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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*t   

ta    te        ti    to    tu    

*-ta   PAN *-ta, 1pl. incl. genitive suffix. Formosan WMP;  POC *-da₂, 1pl. incl. possessive suffix. OC

*ta-₁   PAN *ta-₁, 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *-da₁, 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun. OC

*ta₁   PCEMP *ta₁, preposition with locative and possessive functions. CMP OC

*ta-₂   PMP *ta-₂, prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action. WMP CMP OC

*ta₂   PWMP *ta₂, emphatic particle. WMP

*taba₁   POC *taba₁, reward, pay. OC

*taba₂   POC *taba₂, side, edge, border. OC

*taba₃   PMP *taba₃, cut with a knife. WMP;  POC *tapa, cut off with a knife. OC

*tabad   PMP *tabad, to cut, make an incision. WMP;  POC *tapar, to cut, make an incision. OC

*tabák   PPH *tabák, sword or sword-like appendage. WMP

*tabak   PWMP *tabak₁, knock, pound, as with a hammer. WMP

*tabal   POC *tabal, side of the head. OC

*tabaN   PAN *tabaN, head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?). Formosan;  PMP *taban, booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride. WMP;  PWMP *ma-naban, to carry off, kidnap, loot a place. WMP;  PWMP *maR-taban, to carry off, kidnap, loot a place. WMP;  PWMP *t<in>aban, be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off. WMP;  PWMP *taban-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *taban-en, be kidnapped or abducted. WMP

*tabaŋ   PMP *tabaŋ, help, assist. WMP OC

*tabaR   PWMP *tabaR, tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite. WMP

*tabas₁   PWMP *tabas, machete, bolo; chop with a machete. WMP

*tabas₂   PWMP *tabas₂, to cut out, as a pattern. WMP

*tabayaR   PPH *tabayaR, kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha. WMP

*tabe   POC *tabe, hold tightly or firmly. OC

*ta(m)beŋ   PWMP *ta(m)beŋ, block, obstruct. WMP

*tabeŋ   PWMP *tabeŋ, to screen, conceal, cover. WMP

*tabeq   PWMP *tabeq, fat, grease; tasty. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tabeq-an, corpulence, obesity. WMP;  PWMP *ma-tabeq, fat, corpulent. WMP

*tabi   PAN *tabi, plough. Formosan

*ta(m)bid   PWMP *ta(m)bid, attach, fasten. WMP

*tabid   PWMP *tabid, to twist, braid. WMP

*tabiŋ   PWMP *tabiŋ, sheltering cover. WMP

*tabiRa   POC *tabiRa, wooden food bowl. OC

*tabtab₁   PWMP *tabtab₁, to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on. WMP;  PPH *tabtab-an, to cut, to slash. WMP

*tabtab₂   PAN *tabtab₂, slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down. Formosan WMP

*tabuD   PWMP *tabuD, strew, scatter. WMP

*tabukul   PAN *tabukul, casting net for fishing. Formosan WMP

*tabun₁   PPH *tabun₁, kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand. WMP

*tabun₂   PMP *tabun₂, to cover with earth, sand, etc.. WMP CMP;  POC *tapun₂, to cover with earth. OC;  PPh *tabún-an, to cover with earth, dam up. WMP

*tabuna   POC *tabuna, dehortative: don’t!. OC

*tabuni₁   PMP *tabuni₁, placenta, afterbirth. WMP CMP;  POC *tapuni, placenta, afterbirth. OC

*tabuni₂   PWMP *tabuni₂, to hide, hidden. WMP

*tabuŋ   PWMP *tabuŋ, a plant: Ixora sp.. WMP

*tabuq   PMP *tabuq, scoop up water; water scoop or dipper. WMP;  POC *tapuq, scoop up water. OC

*tabuqan   PMP *tabuqan, yellowjacket wasp. WMP CMP

*tabuR₁   PMP *tabuR₁, to strew, scatter, as seed. WMP;  POC *tabuR₁, to strew, scatter, as seed. OC

*tabuR₂   PPH *tabuR₂, to drive away, shoo off. WMP

*tabuRi   PMP *tabuRi, conch shell trumpet. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tapuRi, conch shell trumpet. OC

*tabuRiq   PMP *tabuRiq, conch shell trumpet. WMP CMP;  POC *tapuRiq, conch shell trumpet. OC

*tabwa   POC *tabwa, coconut growth stage 12: sprouted. OC

*tada   PMP *tada, natural cock spur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur). WMP CMP

*tadal   POC *tadal, to look upward; face upward. OC

*tadaw   PAN *tadaw, kind of large knife. Formosan

*tadék   PPH *tadék, a dance; to dance. WMP

*ta(n)dem   PWMP *ta(n)dem, remember. WMP

*tadra   POC *tadra, look upward. OC

*tadtad   PWMP *tadtad, chop up, mince. WMP;  PPH *t<in>adtád, chop. WMP;  PPH *tadtad-án, chop. WMP;  PPH *tadtad-én, chop. WMP

*tadu   PWMP *tadu, bees. WMP

*taduŋ   PPH *taduŋ, sun hat, used to provide shade. WMP

*taeb   PWMP *taeb, high tide (?). WMP

*taga-   PPH *taga-, prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups). WMP

*tagal   PWMP *tagal, duration of time, time period. WMP

*tagal(e)táw   PPH *tagal(e)táw, buoy, float. WMP

*tágay   PPH *tágay, a toast (in drinking); to offer a toast. WMP

*tag(e)bák   PPH *tag(e)bák, rotten, turned rancid or mildewed. WMP

*tag(e)búq   PPH *tag(e)búq, meet, encounter, happen upon. WMP

*tagek   PPH *tagek, sap of a tree. WMP

*tag(e)kés   PPH *tag(e)kés, wrap around tightly. WMP

*tag(e)pás   PPH *tag(e)pás, cut, chop. WMP

*tageRaŋ   PAN *tageRaŋ, ribcage. Formosan WMP

*tagiktik   PPH *tagiktik, sound of ticking, rain drops falling. WMP

*tagtág   PPH *tagtág, to distribute, pass out shares of food. WMP

*tagtag   PPH *tagtag, to be jolted or knocked around on a rough ride. WMP;  PPH *ma-tagtág, to be shaken (as from having a rough ride in transport). WMP

*tahep-i   PMP *tahep-i₁, to winnow. WMP CMP

*tahúl   PPH *tahúl, to howl, of a dog. WMP

*tai ñamuk   POC *tai ñamuk, mosquito net. OC

*tail   POC *tail, tree with fiber used to make fish nets. OC

*taina   PAN *taina, female, of animals. Formosan;  PMP *tina, female, of animals. WMP CMP OC

*tájip   PPH *tájip, to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices. WMP;  PPH *tajip-an, to peel, pare. WMP

*tak   PMP *tak, bang!. WMP CMP

*taka   PPH *taka, hesitate, not able to act. WMP

*takad   PPH *takad, step on; leave footprint. WMP

*takál₁   PPH *takál₁, marine mollusc sp.. WMP

*takál₂   PPH *takál₂, stud animal; to mate, of animals. WMP

*tákaŋ   PPH *tákaŋ, spread wide open. WMP

*ta(ŋ)kas₁   PMP *ta(ŋ)kas, agile, quick, swift, energetic. WMP CMP

*takaw   PWMP *takaw₂, to retreat, run from battle. WMP

*take   POC *take₂, feces, excrement. OC

*ta(ŋ)keb₁   PWMP *ta(ŋ)keb, overlap, overlapping part. WMP

*tak(e)bá   PPH *tak(e)bá, embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans). WMP

*takebas   PWMP *takebas, cut down small plants to clear a way. WMP

*takéd   PPH *takéd, tie down, fasten by binding. WMP;  PPH *i-takéd, to bind, to fasten tightly by tying. WMP

*taked₁   PWMP *taked₁, back of leg. WMP

*taked₂   PWMP *taked₂, climb. WMP

*takelap   PWMP *takelap, cover with something flat. WMP

*tak(e)laq   PPH *tak(e)laq, click with the tongue. WMP

*tak(e)lub   PWMP *tak(e)lub, to cover. WMP

*takem   PPH *takem, tightly capped. WMP

*ta(ŋ)kep₁   PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₁, to fold over, double. WMP CMP

*ta(ŋ)kep₂   PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₂, seize, catch. WMP OC

*takere   POC *takere, a bird, the fantail: Rhipidura sp.. OC

*takes₁   PAN *takes₁, to wrap around; embrace, hug. Formosan WMP

*takes₂   PPH *takes₂, measurement; to measure. WMP

*ta(ŋ)ket   PWMP *ta(ŋ)ket, adhere, stick to. WMP

*takíp   PPH *takíp, a cover; to cover. WMP

*takis   PAN *takis, sword. Formosan

*taktak₁   PAN *taktak₁, to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something. Formosan WMP CMP

*taktak₂   PAN *taktak₂, clatter, clack. Formosan WMP CMP

*taku₁   POC *taku₁, quick, rapid. OC

*taku₂   PAN *taku₂, dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up. Formosan WMP CMP

*takua   POC *takua, yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares. WMP OC

