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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*s   

sa    se    si    so    su    

*sa₁   PAN *sa₁, nominative case marker for plural personal names. Formosan WMP

*sa₂   PAN *sa₂, locative marker. Formosan WMP OC

*sa₃   PAN *sa₃, one (clitic form of *esa). Formosan WMP CMP

*sa₄   PPH *sa₄, that (indicating something close to the hearer). WMP

*sabakap   POC *sabakap, a tree: Alstonia scholaris. OC

*sabáliq   PPH *sabáliq, except, other than; another, different. WMP

*sabaŋ₁   PMP *sabaŋ₁, estuary, shore near the mouth of a river. WMP CMP

*sabaŋ₂   PPH *sabaŋ₂, a tree: Erythrina spp.. WMP

*sabaq   PWMP *sabaq, irrigated ricefield?. WMP

*sabaqaŋ   PWMP *sabaqaŋ, a shrub: Cordyline spp.. WMP

*sa(m)bar   PMP *sa(m)bar, seize in the mouth or beak. WMP CMP

*sabasaq   PWMP *sabasaq, a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. WMP

*sabat   PWMP *sabat, to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving. WMP;  PPH *sabat-en, to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise. WMP

*sa(m)baw   PWMP *sa(m)baw, soup, broth. WMP

*sabay₁   PAN *sabay₁, do something together with others. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *sa(m)bay, do something together with others. WMP;  PPh *ka-sabáy, companion in some activity. WMP

*sabay₂   PWMP *sabay₂, to arrive. WMP

*sabeD   PWMP *sabeD, barrier, obstacle. WMP

*sab(e)láy   PPH *sab(e)láy, to hang, drape over something. WMP

*sab(e)lék   PPH *sab(e)lék, to crave, as food one wants to eat. WMP

*sabeqa   PWMP *sabeqa, cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco. WMP

*sa(m)beR   PWMP *sa(m)beR, sow, scatter, broadcast seed. WMP

*sabi-sabi   POC *sabi-sabi, shell disk used as ear-ring. OC

*sa(m)bit   PWMP *sa(m)bit, to speak of, mention. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ña(m)bit-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*sabit   PWMP *sabit, hooked implement. WMP

*sabsab   PAN *sabsab, slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down. Formosan WMP;  PPH *sabsab-én, eat. WMP

*sabu   POC *sabu, waterfall, cascade. OC

*sabuag   PPH *sabuag, to scatter wildly. WMP

*sabuD   PWMP *sabuD, sow, strew, scatter. WMP

*sabunut   PPH *sabunut, to pull by the hair; to pull out hair. WMP

*sabuŋ₁   PWMP *sabuŋ₁, pit two opponents against each other. WMP

*sabuŋ₂   PPH *sabuŋ₂, flower, blossom of fruit tree. WMP

*sabuq   PWMP *sabuq, drop, fall. WMP

*sabuR   PMP *sabuR, to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *s<um>abuR, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*sabut   PWMP *sabut, plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc.. WMP

*sabutu   POC *sabutu, a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp.. OC

*sadab   PWMP *sadab, to singe, burn off. WMP

*sadat   PWMP *sadat, in need, in want. WMP

*sad(e)qaŋ   PPH *sad(e)qaŋ, to hang, as something on a nail. WMP

*sa(n)det   PWMP *sa(n)det, pack. WMP

*sadsad   PPH *sadsad, trample, stomp on. WMP

*saeŋ   PWMP *saeŋ, umbrella made of palm leaves. WMP

*saet   PMP *saet, spear, to spear. WMP OC;  POC *jaot, spear, harpoon. OC

*saga   PWMP *saga, a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius. WMP

*sagapsap   PPH *sagapsap, fibrous and dry to the taste. WMP

*sagisí   PPH *sagisí, wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata. WMP

*sagitsit   PPH *sagitsit, to hiss, sizzle. WMP

*sagsag₁   PWMP *sagsag₁, break, crack. WMP;  PPH *sagsag-en, break up into small pieces. WMP

*sagsag₂   PWMP *sagsag₂, to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking. WMP

*sagu₁   PMP *sagu₁, processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm. WMP CMP

*sagu₂   PWMP *sagu₂, fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse. WMP

*sagút   PPH *sagút, to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for. WMP

*saheNaR   PAN *saheNaR, to shine, of the sun. Formosan;  PMP *sanaR, to shine, of the sun. WMP

*sahuq   PPH *sahuq, words, speech (?). WMP

*sahuR   PPH *sahuR, to mix; a mixture. WMP

*sai   PMP *sai, who?. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *i-sai, who?. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *sai sai, who. WMP CMP

*saiŋ   PPH *saiŋ, stand or be placed near to someone or something. WMP

*sajab   PPH *sajab, to singe, burn slightly. WMP

*sáka   PPH *sáka, leg of a fowl (?). WMP

*saka   PPH *saka, to climb, go up. WMP

*saká   PPH *saká, and; also. WMP

*sa(ŋ)kab   PPH *sa(ŋ)kab, to seize prey in the water, as a crocodile. WMP

*sakal   PAN *sakal, restraining device on animals. Formosan WMP

*sa(ŋ)kal   PWMP *sa(ŋ)kal, adze or similar tool. WMP

*sakaŋ   PMP *sakaŋ, bowlegged. WMP OC

*sakáqaŋ   PPH *sakáqaŋ, walk or stand with legs wide apart. WMP

*sakaRu   PMP *sakaRu, reef. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*sakat   PAN *sakat, rise">rise, climb up. Formosan WMP CMP

*sakau   POC *sakau, small species of Malay apple. OC

*sakay₁   PMP *sakay₁, catch a ride, join a group, ride on something. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *sakay-an, vehicle for riding. WMP

*sakay₂   PAN *sakay₂, walk. Formosan;  PAN *s<um>akay, to walk. Formosan

*sakay₃   PWMP *sakay₃, stranger; visitor; guest. WMP

*sakay₄   PMP *sakay₄, to climb, ascend, rise up. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *sake, to ascend, rise up. CMP OC

*sakeb   PPH *sakeb, to lie face down, prone. WMP

*sakeC   PAN *sakeC, muntjac, barking deer. Formosan

*sakedú   PPH *sakedú, to fetch water (for drinking). WMP;  PPH *sakedu-en, to fetch water (for drinking). WMP

*sakeláy   PPH *sakeláy, to carry something by shoulder strap. WMP

*sak(e)lút   PPH *sak(e)lút, hold tightly, clutch to oneself. WMP;  PPH *sak(e)lut-en, hold tightly, clutch to oneself. WMP

*sakém   PPH *sakém, to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy. WMP

*sak(e)mál   PPH *sak(e)mál, snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it. WMP;  PPH *sakmal-én, snatch. WMP

*sak(e)níb   PPH *sak(e)níb, overlapping, one on top of another. WMP

*sakep   PMP *sakep, catch, seize. WMP CMP

*sa(ŋ)kep   PWMP *sa(ŋ)kep, close, shut. WMP

*sakil   PMP *sakil, rest the foot on; touch or knock with the foot. WMP OC

*sa(ŋ)kit   PMP *sa(ŋ)kit, tie, fasten together. WMP OC

*sakit   PMP *sakit, sick, painful. WMP SHWNG;  PWMP *ka-sakit, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñakit, to hurt or injure others. WMP;  PMP *ma-sakit, sick, painful. WMP;  POC *masakit, sick, painful. OC;  POC *masakit-ia, fall ill, become sick. OC;  PMP *ma-saki-sakit, to fall ill, become very sick. WMP OC;  PWMP *maR-sakit, to be sick. WMP;  PPH *na-sakit, was hurt or sick. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ñakit, sick. WMP;  PMP *pa-sakit, hurt someone; make someone sick. WMP OC;  PWMP *ka-sakit-an, a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness. WMP;  PWMP *pa-sakit-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paR-sakit-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *s<um>akit, become painful (?). WMP;  PWMP *sakit-an, to hurt, cause pain or trouble. WMP;  PWMP *sakit-en, hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness. WMP

*saksák   PPH *saksák, stuff, pack tightly. WMP;  PPH *i-saksák, to insert, plug something in. WMP

