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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*S   

Sa    Se    Si    Su    

*Sa-   PAN *Sa-, stative prefix. Formosan;  PMP *ha-₂, stative prefix. WMP

*Sa₁   PAN *Sa₁, ligature. Formosan;  PMP *ha₂, ligature. WMP;  POC *a, ligature. OC

*Sa₂   PAN *Sa₂, locative particle. Formosan;  PMP *ha₃, locative particle. WMP OC

*SabaN   PAN *SabaN, cloth used to carry a child on the back. Formosan;  PMP *haban, cloth used to carry a child on the back. WMP

*SabaRat   PAN *SabaRat, south wind (?). Formosan;  PMP *habaRat, south. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*Sabij   PAN *Sabij, twins of the same sex. Formosan;  PMP *habij, twins of the same sex. ;  POC *apic, twins of the same sex. OC

*Sabit   PAN *Sabit, long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying. Formosan;  PMP *habit, long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying. WMP

*SadiRi   PAN *SadiRi, housepost. Formosan;  PMP *hadiRi, housepost. WMP;  PCEMP *adiRi, housepost. CMP SHWNG;  POC *ariRi, housepost. OC;  PCEMP *hadiRi bubuŋ-an, center post, main housepost. CMP SHWNG

*Sadu   PAN *Sadu, many, much, plenty. Formosan;  PMP *hadu, much, many, plenty. WMP CMP;  POC *aru, many, much. OC

*Sajek   PAN *Sajek, smell; to smell (transitive). Formosan;  PMP *hajek, smell, sniff, kiss. WMP CMP;  PEMP *ajek, smell, sniff, kiss. SHWNG;  POC *acok, to sniff, kiss. OC;  PWMP *meŋ-hajek, to sniff, kiss. WMP;  PPh *hajek-an, to kiss. WMP;  PAN *Sajek-en, to smell. Formosan WMP

*SakuC   PAN *SakuC, transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips. Formosan;  PMP *hakut, transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hakut, transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips. WMP

*Salas   PAN *Salas, forest, wilderness, woods. Formosan;  PMP *halas, forest, wilderness, woods, jungle. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-halas-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *halas-an, forest. WMP;  PMP *halas + "dark", primary forest, primeval jungle. WMP CMP;  PWMP *halas Raya, primary forest, virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest'). WMP

*Samaq   PAN *Samaq, a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn.. Formosan

*SameCi   PAN *SameCi, a plant: Solanum nigrum. Formosan;  PMP *hameti, a plant: Solanum nigrum. WMP

*Samud   PAN *Samud, a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum. Formosan

*Sanaq   PAN *Sanaq, river otter. Formosan

*SapaR   PAN *SapaR, unroll a mat, spread out a mat. Formosan;  PMP *hampaR, unroll a mat, spread out a mat. WMP;  PAN *S<um>apaR, unroll, spread out a mat. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *hapaR-an, a mat. WMP

*Sapejiq   PAN *Sapejiq, smart. Formosan;  PMP *hapejiq, smart. WMP

*Sapiq   PAN *Sapiq, flattened. Formosan;  PMP *hapiq, flattened, as plants to the ground. WMP

*Sapit   PAN *Sapit, press together, press between two surfaces. Formosan;  PMP *hapit, press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom. WMP CMP;  POC *apit, pinch, squeeze. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-hapit, pinch, squeeze, enclose. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-hapit, instrument used to press. WMP;  PWMP *hapit-an, pinching apparatus. WMP;  PWMP *hapit hapit, pinching apparatus. WMP

*SapSap   PAN *SapSap, feel, grope. Formosan;  PMP *haphap, feel, grope. WMP

*SapuSap   PAN *SapuSap, feel, grope. Formosan;  PMP *hapuhap, feel, grope. WMP

*Sapuy   PAN *Sapuy, fire. Formosan;  PMP *hapuy, fire. WMP CMP;  PEMP *api, fire. SHWNG;  POC *api, fire. OC;  PWMP *ma-hapuy, fiery, on fire. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hapuy, set on fire. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hapuy-i, apply fire to. WMP;  PWMP *maR-hapuy, build a fire (?). WMP;  PMP *pa-hapuy-an, fire. WMP;  POC *papian, fire. OC;  PWMP *paŋ-hapuy, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paR-hapuy-an, fire. WMP;  PWMP *h<in>apuy, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *S<um>apuy, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *h<um>apuy, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *hapuy-an, fire. WMP;  PWMP *hapuy hapuy₁, fire. WMP;  PWMP *hapuy hapuy₂, tree sp.. WMP

