, sago grub. WMP;  POC *qapator, sago grub. OC

*qabateR   PMP *qabateR, sago grub. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *qapatoR, sago grub. OC

*qabatiR   PMP *qabatiR, sago grub. WMP OC

*qa(m)bej   PWMP *qa(m)bej, wind around. WMP

*qabi   POC *qabi, take hold of, grasp. OC

*qabin   PMP *qabin, hold or carry under the arm. WMP OC;  PWMP *meŋ-qabin, hold or carry under the arm. WMP

*qabiq   PWMP *qabiq, finished, used up; all, every one. WMP

*qabis   PWMP *qabis, finished, used up; all, every one. WMP

*qabqab   PPH *qabqab, to eat or drink voraciously (derogatory). WMP

*qabu   PAN *qabu, ash, cinder, powder. Formosan;  PMP *qabu, ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qapu, ash. SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-qabu, ash. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qabu, ash. WMP;  PWMP *paR-qabu-an, ash. WMP;  PWMP *q<in>abu, ash. WMP;  PAN *qabu-an, ash. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *qabu-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*qabu qabu   PWMP *qabu qabu, fish sp.. WMP

*qabud   PWMP *qabud, strew, scatter, sprinkle. WMP

*qabug   PWMP *qabug, dust. WMP

*qabuk   PMP *qabuk, dust, sawdust. WMP CMP;  POC *qapuk, dust. OC;  PPh *alik-qabuk, dust. WMP

*qábut   PPH *qábut, to reach, overtake, catch up with. WMP;  PPH *i-qábut, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *q<um>-ábut, to reach, attain. WMP;  PPH *qábut-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *qábut-en, to reach, catch up with. WMP;  PPH *ma-qábut, within reach (?). WMP

*qaCay   PAN *qaCay, liver. Formosan;  PMP *qatay, liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *qatay-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP OC;  PMP *buaq ni qatay, heart (figurative); term of endearment. WMP CMP;  PMP *qalap qatay, (lit. 'fetch the liver') capture someone's fancy. WMP CMP;  POC *qate qate, calf of the leg. OC;  PWMP *qulu ni qatay, pit of the stomach. WMP;  PMP *X₁ + qatay, (lit. 'big liver') brave, courageous; proud, arrogant. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *X₂ + qatay, (lit. 'burning liver') angry, furious. WMP OC;  PMP *X₃ + qatay, (lit. 'rotten liver') full of malice. WMP CMP;  PMP *X₄ + qatay, (lit. 'sick/hurt liver') resentful, offended. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *X₅ + qatay, (lit. 'small liver') afraid. WMP CMP;  PMP *X₆ + qatay, (lit. 'white liver') pure-hearted. WMP OC

*qaCeb   PAN *qaCeb, deadfall trap to catch small mammals. Formosan WMP

*qaCi   PAN *qaCi, ebb, of water in streams. Formosan;  PMP *qati, ebb, of water in streams; low tide. WMP;  PWMP *ka-qati, low tide. WMP;  PAN *ma-qaCi, ebb, of water in streams; low tide. Formosan;  PMP *ma-qati, ebb, of water in streams; low tide. WMP OC

*qaCi-   PAN *qaCi-, prefix variant of the *qali/kali- set. Formosan WMP

*qaCipa   PAN *qaCipa, soft-shelled turtle. Formosan;  PWMP *qantipa, type of freshwater turtle. WMP

*qadep   PMP *qadep, front, facing part. WMP;  POC *qarop, front side; belly (of an animal?). OC

*qadi   PWMP *qadi, that, there. WMP

*qadipen   PPh *qadipen, slave. WMP

*qadiS   PAN *qadiS, hawk sp. ( harrier?). Formosan

*qait   POC *qait, copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse. OC

*qajaw   PAN *qajaw, day. Formosan WMP;  POC *qaco, day. OC;  PAN *ma-qajaw, sunny, hot. Formosan WMP;  PAN *q<um>ajaw, to shine, of the sun. Formosan WMP

*qajeŋ   PMP *qajeŋ, charcoal. WMP CMP;  PMP *qajeŋ i batu, coal, anthracite. WMP CMP

*qalad   PAN *qalad, fence, wall. Formosan WMP;  POC *qalar, fence, wall. OC

*qalaŋ   PWMP *qalaŋ, obstruct, lie across or athwart. WMP

*qalat   PWMP *qalat, kind of large basket or fish weir held in the hand. WMP

*qaleb   PAN *qaleb, knee. Formosan WMP

*qalejaw   PMP *qalejaw, day. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qalejaw, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPh *ka-qalejaw-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-qalejaw-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPh *qalejaw-an, place in the sun. WMP;  PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw, daily, every day. WMP CMP OC

*qalep   PAN *qalep, beckon, wave. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *qalop, to beckon, wave. OC

*qalesem   PWMP *qalesem, sourness, acidity. WMP;  PWMP *ma-qalesem, sour. WMP;  PWMP *qalesem qalesem, small sour plant with clover-like leaves. WMP

*qali-   PAN *qali-, prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-). Formosan WMP OC

*qaliaw   PPH *qaliaw, be startled or frightened, as by violent action. WMP

*qali-baŋbaŋ   PWMP *qali-baŋbaŋ, kind of tree with leaves shaped like butterflies. WMP

*qalibun   PPH *qalibun, a plant with medicinal value, probably Blumea spp.. WMP

*qalibuŋbuŋ   PPH *qalibuŋbuŋ, to encircle, surround something. WMP

*qaliliŋ   PMP *qaliliŋ, cateye shell. WMP CMP OC

*qalima   PAN *qalima, hand. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*qali-maŋaw   PMP *qali-maŋaw, mangrove crab. WMP;  POC *qali-maŋo, mangrove crab. OC

*qali-maŋu   PMP *qali-maŋu, mangrove crab. WMP OC

*qali-meqes   PWMP *qali-meqes, invisible. WMP

*(q)alipa   POC *(q)alipa, a nut tree, Canarium sp.. OC

*qali-peqip   PWMP *qali-peqip, scapula. WMP

*qali-petpet   PMP *qali-petpet, firefly. WMP;  POC *qali-popot, firefly. OC

*qali-pugpug   PPH *qali-pugpug, whirlwind. WMP

*qali-puju   PAN *qali-puju, hair whorl. Formosan WMP;  PAN *qali-puju-an, hair whorl. Formosan WMP