*saksak₁   PAN *saksak₁, hack, chop into pieces. Formosan WMP

*saksak₂   PWMP *saksak₂, gecko. WMP

*saku₁   PMP *saku₁, extract the pith from the sago palm. WMP CMP

*saku₂   PMP *saku₂, needlefish, young of Istiophorus spp.. OC;  PMP *saku-layaR, sailfish, swordfish. WMP CMP OC

*saku₃   POC *saku₃, kind of banana. OC

*sakúb   PPH *sakúb, lid, cover. WMP

*sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁   PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁, resounding sound. WMP

*sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂   PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂, curved inward, sunken. WMP

*sakup₁   PMP *sakup₁, to catch. WMP OC

*sakup₂   PPH *sakup₂, jurisdiction, territory. WMP

*sakut   PAN *sakut, to carry, transport, move something. Formosan;  PAN *s<um>akut, to carry, transport, move something. Formosan

*sakwa   POC *sakwa, grasshopper or stick insect. OC

*sala   PEMP *sala, sharp-. SHWNG OC

*saladeŋ   PMP *saladeŋ, male deer, buck (?). WMP

*salakeb   PPH *salakeb, cover trap for fish or crustaceans. WMP

*salaksak   PWMP *salaksak, kingfisher sp.. WMP

*salambaw   PWMP *salambaw, kind of large fishing net. WMP

*salampay   PWMP *salampay, hang of drape over the shoulder. WMP

*salaŋ   POC *salaŋ, spiny sea urchin. OC

*salap   POC *salap, broom, to sweep. OC;  POC *salap-i, broom, to sweep. OC

*salapa   PWMP *salapa, betel nut case. WMP

*salapid   PWMP *salapid, braid. WMP

*salaq₁   PMP *salaq₁, wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ka-salaq, have faults, be at fault (?). WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñalaq, accuse someone, find fault with someone (?). WMP;  PPH *mapa-salaq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *maR-salaq, make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something. WMP;  PWMP *ma-salaq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *pa(ka)-salaq, to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ka-salaq-an, error, mistake; fault, offense. WMP;  PWMP *pa-salaq-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *s<in>alaq, miss. WMP;  PWMP *s<um>alaq, do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target. WMP;  PWMP *salaq-an, to blame, assign fault to (?). WMP;  PMP *salaq salaq, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP

*salaq₂   PWMP *salaq₂, dislocated, of bones. WMP

*salaR   PMP *salaR, nest. WMP CMP

*salatan   PWMP *salatan, south, south wind. WMP

*salaw   PAN *salaw, to pour, of heavy rain. Formosan

*salay   PWMP *salay, to dessicate, parch near a fire. WMP;  PWMP *salay-an, place to dry wood. WMP

*sale sale   POC *sale sale, float. OC

*salem   PWMP *salem, dive; immerse oneself. WMP

*saleŋ   PAN *saleŋ, pine tree, pitch pine. Formosan WMP

*sal(e)qit   PWMP *sal(e)qit, lightning. WMP

*saleR   PMP *saleR, floor of a house. WMP CMP;  PWMP *saleR-i, make a floor, install a floor. WMP

*salét   PPH *salét, to insert between, intersperse. WMP;  PPH *i-salét, to insert between, intersperse. WMP;  PPH *saletán, to insert between, intersperse. WMP;  PPH *salét-salét, intersperse. WMP

*sale(n)tek   PWMP *sale(n)tek, click. WMP

*sali   POC *sali, strip leaves from branch. OC

*salimbeŋ   PPH *salimbeŋ, concealment; to conceal. WMP

*salim-petpet   PWMP *salim-petpet, firefly. WMP

*salin   PWMP *salin, pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret. WMP

*saliŋsíŋ   PPH *saliŋsíŋ, to prune a tree; new growth from pruning. WMP

*saliR   PMP *saliR, to flow, of water. WMP CMP OC

*saliw   PAN *saliw, buy, sell. Formosan WMP

*salsál   PPH *salsál, to masturbate. WMP;  PPH *salsal-en, to masturbate. WMP

*saluD   PWMP *saluD, water conduit. WMP

*salugsúg   PPH *salugsúg, get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail. WMP;  PPH *ma-salugsug-án, get a splinter in the skin. WMP

*saluksuk₁   PPH *saluksuk₁, tool like chisel or trowel. WMP

*saluksuk₂   PPH *saluksuk₂, insert, slip between. WMP

*salúp   PPH *salúp, small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods. WMP;  PPH *salup-en, to measure by gantas. WMP

*saluR   PWMP *saluR, brook or small stream. WMP

*salúyut   PPH *salúyut, a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae. WMP

*sama   PWMP *sama, mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order. WMP CMP;  POC *jama, mate, companion; like, similar to. OC;  PMP *sama-sama, with no difference, equally to both. WMP CMP OC

*samak   PWMP *samak, a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius. WMP

*samaq   PAN *samaq, remnant, leftover. Formosan

*sambak   PMP *sambak, hit, strike a heavy blow. WMP CMP OC;  POC *sabak, to slap hard. OC

*sambuni   PWMP *sambuni, to hide, hidden. WMP

*sambuŋ   PWMP *sambuŋ, cover, covering. WMP

*sambut₁   PPH *sambut₁, take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage. WMP

*sambut₂   PWMP *sambut₂, to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way. WMP

*sambut₃   PPH *sambut₃, to rush, hurry. WMP

*samek   PWMP *samek, dense undergrowth. WMP

*samir   PWMP *samir, leaf awning. WMP

*sampaw   PPH *sampaw, waterfall. WMP

*sampay   PMP *sampay₂, up to, as far as, until. WMP CMP

*sampiŋ   PWMP *sampiŋ, side, flank. WMP

*sampir   PWMP *sampir, type of headcloth. WMP

*samsám   PPH *samsám, to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage. WMP;  PPH *ma-ñamsám, to seize, take by force. WMP

*samun   PWMP *samun, undergrowth. WMP

*samuR   PAN *samuR, to mix; mixture. Formosan WMP

*sana   PWMP *sana, there, yonder. WMP

*sanam   PWMP *sanam, ant sp.. WMP

*sanda   PWMP *sanda, pawned, pledged in place of something else. WMP

*sandaŋ   PWMP *sandaŋ, wear across the shoulder. WMP

*sandaR   PWMP *sandaR, lean on or against. WMP;  PWMP *sandaR-an, backrest, place to lean back against. WMP

*sandeR   PMP *sandeR, lean against, lean or incline on. WMP CMP

*sandiR   PMP *sandiR, lean against, lean or incline on. WMP;  PWMP *s<um>andiR, to lean on or against. WMP

*sanduk   PWMP *sanduk, spoon, ladle. WMP

*sani   POC *sani, clearing of a garden for planting (?). OC

*sanipa   PPH *sanipa, borderline, edge, as of roof or garment. WMP

*santak   PWMP *santak, pull or jerk at something. WMP

*santán   PPH *santán, a flowering plant: Ixora spp.. WMP

*santik   PPH *santik, click or clink together, as stones in making fire. WMP;  PPH *santik-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*saNiw   PAN *saNiw, whetstone. Formosan

*saŋa₁   PMP *saŋa₁, bifurcation, fork of a branch. WMP CMP;  PEMP *saŋa₁, crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers. SHWNG;  POC *saŋa₁, crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers. OC;  PMP *ma-saŋa, fork. WMP OC;  POC *paka-saŋa, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PMP *saŋa-saŋa, starfish. WMP OC

*saŋa₂   PWMP *saŋa₂, a tree: Elaeocarpus sp.?. WMP

*saŋal   PWMP *saŋal, to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something. WMP

*saŋay   PWMP *saŋay, namesake, have the same name as someone else. WMP

*saŋeday   PAN *saŋeday, lean or rest on. Formosan WMP

*saŋ(e)hid   PWMP *saŋ(e)hid, pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell. WMP

*saŋelaR   PMP *saŋelaR, to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-naŋelaR, to stir-fry, dry roast. WMP;  PMP *s<in>aŋelaR, food that is dry roasted. WMP CMP;  PWMP *saŋelaR-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *saŋelaR-en, what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil. WMP

*saŋ(e)qát   PPH *saŋ(e)qát, to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing. WMP