*takub   PMP *takub, thin covering, eyelid. WMP;  PWMP *takub-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *takub-takub, eyelid. WMP OC

*ta(ŋ)kub   PMP *ta(ŋ)kub, to close or cover up. WMP;  POC *takup₂, cover. OC

*takup   PWMP *takup₁, cover, enclose. WMP

*takuRu   POC *takuRu, back (anat.). OC

*takut   PAN *takut, fear. Formosan WMP CMP;  PMP *ka-takut, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP;  PAN *ma-takut, fear. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *matakut, fear; fearful, afraid. OC;  PWMP *ma-nakut, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *pa-takut, to frighten, make afraid. WMP SHWNG;  PMP *paka-takut, to frighten, cause to fear. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *pa-nakut, provoke fear (?). WMP;  PWMP *ka-takut-an, be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry. WMP;  PMP *t<um>akut, become afraid. WMP CMP;  PWMP *takut-an, easily frightened, cowardly. WMP;  PWMP *takut-en, to frighten someone. WMP

*talabá   PPH *talabá, kind of shellfish, probably oyster. WMP

*talagá   PPH *talagá, truly, surely, really, in fact. WMP

*talakituk   PPH *talakituk, kind of marine fish. WMP

*talaŋ₁   PPh *talaŋ₁, a tree: Diospyros spp.. WMP

*talaŋ₂   PWMP *talaŋ₂, toss up, throw into the air. WMP

*talaŋ-talaŋ   PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ, a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel. WMP

*talaq₁   PMP *talaq₁, the morning ( evening) star: Venus. WMP CMP OC

*talaq₂   PPH *talaq₂, go for a walk. WMP

*talas   PMP *talas, break, burst. WMP SHWNG

*talátal   PPH *talátal, to sway, stagger, turn this way and that. WMP

*talaw   PAN *talaw, fear, fearful; coward. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-talaw, fear. Formosan WMP

*tales   PMP *tales, taro: Colocasia esculenta. WMP CMP;  POC *talos, taro: Colocasia esculenta. OC

*tal(e)sík   PPH *tal(e)sík, splash, spatter. WMP

*tali   POC *tali₂, to bend, coil or wind up. OC

*tali tali   PWMP *tali tali, plant sp.. WMP

*talínum   PPH *talínum, plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare. WMP

*taliŋu   PPH *taliŋu, to cheat, lead astray, get someone into trouble. WMP

*talisay   PMP *talisay, a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa. WMP CMP;  POC *talise₁, a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa. OC

*talise   POC *talise₂, crab sp.. OC

*taliuk   PAN *taliuk, turn, go around. Formosan WMP

*taliwájaq   PPH *taliwájaq, middle, middling, average. WMP

*taltal₁   PWMP *taltal₁, loosen by pounding. WMP

*taltal₂   PWMP *taltal₂, quarrel. WMP

*talu₁   PWMP *talu₁, shout at. WMP

*talu₂   PMP *talu₂, to lose, be defeated. WMP CMP

*talúbuq   PPH *talúbuq, grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy. WMP

*taluk   PMP *taluk, young plant shoot. WMP CMP

*talukaeb   PPH *talukaeb, eyelid. WMP

*taluki   PMP *taluki, kind of fabric ( silk?). WMP CMP

*taluktuk   PPH *taluktuk, hummock, small rise of land. WMP

*taluluŋ   PPH *taluluŋ, a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica. WMP

*taluntún   PPH *taluntún, follow a path. WMP

*tama₁   PAN *tama₁, appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark. Formosan WMP CMP

*tama₂   PMP *tama₂, enter, penetrate; bold, of persons. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-tama-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tamád   PPH *tamád, lazy, indolent. WMP;  PPH *tamad-an, be lazy, feel lazy. WMP

*tamadaw   PWMP *tamadaw, kind of wild ruminant. WMP

*tamaji   POC *tamaji, provisions, food for a journey. OC

*taman   PWMP *taman, up to, as far as. WMP

*tamanaŋ   PWMP *tamanaŋ, sterile, barren, childless. WMP

*tamanu   POC *tamanu, a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum. OC

*tamaq₁   PMP *tamaq₁, appropriate, suitable; fit together. WMP CMP

*tamaq₂   PMP *tamaq₂, enter, penetrate; bold, of persons. WMP CMP

*tambak₁   PMP *tambak₁, hit, pound on. WMP CMP

*tambak₂   PMP *tambak₂, dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up. WMP CMP;  POC *tabak₂, dam, dyke, embankment. OC;  PWMP *ma-tambak, heap. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tambak-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *t<um>ambak, to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct. WMP;  PWMP *tambak-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tambal₁   PMP *tambal₁, to mend, patch. WMP CMP

*tambal₂   PPH *tambal₂, to treat with medicine. WMP

*tamban   PWMP *tamban, a fish: sardine spp.. WMP

*tambáŋ   PPH *tambáŋ, ambush, surprise attack. WMP;  PPH *tambaŋ-an, to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game. WMP

*tambaŋuŋu   PWMP *tambaŋuŋu, large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius. WMP

*tambaq   PWMP *tambaq, add to, increase; addition, supplement. WMP

*tambar   PMP *tambar, antidote (as for snakebite). WMP CMP

*tambaR   PPH *tambaR, to advise, help someone with a problem. WMP

*tambéd   PPH *tambéd, lizard fish. WMP

*tambej   PWMP *tambej, tie up, bind tightly. WMP

*tambel   PWMP *tambel, to patch. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nambel, to patch. WMP

*tambelaŋ   PWMP *tambelaŋ, kind of bamboo. WMP

*tambeŋ   PWMP *tambeŋ, dam, obstruction of flow. WMP

*tambiluk   PWMP *tambiluk, sea worm that attacks wood. WMP

*tambu   PCEMP *tambu, forbidden, taboo. CMP;  POC *tabu, forbidden, taboo. OC;  POC *paka-tabu, to forbid, make taboo. OC;  POC *tabu-na, taboo. OC;  POC *tabu-ni-a, taboo. OC;  POC *tapu-tapu, strictly forbidden. OC

*tambúg   PPH *tambúg, splash in the water. WMP

*tambuk   PWMP *tambuk, bulging, as the stomach. WMP

*tambuluk   PWMP *tambuluk, puffy area around the throat of some birds. WMP

*tamiaŋ   PMP *tamiaŋ, kind of bamboo. WMP CMP

*tamiluk   PWMP *tamiluk, teredo, sea worm that attacks wood. WMP

*tamiŋ   PMP *tamiŋ, type of shield. WMP CMP

*tamiq   PMP *tamiq, to taste, try. WMP CMP OC

*tamis   PMP *tamis, to taste, try. WMP CMP OC

*tampar₁   PWMP *tampar₁, flatfish, flounder. WMP

*tampar₂   PWMP *tampar₂, slap, clap on the ear. WMP

*tampay   PWMP *tampay, to see at a distance (?). WMP

*tampek   PMP *tampek, slap, hit with open hand. WMP OC

*tampeŋ   PWMP *tampeŋ, plug or dam up. WMP

*tampil   PWMP *tampil, attach, connect, join. WMP

*tampipiq   PPH *tampipiq, telescoping basket, double basket. WMP

*tampir   PWMP *tampir, attach, connect, join. WMP

*tampuk₁   PMP *tampuk₁, clap, thud. WMP OC

*tampuk₂   PWMP *tampuk₂, sacred place. WMP

*tampuk₃   PWMP *tampuk₃, stem, stalk of a plant. WMP

*tampuŋ   PWMP *tampuŋ, collect, gather. WMP

*tampuq   PPH *tampuq, sulk; feel remorse. WMP

*tamtam   PAN *tamtam, smack the lips. Formosan WMP SHWNG

*tamu₁   PCEMP *tamu₁, smack the lips while eating. CMP OC

*tamu₂   PWMP *tamu₂, turmeric: Curcuma zedoaria. WMP

*tanan   PPH *tanan, all. WMP

*tanaŋaw   PWMP *tanaŋaw, malodorous insect that damages rice plants. WMP

*tanaq   PAN *tanaq, a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance). Formosan

*tanaRa   PCMP *tanaRa, to stare, look fixedly at something. CMP

*tanayan   PAN *tanayan, bamboo sp.. Formosan

*tandak   PWMP *tandak, to stamp the feet. WMP

*tandaq   PPH *tandaq, having a good memory; intelligent. WMP;  PPH *ma-tanda-an, to remember, recall. WMP

*tandes   PWMP *tandes, state explicitly, stipulate. WMP

*tandiŋ   PWMP *tandiŋ, compare two things. WMP

*tanduk tanduk   PWMP *tanduk tanduk, plant sp.. WMP

*taneq   PMP *taneq, earth, soil, land. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *tanoq, earth, soil, land; down; westward. OC;  PPH *t<um>aneq, go over land, hike. WMP;  PMP *taneq pulut, clay, sticky earth. WMP;  POC *tanoq pulut, clay, sticky earth. OC;  PMP *taneq tumbuq, anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’). WMP;  POC *tanoq tubuq, anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’). OC;  POC *tanoq tanoq, dusty, full of dust or dirt. OC