*SaRuŋ   PAN *SaRuŋ, snore, groan, etc.. Formosan;  PMP *haRuŋ, snore, groan, etc.. WMP

*Sasak   PAN *Sasak, ripe; cooked. Formosan;  PMP *hasak, ripe; cooked. WMP;  PAN *ma-Sasak, ripe; cooked. Formosan;  PMP *ma-hasak, ripe, cooked. WMP CMP;  PEMP *masak, ripe, cooked. SHWNG OC

*Sasaq   PAN *Sasaq, whet, sharpen. Formosan;  PMP *hasaq, whet, sharpen. WMP CMP;  PEMP *asaq, sharpen, rub, grate. SHWNG OC;  PWMP *maŋ-hasaq, whet, sharpen. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-hasaq, person or instrument that grinds or sharpens. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-hasaq-an, whet. WMP;  PAN *Sasaq-an, whetstone, grindstone. Formosan;  PMP *hasaq-an, whetstone, grindstone. WMP;  PWMP *hasaq-en, sharpen. WMP;  POC *asaq-i, sharpen (transitive). OC

*SateD   PAN *SateD, accompany, escort; send, return. Formosan;  PMP *hateD, accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments. WMP;  PEMP *ated, accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments. SHWNG;  PAN *ma-SateD, escort, accompany. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hateD, send, accompany. WMP;  PAN *pa-SateD, send (?). Formosan WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-hateD, person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting. WMP;  PWMP *h<in>ateD, escort. WMP;  PAN *S<um>ateD, accompany, escort. Formosan;  PMP *h<um>ateD, accompany, escort. WMP;  PAN *SateD-an, escort, accompany (imperative). Formosan;  PMP *hateD-an, escort, accompany (imperative). WMP;  PWMP *hateD-en, escort. WMP

*Sauni   PAN *Sauni, in a little while, momentarily, later. Formosan WMP

*Saw   PAN *Saw, question particle. Formosan;  PMP *aw, question particle. WMP

*Sawak   PAN *Sawak, waist, back of the waist. Formosan;  PMP *hawak, waist, back of the waist. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *paR-hawak-an, body shape. WMP;  PWMP *hawak-an, waist. WMP

*Sawiki   PAN *Sawiki, betel nut: nut of Areca catechu. Formosan

*SawSaw   PAN *SawSaw, wash, rinse. Formosan;  PMP *hawhaw, wash, rinse. WMP

*SayaN   PAN *SayaN, termite. Formosan


 

TOP      Sa    Se    Si    Su    

Se

*SebaN   PAN *SebaN, carry a child with a carrying cloth. Formosan;  PMP *heban, carry a child with a carrying cloth. WMP CMP;  PAN *S<in>ebaN, what is carried on the back. Formosan;  PMP *h<in>eban, what is carried on the back. WMP

*SebuC   PAN *SebuC, pluck, pull up (as weeds). Formosan;  PMP *hebut, pluck, pull up (as weeds). WMP

*Sekak   PAN *Sekak, to crow, to caw. Formosan;  PMP *hekak, to crow, to caw. WMP

*Seked   PAN *Seked, stop an activity, take a break, rest. Formosan

*SekuC   PAN *SekuC, hunched over, stoop-shouldered. Formosan;  PMP *hekut, hunched over, stoop-shouldered. WMP

*Sema   PAN *Sema, tongue. Formosan;  PMP *hema, tongue. CMP

*Semay   PAN *Semay, cooked rice. Formosan;  PMP *hemay, cooked rice. WMP;  PPh *ka-hemay-an, rice field. WMP

*Semut   PAN *Semut, smother. Formosan;  PMP *hemut, smother, suffocate. WMP

*Señaw   PAN *Señaw, to wash. Formosan;  PMP *heñaw, to wash. WMP

*Seŋad   PAN *Seŋad, to breathe. Formosan;  PAN *S<um>eŋad, to breathe. Formosan

*Seŋaw   PAN *Seŋaw, to breathe (?). Formosan;  PMP *heŋaw, exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?). WMP