*saŋet   PWMP *saŋet, intense, industrious. WMP

*saŋga   PWMP *saŋga, hilt of knife or bolo; to support. WMP

*saŋgaq   PWMP *saŋgaq, to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling. WMP

*saŋgul   PWMP *saŋgul, dress the hair (of women); hair bun. WMP

*saŋi   PPH *saŋi, molar tooth (?). WMP

*saŋit   PWMP *saŋit, anger; angry. WMP

*saŋkalan   PWMP *saŋkalan, chopping block used to prepare food. WMP

*saŋkap   PPH *saŋkap, well-equipped, having what one needs to do live or do a job. WMP

*saŋkut   PWMP *saŋkut, entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled. WMP

*saŋsáŋ   PPH *saŋsáŋ, to confront one another, as in a dispute. WMP

*sáŋu   PPH *sáŋu, to scent, as an animal following prey. WMP

*sao   POC *sao, kind of long tom. OC

*sapa   PMP *sapa, what?. WMP CMP OC

*sápad   PPH *sápad, hand of bananas. WMP;  PPH *sapád-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *sapád-en, to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk. WMP

*sapaD   PWMP *sapaD, flat (of things that are expected to rounded), flat on one side. WMP

*sapak   PMP *sapak, crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking. WMP CMP

*sa(m)pak   PWMP *sa(m)pak, branch. WMP

*sapal   PPH *sapal, able to cope, able to handle things. WMP

*sapaŋ   PWMP *sapaŋ, a tree: Caesalpinia sappan. WMP

*sapaq₁   PAN *sapaq₁, stream, river. Formosan WMP

*sapaq₂   PWMP *sapaq₂, oath, pledge; curse. WMP

*sapaq₃   PWMP *sapaq₃, chewed betel quid. WMP;  PPH *sapaq-en, to spit out chewed betel quid. WMP

*sapat   PPH *sapat, to put above. WMP

*sapát   PPH *sapát, sufficient, enough. WMP

*sapaw   PAN *sapaw, field hut. Formosan WMP

*sapay   PAN *sapay, drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth. Formosan;  PMP *sampay₁, drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth. WMP CMP;  PMP *sampay-an, clothes cloth, place to hang washed clothing. WMP;  POC *sape, carry by a strap over the shoulder. OC

*sape₂   POC *sape₂, abortion. OC

*sapela   PWMP *sapela, tasting ' woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas. WMP

*sapeled   PWMP *sapeled, tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits. WMP

*sapelet   PWMP *sapelet, tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits. WMP

*sap(e)nut   PPH *sap(e)nut, viscous; thick, of liquids. WMP

*sap(e)quy   PWMP *sap(e)quy, gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind. WMP

*sapet   PAN *sapet, grab with the hand, catch. Formosan WMP;  POC *sabot, to catch, as a thing thrown. OC

*sapín   PPH *sapín, lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing. WMP

*sapiq   PWMP *sapiq, agreement, harmony. WMP

*sapit   PWMP *sapit, clamp, pinch together. WMP

*sapsap   PWMP *sapsap, chip off, cut off bit by bit. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñapsap, to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit. WMP;  PWMP *s<in>apsap, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *sapsap-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *sapsap-en, be rasped or cut off (?). WMP

*sapsáp   PPH *sapsáp, fish sp., slipmouth: Leiognathus sp.. WMP

*sapu   PMP *sapu, to wipe off or brush off; broom. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-ñapu, to sweep with a broom. WMP;  PWMP *s<in>apu, swept away. WMP

*sapuk   PMP *sapuk, fine dust, airborne dust. WMP OC

*sa(m)puk   PWMP *sa(m)puk, collide, bump into. WMP

*sapul   PPH *sapul, to begin, start at the beginning. WMP

*sapulu   POC *sapulu, bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp.. OC

*sapúpu   PPH *sapúpu, hold in the lap, as a small child. WMP

*sapuq   PPH *sapuq, allotment of meat after butchering an animal. WMP

*sapút   PPH *sapút, spiderweb; cobwebs. WMP

*saput₁   PMP *saput₁, burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse. WMP CMP;  PWMP *saput-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*saput₂   PAN *saput₂, to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned. Formosan WMP

*saqebit   PMP *saqebit, hook on to something; entangle. WMP CMP;  PPH *i-saqebít, to hang on a hook, suspend from something. WMP;  PWMP *s<um>abit, to hook, catch onto something. WMP;  PPh *saqebit-án, to hook, as with a fishhook. WMP

*saq(e)buR   PMP *saq(e)buR, to strew, sow, sprinkle. WMP CMP;  POC *sapuR, to strew, scatter, sprinkle. OC;  PWMP *ma-nabuR, to strew, sow seeds. WMP;  PWMP *ka-sabuR-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*saq(e)gid   PPH *saq(e)gid, touch or brush against. WMP

*saq(e)ŋit   PPH *saq(e)ŋit, snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling. WMP

*saqit   PAN *saqit, hook; to hang up. Formosan WMP

*saqsaq   PAN *saqsaq, bamboo which has been split and flattened. Formosan WMP

*saqup   PWMP *saqup, to help, assist with work. WMP

*sarak   PWMP *sarak, parting, separation, as in divorce. WMP

*sarapaŋ   PWMP *sarapaŋ, trident harpoon or fish spear. WMP

*saraw   PWMP *saraw, curse, put a curse on. WMP

*sarebséb   PPH *sarebséb, marshy ground. WMP

*sarijsij   PPH *sarijsij, approach or strike from the side or at an oblique angle. WMP

*saru   PPH *saru, facing, face-to-face. WMP

*saruk   PMP *saruk, scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up. WMP OC

*sarunay   PWMP *sarunay, a seaside plant: Wedelia biflora. WMP

*saruŋ   PWMP *saruŋ, sheath, sheath-like container; to sheathe a weapon. WMP

*saRad   PWMP *saRad, heavily laden, as a boat that is low in the water. WMP

*saRap   PPH *saRap, scoop up, skim from the surface. WMP;  PPH *s<um>aRap, to scoop up, skim from the surface. WMP

*saRawaki   POC *saRawaki, sea urchin with short spines. OC

*saRe   POC *saRe, to tear; split. OC

*saR(e)ked   PPH *saR(e)ked, to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop. WMP

*saRep   PMP *saRep, save, rescue. WMP;  POC *saRop, save, rescue. OC

*sáRep   PPH *sáRep, catch fish by damming a stream. WMP

*saR(e)qeb   PPH *saR(e)qeb, to fetch water. WMP

*saRi   POC *saRi, husk a coconut with the teeth. OC

*saRman   PMP *saRman, outrigger float. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *saman, outrigger float. OC

*sa(R)pit   PWMP *sa(R)pit, pincers, tongs. WMP

*saRu₁   PMP *saRu₁, comb. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*saRu₂   PWMP *saRu₂, body fluid from a corpse. WMP

*saRu₃   POC *saRu, wingbone of flying fox (used in tattooing process). OC

*saRud   PWMP *saRud, scrape, rub against. WMP

*saRuk   PMP *saRuk, step into clothing, put on a sarong. WMP OC

*saRup₁   PMP *saRup₁, scoop up with both hands. WMP OC

*saRup₂   PMP *saRup₂, sing in unison. WMP OC

*saRut   PMP *saRut, answer, reply. WMP OC

*sasag   PWMP *sasag, wattle, bamboo plaitwork construction for walls. WMP

*sasah   PMP *sasah, cut or collect palm leaves for roofing. WMP OC

*sasaRi   POC *sasaRi, midrib of a coconut frond. OC

*sasau   POC *sasau, fish sp.. OC

*sau   POC *sau, a bird, the Golden Whistler, Pachycephala spp.. OC

*sau₁   POC *sau₁, stretch out. OC

*sau₂   POC *sau₂, to steep, soak. OC

*sau₃   POC *sau₃, wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo. OC

*sau₄   PMP *sau₄, word; talk; conversation; language. WMP OC

*saud   PPH *saud, prepare the warp threads in weaving. WMP

*sauŋ   PPH *sauŋ, canine tooth; tusk, as of wild boar. WMP

*sauq   PMP *sauq₂, anchor. WMP SHWNG OC

*saur₁   POC *saur₁, to hang, suspend. OC

*saur₂   PWMP *saur₂, conquered, subdued; lower, inferior. WMP

*sau(rR)   POC *sau(rR), fasten with a rope. OC

*saut   PMP *saut, comb. WMP CMP

*sawa   PMP *sawa, python. WMP CMP

*sawaliq   PWMP *sawaliq, bamboo walling. WMP

*sawan   PWMP *sawan, convulsion; to have convulsions. WMP;  PWMP *sawan-en, to have fits, convulsions. WMP