*tani₁   POC *tani₁, go away from. OC

*tani₂   PMP *tani₂, here. WMP OC

*tanipa   POC *tanipa, sardine, anchovy. OC

*taniq   PWMP *taniq, alone, in isolation, independent. WMP

*tantán   PPH *tantán, lose interest in doing something (?). WMP

*tanúd   PPH *tanúd, to thread a needle. WMP

*tánud   PPH *tánud, guard, sentinel; to stand guard. WMP

*tanum   POC *tanum₂, to plant, bury. OC

*tanúR   PPH *tanúR, loud sound; volume, loudness. WMP

*tánus   PPH *tánus, straight, as tree limbs. WMP

*tanzak   PWMP *tanzak, stamp the feet; step, leap. WMP

*taNah   PAN *taNah, red. Formosan

*taNam   PAN *taNam, to taste, try. Formosan

*taNaS   PAN *taNaS, village; place of residence. Formosan;  PMP *tahan, abode, place of residence. WMP

*taNek   PAN *taNek, to cook anything but rice. Formosan;  PMP *tanek, to cook. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nanek, to boil, to cook. WMP;  PWMP *maR-tanek, to boil, to cook. WMP;  PAN *t<in>aNek, boiled foods other than rice?. Formosan;  PMP *t<in>anek, boiled foods other than rice. WMP;  PAN *t<um>aNek, to cook anything but rice. Formosan;  PMP *t<um>anek, to cook anything but rice. WMP;  PAN *taNek-en, cook. Formosan;  PMP *tanek-en, cook. WMP

*taNiud   PAN *taNiud, mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta). Formosan WMP

*tañam   PAN *tañam, try, taste. Formosan WMP

*taŋ   PMP *taŋ, sound of a clang or bang. WMP CMP

*taŋa₁   PAN *taŋa₂, to open. Formosan;  PMP *taŋa, to gape stupidly, gawk. WMP OC;  PAN *ma-taŋa, will open?. Formosan

*taŋa₂   POC *taŋa₂, netbag, sack, pocket. OC

*taŋa₃   POC *taŋa₃, a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria. OC

*taŋa₄   PPH *taŋa₄, a tree: Prunus sp.. WMP

*taŋad   PMP *taŋad, look upward. WMP;  POC *taŋar, look upward. OC

*taŋada   PMP *taŋada, to look upward. WMP CMP

*taŋah   PPH *taŋah, stupid, silly, ignorant. WMP

*taŋan   PMP *taŋan, finger, toe. WMP CMP;  POC *taŋan, finger, toe. OC

*taŋan-taŋan   PWMP *taŋan-taŋan, the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis. WMP

*taŋaŋaq   PWMP *taŋaŋaq, open the mouth wide, gape. WMP

*taŋapa   POC *taŋapa, wrasse, Cheilinus spp.. OC

*taŋaq₁   PPH *taŋaq₁, incapable, incompetent. WMP

*taŋaq₂   PWMP *taŋaq₂, look upward. WMP

*taŋaq₃   PWMP *taŋaq₃, destructive insect. WMP

*taŋaq₄   PWMP *taŋaq₄, middle, center. WMP

*taŋaR   PPH *taŋaR, to seize property and run off with it; to elope with a single woman. WMP

*taŋaR   PMP *taŋaR, to seize with the teeth, hold by biting. WMP OC

*taŋay   PPH *taŋay, to look upward. WMP

*taŋeb   PMP *taŋeb, lid, cover. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-naŋeb, to close, as a door; cover. WMP

*taŋ(e)buq₁   PPH *taŋ(e)buq₁, kind of coarse grass. WMP

*taŋ(e)buq₂   PPH *taŋ(e)buq₂, bamboo shoot. WMP

*taŋ(e)dan   PPH *taŋ(e)dan, payment for services. WMP

*taŋ(e)laj   PPH *taŋ(e)laj, kind of tall grass: Themeda gigantea. WMP

*taŋén   PPH *taŋén, wedge, piece used to stabilize surfaces. WMP

*taŋ(e)paq   PPH *taŋ(e)paq, to pay for in advance. WMP

*taŋepi   PWMP *taŋepi, edge, bank, shore. WMP

*taŋga₁   PMP *taŋga₁, rung of a ladder; runged ladder. WMP CMP

*taŋga₂   PMP *taŋga₂, the Indian cork tree: Millingtonia hortensis. WMP CMP

*taŋgal   PWMP *taŋgal, unfastened, detached. WMP

*taŋgap   PWMP *taŋgap, receive, accept. WMP

*taŋgiRi   PWMP *taŋgiRi, Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.. WMP

*taŋgul   PWMP *taŋgul, defend oneself, parry a blow. WMP

*taŋguŋ   PWMP *taŋguŋ, carry on a shoulder pole. WMP;  PWMP *ka-taŋguŋ, bearable, able to be carried. WMP

*taŋíl   PPH *taŋíl, wedge. WMP

*taŋíliq   PPH *taŋíliq, a tree: Shorea polysperma. WMP

*taŋiRi   PMP *taŋiRi, Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.. WMP CMP OC

*taŋkal   PPH *taŋkal, coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs. WMP

*taŋkas   PMP *taŋkas, loosen, untie. WMP;  POC *takas, loosen, untie, set free. OC

*taŋkay   PMP *taŋkay, stem of a plant, stalk. WMP;  POC *take₁, stem of a plant, stalk. OC

*taŋkeb₂   PWMP *taŋkeb, fall face downward. WMP

*taŋkep   PMP *taŋkep, catch, as by covering. WMP CMP

*taŋkir   PWMP *taŋkir, addition, annex to a building. WMP

*taŋkis   PWMP *taŋkis, to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside. WMP

*taŋkuŋ   PPH *taŋkuŋ, an edible plant, swamp cabbage: Ipomoea aquatica. WMP

*taŋop   POC *taŋop, take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand. OC

*taŋtáŋ   PPH *taŋtáŋ, clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals. WMP;  PPH *taŋtaŋ-én, to beat metals. WMP

*taŋuq   PPH *taŋuq, to nod the head, as in agreement. WMP

*táŋus   PPH *táŋus, pointed or prominent, of the nose. WMP

*taŋuy   PWMP *taŋuy, to swim. WMP

*tapa₁   POC *tapa₂, incise, make an incision in flesh. OC

*tapa₂   POC *tapa₃, to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey. OC

*ta(m)pak   PWMP *ta(m)pak, slap, strike with the hand. WMP

*tapak₁   PWMP *tapak₁, palm of the hand, sole of the foot. WMP

*tapak₂   PMP *tapak₂, visible. WMP OC

*tapal   PWMP *tapal, a patch, as on clothing. WMP

*tapaŋ   PPH *tapaŋ₂, bold, rude; brave. WMP

*ta(m)pas   PWMP *ta(m)pas, lop off, cut off. WMP

*tapay   PWMP *tapay, rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake. WMP;  PWMP *tapay-an, large jar used to store rice wine. WMP

*tape₁   POC *tape₁, to flow, run, of water. OC;  POC *tape-a, be carried away by water. OC;  POC *tape-tape, flow swiftly. OC

*tapeS   PAN *tapeS, winnow. Formosan;  PMP *tahep, winnow. WMP;  PMP *tahep-an, winnow. WMP;  PAN *tapeS-i, to winnow. Formosan;  PMP *tahep-i₂, winnow. WMP

*tapi   PMP *tapi, to winnow. WMP CMP

*tapik   PMP *tapik, pat, slap lightly. WMP;  POC *tapik, pat, slap lightly. OC

*tapiq₁   PPH *tapiq₁, board, lumber, beam in house construction. WMP

*tapiq₂   PWMP *tapiq₂, apron, skirt. WMP

*tapis₁   PAN *tapis₁, loincloth (?). Formosan WMP CMP

*tapis₂   PMP *tapis₂, to skim over the surface. WMP OC

*tapis₃   PWMP *tapis₃, to strain, filter. WMP

*tapo   POC *tapo, to fan. OC

*tapola   POC *tapola, wide. OC

*taptap   PPH *taptap, to move the lips or tongue in chewing or lapping up. WMP

*tapu   POC *tapu, to look for, seek. OC

*tapuák   PPH *tapuák, plunge, dive into. WMP

*tapuk₁   PMP *tapuk₁, flock together. WMP OC

*tapuk₂   PPH *tapuk₂, dust in the air, stir up dust. WMP

*tapuk₃   PWMP *tapuk₃, hide oneself. WMP

*ta(m)pun   PMP *ta(m)pun, gather, assemble. WMP OC

*tapuŋ   PPH *tapuŋ, rice flour. WMP

*tapus   PAN *tapus, end, complete, finish. Formosan WMP

*taq₁   PPH *taq₁, because. WMP

*taq₂   PPH *taq₂, particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions. WMP

*taq₃   PMP *taq₃, negative marker: no, not. WMP CMP

*taqan₁   PAN *taqan₁, set a trap. Formosan WMP

*taqan₂   PWMP *taqan₂, to hold back, keep in reserve. WMP

*taqay   PMP *taqay, feces, excrement. WMP;  POC *taqe₂, feces, excrement. OC;  PMP *t<in>aqay, intestines. WMP;  POC *tinaqe, intestines. OC