*qali-puRut   PPH *qali-puRut, whirlwind, dust devil. WMP

*qali-puspus   PAN *qali-puspus, whirlwind. Formosan WMP;  PMP *qali-puspus, whirlwind; hair whorl. WMP

*qaliR   PMP *qaliR, to flow. WMP OC;  PMP *qaliR-an, place where water flows. WMP OC

*qalís   PPH *qalís, to change place or activity. WMP;  PPH *qalis-an, to change place or activity. WMP

*qaliwat   PWMP *qaliwat, pass by or near. WMP

*qalo₁   POC *qalo₁, sun. OC

*qalo₂   POC *qalo₂, tree with wood used to make fireplows. OC

*qalu   PMP *qalu, a fish: barracuda sp.. WMP OC

*qalun   PMP *qalun, long rolling wave, swell, billow. WMP OC;  PWMP *ma-qalun, full of waves. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qalun, to billow, swell (of waves at sea). WMP;  PWMP *qalun qalun, wave-like, wavy. WMP

*qalunan   PMP *qalunan, wooden headrest, pillow. WMP CMP SHWNG

*qaluR   PAN *qaluR₁, current, deep channel in the middle of a river. Formosan;  PMP *qaluR₂, current, deep channel in the middle of a river. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qaluR, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*qalu-Sipan   PAN *qalu-Sipan, centipede. Formosan;  PMP *qalu-hipan, centipede. WMP;  PCEMP *qalipan, centipede. CMP SHWNG OC

*qamataq   PAN *qamataq, raw, eat something raw. WMP OC

*qambaR   PMP *qambaR, tasteless, insipid. WMP CMP

*qambat   PMP *qambat, ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance. WMP CMP

*qambawaŋ   PWMP *qambawaŋ, large mango: Mangifera odorata. WMP

*qambeŋ   PWMP *qambeŋ, obstruct, block the way. WMP

*qambiday   PPh *qambiday, carry slung over the shoulder. WMP

*qambijay   PPh *qambijay, carry slung over the shoulder. WMP

*qambuR   PWMP *qambuR, strew, scatter, sprinkle. WMP

*qamiS   PAN *qamiS, north wind. Formosan;  PAN *qamiS-an, north; winter. Formosan;  PMP *qamihan, north wind. WMP;  PPh *qamihan-an, north; rainy season. WMP

*qanahaw   PMP *qanahaw, sugar palm: Arenga spp.. WMP SHWNG

*qani   PAN *qani₁, proximal deictic: this. Formosan WMP OC

*qanibuŋ   PAN *qanibuŋ, fruit-bearing bush or tree. Formosan;  PMP *qanibuŋ, a palm, probably Oncosperma sp.. WMP

*qanih   PWMP *q<aR>anih, to harvest. WMP

*qanilaw   PMP *qanilaw, a tree; Grewia spp.. WMP CMP

*qaninaw   PPh *qaninaw, shadow, indistinct image. WMP

*qaninuŋ   PWMP *qaninuŋ, shadow. WMP

*qani-Ruan   PMP *qani-Ruan, a small bee: Apis indica. WMP CMP

*qaniS   PAN *qaniS, harvest; to harvest. Formosan;  PMP *qanih, harvest; to harvest. WMP;  PAN *maR-qani, harvest; to harvest. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *qanih-an, the harvest, what is harvested. WMP;  PPh *qanih-en, to harvest, reap. WMP

*qanta   PWMP *qanta, having an unpleasant taste. WMP

*qantak   PWMP *qantak, stamp, put one's foot down. WMP

*qantas   PWMP *qantas, cut through. WMP

*qantatadu   PWMP *qantatadu, large stinging green caterpillar. WMP

*qantem   PWMP *qantem, beat, thrash. WMP

*qantuk   PWMP *qantuk, nod the head in drowsiness. WMP

*qanunu   PMP *qanunu, shadow. WMP SHWNG;  POC *qanunu, shadow; reflection; soul. OC

*qanuqus   PWMP *qanuqus, smoke soot. WMP

*qanus₁   PAN *qanus₁, a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay). Formosan

*qanus₂   POC *qanus₂, spittle; to spit (intr.). OC;  POC *qanus-i, to spit (trans.). OC

*qanusi   POC *qanusi, to spit at (as an insult?). OC

*qaNa   PAN *qaNa, stranger; enemy. Formosan

*qaNeb   PAN *qaNeb, door. Formosan;  PAN *qaNeb, close a door. Formosan;  PMP *qaneb, close a door. Formosan WMP;  PAN *qaNeb-an, door panel. Formosan;  PMP *qaneb-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*qaNi   PAN *qaNi, weaving spindle. Formosan WMP

*qaNi-   PAN *qaNi-, variant of the *qali/kali- prefix. Formosan WMP

*qaNiC   PAN *qaNiC, animal skin, hide, leather. Formosan;  PMP *qanit, animal skin, hide, leather. WMP CMP;  PAN *q<um>aNiC, to skin an animal. Formosan;  PMP *q<um>anit, to skin an animal. WMP;  PWMP *qanit-an, to skin an animal. WMP

*qaNiCu   PAN *qaNiCu, ghost, spirit of the dead; owl. Formosan;  PMP *qanitu, ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants. WMP CMP OC;  PPh *qanitu-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *maŋ-qanitu, make offering to spirits (?). WMP CMP;  PWMP *maR-qanitu, communicate with spirits (?). WMP

*qaNiŋu   PAN *qaNiŋu, ' shadow, reflection. Formosan;  PMP *qaninu, shadow, reflection. WMP CMP

*qaNuaŋ   PAN *qaNuaŋ, large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?). Formosan;  PMP *qanuaŋ, large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?). WMP

*qaNuNaŋ   PAN *qaNuNaŋ, a tree: Cordia dichotoma. Formosan WMP CMP

*qaNup   PAN *qanup, to hunt wild game. Formosan WMP;  PAN *q<um>aNup, to hunt, go hunting. Formosan WMP;  PAN *qaNup-an, hunt. Formosan;  PMP *qanup-an, hunt. WMP;  PAN *qaNup-en, hunt. Formosan;  PMP *qanup-en, hunt. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qanup, to hunt. WMP;  PPh *paŋ-qanup, hunt. WMP

*qañud   PAN *qañud, drift on a current, carried away by flowing water. Formosan WMP CMP;  PPh *i-qañud, a drift. WMP;  PMP *ma-qañud, a drift. WMP CMP;  POC *maqañur, floating, a drift. OC;  PAN *pa-añud, set a drift. Formosan WMP OC;  PPh *paŋ-añud, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *q<um>añud, move on a current. WMP;  PPh *qañud-en, a drift. WMP;  POC *mañur mañur, float, be a drift. OC