*Sepat   PAN *Sepat, four. Formosan;  PMP *epat, four. WMP CMP;  PEMP *pat, four. SHWNG OC;  PWMP *iŋg-epat, four times. WMP;  PPh *ika-epat, four. WMP;  PMP *ka-epat, four. WMP OC;  PWMP *ka-epat-an, four. WMP;  PAN *ma-Sepat, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *ma-epat, divided into four (?). WMP CMP;  PAN *maka-Sepat, four times. Formosan;  PWMP *maka-epat, four times. WMP;  PWMP *maR-epat, become four, divide into four (intr.). WMP;  PMP *paka-epat, four times. WMP;  POC *paka-pat, four times. OC;  PWMP *paR-epat, four. WMP;  PWMP *paR-epat-an, (?). WMP;  PAN *paR-Sepat-en, do four times. Formosan;  PMP *paR-epat-en, divide into four (?). WMP;  PAN *Sa-Sepat, four (of humans). Formosan;  PMP *a-epat, four (of humans). WMP;  PWMP *taR-epat, four each (?). WMP;  PWMP *epat-an, group of four (?). WMP;  PWMP *epat-en, be divided into four. WMP;  PMP *epat epat, four at a time. WMP CMP;  POC *pati pati, four at a time. OC;  PAN *pat-a, four (in counting certain referents). Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *pat-aŋ, four (combination form). WMP;  PCEMP *pat-i, four. CMP SHWNG OC

*Sepi   PAN *Sepi, dream. Formosan;  PMP *hepi, dream. CMP

*SeReC   PAN *SeReC, to bind tightly; belt. Formosan;  PMP *heRet, to bind tightly; belt. WMP CMP;  PAN *ma-SeReC, tight, firm. Formosan;  PMP *ma-heRet, tight, firm. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-heRet, bind. WMP;  PAN *S<um>eReC, tighten, fasten firmly. Formosan;  PMP *h<um>eRet, tighten, fasten firmly. WMP;  PWMP *heRet-en, be tied up tightly. WMP

*Sesi   PAN *Sesi, flesh, meat. Formosan;  PMP *hesi, flesh, meat. WMP OC

*Setek   PAN *Setek, cut, sever, chop. Formosan;  PMP *hetek, cut, sever, chop. WMP CMP;  POC *otok, cut, sever. OC

*Seyaq   PAN *Seyaq, shyness, embarrassment; shame. Formosan;  PMP *heyaq, shyness, embarrassment; shame. WMP;  PWMP *ka-heyaq, shame, shyness. WMP;  PAN *ma-Seyaq, shame. Formosan;  PMP *ma-heyaq, shame. WMP OC;  PCEMP *ma-mayaq, shame. CMP SHWNG OC

*Seyup   PAN *Seyup, blow. Formosan;  PMP *heyup, blow. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-heyup, blow, blow on (a fire, etc.). WMP;  PWMP *maR-heyup, to blow, as the wind. WMP;  PAN *Seyup-an, blow. Formosan;  PMP *heyup-an, blow. WMP;  PWMP *heyup-en, blow. WMP;  PWMP *heyup heyup, blow. WMP;  PAN *S<um>eyup, to blow. Formosan;  PMP *h<um>eyup, to blow. WMP

*Sezam   PAN *Sezam, borrow, lend. Formosan;  PMP *hezam, borrow, lend. WMP;  PPh *ipa-hedám, lend something (?). WMP;  PPh *ma-hedám, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPh *maŋ-hedam, borrow. WMP;  PAN *pa-Sezam, lend. Formosan WMP;  PPh *pa-hedam-en, be lent to. WMP;  PPh *hedam-en, borrow. WMP


 

TOP      Sa    Se    Si    Su    

Si

*Si-₁   PAN *Si-₁, instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus. Formosan;  PMP *i-, instrumental prefix. WMP OC