*taqe   POC *taqe₁, negative marker. OC

*taq(e)baŋ   PWMP *taq(e)baŋ, tasteless, insipid. WMP

*taq(e)kip   PPH *taq(e)kip, include with something else. WMP

*taq(e)mis   PMP *taq(e)mis, sweet. WMP CMP

*taqen   PMP *taqen, set a snare. WMP;  POC *taqon, set a snare. OC

*taq(e)náw   PPH *taq(e)náw, to see or look at something far away. WMP;  PPH *tanɁaw-én, to see or look at something far away. WMP

*taq(e)nay   PPH *taq(e)nay, a sheaf or bundle of rice stalks. WMP

*taq(e)paw   PPH *taq(e)paw, top surface of something. WMP;  PPH *i-taq(e)paw, put something on top of something else. WMP;  PPH *taq(e)paw-an, put something on top of something else. WMP

*taq(e)pil   PMP *taq(e)pil, in layers, adjacent to one another. WMP

*taqo   POC *taqo, cook in earth oven. OC

*taqu   PMP *taqu₁, right side. WMP OC;  PMP *ka-taqu₂, right hand, right side. WMP OC;  PMP *ma-taqu₂, right side. OC

*taqúl   PPH *taqul, to howl, of a dog. WMP

*taqun   PMP *taqun, year, season. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*tara   PMP *tara, cock spur. WMP CMP

*taragau   POC *taragau, fish eagle, fish hawk. OC

*taraquk   PPH *taraquk, crowing of a rooster. WMP

*taraytay   PPH *taraytay, put in a straight line. WMP

*tari   POC *tari, to wait, wait for someone. OC

*tariktik   PPH *tariktik, drizzle, light rain. WMP

*tariŋ   PWMP *tariŋ, bamboo sp.. WMP

*taris   PMP *taris, scratch a line. WMP CMP

*taruk   PWMP *taruk, plant shoot, sprout. WMP

*tarus   PWMP *tarus, continue doing something, proceed without stopping. WMP

*taR-   PAN *taR-, prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action. Formosan WMP

*taRa   POC *taRa, short snouted unicornfish: Naso spp.. OC

*taRabas   PWMP *taRabas, plant sp.. WMP

*taRad   PPH *taRad, to wait. WMP;  PPH *taRad-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*taRah   PAN *taRah, to wait. Formosan;  PAN *t<um>aRah, to wait. Formosan

*taRak   PPH *taRak, to distribute an inheritance (?). WMP

*taRamwi   POC *taRamwi, allow, agree, accept, permit. OC

*taRaq₁   PAN *taRaq₁, hewing with an adze. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-naRaq, to hew with an adze. WMP;  PWMP *t<in>aRaq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *t<um>aRaq, to adze wood, hew wood with an adze. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *taRaq-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *taRaq-i, Adze it!, Hew it!. Formosan OC

*taRaq₂   PMP *taRaq₂, unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornis. WMP OC

*taRaqan   PMP *taRaqan, squirrel fish: Holocentrus spp.. WMP OC

*taRaquk   PPH *taRaquk, to crow, of a rooster. WMP

*taRenek   PPH *taRenek, sandfly. WMP

*taRihtih   PPH *taRihtih, drizzle, light rain. WMP

*taRiktík   PPH *taRiktík, sound of rain on roof. WMP

*taRin   PMP *taRin, snare trap. WMP OC

*ta(R)kes   PAN *ta(R)kes, wrap around, encircle. Formosan WMP

*taRpis   PWMP *taRpis, thin. WMP

*taRu   POC *taRu, to cover, as with a cloth or mat. OC

*taRum   PMP *taRum, indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.. WMP CMP

*taRuq   PMP *taRuq, to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-naRuq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *maR-taRuq, to lay down, put down, put away. WMP;  PMP *pa-taRuq, something given to another for safekeeping (?). WMP CMP;  PWMP *t<in>aRuq, what is laid, placed or put down. WMP;  PWMP *t<um>aRuq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *taRuq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *taRuq taRuq, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*taRuqan   PAN *taRuqan, field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village. Formosan

*taRus   PMP *taRus, to reach, extend to. WMP OC

*taRutum   PMP *taRutum, porcupine fish. WMP CMP

*taRutuŋ   PMP *taRutuŋ, porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*tasa   POC *tasa, one (in counting). OC

*tasak   PMP *tasak, ripe. WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-tasak, ripe, cooked. WMP CMP

*tasek   PWMP *tasek, insert(ed) vertically in the ground. WMP

*tasik   PMP *tasik, sea, saltwater. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*tasim   PMP *tasim, sharp. OC;  PMP *tasim-i, sharp. WMP OC

*tasiwa   POC *tasiwa, sea perch: Lutjanus sp.. OC

*tastas   PAN *tastas, sever, cut through, rip out stitches. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ma-nastas, to rip out stitches. WMP;  PWMP *t<um>astas, cut or tear open stitches. WMP;  PPH *tastas-en, to undo stitches, pull out tying material. WMP

*tata₁   PAN *tata₁, collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*tata₂   POC *tata₂, near. OC

*tatadu   PWMP *tatadu, large green hairless stinging caterpillar. WMP

*tatak   PAN *tatak, hoe. Formosan

*tatal   PWMP *tatal, wood chips. WMP

*tataq   PWMP *tataq, inlay of gold or silver. WMP

*tatuqu   PMP *tatuqu, true, real. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*tatus   PPH *tatus, coconut crab: Birgus latro. WMP

*tau   POC *tau₂, to hang up. OC

*tau ñamuk   POC *tau ñamuk, mosquito net. OC

*taur   POC *taur, hold in the hand. OC

*tawa   PWMP *tawa₂, a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp.. WMP

*tawaD   PWMP *tawaD, to bargain, haggle over the price. WMP

*táwad   PPH *táwad, to pardon, forgive. WMP

*tawan   PMP *tawan, kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata. WMP SHWNG OC

*tawaŋ   PWMP *tawaŋ, open space, empty of obstruction. WMP

*tawaR₁   PWMP *tawaR₁, tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison. WMP

*tawaR₂   PWMP *tawaR₂, to call, summon; chant to call the spirits. WMP

*tawasi   POC *tawasi, a tree: Rhus taitensis. OC

*taway   PWMP *taway, try the taste of something. WMP

*tawtaw   PWMP *tawtaw, lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place. WMP

*tayáq   PPH *tayáq, stakes in gambling, wager, bet. WMP;  PPH *i-tayáɁ, to place a bet. WMP

*tayaw   PPH *tayaw, traditional dance form. WMP

*tayeŋ   PPH *tayeŋ, sea urchin with long black spines. WMP

*taytay   PMP *taytay, single log bridge (?). WMP SHWNG;  POC *tete, single log bridge; stairs, ladder. OC;  PWMP *ma-naytay, walk over a plank or log bridge. WMP;  PWMP *taytay-an, log or plank bridge. WMP;  PPH *t<ag>aytay, narrow bridge. WMP

*taytáy   PPH *taytáy, mountain ridge. WMP

*tayug   PWMP *tayug, swing, oscillate. WMP

*tayun   PWMP *tayun, swing. WMP

*ta(n)zeg   PWMP *ta(n)zeg, stand. WMP

*tazek   PWMP *tazek, steep angle. WMP

*tazim   PMP *tazim, sharp point; to whet,. WMP SHWNG;  POC *tasim, sharp. OC

*tazuk   PWMP *tazuk, stick into the ground. WMP


 

TOP      ta    te        ti    to    tu    

te

*tebág   PPH *tebág, crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in. WMP

*tebaŋ   PMP *tebaŋ, to fell trees. WMP CMP

*tebáq   PPH *tebáq, to cut down a stalk of bananas. WMP

*tebaR   PWMP *tebaR, loud, boom, booming. WMP

*tebáR   PPH *tebáR, to answer. WMP;  PPH *ma-nebaR, to answer, as in answering a question. WMP

*tebas₁   PWMP *tebas₁, close the harvest. WMP

*tebas₂   PWMP *tebas₂, cut down, clear away scrub. WMP

*tebaS   PAN *tebaS, to cut, clear vegetation. Formosan;  PMP *tebah, to cut, clear vegetation. WMP CMP

*tebek   PAN *tebek, pierce, stab. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  PWMP *tebek-en, pierce. WMP;  PWMP *t<in>ebek, pierce. WMP;  PAN *t<um>ebek, to pierce, to stab. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-tebek, to pierce, to stab. WMP

*te(m)bek   PMP *te(m)bek, tap, thump. WMP CMP

*tebel₁   PPH *tebel₁, constipated. WMP

*tebel₂   PMP *tebel₂, thick, of objects; dense, of crowds. WMP CMP

*tebeŋ   PWMP *tebeŋ, felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nebeŋ, to fell trees, as in preparing a swidden. WMP

*tebéR   PPH *tebéR, a tree: Ficus sp.. WMP

*tebir   PPH *tebir, edge, seam, hem. WMP

*tebteb   PWMP *tebteb, to cut off, prune; cut down. WMP;  PPH *tebteb-en, to cut">cut in half. WMP