*qaŋab   PMP *qaŋab, gape, open the mouth wide. WMP OC

*qaŋap   PMP *qaŋap, gape, open the mouth wide. WMP OC

*qaŋeliC   PAN *qaŋeliC, stench of burning substances. Formosan WMP

*qaŋeRiS   PAN *qaŋeRiS, stench of spoiling fish. Formosan;  PMP *qaŋeRih, stench of spoiling fish. WMP

*qaŋeRu   PAN *qaŋeRu, stench of spoiled or souring organic matter. Formosan WMP

*qaŋ(e)sej   PWMP *qaŋ(e)sej, sweaty armpits, stench of sweaty armpits. WMP

*qaŋeseR   PAN *qaŋeseR, stench of urine. Formosan WMP

*qaŋ(e)su   PPh *qaŋ(e)su, stench of urine. WMP

*qaŋeSit   PAN *qaŋeSit, stench, musky odor of an animal. Formosan WMP OC

*qaŋet   PMP *qaŋet, anger. WMP OC

*qaŋ(e)téj   PPh *qaŋ(e)téj, stench, as of burning hair. WMP

*qaŋiR   PMP *qaŋiR, fetid, foul-smelling. WMP CMP

*qaŋqaŋ   PAN *qaŋqaŋ, barking of a dog. Formosan WMP;  PAN *q<um>aŋqaŋ, to bark, of a dog. Formosan WMP

*qapah   PMP *qapah, empty husk (of rice, etc.). WMP CMP;  PWMP *qapah qapah, empty husk (of rice, etc.). WMP

*qapaliR   PMP *qapaliR, surgeonfish: Acanthurus spp.. WMP OC

*qapejuq   PWMP *qapejuq, gall, gall bladder, bile. WMP

*qapejux   PAN *qapejux, gall, gall bladder, bile. Formosan WMP CMP

*qa(m)pelas   PMP *qa(m)pelas, tree with leaves like sandpaper: Ficus spp.. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qa(m)pelas, to sandpaper, smooth by abrasion. WMP;  PWMP *q<um>a(m)pelas, to sandpaper. WMP;  PWMP *qa(m)pelas-en, be sandpapered, smoothed by abrasion. WMP

*qapiC   PAN *qapiC, tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching. Formosan;  PMP *qapit, tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching. WMP CMP OC

*qapid   PAN *qapid, braid, twine. Formosan WMP

*qapij   PMP *qapij, twins; double banana. WMP

*qapucuk   PAN *qapucuk, peak of a mountain. Formosan WMP

*qapuR   PAN *qapuR, lime, calcium. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qapuR, make lime by burning shells. WMP;  PPh *maR-qapuR, prepare betel chew with lime. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-qapuR-an, lime container. WMP;  PWMP *paR-qapuR-an, lime container. WMP;  PWMP *qapuR-an, lime container. WMP

*qa(m)pus   PMP *qa(m)pus, come to an destroy, be destroyed. WMP CMP

*qaqay   PAN *qaqay, foot, leg. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qaqe, leg, foot. OC

*qari-maquŋ   PWMP *qari-maquŋ, wild feline. WMP

*qari-ñuan   PMP *qari-ñuan, a small bee: Apis indica. WMP

*qarita   POC *qarita, the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum. OC

*qaruqan   PWMP *qaruqan, mudfish. WMP

*qaRa₁   PMP *qaRa₁, a tree: Ficus spp.. WMP CMP

*qaRa₂   POC *qaRa₂, fence, enclosure. OC

*qaRama   PWMP *qaRama, crab sp.. WMP

*qaRaw   PAN *qaRaw, snatch, take away by force, rob. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qaRaw, snatch, take away by force. WMP;  PPh *qaRaw-en, snatch. WMP

*qaRem   PAN *qaRem, pangolin, scaly anteater. Formosan WMP

*qaReNu   PAN *qaReNu, a plant, Phragmites spp.. Formosan WMP

*qaRidaŋ   PAN *qaRidaŋ, bean, pea (generic). Formosan

*qaRiw   PAN *qaRiw, dry. Formosan

*qaRsam   PMP *qaRsam, fern sp.. WMP;  POC *qasam, fern used for tying and binding. OC

*qaRsem   PAN *qaRsem, sourness, acidity. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ma-qaRsem, sour, acid. WMP

*qaRta   PMP *qaRta, outsiders, alien people. WMP CMP

*qaRuas   PMP *qaRuas, young growth stage of mullet. WMP OC

*qaRuhu   PMP *qaRuhu, a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia. WMP SHWNG

*qaRus   PMP *qaRus, current, flow. WMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *taqi qaRus, driftwood and scum (?); lit. 'refuse of the current'. WMP

*qaRutay   PPH *qaRutay, a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis. WMP

*qasak   PWMP *qasak, stuff or squeeze in, be squeezed in. WMP

*qasawa   PAN *qasawa, spouse: husband, wife. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qasawa, marry, wed. WMP;  PWMP *maR-qasawa, marry; have a spouse. WMP;  PMP *pa-qasawa, marry off, cause to get married. WMP CMP;  PPh *paŋ-qasawa, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPh *tala-qasawa, married couple. WMP;  PWMP *q<in>asawa, was married to. WMP;  PPh *qasawa-en, be married, person married. WMP

*qaseb   PAN *qaseb, smoke. Formosan WMP

*qaseŋ   PWMP *qaseŋ, breath. WMP

*qasep   PWMP *qasep, smoke. WMP;  PWMP *qasep-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*qasepa   PAN *qasepa, astringent. Formosan WMP

*qasi   PWMP *qasi₁, respect, venerate. WMP

*qasiN   PAN *qasiN, saltiness, salty taste. Formosan WMP SHWNG;  PMP *ma-qasin, salty. WMP;  PCEMP *maqasin, salty, brackish. CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qasin, to salt, put salt on something. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-qasin, anything used for salting, salting instrument. WMP;  PPh *paŋ-qasin-an, place where salt is found; salt beds. WMP;  PWMP *q<in>asin, what has been salted; food preserved in salt. WMP;  PWMP *qasin-an, place salted. WMP;  PWMP *qasin-en, be salted. WMP;  PWMP *qasin-i, put salt on. WMP;  PWMP *qasin qasin, various creeping herbs. WMP