*sawaŋ₁   PWMP *sawaŋ₁, vague, indistinct. WMP

*sawaŋ₂   PWMP *sawaŋ₂, wide open spaces. WMP;  POC *sawaŋ₂, channel between two islands. OC

*sawaq   PMP *sawaq, channel. WMP OC

*saway   PPH *saway, in excess, overabundant; surplus. WMP

*saweqaq   PWMP *saweqaq, to eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored. WMP;  PPh *s<um>aweqaq, to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest. WMP

*sawit   PWMP *sawit, barb. WMP

*sawsáw   PPH *sawsáw, to dip in liquid. WMP

*sayad   PWMP *sayad, to slice. WMP

*sayaŋ   PWMP *sayaŋ, too bad! it’s a pity! what a shame!. WMP;  PWMP *ka-sayaŋ, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-sayaŋ, to feel sorry for (?). WMP;  PPH *sayáŋ-en, to waste an opportunity. WMP

*sayap   PWMP *sayap, wing. WMP

*sayat   PWMP *sayat, slice, cut into pieces. WMP

*sayaw   PWMP *sayaw, jump, leap, dance. WMP

*sáysay   PPH *sáysay, to narrate, as in telling a story. WMP;  PPH *s<al>áysay, (gloss uncertain). WMP


 

TOP      sa    se    si    so    su    

se

*seasea   POC *seasea, tree sp.. OC

*sebaŋ   PPH *sebaŋ, to rise, of the sun, moon or stars. WMP

*se(m)bek   PMP *se(m)bek, muffled sound of a gasp, etc.. WMP OC

*sebet   PWMP *sebet, penetrate, get attached to. WMP

*sebseb   PPH *sebseb, to fall forward. WMP

*sebu   PAN *sebu, bladder. Formosan WMP

*sebuS   PAN *sebuS, douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’. Formosan;  PMP *sebuh, douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire. WMP CMP;  PAN *s<um>ebuS, to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire. Formosan;  PWMP *s<um>ebuh, to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire. WMP

*sedaq   PPH *sedaq, fish; accompaniment to rice. WMP

*sedem   PWMP *sedem, dark. WMP

*sedep₁   PMP *sedep₁, to set (of the sun). WMP;  POC *sorop, to set, of the sun. OC

*sedep₂   PWMP *sedep₂, pleasant, agreeable; tasty, delicious. WMP

*sedsed₁   PWMP *sedsed₁, kind of grass or rush. WMP

*sedsed₂   PPH *sedsed₂, crowded, compact. WMP

*sedsed₃   PPH *sedsed₃, feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand. WMP

*sedu   PAN *sedu, hiccough. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*sedut   PWMP *sedut, sip, suck. WMP

*see   POC *see, flower. OC

*segaʔ   PWMP *segaʔ, kind of rattan. WMP

*se(ŋ)ger   PMP *se(ŋ)ger, feel fit, healthy. WMP CMP

*seguk   PWMP *seguk, make a gurgling sound in the throat, or hiccup. WMP

*sei   PMP *sei, who?. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *i-sei, who?. WMP OC

*sejem   PWMP *sejem, black ant, probably sugar ant. WMP

*sejep   PAN *sejep, enter, penetrate. Formosan WMP

*seka   PWMP *seka, a species of rattan. WMP

*sekad   PWMP *sekad, prop, support. WMP

*sekaŋ   PMP *sekaŋ, crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart. WMP;  POC *sokaŋ, transverse beam, thwart. OC

*seke   POC *seke, cuckoo. OC

*se(ŋ)keb   PWMP *se(ŋ)keb, cover. WMP

*seked   PWMP *seked, use up supplies. WMP

*sekel   PAN *sekel, bend, bow. Formosan WMP CMP

*sekep   PMP *sekep, keep secret, cover up. WMP CMP

*seket   PWMP *seket, tight. WMP

*seki   PPH *seki, foot, leg. WMP

*seksek₁   PAN *seksek₁, to stuff, cram in; be crowded. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *sosok, to stuff, pack, fill up. OC;  PPH *i-seksek, to cram, stuff in. WMP;  PWMP *ma-seksek, tightly packed, in space or time. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñeksek, to press into, force or cram in. WMP;  PWMP *maR-seksek, to stuff, press in by force. WMP;  PWMP *s<um>eksek, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*seksek₂   PWMP *seksek₂, chatter of birds. WMP

*sekud   PWMP *sekud, narrow. WMP

*sekuk   PMP *sekuk, to sob, choke, have broken respiration. WMP CMP

*sekut   PWMP *sekut, narrow. WMP

*sela   PWMP *sela, intervening space. WMP

*selaŋ₁   PWMP *selaŋ₁, interval of space or time. WMP

*selaŋ₂   PPH *selaŋ₂, jaw, jawbone (?). WMP

*selaR   PPH *selaR, big, gross, coarse. WMP;  PPH *ma-selaR, big, gross, coarse. WMP

*selat   PWMP *selat, narrow opening or passage between two things. WMP;  PWMP *taR-selat, able to pass through. WMP

*sel(e)daŋ   PPH *sel(e)daŋ, brightness; to shine. WMP

*seleg   PWMP *seleg, flow. WMP

*selem₁   PAN *selem₁, sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun. Formosan WMP CMP

*selem₂   PWMP *selem₂, dark, dusky. WMP

*selep   PMP *selep, enter, penetrate. WMP;  POC *solop, descend, enter. OC

*sel(e)qut   PWMP *sel(e)qut, encircle tightly. WMP

*seleR   PPH *seleR, flowing water, current. WMP

*selet   PMP *selet, insert between. WMP CMP

*seli₁   PWMP *seli₁, shift, alternate. WMP

*seli₂   PWMP *seli₂, young shoot. WMP

*selsel₁   PAN *selsel₁, insert, cram in. Formosan WMP;  POC *solso, go through a narrow passage. OC

*selsel₂   PWMP *selsel₂, regret, remorse for something done. WMP

*selu   PMP *selu, fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom. WMP CMP

*seluk   PWMP *seluk, curve. WMP

*selut   PWMP *selut, encircle tigthly; band or ring around something. WMP

*sempit   PWMP *sempit, narrow; squeeze tightly. WMP

*sempuk   PWMP *sempuk, bump or bang into, collide unceremoniously. WMP

*sená   PPH *sená, just, merely, only, usual. WMP

*sendem   PMP *sendem, brood, think, be silent. WMP OC

*sendeR   PWMP *sendeR, to lean on or against. WMP

*sendet   PWMP *sendet, tightness, congestion. WMP

*sendiR   PMP *sendiR, to lean on or against. WMP CMP

*senduk   PWMP *senduk, spoon, ladle. WMP

*sensén   PPH *sensén, press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving. WMP

*seŋa₁   PWMP *seŋa₁, nasal mucus; blow the nose. WMP

*seŋa₂   POC *seŋa₂, parrot sp.. OC

*seŋaŋ   PWMP *seŋaŋ, startled. WMP

*seŋ(e)hij   PMP *seŋ(e)hij, acrid, pungent, of odor. WMP CMP

*seŋ(e)hit   PMP *seŋ(e)hit, acrid, pungent, of odor. WMP CMP

*seŋek   PWMP *seŋek, difficulty in breathing. WMP

*seŋ(e)qaw   PWMP *seŋ(e)qaw, vapor, steam. WMP;  PPH *s<um>eŋaw, vapor. WMP;  PPH *seŋaw-án, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*seŋet₁   PMP *seŋet₁, acrid, pungent, of odor. WMP OC

*seŋet₂   PAN *seŋet₂, to sting or bite, of an insect. Formosan WMP;  POC *soŋot, to smart, sting. OC

*seŋet-seŋet   PPH *seŋet-seŋet, throb with pain or exhaustion. WMP

*seŋit   PWMP *seŋit, irritated, annoyed. WMP

*seŋjiR   PWMP *seŋjiR, lean, incline. WMP

*seŋkar   PMP *seŋkar, transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat. WMP;  POC *sokar, transverse beams that support the roof of a house. OC