*tebuk   PWMP *tebuk₁, to pound, as rice. WMP

*tebuR   PMP *tebuR, natural spring, fresh water spring. WMP;  POC *topuR, natural spring, fresh water spring. OC

*tebus   PMP *tebus, redeem, ransom. WMP CMP

*tebuS   PAN *tebuS, sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum. Formosan;  PMP *tebuh₁, sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *na topu, sugarcane. OC

*teda   PAN *teda, leftover, remainder. Formosan WMP CMP

*tedák   PPH *tedák, stick with a pin, pierce. WMP

*te(n)dem   PWMP *te(n)dem, recall, recollect, remember. WMP

*tedes   PWMP *tedes, crush lice between the thumbnails. WMP

*tedis   PWMP *tedis, crush with the thumbnail (as a louse). WMP

*te(n)duk   PWMP *te(n)duk, skewer; to skewer (as meat). WMP

*teduŋ₁   PMP *teduŋ₁, take shelter, cover the head. WMP CMP

*teduŋ₂   PWMP *teduŋ₂, kind of snake, possibly cobra. WMP

*tegaŋ   PMP *tegaŋ, dry, dehydrated. WMP CMP

*tegas   PMP *tegas, clear, straightforward. WMP CMP

*tegék   PPH *tegék, sticky sap. WMP

*tegel   PMP *tegel, unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn. WMP CMP

*teger   PMP *teger, unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn. WMP CMP

*tegteg   PWMP *tegteg, to beat, pound on. WMP

*teguk   PMP *teguk, to gulp, swallow all at once. WMP CMP

*teguŋ   PAN *teguŋ, to boom, sound">resound. Formosan WMP

*tek   PMP *tek, thump!. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tok, thump!. OC

*teka₁   PMP *teka₁, to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete. WMP CMP;  POC *toka₁, to meet, encounter. OC

*teka₂   PMP *teka₂, elder sibling of the same sex. WMP;  POC *toka, elder sibling of the same sex. OC

*tekak   PWMP *tekak, to cackle. WMP

*tekaŋ   PWMP *tekaŋ, a step, a stride. WMP

*tekas   PMP *tekas, come to rest in a definite place, settle">settle down, as birds on a tree. WMP;  POC *toka₃, sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle">settle down, as birds on a tree. OC

*tekeb₁   PWMP *tekeb₁, to cover. WMP

*tekeb₂   PPH *tekeb₂, to attack, as an animal attacking its prey. WMP

*teked   PMP *teked, prop, support. WMP CMP OC

*tekek   PMP *tekek, dull throaty sound. WMP CMP

*teken   PMP *teken, downward pressure; bamboo punting pole. WMP CMP;  POC *tokon, bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water. OC;  PWMP *teken-en, pole. WMP;  PMP *teken-teken, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  POC *tokon-tokon, (gloss uncertain). OC

*tekep   PAN *tekep, a cover; to cover with a flat surface. Formosan WMP

*tekes   PWMP *tekes, bind firmly. WMP

*tekik   PWMP *tekik, high-pitched sound. WMP

*tekiq   PAN *tekiq, high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko. Formosan WMP CMP

*tektek₁   PAN *tektek₁, chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *totok, chop, hack, mince, cut up. OC;  PWMP *ma-nektek, chop or hack into pieces. WMP;  PAN *t<in>ektek, was chopped up. Formosan WMP;  PAN *t<um>əktək, to chop, hack, cut off. Formosan WMP;  PAN *tektek-en, be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced. Formosan WMP

*tektek₂   PAN *tektek₂, gecko, house lizard (onom.). Formosan WMP SHWNG

*tekub   PMP *tekub, to cover, shut. WMP;  POC *tokup, to cover. OC

*tekuk₁   PMP *tekuk₁, bend or pull down (as a branch). WMP CMP

*tekuk₂   PPH *tekuk₂, to sound off, cry out. WMP

*tekuŋ₁   PMP *tekuŋ₁, bow the head. WMP CMP

*tekuŋ₂   PAN *tekuŋ₂, to rap, knock, make a booming sound. Formosan WMP

*tekuq   PMP *tekuq, bend, hook. WMP CMP

*tela   PMP *tela, split, crack. WMP CMP

*telaŋ   PWMP *telaŋ, bamboo sp.. WMP

*telaq   PMP *telaq₂, sexual heat, sexual excitement. WMP;  POC *tolaq, sexual heat, sexual excitement. OC

*teleb   PMP *teleb, sink, vanish from sight. WMP CMP

*telem   PMP *telem, sink, disappear under water. WMP CMP

*telen   PMP *telen, to swallow. WMP CMP;  PWMP *telen-an, throat. WMP

*teleŋ   PWMP *teleŋ, sink, disappear under water. WMP

*teli   PMP *teli, female genitalia. WMP CMP OC

*teltel   PPH *teltel, to dip food in sauce. WMP

*telu   PAN *telu, three. Formosan WMP CMP;  PEMP *tolu, three. SHWNG OC;  PMP *telu-ŋa-puluq, thirty. WMP;  POC *tolu-ŋa-puluq, thirty. CMP OC;  PMP *i-telu, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP;  PWMP *in-telu, three times. WMP;  PAN *ka-telu, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *ka-telu, all three, three together, three in total. WMP;  POC *ka-tolu, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PWMP *ma-nelu, twist together rope out of three strands. WMP;  PAN *ma-telu, (gloss uncertain). Formosan WMP;  POC *ma-tolu, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PWMP *maka-telu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *maR-telu, to divide into three parts. WMP;  PMP *pa-telu, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP;  POC *pa-tolu, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PMP *paka-telu, to triple, multiply by three. WMP;  POC *paka-tolu, to triple, multiply by three. OC;  PWMP *paR-telu-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *pin-telu, three times. WMP;  PAN *Sika-telu, third. Formosan;  PMP *ika-telu, third. WMP CMP;  POC *ika-tolu, third. OC;  PAN *ta-telu, three (of humans). Formosan WMP;  POC *ta-tolu, three (of people). OC;  PWMP *ka-telu-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-telu-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPH *t<in>elu, made of three parts, as triple-strand rope. WMP;  PPH *t<um>elu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *telu-an, to join with to make three. WMP;  PWMP *telu-en, be divided into three (?). WMP;  PPH *telu-gan, three (in children’s games). WMP;  PMP *telu-telu, three each, three by three. WMP CMP;  POC *tolu-tolu, three each, three by three. OC

*teluk   PWMP *teluk, curved, as a shoreline. WMP

*tempak   PMP *tempak, split, break off. WMP CMP

*temtem   PPH *temtem, to burn something in a bonfire. WMP

*temu₁   PMP *temu₁, all around, surrounding. WMP CMP

*temu₂   PWMP *temu₂, to meet, receive; greet a guest. WMP

*temu₃   PWMP *temu₃, root plant in the ginger family. WMP

*temud   PWMP *temud, mumble, grumble. WMP

*tenaw   PPH *tenaw, clear, of liquid free of impurities. WMP

*tendan   PWMP *tendan, wages, salary. WMP

*tendek₁   PPH *tendek₁, post, stake, pillar. WMP

*tendek₂   PWMP *tendek₂, fence, barrier; enclosure. WMP

*tendem   PWMP *tendem, to remember. WMP

*teneb   PAN *teneb, to immerse, put under water. Formosan WMP

*tenek   PPH *tenek, thorn, spine, as on a fish. WMP;  PPH *ma-tenek, thorn. WMP

*tenem   PAN *tenem, sea, ocean. Formosan

*teneŋ   PWMP *teneŋ, calm, still, as the surface of water. WMP;  PWMP *ka-teneŋ-an, calm. WMP

*tenep   PAN *tenep, submerge. Formosan

*teneR   PWMP *teneR, sound, voice. WMP

*tenun   PAN *tenun, to weave ( cloth). Formosan WMP CMP;  PAN *ta-tenun-an, loom. Formosan;  PAN *t<in>enun, was woven by someone; what was woven. Formosan WMP;  PAN *t<um>enun, to weave. Formosan WMP;  PAN *tenun-an, loom. Formosan WMP;  PAN *t<in>enun-an, woven cloth. Formosan;  PAN *tenun-en, to be woven by someone. Formosan WMP

*tenzek   PMP *tenzeg, te(n)dek, upright, erect. WMP CMP

*teñej   PMP *teñej, sink, set (sun). WMP CMP

*teñen   PMP *teñen, to swallow. WMP;  POC *toñon, to swallow. OC

*teŋ   PMP *teŋ, buzz, hum. WMP CMP

*teŋaq   PMP *teŋaq, middle, center; half. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-teŋaq, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*teŋel   PPH *teŋel, nape, back of the neck. WMP

*teŋeR   PMP *teŋeR, kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing. WMP CMP OC