*qasiq   PMP *qasiq, pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness. WMP;  PMP *ka-qasiq, mercy, pity, affection. WMP CMP;  PMP *ka-qasiq-an, expression of pity or affection. WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-qasiq, to pity, have mercy on, feel compassion for. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *maR-qasiq, feel affection or compassion for. WMP;  PWMP *pa-qasiq, merciful. WMP

*qasiRa   PAN *qasiRa, salt. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-qasiRa, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *qasiRa-en, salt. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *qasiRa-i, salt something, put salt on. WMP

*qaso   POC *qaso, food offering. OC

*qasu₁   PMP *qasu₁, fetch water, scoop up water. WMP CMP;  POC *qasu, bail out water. OC

*qasu₂   POC *qasu₂, gall, gall bladder, octopus sepia. OC

*qasu₃   PMP *qasu₃, smoke, fumes, steam; to smoke (as a fire). WMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *ma-qasu, smoky. WMP CMP;  PMP *pa(ka)-qasu, to smoke, fumigate. WMP OC;  PMP *qasu qasu, give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke. WMP OC

*qasual   PWMP *qasual, lever up. WMP

*qasúd   PPh *qasúd, pound rice in tandem. WMP;  PPh *maR-qasúd, pound rice in tandem. WMP;  PPh *qasud-án, pound together, place of pounding together. WMP

*qaSelu   PAN *qaSelu, pestle. Formosan;  PMP *qahelu, pestle. WMP CMP

*qatai   POC *qatai, side of canoe opposite the outrigger. OC

*qataq   PAN *qataq, eat something raw. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-qataq, raw, unripe. Formosan WMP;  POC *mataq, raw, unripe. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qataq, eat something before it is ready to eat. WMP

*qatay qatay₁   PMP *qatay qatay₁, a climbing plant: Wedelia biflora. WMP CMP OC

*qatay qatay₂   PWMP *qatay qatay₂, ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum. WMP

*qateluR   PMP *qateluR, egg; testicle. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qatoluR, egg. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qateluR, lay eggs. WMP

*qatep   PMP *qatep, roof, thatch. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qatop, roof, thatch. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qatep, to thatch a roof, put thatch on a house. WMP;  PWMP *maR-qatep, have a roof. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-qatep, what is used to roof. WMP;  PWMP *q<in>atep, roof. WMP;  PWMP *q<in>atep-an, covered with thatch; place of thatching. WMP;  PWMP *qatep-an, cover with thatch; place of thatching. WMP;  PWMP *qatep-i, fasten thatch to. WMP

*qatimela   PAN *qatimela, flea. Formosan WMP CMP

*qatimun   PMP *qatimun, cucumber: Cucumis sativa L.. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qatimun, cucumber. OC

*qatiŋ   PMP *qatiŋ, sweat, perspiration. WMP CMP

*qatip₁   PAN *qatip₁, part of the loom. Formosan;  PMP *qatip₁, breast beam of a back loom. WMP;  PAN *qatip-an, part of the loom. Formosan WMP

*qatip₂   PMP *qatip₂, pinch, squeeze, press together. WMP CMP SHWNG

*qatipulu   PPH *qatipulu, breadfruit: Artocarpus spp.. WMP

*qatita   POC *qatita, the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum. OC

*qatu   POC *qatu, strike from above, pound. OC

*qatuan   PMP *qatuan, deity. WMP OC

*qatulay   PMP *qatulay, a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachurops crumenophthalmus. WMP OC

*qatun   POC *qatun, a fish, the skipjack tuna or bonito. OC

*qatuR   PMP *qatuR₁, pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence. WMP;  PCEMP *qatuR₂, stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange. CMP OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qatuR, pile up, order, put in an orderly fashion. WMP;  PWMP *qatuR-an, pave with stones; pile up, order, put in an orderly fashion. WMP

*qau   PWMP *qau, interjection of pain, surprise, etc.. WMP

*qaue   PCEMP *qaue, exclamation of joy or sorrow. WMP CMP OC

*qauŋ   PAN *qauŋ, to howl, of a dog. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*qauR   PAN *qauR, bamboo sp.. Formosan;  PMP *qauR, type of large bamboo. WMP CMP OC

*qawa₁   PMP *qawa₁, fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos. WMP CMP OC

*qawa₂   POC *qawa₂, mouth. OC

*qawan   PMP *qawan, fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos. WMP CMP OC

*qawas   PMP *qawas, fish sp.: mullet sp., Neomyxus chaptalii. WMP OC

*qawaʔ   PMP *qawaʔ, the milk fish: Chanos chanos. WMP OC

*qawis   PWMP *qawis, carry in a shoulder cloth. WMP

*qawqaw   PAN *qawqaw, to bark, of a dog. Formosan WMP

*qayag   PWMP *qayag, sift, separate by sifting. WMP

*qayam₁   PAN *qayam₁, bird. Formosan WMP SHWNG

*qayam₂   PWMP *qayam₂, domesticated animal. WMP

*qayam₃   PWMP *qayam₃, to play; plaything, toy; pet. WMP

*qayawan   PEMP *qayawan, banyan, strangler fig. SHWNG OC

*qayuyu   PMP *qayuyu, coconut crab: Birgus latro. WMP OC

*qazay   PMP *qazay, chin, jaw. WMP CMP;  POC *qase, chin, jaw. OC

*qazi   PAN *qazi, no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada). Formosan WMP;  POC *qasi₂, no, not. OC


 

TOP      qa    qe    qi    qo    qu    

qe

*qebel   PAN *qebel, smoke. Formosan WMP

*qebqeb   PPH *qebqeb, to sit on eggs, of a hen. WMP

*qeCah   PAN *qeCah, rice husk, rice bran. Formosan;  PMP *qeta, rice husk, rice bran. WMP

*qeCeŋ   PAN *qeCeŋ, obstruction, barrier. Formosan;  PMP *qeteŋ, obstruction, barrier. WMP

*qeCeŋeN   PAN *qeCeŋeN, black. Formosan

*qeCqeC   PAN *qeCqeC, tight, constricted. Formosan;  PMP *qetqet, tight, constricted. WMP

*qeCuR   PAN *qeCuR, sexual arousal, sexual excitement. Formosan WMP

*qedet   PAN *qedet, press down on. Formosan WMP

*qekak   PMP *qekak, choke, gasp, struggle for breath. WMP CMP

*qekqek   PMP *qekqek, to cough. WMP;  PCEMP *qekek, to cough. CMP;  POC *qokok, to cough. OC