*seŋseŋ   PAN *seŋseŋ, cork, stopper, plug. Formosan WMP SHWNG;  POC *joŋjoŋ, cork, stopper, plug. OC;  PWMP *seŋseŋ-en, to plug, put a stopper in a hole. WMP

*sepak   PWMP *sepak₁, break, snap off at a joint. WMP

*sepal   PPH *sepal, to chew (of animals?). WMP

*sepaŋ   PMP *sepaŋ, thorn. WMP CMP

*sepaq   PWMP *sepaq, chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñepaq, chew the juice from something. WMP;  PWMP *sepaq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*sepat   PCEMP *sepat, go past, go beyond. SHWNG OC

*sepet₁   PPH *sepet₁, inner pulp or young leaves. WMP

*sepet₂   PMP *sepet₂, obstruct. WMP CMP

*sepet₃   PWMP *sepet₃, fish sp.. WMP

*sepi   PWMP *sepi, lonely, quiet, deserted. WMP

*sepiq   PAN *sepiq, break off fruit or branches. Formosan WMP CMP

*sepsep   PAN *sepsep, sip, suck. Formosan WMP;  POC *sosop, suck. OC;  PWMP *ma-ñepsep, to sip or suck in or out. WMP;  PAN *s<um>epsep, to suck, sip. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *sepsep-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *sepsep-en, suck. Formosan WMP;  PMP *sepsep-i, to sip, to suck. WMP;  POC *sosop-i, to sip, to suck. OC

*seput   PWMP *seput, blowpipe, blowgun. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñeput, shoot with a blowpipe. WMP;  PWMP *seput-an, blowgun. WMP

*seqseq   PWMP *seqseq, beat, pound. WMP

*sequŋ   PAN *sequŋ, horn of an animal. Formosan

*sera   PWMP *sera, exasperate. WMP

*seray   PWMP *seray, lemon grass: Cymbopogon spp.. WMP

*serep   PMP *serep, penetrate. WMP CMP

*seruk   PWMP *seruk, angle, corner. WMP

*seReb   PPH *seReb, to burn, singe. WMP

*seRed   PWMP *seRed, sting. WMP

*sesed   PWMP *sesed, to plunge, dive into water. WMP

*seseg   PWMP *seseg, to pound, crush by pounding. WMP


 

TOP      sa    se    si    so    su    

si

*si₁   PAN *si₁, nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names. Formosan WMP CMP

*si₂   POC *si₂, fart. OC

*siám   PPH *siám, nine. WMP;  PPH *ika-siám, ninth. WMP;  PPH *ka-siam-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*siaŋ   PWMP *siaŋ, daylight; morning sunshine. WMP

*siap   PAN *siap, chick. Formosan WMP

*siaq   PWMP *siaq, push aside, move aside, step aside. WMP

*siba   POC *siba, cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro. OC

*sibak   PWMP *sibak, split open. WMP

*sibáq   PPH *sibáq, gluttony, uncontrolled appetite. WMP

*sibay   PPH *sibay, extension to a house (?). WMP

*sibít   PPH *sibít, hook, thorn. WMP

*sibu   PAN *sibu, urine. Formosan WMP

*sibukaw   PPH *sibukaw, the sappan tree: Caesalpinia sappan L.. WMP

*sidáq   PPh *sidáq, protein side-dish eaten with rice (typically fish). WMP

*si(n)dek   PWMP *si(n)dek, sob, inhale suddenly. WMP

*sidem   PWMP *sidem, obscure, dusky. WMP

*si(n)dep   PWMP *si(n)dep, set, of the sun. WMP

*sidiŋ   PWMP *sidiŋ, border on, neighbor; peer, equal. WMP

*siDsiD   PMP *siDsiD, sail along the coast, follow the coast in voyaging. WMP SHWNG

*sidu   PAN *sidu, spoon, ladle. Formosan WMP CMP

*si(n)duk   PMP *si(n)duk, spoon, ladle. WMP CMP

*siduŋ   PWMP *siduŋ, sheltered place. WMP;  PPH *pa-siduŋ-en, to give shelter to. WMP;  PPH *siluŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*siga   PMP *siga, spark, bright light. WMP CMP

*sigaw   PWMP *sigaw, disturb. WMP

*sigay   PWMP *sigay, cowrie shell: Cypraea spp.. WMP

*sigek   PWMP *sigek, choke, sob. WMP

*sig(e)pít   PPH *sig(e)pít, clip on. WMP

*sigúk   PPH *sigúk, choke, sob. WMP

*sihikay   PAN *sihikay, maggot. Formosan

*sihud   PWMP *sihud, kind of fish trap. WMP

*sihul   PMP *sihul, to whistle. WMP;  POC *siul, to whistle. OC

*sijem   PWMP *sijem, ant sp.. WMP

*siji   PMP *siji, separate the chaff from the grain. WMP CMP

*sik   PWMP *sik, rustling or swishing sound. WMP

*sika   PMP *sika, to chase away or shoo off small animals. WMP CMP

*sikaD   PWMP *sikaD, energetic, active. WMP

*síkad   PPH *síkad, push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved. WMP;  PPH *maR-síkad, to kick. WMP;  PPH *sikád-an, press feet against. WMP

*sikaŋ   PWMP *sikaŋ, wide apart, of the legs. WMP

*sikap₁   PPH *sikap₁, cunning; spy on, examine. WMP

*sikap₂   PWMP *sikap₂, dextrous, agile, skillful. WMP

*sikát   PPH *sikát, sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc.. WMP;  PPH *pa-sikat, to show off. WMP

*sikat   PWMP *sikat, kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving. WMP

*si(ŋ)keb   PWMP *si(ŋ)keb, cover. WMP

*sikek   PMP *sikek, kingfisher: Halcyon spp.. WMP OC

*sikep₁   PWMP *sikep₁, hawk sp.. WMP

*sikep₂   PWMP *sikep₂, tight-fitting, of clothing. WMP

*si(ŋ)ket   PMP *si(ŋ)ket, stick, adhere to. WMP CMP

*sikí   PPH *sikí, foot, leg. WMP

*siki   POC *siki, fart. OC

*siko₁   POC *siko₁, grasshopper. OC

*siko₂   POC *siko₂, kingfisher. OC

*siksik₁   PWMP *siksik₁, de. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñiksik, de. WMP

*siksik₂   PMP *siksik₂, scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *siksik-an, scale. WMP

*siku   POC *siku, tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf. OC

*si(ŋ)kuk   PMP *si(ŋ)kuk₁, have a stiff or bent arm. WMP CMP

*sikuqan   PWMP *sikuqan, spool, shuttle; thread holder (in weaving or making nets). WMP

*sikut₁   PMP *sikut₁, bent, of the arm. WMP CMP

*sikut₂   PWMP *sikut₂, narrow. WMP

*sikux   PAN *sikux, elbow. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ka-siku, to prod or knock with the elbow. WMP;  PWMP *maka-siku, to prod or knock with the elbow. WMP;  PWMP *pa-ñiku, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *pa-siku, knock someone or something with the elbow. WMP CMP;  PWMP *s<in>iku, elbow. WMP;  PAN *s<um>iku, to elbow; to push or jab with the elbow. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *siku-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *siku-en, elbow. WMP;  PWMP *siku-siku, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*sila₁   PMP *sila₁, outpouring of light. WMP CMP OC

*sila₂   PWMP *sila₂, split. WMP

*silad   PWMP *silad, palm used to make hats and fans. WMP

*silak   PMP *silak₁, beam of light. WMP CMP OC

*silap   PMP *silap, sparkle, dazzle. WMP CMP

*silaq   PAN *silaq, split. Formosan WMP CMP

*silaq   PMP *silaq, outpouring of light. WMP CMP OC

*silaR   PPH *silaR, a palm: Corypha spp.. WMP

*silat   PWMP *silat, a form of martial art or mock combat. WMP

*silatan   PWMP *silatan, south, south wind. WMP

*silaw   PMP *silaw, dazzling, of light. WMP OC;  PWMP *ma-silaw, bright, shiny. WMP