*teŋiC   PAN *teŋiC, grimace at pain. Formosan WMP

*teŋkuk   PWMP *teŋkuk, nape of the neck. WMP

*teŋteŋ₁   PAN *teŋteŋ₁, drone, droning tone. Formosan WMP

*teŋteŋ₂   PWMP *teŋteŋ₂, stare, look fixedly at something. WMP

*teŋuq   PMP *teŋuq, nape of the neck. WMP CMP

*tepa   PWMP *tepa, mat. WMP

*tepak₁   PMP *tepak₁, to slap. WMP CMP;  PWMP *tepak-tepak, sound of rhythmic pattering. WMP

*tepak₂   PPH *tepak₂, sound of footfalls. WMP

*tepap   PWMP *tepap, bring down the flat of the hand on something. WMP

*tepeŋ₁   PMP *tepeŋ₁, taste, test, try. WMP CMP;  POC *topoŋ, taste, test, try. OC

*tepeŋ₂   PPH *tepeŋ₂, equal in height or length. WMP

*tepeŋ₃   PAN *tepeŋ₃, to measure quantities, as amounts of grain. Formosan WMP

*tepes   PWMP *tepes, squeeze, press down. WMP

*tepet₁   PWMP *tepet₁, exact, precise. WMP

*tepet₂   PPH *tepet₂, a question; to ask a question. WMP

*tepiR   PMP *tepiR, mat. WMP CMP

*teptep   PMP *teptep, firefly. WMP;  POC *totop, firefly. OC

*tepuk   PAN *tepuk, hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping. Formosan WMP CMP

*tepuq   PWMP *tepuq, brittle. WMP

*te(m)pus   PMP *te(m)pus, end, conclude, finish. WMP OC

*teras   PWMP *teras, quick, fast. WMP

*teriŋ   PMP *teriŋ, bamboo sp.. WMP CMP

*terter   PAN *terter, shiver, tremble. Formosan WMP

*terus   PWMP *terus, go right through, penetrate through and through. WMP

*teRan   PWMP *teRan, strain while defecating or in childbirth. WMP

*teRas   PMP *teRas, heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree. WMP CMP;  POC *toRas, various hardwood trees; heartwood of a tree. OC;  PMP *ma-teRas, hard, solid. WMP;  POC *ma-toRas, hard, solid. OC

*teReb   PMP *teReb, soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing. WMP OC;  POC *toRop, soaked, saturated, full of liquid. OC

*teRel   PWMP *teRel, impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something. WMP

*teRep   PWMP *teRep, tree with fruit similar to breadfruit. WMP;  PWMP *si teRep, tree with fruit similar to breadfruit. WMP

*teRi   PMP *teRi, k.o. small fish. WMP

*testes   PWMP *testes, to rip, tear, shred. WMP

*tetas   PMP *tetas, rip or tear open. WMP CMP

*tetu   PCMP *tetu, to peck. CMP

*tetun   PCMP *tetun, coastal plain, promontory (?). CMP


 

TOP      ta    te        ti    to    tu    

*təlu   PCEMP *təlu, thick. CMP;  POC *matolu, thick. OC;  POC *matolu-tolu, very thick, really thick. OC


 

TOP      ta    te        ti    to    tu    

ti

*ti   PAN *ti, 1p deixis and spatial reference: this; here. WMP CMP;  PAN *i-ti, 1p deixis and spatial reference: this; here. Formosan WMP;  POC *iti, t here, that. OC

*tia   POC *tia, to weave, as a net. OC

*tiaN   PAN *tiaN, abdomen, belly. Formosan;  PMP *tian, abdomen, belly. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *tian-an, pregnant (lit. ‘in the belly'). WMP OC

*ti(m)bak   PWMP *ti(m)bak, clap, make a clapping sound. WMP

*tibal   PCMP *tibal, small drum. CMP SHWNG

*tíbay   PPH *tíbay, durable, long-lasting. WMP

*tibu   PCMP *tibu₁, pool, deep place in water; swamp. CMP

*tibud   PPH *tibud, kind of water jar. WMP

*tibuk   PAN *tibuk, pound, throb. Formosan WMP

*tida   PMP *tida, leftover, remainder. WMP;  POC *tira, leftover, remainder. OC

*tidaq   PMP *tidaq, leftover, remainder. WMP;  POC *tira, leftover, remainder. OC

*tidem   PMP *tidem, dark, obscure; black. WMP CMP OC

*tiduŋ   PWMP *tiduŋ, to cover, shelter, protect. WMP CMP

*tiduR   PMP *tiduR, to sleep. WMP CMP;  PMP *ma-tiduR, sleep. WMP;  POC *matiruR, to sleep. OC

*tidus   PWMP *tidus, spoon, ladle. WMP

*tige   POC *tige, hop on one leg, limp. OC

*tigtig   PWMP *tigtig, glancing blow; chop. WMP

*tik   PAN *tik₁, sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something. Formosan;  PMP *tik₁, sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.). WMP CMP

*tika   POC *tika, game played with thrown reeds. OC

*tíkal   PPH *tíkal, bruised or cramping, of feet after too much walking. WMP

*ti(ŋ)kaŋ   PWMP *ti(ŋ)kaŋ, spread the legs. WMP

*tikaŋ   PWMP *tikaŋ, be spread apart, as the legs. WMP

*ti(ŋ)kas   PMP *ti(ŋ)kas, swift, energetic. WMP CMP

*tikas   PMP *tikas, lift off a cover, be lifted off. WMP CMP

*tike   POC *tike, to squat. OC

*ti(ŋ)keb   PWMP *ti(ŋ)keb, close up. WMP

*tik(e)buq   PPH *tik(e)buq, to spill, pour out. WMP

*tiked   PMP *tiked, heel. WMP CMP

*tikek   PMP *tikek, cry of the gecko. WMP CMP

*tikel   PAN *tikel, bend. Formosan WMP

*tik(e)lúp   PPH *tik(e)lúp, to fold. WMP

*tikep   PWMP *tikep, catch, seize. WMP

*ti(ŋ)kes   PWMP *ti(ŋ)kes, wind around, encircle. WMP

*tiki   POC *tiki, plaiting of a mat. OC

*tikiq   PPH *tikiq, small lizard ( gecko?). WMP

*tikís   PPH *tikís, on purpose, intentionally. WMP

*tiko   POC *tiko, to squat, sit on one’s heels. OC

*tiktik₁   PAN *tiktik₁, to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PMP *tiktik₁, to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface. WMP;  POC *titik₂, to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface. OC;  PAN *t<um>iktik, tap or flick (finger, small implement, etc.) against something. Formosan;  PWMP *ma-niktik, to tap lightly on a hard surface. WMP;  PWMP *tiktik-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tiktik₂   PMP *tiktik₂, drip, leak. WMP CMP

*tiktík₃   PPH *tiktík₃, to spy, inform on someone. WMP

*tiktik₄   PPH *tiktik₄, to separate grain from chaff. WMP

*tiktik₅   PAN *tiktik₅, to tattoo. Formosan WMP;  PAN *t<um>iktik, to tattoo someone. Formosan

*tikug   PWMP *tikug, bend, bent, curved. WMP

*tikul   PWMP *tikul, curved, warped, as a board. WMP

*tikuŋ   PWMP *tikuŋ, curved, crooked, bent. WMP

*tikup   PWMP *tikup, close, shut; enclose. WMP

*tikuq₁   PWMP *tikuq₁, bend, curve. WMP

*tikuq₂   PPH *tikuq₂, bird sp.. WMP

*tikur   PWMP *tikur, bend, curve. WMP

*tikuRas   PAN *tikuRas, a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge. Formosan WMP

*tikV   POC *tikV, to plait (as a mat). OC

*tila   PMP *tila, vulva, vagina. WMP CMP OC

*tilanzaŋ   PWMP *tilanzaŋ, naked. WMP

*tilay   PWMP *tilay, vulva, vagina. WMP

*tilem₁   PWMP *tilem₁, dark, darkened. WMP

*tilem₂   PWMP *tilem₂, to dive, submerge. WMP

*tilen   PMP *tilen, to swallow. WMP OC

*tileŋ   PPH *tileŋ, piercing sound. WMP

*tilib   PWMP *tilib, to fly away. WMP

*tiliŋ   PWMP *tiliŋ, ringing sound. WMP

*tiltil   PPH *tiltil, rap or tap lightly. WMP

*tilu   PMP *tilu, ear. WMP CMP

*timba   PMP *timba, vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc. WMP CMP

*timbalaŋ   PWMP *timbalaŋ, carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath. WMP

*timbaŋ   PWMP *timbaŋ, balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another. WMP;  PWMP *ka-timbaŋ, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ma-nimbaŋ, to balance, be in good balance. WMP;  PWMP *t<um>imbaŋ, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *timbaŋ-an, balance scales. WMP;  PWMP *timbaŋ-en, to weigh something. WMP

*timbaw₁   PWMP *timbaw₁, add a piece. WMP

*timbaw₂   PWMP *timbaw₂, high up, on top. WMP

*timbul   PWMP *timbul, come to the surface, appear from below. WMP

*timbun   PWMP *timbun, heaped up. WMP

*timel   PWMP *timel, flea. WMP

*timeRaq   PWMP *timeRaq, tin. WMP

*timij   PAN *timij, chin, jaw. Formosan;  PMP *timid, chin, jaw. WMP CMP

*timpaŋ   PMP *timpaŋ, lame, limping; to limp. WMP;  POC *tibaŋ, to walk or move unsteadily, erratically. OC