*qekuŋ   PAN *qekuŋ, owl. Formosan WMP

*qelad₁   PPh *qelad₁, sheet; flat, wide object. WMP

*qelad₂   PMP *qelad₂, wing. WMP CMP

*qelaŋ   PMP *qelaŋ, intervening space. WMP CMP

*qeleC   PAN *qeleC, interval, intervening space. Formosan;  PMP *qelet, interval, space between. WMP CMP;  PWMP *qelet-an, space between two things. WMP;  PWMP *qelet qelet, with intevening spaces. WMP

*qeled   PWMP *qeled, sink. WMP

*qeliŋ   PWMP *qeliŋ, bamboo sp.. WMP

*qelqel   PAN *qelqel, chew, gnaw on. Formosan

*qelud   PAN *qelud, housepost, pillar. Formosan

*qeluk   PWMP *qeluk, bend, curve. WMP

*qembun   PWMP *qembun, dew, mist, fog. WMP

*qembus   PMP *qembus, blow hard; snort, pant. WMP CMP

*qemel   PPh *qemel, squeeze into a ball. WMP

*qemin   PAN *qemin, all. Formosan WMP

*qempas   PWMP *qempas, throw down, as a burden. WMP

*qempeŋ   PMP *qempeŋ, impede, obstruct, restrain. WMP CMP

*qemqem   PAN *qemqem, hold in the closed mouth. Formosan WMP CMP

*qemu   PAN *qemu, sticky rice cake. Formosan

*qenay   PAN *qenay, sand. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qone, sand. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qenay, gather sand, use sand. WMP;  PMP *qenay qenay, sand. WMP;  POC *qone qone, sand. OC

*qendem   PWMP *qendem, think, ponder; brood. WMP

*qeneŋ   PMP *qeneŋ, quiet, still, at rest. WMP CMP;  PWMP *q<um>eneŋ, become quiet or still. WMP

*qenəp   PCEMP *qenəp, lie down to sleep. SHWNG;  POC *qenop, lie down to sleep’. OC

*qentek   PMP *qentek, stamp on. WMP CMP

*qentep   PMP *qentep, close, shut. WMP CMP

*qeNeb₁   PAN *qeNeb₁, to close, to shut; door. Formosan;  PMP *qeneb₁, to close, shut; door. WMP;  POC *qonop, to close, to shut. OC

*qeNeb₂   PAN *qeNeb₂, spread all over. Formosan;  PMP *qeneb₂, spread all over. WMP

*qeNuR   PAN *qeNuR, animal trail. Formosan;  PMP *qenuR, animal path, trail. WMP CMP;  PAN *qenuR-an₁, animal haunt, place frequented by animals. Formosan;  PMP *qenuR-an₂, animal haunt, place frequented by animals. WMP

*qeñek   PMP *qeñek, press down, squash. WMP CMP

*qeŋgah   PWMP *qeŋgah, up to, until, as far as. WMP

*qeŋkem   PMP *qeŋkem, enclose; hold something inside the mouth. WMP CMP;  POC *qoŋkom, hold something in the mouth. OC

*qeŋqeŋ   PPh *qeŋqeŋ, whining sound. WMP

*qepah   PWMP *qepah, rice husk, chaff. WMP

*qepés   PPh *qepés, deflated, shrunken. WMP

*qepik   PWMP *qepik, short, high-pitched sound. WMP

*qepit   PAN *qepit, squeeze, press between. Formosan WMP

*qeraŋ   PWMP *qeraŋ, howl, cry out in pain. WMP

*qerem   PWMP *qerem, brood, sit on eggs. WMP

*qereŋ   PWMP *qereŋ, groan, moan, roar. WMP

*qeRut   PMP *qeRut, bind tightly. WMP CMP

*qesak   PAN *qesak, ripe; cooked; ready to eat. Formosan WMP;  PMP *ma-qesak, ripe; cooked; ready to eat. WMP CMP;  PEMP *ma-qosak, ripe; cooked; ready to eat. SHWNG OC

*qe(n)sem   PMP *qe(n)sem, sour. WMP;  PMP *ma-qe(n)sem, sour. WMP CMP

*qesep   PAN *qesep, sip, suck. Formosan WMP;  PAN *q<um>esep, suck. Formosan WMP

*qesir   PAN *qesir, hiss, sizzle. Formosan WMP

*qetak   PMP *qetak, slam down, ram down. WMP CMP

*qetaq   PAN *qetaq, eat something raw. Formosan WMP;  PCEMP *qentaq, eat something raw. CMP;  POC *qodaq, eat something raw. OC;  PAN *ma-qetaq, raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked. Formosan WMP;  PCEMP *ma-qetaq, raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked. CMP OC

*qetes   PMP *qetes, chop, hack, cut off. WMP CMP

*qeti₁   PMP *qeti₁, ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc.. WMP;  PMP *ma-qeti, low, of the tide. WMP CMP OC;  PPh *maR-qeti, low. WMP

*qeti₂   PMP *qeti₂, fish. WMP CMP

*qeti₃   PMP *qeti₃, stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up. WMP;  POC *qoti, finish. OC

*qetut   PAN *qetut, fart, flatulence. Formosan;  PMP *qetut, fart, flatulence; expression of disbelief or denial. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-qetut, noise of flatulence. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qetut, to fart, break wind. WMP;  PWMP *maR-qetut, to fart, break wind. WMP;  PAN *pa-qetut, to fart, break wind. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-qetut-an, person who suffers from extreme flatulence. WMP;  PAN *q<um>etut, to fart, break wind. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *qetut qetut, various plants, etc. with a bad smell. WMP

*qezen   PMP *qezen, bear. WMP CMP;  PMP *maŋ-qezen, bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth. WMP CMP

*qezep   PWMP *qezep, close the eyes; go out, of a light. WMP


 

TOP      qa    qe    qi    qo    qu    

qi

*qi₁   PMP *qi₁, exclamation of pain, fear, excitement, etc.. WMP OC

*qi₂   PMP *qi₂, genitive marker (cf *ni). WMP OC

*qia   PAN *qia, confirm (probably of affirmation or confirmation). Formosan WMP CMP OC