*silem   PWMP *silem, fade from sight. WMP

*sileŋ   PMP *sileŋ, look askance. WMP CMP

*sil(e)qáb   PPH *sil(e)qáb, to burn, expose to fire. WMP

*silet   PWMP *silet, tight. WMP

*sili   PMP *sili, dazzle. WMP CMP

*silib   PWMP *silib, secret, hidden. WMP

*sili-sili   PPH *sili-sili, a plant, Solanum spp.. WMP

*silu₁   PCMP *silu₁, to lift, raise, uncover, bare something. CMP

*silu₂   PWMP *silu₂, fingernail, toenail; claw. WMP

*siluk   PWMP *siluk, bend, curve. WMP

*siluŋ   PPH *siluŋ, shelter, space under something. WMP

*síluq   PPH *síluq, noose, snare; net. WMP;  PPH *ma-ñiluʔ, scoop up with a net; catch with snare. WMP;  PPH *siluʔ-en, to catch with a net, scoop up. WMP

*símaq   PPH *símaq, barb of a hook. WMP;  PPH *simaq-an, barb. WMP

*simbuR   PMP *simbuR, to sprinkle. WMP;  POC *sibuR, to sprinkle. OC

*simetik   PWMP *simetik, tick, click. WMP

*simpa   PMP *simpa, slanting, sloping. WMP;  POC *siba₂, slanting, sloping. OC

*simpaŋ   PMP *simpaŋ, side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads. WMP CMP;  POC *siba₁, take a side path. OC

*simpir   PWMP *simpir, edge, margin. WMP

*simpuk   PWMP *simpuk, to heap up, make a pile. WMP

*simsím   PPH *simsím, nibble at. WMP

*simuj   PWMP *simuj, labial circle. WMP

*simut   PPH *simut, take all that remains. WMP

*sinaŋ   PWMP *sinaŋ, shine; radiance. WMP

*sinar   PWMP *sinar, ray of light. WMP

*sinaw   PWMP *sinaw, shine, polish. WMP

*sindar   PMP *sindar, light, bright. WMP CMP

*sindiR   PWMP *sindiR, to lean on or against. WMP

*sindul   PPH *sindul, to bump into lightly. WMP

*sineŋ   PWMP *sineŋ, look at closely, stare intently. WMP

*sin(e)qek   PPH *sin(e)qek, hiccup, produce a sound in the throat. WMP

*sintak   PWMP *sintak, pull, jerk at something. WMP

*sintík   PPH *sintík, knock two things together with a clicking sound. WMP

*sintuk   PWMP *sintuk, touch, come into contact. WMP

*siNaR   PAN *siNaR, sun. Formosan WMP CMP;  PMP *sinaR, sun. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*siŋal   PPH *siŋal, a wedge. WMP

*siŋaR   PMP *siŋaR, ray of light; to shine. WMP OC

*siŋaw   PPH *siŋaw, vapor, leaking air, fumes. WMP

*siŋ(e)het   PWMP *siŋ(e)het, sting. WMP

*siŋ(e)hut   PWMP *siŋ(e)hut, sniffle, sniff up mucus. WMP

*siŋ(e)qit   PMP *siŋ(e)qit, fit snugly, as bowstring in arrow notch. WMP OC

*siŋgit   PWMP *siŋgit, shout, yell at someone. WMP

*siŋgít   PPH *siŋgít, to shine, of the sun. WMP

*síŋin   PPH *síŋin, conjoined fruits; Siamese twins. WMP

*siŋiq   PPH *siŋiq, to take one piece of fruit from a bunch. WMP

*siŋir   PWMP *siŋir, to collect a debt. WMP

*siŋit   PWMP *siŋit, violent emotion. WMP

*síŋit   PPH *síŋit, forking, bifurcation. WMP;  PPH *i-síŋit, to insert something. WMP

*siŋkab   PMP *siŋkab, open, uncover. WMP CMP

*siŋkat   PWMP *siŋkat, open the legs wide. WMP

*siŋkít   PPH *siŋkít, slanted, of the eyes. WMP

*siŋkul   PMP *siŋkul, bent, of the arm. WMP CMP

*siŋkuquŋ   PWMP *siŋkuquŋ, curved, having a curved edge. WMP

*sipag   PPH *sipag, industrious, diligent. WMP

*sipak   PWMP *sipak, crack apart at the joints. WMP

*sipat   PWMP *sipat, visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion. WMP

*sip(e)qun   PPH *sip(e)qun, a cold; nasal mucus, runny nose. WMP

*si(m)pet   PMP *si(m)pet, close, shut off. WMP CMP

*sipi   POC *sipi, parrot sp.. OC

*sípiŋ   PPH *sípiŋ, next to, in close proximity. WMP

*sipíq   PPH *sipíq, break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc.. WMP

*sipiri   POC *sipiri, kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers. OC

*sipit   PAN *sipit, tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-ñipit, to pinch, squeeze between. WMP;  PPH *pa-nípit, tongs, pincers. WMP;  PPH *s<in>ipit, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *s<um>ipit, to pinch or squeeze, as with tongs. WMP;  PPh *sipít-en, to pick up with tongs or pincers. WMP

*sipo   POC *sipo, descend; go down; land from a boat. OC;  POC *paka-sipo, (gloss uncertain). OC

*sipsip   PAN *sipsip, sip, suck. Formosan WMP

*sipsíp   PPH *sipsíp, to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting. WMP

*siqat   PWMP *siqat, split or slice off. WMP

*siqedu   PWMP *siqedu, hiccup. WMP

*siqelak   PWMP *siqelak, split or cleaved. WMP

*siq(e)rip   PPH *siq(e)rip, to peep, spy on. WMP;  PPH *siq(e)rip-en, to peep, spy on. WMP

*siqid   PPH *siqid, trap for mudfish. WMP

*siqir   PWMP *siqir, feel oppressed. WMP

*siqit   PWMP *siqit, spine on fish or plant. WMP

*siqud   PWMP *siqud, kind of fish net or trap. WMP

*sirab   PWMP *sirab, burn. WMP

*sirak₁   PMP *sirak₁, outpouring of light. WMP CMP

*sirak₂   PWMP *sirak₂, scatter. WMP

*siraŋ   PWMP *siraŋ, dazzle. WMP

*sirap   PPH *sirap, glance, look at quickly. WMP

*siraq₁   PMP *siraq₁, to split open. WMP CMP

*siraq₂   PPH *siraq₂, non-staple food eaten with rice. WMP

*siri   POC *siri, red parakeet. OC

*siRa₁   PAN *siRa₁, yesterday. Formosan

*siRa₂   PMP *siRa₂, red, reddish color of flames. WMP CMP

*siRaq   PMP *siRaq, reddish, color of flames. WMP

*siR(e)pít   PPH *siR(e)pít, clip used to fasten things together. WMP

*siRi   PMP *siRi, a shrub: Cordyline, Dracaena. WMP OC

*siRup   PAN *siRup, to sip, as through a straw. Formosan WMP OC

*sisi₁   PMP *sisi₁, small snail or periwinkle. WMP OC

*sisi₂   POC *sisi₂, show the teeth, as in grinning. OC

*sisi₃   PCEMP *sisi₃, to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin. CMP OC

*sisig   PWMP *sisig, pick or clean the teeth. WMP

*sisip   PWMP *sisip, insert, slip between. WMP

*sisiq   PWMP *sisiq₁, side, go to the side. WMP

*sisir   PMP *sisir, comb, comb-like structure; rake, harrow. WMP CMP

*sisi(rR)   POC *sisi(rR), orthopterus insect: cicada or grasshopper. OC

*sisuq   PWMP *sisuq, edible snail. WMP

*sit   PMP *sit, sputter of sputtering, sizzling, etc.. WMP OC

*sitsit₁   PMP *sitsit, hiss. WMP OC

*sitsit₂   PWMP *sitsit, tear, rip. WMP

*siuk   PMP *siuk, hiss; whistle. WMP OC

*siuq   PWMP *siuq, cry to drive away fowls: shoo!. WMP

*siwaŋ   PMP *siwaŋ, gap, open space; groove. WMP;  POC *jiwaŋ, gap, open space. OC;  PPh *ma-siwáŋ, opened, having a open or opening. WMP