*Si-₂   PAN *Si-₂, origin. Formosan;  PMP *hi-, origin. WMP OC

*Si-₃   PAN *Si-₃, to wear, put on clothes, etc.. Formosan

*Sidi   PAN *Sidi, Formosan serow, mountain goat. Formosan

*Sijap   PAN *Sijap, broom. Formosan

*Sika-   PAN *Sika-, prefix for ordinal numbers. Formosan;  PMP *ika-, prefix for ordinal numerals. WMP;  POC *ka-, prefix for ordinal numerals. OC

*Sikad   PAN *Sikad, ashamed; shy. Formosan;  PAN *ma-Sikad, ashamed; shy; modest. Formosan

*Sikam   PAN *Sikam, mat. Formosan;  PMP *hikam, mat. WMP

*Sikan   PAN *Sikan, fish. Formosan;  PMP *hikan, fish. WMP CMP;  PEMP *ikan, fish. SHWNG OC

*Siket   PAN *Siket, tie, bind, attach to by tying. Formosan;  PMP *hiket, tie, bind, attach to by tying. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hiket, to tie, bind together. WMP;  PWMP *maR-hiket, to tie. WMP;  PWMP *h<um>iket, to tie. WMP;  PWMP *hiket-en, tie. WMP

*SimaR   PAN *SimaR, grease, oil, fat. Formosan;  PMP *himaR, grease, oil, fat. WMP

*Simu   PAN *Simu, 2p pronoun: you. Formosan;  PMP *imu, 2p pronoun: you. WMP;  PCEMP *imi, 2p. pl. pronoun: you. CMP OC

*Sin-   PAN *Sin-, verb prefix. Formosan;  PMP *hin-, verb prefix. WMP

*Sina   PAN *Sina, a plant: Erechtites spp.. Formosan

*SiNuq   PAN *SiNuq, beads. Formosan;  PMP *hinuq, beads. WMP CMP

*Siñaw   PAN *Siñaw, to wash. Formosan;  PMP *hiñaw, wash hands, feet or face. WMP;  PAN *Siñaw-an, wash. Formosan;  PMP *hiñaw-an, wash. WMP

*Siŋus   PAN *Siŋus, sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose). Formosan;  PMP *hiŋus, sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose). WMP

*Siŋus   PWMP *Siŋus, sniffle, snuff up; snot. Formosan WMP

*SipaR   PAN *SipaR, opposite side (esp. of a river). Formosan;  PMP *hipaR₂, opposite side (esp. of a river). WMP CMP;  PWMP *di hipaR, on the opposite side (esp. of a river). WMP

*Sipes   PAN *Sipes, cockroach. Formosan;  PMP *ipes, cockroach. WMP;  POC *ipos, cockroach. OC

*Sipi   PAN *Sipi, dream. Formosan;  PMP *hipi, dream. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-hipi, to dream. WMP CMP;  PWMP *paŋ-hipi, a dream. WMP;  PMP *h<in>ipi, a dream; was dreamt by. WMP OC;  PCEMP *nipi, dream. CMP OC;  PMP *h<um>ipi, to dream. WMP;  PCEMP *mipi, to dream. CMP OC

*SipuR   PAN *SipuR, to count. Formosan

*SiRup   PAN *SiRup, sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl. Formosan;  PMP *hiRup, sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl. WMP CMP;  POC *iRup, sip, as soup. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-hiRup, to sip, to drink. WMP;  PWMP *hiRup-an, drink. WMP;  PWMP *hiRup-en, sip. WMP

*SiSiN   PAN *SiSiN, omen bird: Alcippe spp.. Formosan

*Siwa   PAN *Siwa, nine. Formosan;  PMP *siwa, nine. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *in-siwa, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *paka-siwa, nine times. OC;  PAN *Sika-Siwa, ninth. Formosan;  PMP *ika-siwa, ninth. OC;  PAN *u-Siwa, nine (of things?). Formosan

*Siwid   PAN *Siwid, slant. Formosan;  PMP *hiwid, slant. WMP


 

TOP      Sa    Se    Si    Su    

Su

*Su-   PAN *Su-, take off, remove (+ noun). Formosan

*Suab   PAN *Suab, yawn. Formosan;  PMP *huab₂, yawn. WMP;  PAN *ma-Suab, to yawn, yawning. Formosan;  PMP *ma-huab₁, to yawn, yawning. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *mawab, to yawn, yawning. CMP SHWNG;  POC *mawap, to yawn, yawning. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-huab, to yawn. WMP;  PCEMP *ma-mawab, to yawn. CMP SHWNG;  POC *ma-mawap, to yawn. OC