*qiaŋ   PWMP *qiaŋ, ancestor, deity, divinity. WMP

*qiaw   PAN *qiaw, animal cry. Formosan WMP

*qibaw₁   PMP *qibaw₁, edible shellfish. WMP CMP

*qibaw₂   PWMP *qibaw₂, small mushroom sp.. WMP

*qiCeluR   PAN *qiCeluR, egg. Formosan;  PMP *qiteluR, egg; testicle. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *qiteluR ni manuk, chicken egg. WMP CMP;  PWMP *mag-qiteluR, lay an egg. WMP

*qiCqiC   PAN *qiCqiC, nibble off, gnaw off. Formosan;  PMP *qitqit, gnaw, nibble at. WMP

*qidam   PWMP *qidam, crave special foods (of pregnant women). WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qidam, to crave special foods. WMP

*qidem   PWMP *qidem, dark (of the visual field). WMP

*qi(n)dem   PWMP *qi(n)dem, dark, black. WMP

*qidu   PMP *qidu, spoon, ladle. WMP SHWNG

*qiduq   PPH *qiduq, dog. WMP

*qidus   PAN *qidus, spoon, ladle. Formosan WMP CMP;  PPh *maŋ-qidus, to spoon or ladle up. WMP

*qiem₁   PWMP *qiem₁, animal sound. WMP

*qiem₂   PWMP *qiem₂, dark, darkness, gloom. WMP

*qijap   PAN *qijap, resent, blame; resentment, jealousy. Formosan WMP

*qi(ŋ)kik   PWMP *qi(ŋ)kik, squeak, giggle. WMP

*qikqik   PWMP *qikqik, squeak, shriek, shrill cry. WMP

*qila   PMP *qila, any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *qila-qila, have dark blotches on the skin. WMP OC

*qilag   PWMP *qilag, dodge, evade, avoid. WMP

*qilaŋ   PMP *qilaŋ, lose, disappear, be lost (as possessions). WMP CMP

*qilaw   PMP *qilaw, torch; illuminate. WMP CMP

*qilem   PMP *qilem, dim, dark, obscure. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-qilem, dim, dark, obscure. WMP

*qilih   PMP *qilih, mountain. WMP;  PCEMP *qili, mountain. CMP

*qiliR   PWMP *qiliR, flow stream">downstream. WMP;  PWMP *qiliR-an, ditch, conduit. WMP

*qiluS   PAN *qiluS, wipe after defecating. Formosan WMP;  PPh *qiluh-án, anus (?). WMP

*qimpas   PMP *qimpas, paid off, of a debt. WMP CMP

*qímun   PPh *qímun, jealous. WMP

*qina   PMP *qina, astonish of astonishment, fright, etc.. WMP CMP OC

*qinep   PAN *qinep, lie down to sleep. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PPh *taRa-qinép, dream. WMP

*qinit   PWMP *qinit, warm, warmth. WMP;  PPh *ma-qinit, hot, warm. WMP;  PPh *qinit-en, heat. WMP

*qinut   PWMP *qinut, use sparingly, a little at a time. WMP

*qiNaS   PAN *qiNaS, moon, month. Formosan

*qiNeb   PAN *qiNeb, door. Formosan WMP

*qiNuaŋ   PAN *qiNuaŋ, large ruminant species. Formosan WMP

*qiŋeR   PWMP *qiŋeR, loud, unpleasant noise. WMP

*qiŋet   PMP *qiŋet, angry, upset. WMP CMP OC

*qiŋga   PMP *qiŋga, until, as far as; limit, boundary. WMP OC

*qio   PMP *qio, affirm; expression of affirmation. WMP CMP OC

*qipil   PMP *qipil, a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga. WMP OC

*qipiŋ   PAN *qipiŋ, incline one's head to the side. Formosan WMP

*qipit   PAN *qipit, pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze. Formosan;  PMP *qipit, pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze. WMP CMP

*qi(m)pun   PMP *qi(m)pun, collect, collection; to gather, heap up. WMP CMP OC

*qipuq   PWMP *qipuq, a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree. WMP

*qiqut   PWMP *qiqut, narrow. WMP

*qirem   PWMP *qirem, dark (of color). WMP

*qiriŋ₁   PWMP *qiriŋ₁, border, edge. WMP

*qiriŋ₂   PWMP *qiriŋ₂, slant, incline. WMP

*qiris   PMP *qiris, cut, slice. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qiris, to cut, slice. WMP

*qiro   POC *qiro, see, look at, behold. OC

*qiReŋ   PWMP *qiReŋ, dark. WMP

*qiR(e)pit   PPH *qiR(e)pit, to pinch between two surfaces, clip. WMP

*qiRih   PWMP *qiRih, envious, jealous. WMP;  PWMP *qiRih-an, jealous, resentful (?). WMP

*qiRik   PAN *qiRik, thresh with the feet, as rice. Formosan WMP

*qis   PMP *qis, interjection of disapproval or disgust. WMP CMP

*qisaq   PMP *qisaq, interjection of negative emotive force. WMP CMP OC

*qisep   PMP *qisep, suck. WMP OC;  PWMP *qisep-an, suck. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qisep, to suck, sip, soak up. WMP

*qiSu   PAN *qiSu, shark. Formosan WMP CMP

*qitaq   PMP *qitaq, aggressive. WMP OC

*qitem   PMP *qitem, black. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *ma-qitem, black, deep blue. WMP;  PCEMP *ma-qitem, ma-qetem, black; dirty. CMP SHWNG;  POC *ma-qetom, black. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qitem, darken, become black. WMP

*qitik₁   PAN *qitik₁, small, little; few. Formosan WMP OC

*qitik₂   PWMP *qitik₂, to tickle. WMP;  PWMP *qitik qitik, to tickle. WMP

*qitiŋ   PMP *qitiŋ, bunch of bananas. WMP OC

*qituŋ   PWMP *qituŋ, think about, consider. WMP

*qiuk   PMP *qiuk, cluck, squawk. WMP CMP

*qiuŋ   PAN *qiuŋ₁, natural sound. Formosan;  PMP *qiuŋ₂, buzz of buzzing or droning. WMP CMP

*qiut   PAN *qiut, copulate, have sexual intercourse. Formosan WMP

*qizep   PWMP *qizep, eyelashes. WMP

*qizuR   PWMP *qizuR, saliva, spittle. WMP


 

TOP      qa    qe    qi    qo    qu    

qo

*qo   POC *qo, yes; agree, give assent. OC

*qono₁   POC *qono₁, a fish, the barracuda. OC

*qono₂   POC *qono₂, mend a net. OC

*qoso   POC *qoso, provisions for a journey. OC


 