*timpuhuq   PWMP *timpuhuq, sit on the ground. WMP

*timpus   PWMP *timpus, finish, use up. WMP

*timtim   PPH *timtim, sip, taste slightly. WMP

*timu   PAN *timu, salt. Formosan

*timuR   PAN *timuR, south or east wind. Formosan;  PMP *timuR, south. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*timuRmuR   PAN *timuRmuR, rinse the mouth. Formosan

*timus   PAN *timus, salt. Formosan WMP

*tinana   PCEMP *tinana, big, huge; superlative. CMP SHWNG OC

*tindaw   PMP *tindaw, see in the distance. WMP;  POC *tiro, to look at, watch; look for. OC;  POC *ti-tiro, to look, gaze; water used as a mirror. OC;  POC *tiro-tiro, to look, look for. OC

*tindes   PMP *tindes, crush lice with the fingernails. WMP;  POC *tidros, crush lice with the fingernails. OC

*tinduk   PPH *tinduk, large cooking banana or plantain variety. WMP

*tin(e)qaw   PPH *tin(e)qaw, clear, pure, of water. WMP

*tinoni   PEMP *tinoni, man, male. SHWNG OC

*tinun   PAN *tinun, to weave cloth. Formosan WMP

*tinzak   PWMP *tinzak, step on, push with the foot. WMP

*tiŋ   PMP *tiŋ, ringing sound. WMP CMP

*tiŋab   PPH *tiŋab, notch, nick. WMP;  PPH *tiŋab-an, to notch or nick something. WMP

*tiŋadaq   PWMP *tiŋadaq, look upward, look up to. WMP;  PWMP *t<um>iŋadaq, to look up. WMP;  PWMP *tiŋadaq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *tiŋadaq-en, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tiŋal   PPH *tiŋal, to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth. WMP

*tiŋaqŋaq   PWMP *tiŋaqŋaq, open wide. WMP

*tiŋén   PPH *tiŋén, look; sight; to look, see. WMP

*tiŋeR   PPH *tiŋeR, sound, voice. WMP

*tiŋgaʔ   PWMP *tiŋgaʔ, ear">ear pendant. WMP

*tiŋi   PMP *tiŋi, listen. WMP CMP

*tiŋkas   PWMP *tiŋkas, cease. WMP

*tiŋkeb   PWMP *tiŋkeb, lie prone, face down. WMP

*tiŋkuq   PMP *tiŋkuq, graze, strike lightly against. WMP CMP

*tiŋtiŋ   PMP *tiŋtiŋ, tinkling sound. WMP;  POC *titiŋ, to ring, make a ringing sound. OC

*tipak   PWMP *tipak, clap, sound of slapping or clapping. WMP

*tipas   PWMP *tipas, turn aside, swerve to avoid a collision. WMP

*tipi   POC *tipi, loincloth. OC

*tipis   PMP *tipis, thin (of materials). WMP OC

*tipi-tipi   POC *tipi-tipi, butterfly fish, Chaetodon spp.. OC

*tiptip   PWMP *tiptip, trim, cut the tips off. WMP

*ti(m)puk   PWMP *ti(m)puk, clap, clack. WMP

*típun   PPH *típun, to assemble, come together (of people); bring together (of things). WMP

*tipuq   PPH *tipuq, picking of fruit; falling out of teeth. WMP

*tiqad   PPH *tiqad, to bend backward, as when standing on tiptoes. WMP

*tiqaw   PMP *tiqaw₁, fish">goatfish spp.. WMP CMP;  POC *tiqo, fish">goatfish sp.. OC

*tiq(e)pas   PPH *tiq(e)pas, to cut off with one stroke. WMP

*tiq(e)ris   PPH *tiq(e)ris, urine; to urinate. WMP

*tíqiŋ   PPH *tíqiŋ, decant, pour liquid out for drinking. WMP

*tiqís   PPH *tiqís, to put up with, endure, be patient. WMP

*tiqtiq   PWMP *tiqtiq, drip, drain. WMP

*tirtir₁   PAN *tirtir₁, shiver, tremble. Formosan WMP OC

*tirtir₂   PWMP *tirtir₂, rap, tap. WMP

*tirus   PWMP *tirus, tapering, attenuating to a point. WMP

*tiRem   PMP *tiRem, oyster. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tiRom, oyster. OC

*tiR(e)peS   PAN *tiR(e)peS, spittle. Formosan WMP

*tiRis   PMP *tiRis, drip, ooze through. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *tiRis-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tiRtiR₁   PWMP *tiRtiR₁, cut, chop. WMP

*tiRtiR₂   PWMP *tiRtiR₂, to shake, shiver, quiver, tremble. WMP

*tisaq   PPH *tisaq, tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa. WMP

*tise   POC *tise, to sneeze. OC

*tisuk   PWMP *tisuk, stab, stick into. WMP

*titey   PMP *titey, suspension bridge. WMP CMP

*titi   PMP *titi, breast; suck the breast. WMP CMP

*titik   PAN *titik, to beat on something loudly. WMP CMP

*titiq   PMP *titiq, breast; suck the breast. WMP CMP OC

*titis   PMP *titis, drip, ooze. WMP CMP OC

*titu   PAN *titu, puppy; young animal in general?. Formosan;  PMP *titu, puppy. WMP

*tiúk   PPH *tiúk, a bird, probably the swamphen. WMP

*tiup   PMP *tiup, blow. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *maŋ-tiup, to blow on, fan. WMP

*tiwaŋwáŋ   PPH *tiwaŋwáŋ, opening, gap. WMP

*tiwatiw   PPH *tiwatiw, to shake a stick at something. WMP

*tiwtiw   PPH *tiwtiw, a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis. WMP

*ti(n)zak   PWMP *ti(n)zak, step, tread. WMP

*ti(n)zeg   PMP *ti(n)zeg, stand erect. WMP CMP


 

TOP      ta    te        ti    to    tu    

to

*toa   POC *toa, to copy, mimic, imitate. OC

*tobV   PCEMP *tobV, fishnet float. CMP SHWNG;  POC *topV, fishnet float. OC

*tobwa₁   POC *tobwa, bay, inlet. OC

*tobwa₂   POC *tobwa₂, stomach ( internal organ). OC

*toka₁   POC *toka₃, put out to sea, embark on a voyage. OC

*toka₂   POC *toka₂, come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat. OC

*tokalaur   POC *tokalaur, wind that blows from the north. OC

*toko   POC *toko, to land, settle down. OC

*tokuku   POC *tokuku, small reef fish, perhaps damselfish. OC

*tola   POC *tola, large canoe. OC

*tolira   POC *tolira, they three. OC

*toloŋ   POC *toloŋ, to swallow. OC

*tonuq   POC *tonuq, straight; correct, proper; righteous. OC

*toñom   POC *toñom, to swallow. OC

*toŋol   POC *toŋol, to swallow. OC

*topo   POC *topo, to suck. OC

*topwa   POC *topwa, belly; mind; seat of affections. OC

*toqa   POC *toqa, fowl, cock. OC

*toRu   POC *toRu, a tree: Cordia subcordata. OC

*tosi   PEMP *tosi, draw, make marks or designs. SHWNG OC

*toto   POC *toto, blood. OC


 

TOP      ta    te        ti    to    tu    

tu

*tuaD   PWMP *tuaD, kind of fish">fish net or trap. WMP

*tuad   PWMP *tuad, bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground. WMP

*tuak   PMP *tuak, palm wine. WMP CMP

*tuaka   POC *tuaka, elder same sex sibling. OC

*tuaŋ₁   PWMP *tuaŋ₁, to pour out, tilt to pour. WMP

*tuaŋ₂   PPH *tuaŋ₂, carry a load between two people. WMP;  PPH *ka-tuaŋ, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tuaq   PWMP *tuaq, luck, good fortune. WMP

*tuaRi   POC *tuaRi, old (of things), ancient times. OC

*tuas   PWMP *tuas, to lever up, tip up by force. WMP

*tuay   PMP *tuay, kind of edible marine clam. WMP;  POC *tue, kind of edible clam. OC

*tuba   PAN *tuba, a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *tupa₂, fish poison: Derris spp.. OC;  PWMP *ma-nuba, to stupefy fish with natural plant poisons. WMP;  PMP *pa-tuba, to stun fish with plant poisons. WMP CMP;  PWMP *t<in>uba, was poisoned by Derris root. WMP;  PAN *t<um>uba, to stun fish with plant poison. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *tuba-en, to stun fish with plant poison. WMP

*tubág   PPH *tubág, short-. WMP

*tubak   PCMP *tubak, to stab. CMP

*tu(m)bak   PMP *tu(m)bak, clash together. WMP CMP

*tubaR   PPH *tubaR, to answer. WMP

*tubaRa   POC *tubaRa, kind of small land crab. OC

*tu(m)bas   PWMP *tu(m)bas, dregs. WMP

*tub(e)liq   PWMP *tub(e)liq, a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica. WMP