*Suaji   PAN *Suaji, younger sibling. Formosan;  PMP *huaji, younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *waji, younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex. CMP OC;  PWMP *maR-huaji, be in a sibling relationship. WMP;  PWMP *paR-huaji, younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex. WMP;  PWMP *si huaji, nickname for youngest child. WMP;  PMP *ta-huaji, younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex. WMP;  POC *taci, younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex. OC;  PAN *Suaji-an, called or regarded as siblings (?). Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *huaji-ŋ, younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative). WMP;  PMP *huaji-q, younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative). WMP CMP

*Suaw   PAN *Suaw, yawn. Formosan;  PAN *ma-Suaw, to yawn. Formosan

*SulaR   PAN *SulaR, snake. Formosan WMP;  PMP *hulaR, snake. WMP CMP

*Sulem   PAN *Sulem, dim. Formosan;  PMP *hulem, dim. WMP;  PAN *ma-Sulem, dim, dark. Formosan;  PMP *ma-hulem, dim, dark. WMP

*Sulij   PAN *Sulij, lie or sleep next to. Formosan;  PMP *hulij, lie or sleep next to. WMP;  PWMP *ka-hulij, one who lies next to another. WMP

*SulSul   PAN *SulSul, to masturbate. Formosan

*SuluR   PAN *SuluR, lower or let down, as on a rope. Formosan;  PMP *huluR, lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat. WMP CMP;  PPh *i-huluR, lower, drop. WMP;  PWMP *ma-huluR, descend, lower. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-huluR, lower something, pay out rope. WMP;  PPh *maR-huluR, to lower. WMP;  PWMP *h<um>uluR, descend, go down. WMP;  PWMP *huluR-an, what is given to someone. WMP

*Suni   PAN *Suni, chirp. Formosan;  PMP *huni, chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds). WMP CMP;  POC *uni, noise, commotion. OC;  PWMP *pa-huni, make a sound or noise. WMP;  PAN *S<um>uni, to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds). Formosan;  PMP *h<um>uni, to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds). WMP;  PWMP *huni huni, musical instrument. WMP

*SuNus   PAN *SuNus, withdraw, pull out, extract. Formosan;  PMP *hunus, withdraw, pull out, extract. WMP;  POC *unus, withdraw, pull out, extract. OC;  POC *unus-i, withdraw, pull out, extract. OC

*Supiq   PAN *Supiq, plant shoot. Formosan;  PMP *hupiq, flower spathe of areca palm. WMP

*SuqSuq   PAN *SuqSuq, drip or drain out. Formosan;  PMP *huqhuq, drip or drain out. WMP

*SuRas   PAN *SuRas, wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes). Formosan;  PMP *huRas, wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes). WMP CMP;  PEMP *uRas, wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes). SHWNG;  PWMP *maŋ-huRas, wash, cleanse. WMP;  PPh *maR-huRas, wash, cleanse. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-huRas, wash. WMP;  PWMP *huRas-an, to wash. WMP;  PWMP *huRas-en, wash. WMP;  PWMP *huRas-i, wash (imper.). WMP

*SuRay   PAN *SuRay, to pass, of time; to pass time idly. Formosan;  PMP *huRay, to wait, be patient. WMP

*SuReNa   PAN *SuReNa, snow. Formosan

*SuRSuR   PAN *SuRSuR, draw string; to thread a drawstring. Formosan;  PMP *huRhuR, draw string; to thread a drawstring. WMP

*SuRut   PAN *SuRut, pull, draw. Formosan WMP;  PAN *SuRut-en, pull. Formosan WMP

*SuSuq   PAN *SuSuq, drip or drain out. Formosan;  PMP *huhuq, drip or drain out. WMP

*Suyeʔab   PAN *Suyeʔab, to yawn. Formosan;  PMP *huyeʔab, to yawn. WMP

*Suʔu   PAN *Suʔu, 2sg. agent/possessor. Formosan;  PMP *huʔu, 2sg. subject pronoun. WMP;  PEMP *u₂, 2sg. subject pronoun. SHWNG OC

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_s2.htm