TOP      qa    qe    qi    qo    qu    

qu

*qu₁   PMP *qu₁, exclamation of acknowledgement, surprise, etc.. WMP CMP

*qu₂   PAN *qu₂, grammatical particle. Formosan WMP

*quaŋ₁   PAN *quaŋ₁, empty, vacant. Formosan WMP

*quaŋ₂   PAN *quaŋ₂, howl. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-quaŋ, to howl or yelp, of a dog. WMP

*quay   PAN *quay, rattan, Calamus sp.. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *que, rattan, Calamus sp.. OC;  PPh *maŋ-quay, gather rattan. WMP;  PPh *paŋ-quay, rattan gatherer. WMP

*qubaN   PAN *qubaN, gray hair. Formosan;  PMP *quban, gray hair. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-quban, have gray hair. WMP;  PWMP *quban-en, have gray hair. WMP

*qubi   PMP *qubi, yam: Dioscorea alata Linn.. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *qubi kahiw, type of yam (?). WMP

*qubiS   PAN *qubiS, pubic hair. Formosan

*qubuj   PMP *qubuj, heart of palm, palm-cabbage. WMP CMP;  POC *upur, heart leaves. OC

*qubus   PMP *qubus, finished, gone. WMP CMP

*quCaN   PAN *quCaN, scrub-land, bush. Formosan;  PMP *qutan, small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush. WMP CMP OC

*qudaŋ   PAN *qudaŋ, shrimp, crayfish, lobster. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *quraŋ, shrimp, crayfish, lobster. OC

*qudaS   PAN *qudaS, gray hair. Formosan

*qudem   PAN *qudem, dark, dull (of light or color). Formosan WMP

*qudip   PAN *qudip₁, life, alive. Formosan WMP OC;  PAN *ka-qudip-an, livelihood. Formosan WMP;  PMP *ma-qudip, living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame. WMP CMP OC;  PAN *pa-qudip, care for, raise (an animal). Formosan WMP;  PMP *paka-qudip, save, spare the life of. WMP OC

*qudipen   PWMP *qudipen, slave. WMP

*qudud   PWMP *qudud, to smoke (?), to suck (?). WMP

*quhay   PPh *quhay, rice panicle. WMP

*quhut   PPh *quhut, sheaf to which rice grains are attached. WMP

*qujiŋ   PAN *qujiŋ, charcoal. Formosan WMP;  POC *quciŋ, dark color. OC;  PPh *ma-qujiŋ, soot. WMP;  PPh *qujiŋ-en, anything used to make charcoal. WMP

*qukaq   PMP *qukaq, loosen, open. WMP CMP

*qu(ŋ)kaq   PMP *qu(ŋ)kaq, pry open. WMP CMP

*quku   POC *quku, bowstring. OC

*qukut   PAN *qukut, hunched over, bowed (as with age). Formosan;  PMP *quŋkut, hunched over, bowed (as with age). WMP

*qulam   PWMP *qulam, side- dish (fish, meat or vegetables eaten with rice). WMP;  PWMP *qulam-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*qulas   PAN *qulas, dewdrop. Formosan

*qulej   PAN *qulej, type of small worm. Formosan;  PMP *qulej, maggot, caterpillar, larva of a metamorphosing insect. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *qulej-an, have worms. WMP OC;  PMP *qulej-en, be infested with worms, worm-eaten. WMP;  PMP *qulej qulej, lots of worms; crawling with worms, extremely wormy. WMP OC

*qules   PAN *qules₁, clothing. Formosan;  PMP *qules₂, clothing; wrapping. WMP OC;  PWMP *paR-qules-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*quli   PMP *quli, knead, mix together. WMP OC

*qulin   PMP *qulin, rudder; steer (a boat). WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *maŋ-qulin, to steer (a boat). WMP

*quliŋ   PMP *quliŋ, rudder; steer (a boat). WMP CMP OC

*qulua   POC *qulua, fish sp.. OC

*quluh   PAN *quluh, head. Formosan;  PMP *qulu, head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born. WMP;  PCEMP *qulu, head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head. CMP SHWNG;  POC *qulu, head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head. OC;  PMP *di qulu, upstream; before. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-qulu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qulu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-qulu, leader, chief. WMP;  PMP *qulu-an, head-end, upper part. WMP SHWNG;  PAN *qulu qulu, head-end, upper part. Formosan WMP OC;  PMP *qulu ni batu, stubborn. WMP CMP;  POC *qulu ni panua, head. OC;  PWMP *qulu ni susu, nipple of the breast. WMP;  PMP *qulu ni wahiR, head. WMP SHWNG;  PMP *qulu tuhud₂, knee. WMP OC

*qulun₁   PMP *qulun₁, outsiders, alien people. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-qulun-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*qulun₂   PMP *qulun₂, rest the head on. WMP OC;  PMP *qulun-an, place where one rests the head: wooden headrest. WMP;  POC *quluŋ-an, rest the head on; wooden headrest. OC

*qumah   PAN *qumah, swidden, work a swidden. Formosan;  PMP *quma, swiddden; work a swidden. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *maŋ-quma, clear a swidden. WMP;  PWMP *maR-quma, work a swidden. WMP;  PAN *pa-qumah-an, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-quma, farmer. WMP;  PWMP *paR-quma, to farm. WMP;  PAN *q<in>umah, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *q<in>uma, cultivated field, garden. WMP OC

*quman   PAN *quman, repeat oneself monotonously. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *quman-quman, repeat oneself monotonously. WMP;  PWMP *q<um>uman, do again, repeat. WMP

*qumaŋ   PAN *qumaŋ, hermit crab. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *qumwaŋ, hermit crab. OC

*qumaŋ qumaŋ   PMP *qumaŋ qumaŋ, hermit crab. WMP OC

*qumata   POC *qumata, snake. OC

*qumay   PMP *qumay, unicorn fish, Naso spp.. WMP OC

*qumi   PMP *qumi, unicorn fish, Naso spp.. WMP CMP

*qumpan   PMP *qumpan, bait; fodder. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-umpan, to feed, catch with bait. WMP

*qumun   PMP *qumun, earth oven. WMP CMP OC;  POC *qumun-a, bake or roast in an earth oven. OC;  POC *qumun-i, cook in an earth oven. OC

*qumuR   PAN *qumuR, fill the mouth with food or water. Formosan CMP OC

*qundak   PWMP *qundak, jounce, jouncing movement. WMP;  PWMP *undak-undak, jounce, jouncing movement. WMP