*siwaq   PAN *siwaq, fissure, split in something. Formosan WMP

*siwsiw   PAN *siwsiw, to cheep; baby chick. Formosan WMP


 

TOP      sa    se    si    so    su    

so

*sogo   POC *sogo, entangled, trapped. OC

*soka   POC *soka, to spear, stab with a spear. OC

*solat   PCEMP *solat, passage for a boat?. CMP SHWNG

*solo₁   POC *solo₁, postposition of location or direction. OC

*solo₂   POC *solo₂, to mix, stir in. OC

*solo₃   POC *solo₃, sink down, subside; landslide. OC

*solos   POC *solos, interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island. OC

*sombu   PEMP *sombu, go down, descend. SHWNG;  POC *sobu, go down, descend. OC

*somu   POC *somu, kind of univalve mollusk. OC

*sonom   POC *sonom, to swallow. OC

*soŋe   POC *soŋe, famine. OC

*sopu   POC *sopu, to prepare yams for planting. OC

*sora   PCMP *sora, to sew. CMP

*soRa   POC *soRa, friend, partner; one of a pair; trading partner?. OC

*sou   POC *sou, heron, egret. OC


 

TOP      sa    se    si    so    su    

su

*su   PAN *su, nominative case marker for common nouns. Formosan WMP

*sua₁   POC *sua₁, a spear; to spear. OC

*sua₂   PEMP *sua₂, to stir. SHWNG OC

*suak   PEMP *suak, to backpaddle a canoe; walk backwards. SHWNG OC

*sual   PMP *sual, root up the ground, of a pig; uproot. WMP OC

*suan   PWMP *suan, to plant. WMP

*suaq   PWMP *suaq, to follow, copy, imitate. WMP

*suaR₁   PMP *suaR₁, lift up with a lever, lever up, root up. WMP CMP OC

*suaR₂   POC *suaR₂, goatfish. OC

*suat₁   PMP *suat₁, kind of comb. WMP CMP OC

*suat₂   PMP *suat₂, root up, lever up. WMP OC

*suay   PPH *suay, to quarrel, part company. WMP

*suba   PMP *suba, spit, saliva. WMP OC

*súbaq   PPH *súbaq, to go upstream, ascend a river. WMP

*sub(e)líq   PPH *sub(e)líq, to pass one another while going in different directions. WMP

*subeŋ   PWMP *subeŋ, ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear. WMP

*su(m)bir   PWMP *su(m)bir, rim, edge, border. WMP

*subsub   PWMP *subsub, fall forward; put face low down. WMP

*subu   PPH *subu, to boil, of water. WMP

*subuk₁   PWMP *subuk₁, to peep, spy on, to stalk. WMP

*subuk₂   PPH *subuk₂, to test, try, examine. WMP

*súbuq   PPH *súbuq, put something into or through an opening. WMP;  PPH *i-súbuq, to put food into the mouth. WMP;  PPH *s<um>úbuq, put something (as food) in the mouth. WMP;  PPH *subuq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*sudsud₁   PWMP *sudsud₁, conventional story, traditional narrative. WMP

*sudsud₂   PPH *sudsud₂, tool for cutting with a forward digging motion. WMP

*sudsud₃   PPH *sudsud₃, go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction. WMP;  PPH *sudsud-en, to oppose, go against. WMP

*sudu   PMP *sudu, spoon, ladle, scoop. WMP CMP

*suduk   PMP *suduk, spoon, ladle, spade, shovel. WMP CMP

*su(n)duŋ   PWMP *su(n)duŋ, to progress, push forward. WMP

*suduq   PWMP *suduq, spoon, ladle. WMP

*sudu-sudu   PWMP *sudu-sudu, a shrub: Euphorbia neriifolia L.. WMP

*sugi   PWMP *sugi, clean the teeth. WMP

*sugsúg   PPH *sugsúg, to provoke, annoy or irritate. WMP

*sugud   PPH *sugud, rush forward, charge. WMP;  PPH *s<um>ugud, to rush forward. WMP

*suháq   PPH *suháq, a fruit tree, the pomelo: Citrus decumana. WMP

*sui   PWMP *sui, bird sp.. WMP

*suil   PWMP *suil, lever (?). WMP

*suiq   PAN *suiq, a bird: the sandpiper (?). Formosan

*suja   PMP *suja, pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo. WMP CMP;  POC *suca, pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo. OC

*sujud   PWMP *sujud, fine-toothed lice comb. WMP

*suka₁   PMP *suka₁, a tree: Gnetum gnemon. WMP CMP

*suka₂   PPH *suka₂, to vomit. WMP

*suka₃   POC *suka₃, make fire with a fireplow. OC

*su(ŋ)kab   PMP *su(ŋ)kab, to open, break open. WMP CMP

*sukak   PWMP *sukak, harsh throaty sound. WMP

*sukat   PWMP *sukat, to measure. WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñukat, to measure. WMP;  PWMP *sukat-en, to measure, be measured. WMP

*sukáy   PPH *sukáy, to part the hair, as when searching for lice. WMP;  PPH *sukay-án, be deloused. WMP

*suked   PAN *suked, prop, support; to prop up or support. Formosan WMP

*suk(e)luban   PPH *suk(e)luban, kind of basket with cover. WMP

*suker   PWMP *suker, trouble, toil, difficulty. WMP

*su(ŋ)kit   PMP *su(ŋ)kit, pick or knock down fruit with a pole. WMP CMP OC;  PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en, to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook. WMP

*suksuk   PAN *suksuk, pierce, penetrate; insert. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ka-suksuk, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñuksuk, to poke into, pierce, insert. WMP;  PWMP *ma-suksuk, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *s<al>uksuk, insert. WMP;  PAN *s<um>uksuk, to enter, penetrate, pierce. Formosan WMP;  PMP *suksuk-i, to insert, cram, stuff. WMP OC

*suku   PMP *suku, one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage. WMP CMP

*sukud   PAN *sukud, walking stick, cane, staff. Formosan WMP

*su(ŋ)kuk   PMP *su(ŋ)kuk, hang one's head. WMP CMP

*sukul₁   PWMP *sukul₁, struggle against, resist. WMP

*sukul₂   PMP *sukul₂, cornered, unable to escape. WMP;  POC *jukul₁, cornered, unable to escape. OC

*sukul₃   PMP *sukul₃, to measure vertically. WMP;  POC *jukul₂, to measure vertically. OC

*sukun   PMP *sukun, breadfruit sp.. WMP CMP SHWNG

*su(ŋ)kuŋ   PWMP *su(ŋ)kuŋ, stoop. WMP

*sukuŋ   PWMP *sukuŋ, prop, support, as the boom of a sail. WMP

*sukut   PPH *sukut, to collect a debt. WMP

*sula   PCMP *sula, horn. CMP

*sulah   PWMP *sulah, skewer, pointed stick. WMP

*sulam   PMP *sulam, pierce or remove with a needle. WMP OC

*sulan   PCMP *sulan, horn. CMP

*sulaŋ   PWMP *sulaŋ, to pass one another in coming from opposite directions. WMP

*sulati   POC *sulati, worm (= earthworm?). OC

*sulaʔ   PWMP *sulaʔ, play games. WMP

*suleb   PWMP *suleb, do secretly. WMP

*suled   PMP *suled, insert, plug. WMP CMP

*suleN   PAN *suleN, insert, plug. Formosan;  PMP *sulen, insert, plug. WMP CMP

*suleŋ   PWMP *suleŋ, oppose, attack. WMP

*suli₁   PMP *suli₁, plant shoot, sprout, cutting. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*suli₂   PAN *suli₂, to reverse, turn around. Formosan WMP

*suli₃   PMP *suli₃, taro. WMP CMP

*sulib   PWMP *sulib, secret place. WMP

*sulid   PPH *sulid, string, twine, thread. WMP

*sulig   PMP *sulig, a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp.. WMP;  POC *sulik, a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp.. OC

*suliŋ   PWMP *suliŋ, bamboo flute. WMP

*suliq   PMP *suliq, to reverse, turn around. WMP CMP

*sulit₁   PWMP *sulit₁, difficult, complicated. WMP

*sulit₂   PPH *sulit₂, substitute, replacement. WMP

*súlsul   PPH *súlsul, ignite; kindle; set fire to. WMP

*sulsul₁   PMP *sulsul₁, follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream. WMP CMP