*qunej   PMP *qunej, pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something. WMP CMP;  PPh *ma-qunej, pith. WMP;  PPh *maŋ-qunej, pack in tightly (?). WMP;  PPh *qunej-en, pith. WMP;  PWMP *qunej qunej, intestines. WMP

*qunep   PCEMP *qunep, scale">scales of fish or snake. CMP SHWNG OC

*quntay₁   PWMP *quntay₁, dangle, hang down loosely. WMP

*quntay₂   PWMP *quntay₂, to twist together, make rope. WMP

*quntu   PMP *quntu, tusks of a boar. WMP CMP

*qunus   PMP *qunus, move along. WMP OC;  PMP *qunus qunus, move along. WMP OC

*qunzur   PMP *qunzur, thrust out, extend forward. WMP;  POC *qusur, push, shove. OC

*(q)uNah   PAN *(q)uNah, first, before, anterior in time. Formosan WMP;  PAN *(q)<um>uNah, to do or go first; to lead. Formosan;  PMP *(q)<um>una, to do or go first; to lead. WMP OC

*quNuNaŋ   PAN *quNuNaŋ, tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp.. Formosan WMP CMP

*quNuq   PAN *quNuq, beads, necklace of beads. Formosan WMP

*quŋal   PMP *quŋal, mournful howl of a dog. WMP OC

*quŋkil   PWMP *quŋkil, pry, instrument for prying something up. WMP

*qupa   PMP *qupa, hen, egg-laying chicken. WMP OC

*qupuŋ   PAN *qupuŋ, bunch, cluster. Formosan WMP

*ququs   PMP *ququs, chew. WMP OC;  PWMP *maŋ-ququs, to chew on sugarcane. WMP;  PWMP *ququs-en, chew. WMP

*quray   PWMP *quray, unravel, loosen, undo. WMP

*quriaw   PAN *quriaw, noise, clamor. Formosan WMP

*qurit   PMP *qurit, stroke, stripe, line. WMP CMP

*quruŋ   PMP *quruŋ, gather, collect; swarm around. WMP CMP OC

*quRi   PCEMP *quRi, a fruit tree: Spondias dulcis. CMP OC

*quRis   PPh *quRis, white. WMP

*quRuŋ   PWMP *quRuŋ, roar, moan. WMP

*quRut   PMP *quRut, massage. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-quRut, to massage. WMP

*qusila   POC *qusila, lightning. OC

*qusiR   PAN *qusiR, pursuit (as of enemies or game). Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-usiR, pursue, chase. WMP;  PWMP *um-usiR, pursue, chase. WMP

*qusuŋ   PMP *qusuŋ, carry between two persons. WMP OC;  PWMP *usuŋ-an, litter, palanquin. WMP

*quSaw   PAN *quSaw, thirst. Formosan;  PMP *quhaw, thirst. WMP;  PAN *quSaw-an, thirst. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-quSaw, thirst. Formosan WMP

*quSeNap   PAN *quSeNap, fish scale. Formosan;  PMP *quhenap, scale of fish. WMP;  PCEMP *qunap₁, scale of fish, turtle shell. CMP SHWNG;  POC *qunap₂, scale of fish, shell of turtle. OC;  PMP *qunap qunap, fish scales (collective?). WMP OC;  POC *qunap-i, to scale a fish. OC;  POC *qunap-ia, to scale a fish. OC

*quSeŋeC   PAN *quSeŋeC, anger, angry. Formosan WMP

*quSuŋ   PAN *quSuŋ, edible mushroom (generic). Formosan;  PMP *quhuŋ, edible mushroom. WMP CMP

*qutaŋ   PMP *qutaŋ, debt. WMP CMP SHWNG;  PPh *ipa-qútaŋ, to lend, give a loan. WMP;  PWMP *ka-qutaŋ-an, debt. WMP;  PMP *ma-qutaŋ, be in debt, owe. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-qutaŋ, borrow, incur a debt. WMP;  PWMP *maR-qutaŋ, be in debt. WMP;  PWMP *pa-qutaŋ, to lend, give on credit. WMP;  PWMP *paR-qutaŋ-an, creditor. WMP;  PWMP *qutaŋ-an, a debt. WMP;  PWMP *qutaŋ-en, be in debt to someone. WMP;  PWMP *qutaŋ qutaŋ, multiple debts. WMP

*qutas   PWMP *qutas, cut through, sever, divide by cutting. WMP

*qutek   PMP *qutek, brain; marrow. WMP CMP;  POC *qutok, brain. OC

*qutiN   PAN *qutiN, penis. Formosan;  PMP *qutin, penis. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *na qutin, penis. OC

*quto   POC *quto, pith of a tree. OC

*qutub   PEMP *qutub, submerge a container to fill it. SHWNG;  POC *qutub, submerge a container to fill it. OC;  POC *qutup-i, fill with liquid. OC;  POC *qutup-ia, fill it (imper.); be filled. OC

*qutud   PMP *qutud, fish sp.. WMP CMP OC

*qutun   PMP *qutun, green jobfish: Aprion virescens. WMP OC

*qutuR   PPh *qutuR, erect, of the penis. WMP

*qutut   PMP *qutut, flatulence; to fart. WMP OC;  PWMP *q<um>utut, break wind, fart. WMP

*quyag   PPh *quyag, living, alive. WMP

*quyaS   PAN *quyaS, to sing; song, tune, melody. Formosan

*quzaN   PAN *quzaN, rain. Formosan CMP;  PMP *quzan, rain. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *qusan, rain. OC;  PWMP *ka-quzan, abundance of rain. WMP;  PWMP *ka-quzan-an, get caught in the rain. WMP;  PAN *ma-quzaN, rain. Formosan WMP;  PPH *ma-quzan-an, get drenched by the rain. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-quzan, to rain. WMP;  PWMP *maR-quzan, to rain. WMP;  PAN *pa-quzaN, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  PAN *q<um>uzaN, to rain; it is raining. Formosan;  PMP *q<um>uzan, to rain. WMP CMP;  PAN *quzan-en, rain. Formosan WMP;  PMP *quzan-i, to rain on (something). WMP OC;  PMP *quzan quzan, rain intermittently. WMP;  POC *qusan qusan, rain intermittently. OC;  PMP *quzan batu₂, hail, hailstone. WMP;  POC *qusan patu₂, hail, hailstone. OC;  PMP *quzan buaq, hail; hailstone. WMP CMP

*quzuŋ   PMP *quzuŋ, mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything. WMP CMP OC

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_q.htm