*sulsul₂   PWMP *sulsul₂, to press against, crowd in on. WMP

*sulu₁   POC *sulu₁, to burn. OC

*sulu₂   PPH *sulu₂, fingernail, toenail, claw. WMP

*sulud₁   PWMP *sulud₁, comb. WMP

*sulud₂   PAN *sulud₂, push. Formosan WMP;  PAN *s<um>ulud, to push. Formosan WMP

*suluŋ₁   PMP *suluŋ₁, shelter. WMP CMP

*suluŋ₂   PMP *suluŋ₂, put on clothing, wrap around body. WMP OC

*suluq   PMP *suluq, torch, probably of dried palm frond. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *me-ñuluq, use a torch, as in fishing. WMP;  PWMP *s<um>uluq, illuminate with a torch. WMP;  PWMP *suluq-i, to illuminate, cast light on. WMP OC

*suma   PWMP *suma, kind of medicinal plant. WMP

*sumaŋed   PMP *sumaŋed, soul of a living being; soul of the rice plant. WMP CMP;  PMP *sumaŋet nu pajay, soul of the rice plant. WMP

*sumbad   PWMP *sumbad, plug, stopper, cork. WMP

*sumbaŋ   PWMP *sumbaŋ, incest. WMP

*sumbiŋ   PWMP *sumbiŋ, dented, having a jagged edge; hare-lipped. WMP

*sumit   PWMP *sumit, moustache. WMP

*sumpaq   PWMP *sumpaq, oath, pledge; curse. WMP;  PPH *i-sumpaq, to curse someone. WMP

*sumpel   PWMP *sumpel, stopper, plug, cork. WMP

*sumpiŋ₁   PWMP *sumpiŋ₁, beard, moustache. WMP

*sumpiŋ₂   PWMP *sumpiŋ₂, ear ornament. WMP

*sumpit   PMP *sumpit, blowpipe, blowgun. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-numpit, shoot with a blowpipe. WMP

*sumpuŋ   PPH *sumpuŋ, whim, caprice, sudden change of mood; moodiness. WMP

*sumu   POC *sumu, triggerfish, Balistidae. OC

*sunday   PWMP *sunday, comb. WMP

*sundul   PWMP *sundul, touch. WMP

*sunduŋ   PWMP *sunduŋ, slant. WMP

*sunsun   PPH *sunsun, close together, compact. WMP

*suntúk   PPH *suntúk, to punch. WMP

*sunúd   PPH *sunúd, next; to follow in succession. WMP;  PPH *s<um>unúd, to obey. WMP;  PPH *sunúd-sunúd, one after the other, successive. WMP

*sunuR   PMP *sunuR, set fire to, smoke out. WMP CMP OC;  PPH *sunúg-en, to burn or set a fire under to smoke out. WMP

*suNaR   PAN *suNaR, light, radiance. Formosan;  PMP *sunaR, light, radiance. WMP;  PAN *s<um>uNaR, to shine, radiate light. Formosan;  PMP *s<um>unaR, to shine, radiate light. WMP

*suŋa   PAN *suŋa, do wrong, do in reverse. Formosan WMP

*suŋar   PWMP *suŋar, to have ‘ buck teeth’, project forward, of the teeth. WMP

*súŋay   PPH *súŋay, horn of an animal; to butt or gore. WMP

*suŋet   PPH *suŋet, irritated, angry. WMP

*suŋit₁   PWMP *suŋit₁, snout, beak. WMP

*suŋit₂   PPH *suŋit₂, bite, bitten off, of food. WMP

*suŋit₃   PPH *suŋit₃, hostile. WMP

*suŋkal   PWMP *suŋkal, turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting. WMP

*suŋkit   PMP *suŋkit, pierce, as wth a needle; extract by piercing. WMP OC

*suŋkub   PWMP *suŋkub, cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave. WMP

*suŋkul   PWMP *suŋkul, poke, prod with the tip of something. WMP

*suŋsuŋ₁   PWMP *suŋsuŋ₁, go against wind or current. WMP

*suŋsuŋ₂   PWMP *suŋsuŋ₂, plug up, stop something up, as with a cork. WMP

*suŋsuŋ₃   PPH *suŋsuŋ₃, sniff at close quarters, of animals. WMP

*suŋu₁   PWMP *suŋu₁, antennae of shrimp (?). WMP

*suŋu₂   PPH *suŋu₂, upper lip, snout, muzzle. WMP

*suŋut₁   PWMP *suŋut₁, irritated, annoyed. WMP

*suŋut₂   PMP *suŋut₂, labial circle. WMP SHWNG

*suŋut₃   PWMP *suŋut₃, antenna (?). WMP

*supaq   PMP *supaq, to spit, expectorate. WMP OC

*supay   PAN *supay, whet. Formosan;  PAN *s<um>upay, to whet, grate, sharpen. Formosan;  PAN *sa-supay-an, whetstone. Formosan

*supi   PEMP *supi, to peel, pare, as yams. SHWNG OC

*supiri   POC *supiri, kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers. OC

*supit   PWMP *supit, narrow; to pinch; tongs. WMP

*supsup   PAN *supsup, sip, suck. Formosan WMP;  POC *susup, sip, suck. OC

*supu   PMP *supu, boundary, border. WMP CMP

*súput   PPH *súput, pouch (?). WMP

*suqag   PPH *suqag, to butt or gore with the horns. WMP

*suqan   PMP *suqan, digging stick. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-ñuqan, dig up the ground with a digging stick. WMP

*suqaR   PAN *suqaR, thorn. Formosan WMP

*suq(e)kip   PPH *suq(e)kip, insert, tuck in. WMP

*suq(e)lút   PPH *suq(e)lút, to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into. WMP

*suqit   PWMP *suqit, to lever up. WMP

*suqsuq   PWMP *suqsuq, scrape out, as meat from a coconut. WMP

*suqud suqud   PWMP *suqud suqud, in succession, one after the other. WMP

*suquk   PPH *suquk, enter. WMP

*suquN   PAN *suquN, carry on the head. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *suqun, carry on the head. OC

*sura   PEMP *sura, comb. SHWNG OC

*surambi   PWMP *surambi, extension to house. WMP

*surambiq   PWMP *surambiq, extension to house. WMP

*suruŋ   PWMP *suruŋ, push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy. WMP

*surup₁   PMP *surup₁, enter, penetrate; to set, of the sun. WMP OC

*surup₂   POC *surup₂, a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp.. OC

*súrut   PPH *súrut, follow, obey, agree with. WMP

*suRat   PWMP *suRat, wound. WMP;  PWMP *ma-suRat, wound. WMP;  PWMP *maka-suRat, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*suRi₁   POC *suRi₁, thorn, splinter, fish bone. OC

*suRi₂   POC *suRi₂, to lead the way; to follow after. OC

*suRud   PPH *suRud, to push. WMP

*suRuq   PAN *suRuq₂, to call on a person to do something. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *suRuq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *suRuq-en, be sent; messenger. WMP

*susu₁   PAN *susu₁, female breast; udder. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ka-susu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-ñusu, to suck at the breast, suckle. WMP;  PPH *mapa-susu, breast. WMP;  PAN *pa-susu, give the breast to, nurse a child. Formosan WMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *pa-susu-en, to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked). Formosan WMP;  PAN *s<um>usu, to suckle, suck at the breast. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *susu-an, wet nurse (?). WMP

*susu₂   PMP *susu, banana or plantain sp.. WMP OC

*susul   POC *susul₁, a fish: Lethrinus spp.. OC

*susuN   PAN *susuN, to stack up. Formosan;  PMP *susun, to stack up, pile in layers. WMP;  PWMP *pa-susun, stack. WMP

*susuq   PMP *susuq, edible snail. WMP OC

*susuR   PWMP *susuR, sail along the coast (?). WMP

*sutsut₁   PMP *sutsut₁, to lose weight, grow thin. WMP CMP

*sutsut₂   PWMP *sutsut₂, to wipe clean. WMP

*sutsut₃   PPH *sutsut₃, to hiss to get attention. WMP

*suy(e)quk   PWMP *suy(e)quk, angle, corner. WMP

*suysuy   PPH *suysuy, speak, say something, tell. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_s1.htm