*tubeŋ   PWMP *tubeŋ, obstacle; block, obstruct the flow. WMP

*tubu₁   POC *tubu₁, inflammation of the skin. OC

*tubu₂   POC *tubu₃, gain weight, get fat(ter). OC

*tubúg   PPH *tubúg, to wallow in mud. WMP

*tubul   PPH *tubul, to send someone on an errand. WMP

*tubuŋ   PWMP *tubuŋ, closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc.. WMP

*tubuŋa   POC *tubuŋa, crown of the head. OC

*tubuR   PMP *tubuR, natural spring, fresh water spring. WMP;  POC *tupuR, natural spring, fresh water spring. OC

*tubuy   PPH *tubuy, send for, allow to go. WMP

*tu(n)daŋ   PMP *tu(n)daŋ, to sit. WMP CMP SHWNG

*tudaq   PMP *tudaq, throw. WMP CMP

*tud(e)lúk   PPH *tud(e)lúk, to pierce, as with a needle. WMP

*tudem   PPH *tudem, dark, discolored. WMP

*tudiŋ   PAN *tudiŋ, to point out. Formosan WMP

*tudiq   PMP *tudiq, tree sp.: Sesbania grandiflora. WMP CMP

*tuduk   PMP *tuduk, skewer, spit for roasting. WMP CMP

*tudul   PPH *tudul, to give. WMP

*tuduŋ   PMP *tuduŋ, head cover, protection from sun or rain. WMP CMP

*tuduq   PAN *tuduq, to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *turuq, leak, drip. OC;  PMP *ma-tuduq, leak. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-nuduq, to leak, as a roof. WMP;  PAN *t<in>uduq, drip. Formosan WMP;  PPh *t<um>uduq, to drip, to leak. WMP;  PAN *tuduq-en, to drip. Formosan WMP;  PAN *tuduq-an, to drip. Formosan WMP

*tuduR   PAN *tuduR, to sleep. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *turuR, to sleep. OC;  PWMP *ka-tuduR, sleep together, sleep with someone. WMP;  PAN *ma-tuduR, to sleep. Formosan;  PMP *ma-tuduR, sleep. WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *maturuR, to sleep. OC;  PPH *maka-tuduR, able to sleep. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tuduR-en, drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake. WMP;  PWMP *pa-tuduR, put someone down to sleep. WMP;  PWMP *pa-tuduR-an, sleep. WMP;  PMP *t<in>uduR, (gloss uncertain). WMP CMP;  PWMP *tuduR-an, sleep. WMP

*tuduS   PAN *tuduS, knee. Formosan;  PMP *tuhud, knee. WMP CMP;  POC *tur, knee. OC;  PPH *taRa-tuhud, up to the knees. WMP;  PMP *qulu tuhud₁, knee. WMP CMP;  POC *lutur, knee. OC

*tuek   PWMP *tuek, bow the head, nod. WMP

*tugal   PWMP *tugal, dibble stick. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nugal, to dibble. WMP

*tugen   PPH *tugen, to deliver, send something to someone. WMP

*tugíq   PPH *tugíq, lesser yam: Dioscorea sp.. WMP

*tugtug   PWMP *tugtug, knock, pound, beat. WMP;  PPH *tugtug-én, to knock on something, play a musical instrument. WMP

*tuhuk   PPH *tuhuk, to string, as fish or beads. WMP

*tui₁   PMP *tui₁, a tree: Dolichandrone spathacea. WMP CMP OC

*tui₂   PWMP *tui₂, a tree: Radermachera gigantea. WMP

*tuil   PWMP *tuil, lever; prop. WMP

*tuiq   PAN *tuiq, bird sp.. Formosan WMP

*tujaw   PWMP *tujaw, to sit. WMP

*tuk   PMP *tuk, sound of a knock. WMP CMP

*tu(ŋ)kab   PWMP *tu(ŋ)kab, break open, force open. WMP;  PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án, for force something open or out of its position. WMP

*tu(ŋ)kad   PWMP *tu(ŋ)kad, prop, support; staff. WMP

*tukad₁   PWMP *tukad₁, runged rung; rung of a ladder. Formosan WMP

*tukad₂   PWMP *tukad₂, sloping upward; to climb a mountain. WMP

*tukák   PPH *tukák, kind of loud frog. WMP

*tukal   PPH *tukal, prop, supporting beam in house. WMP

*tukaŋ   PMP *tukaŋ, to prop half-open. WMP CMP;  PWMP *tukaŋ-an, prop. WMP

*tukaq   PPH *tukaq, beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake. WMP

*tukas   PWMP *tukas, open. WMP

*tuked   PAN *tuked, prop, support. Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-nuked, to prop up. WMP;  PWMP *maR-tuked, to prop up, support. WMP;  PWMP *tuked-en, prop. WMP

*tukik   PMP *tukik, poke, prod, peck. WMP OC

*tukil   PWMP *tukil, bamboo vessel. WMP

*tuktuk₁   PAN *tuktuk₁, beak of a bird; to peck. Formosan WMP CMP

*tuktuk₂   PAN *tuktuk₂, top, summit, crown. Formosan WMP CMP

*tuktuk₃   PAN *tuktuk₃, to knock, pound, beat; crush. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *tutuk₂, to knock, pound, beat. OC;  PWMP *ma-nuktuk, to knock, pound, beat. WMP;  PMP *tuktuk-i, to hammer, pound (something). WMP OC

*tuku₁   PAN *tuku₁, prop, post. Formosan WMP

*tuku₂   POC *tuku₂, short. OC

*tuku₃   POC *tuku₃, (of a person) to hang by the arms, dangle. OC

*tu(ŋ)kub   PWMP *tu(ŋ)kub, cover. WMP

*tukud   PAN *tukud, prop, support. Formosan WMP

*tu(ŋ)kuk   PWMP *tu(ŋ)kuk, beak; to peck. WMP

*tukuk   PWMP *tukuk, lower the head, bow or bend down. WMP

*tukul   PAN *tukul, to sprout, begin to grow. Formosan WMP

*tukuŋ   PWMP *tukuŋ, tailless (of birds or fowls), round-tailed (of fowls). WMP

*tulad   PWMP *tulad, to copy, imitate. WMP;  PWMP *tulad-an, model, exemplar. WMP

*tulak   PMP *tulak, push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maR-tulak, push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water. WMP

*tulani   PAN *tulani, bamboo nose flute. Formosan;  PMP *tulali, bamboo nose flute. WMP CMP OC

*tuláy   PPH *tuláy, bridge. WMP;  PPH *tulay-an, to bridge or span, build a bridge across something. WMP

*tulduq   PPh *tulduq, to point, indicate; to point out, instruct. WMP

*tule   POC *tule, cerumen, earwax. OC

*tuleŋ   PPH *tuleŋ, deaf. WMP

*tulesuk   PWMP *tulesuk, prick or poke with a pointed object. WMP

*tuli   PWMP *tuli₂, to stop by to visit when traveling. WMP

*tuliŋan   PPH *tuliŋan, kind of mackerel: Rastrelliger spp.. WMP

*tultul   PMP *tultul, blunt, dull. WMP CMP

*tulúd   PPH *tulúd, push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey. WMP;  PPH *i-tulúd, to push. WMP

*tuluŋ   PMP *tuluŋ, to help, assist. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ma-tuluŋ, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-tuluŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *t<um>uluŋ, to aid, assist, help. WMP

*tulus   PMP *tulus, straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting. WMP CMP

*tuluy₁   PMP *tuluy₁, continue. WMP CMP

*tuluy₂   PMP *tuluy₂, stop and visit when passing by. WMP CMP

*tuluy₃   PWMP *tuluy₃, caught up in, carried along. WMP

*tuman   PWMP *tuman, correct, proper. WMP

*tumaNa   PAN *tumaNa, to hear, listen. Formosan;  PAN *pa-tumaNa, to make someone listen. Formosan;  PAN *t<um>umaNa, to hear, listen. Formosan

*tumaŋ   PWMP *tumaŋ, disagree. WMP

*tumbak   PMP *tumbak, spear, lance. WMP CMP

*tumbalik   PPH *tumbalik, inverted, reversed, upside-down. WMP

*tumbid   PWMP *tumbid, heel. WMP

*tumbiriŋ   PWMP *tumbiriŋ, lie on one's side. WMP

*tumbuk   PMP *tumbuk, punch, hit, pound. WMP CMP

*tumbun   PWMP *tumbun, heap, pile; cover up. WMP

*tumbuŋ₁   PWMP *tumbuŋ₁, anus. WMP

*tumbuŋ₂   PWMP *tumbuŋ₂, seed bud in a coconut. WMP

*tumid   PWMP *tumid, heel. WMP

*t<um>imaNa   PAN *timaNa, to hear, listen. Formosan;  PAN *t<um>imaNa, to hear, listen. Formosan

*tumpaŋ₁   PWMP *tumpaŋ₁, to have one thing on top of another. WMP

*tumpaŋ₂   PWMP *tumpaŋ₂, take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat. WMP

*tumpaq   PWMP *tumpaq, to spill out, pour out. WMP

*tumpel   PMP *tumpel, dull, blunt. WMP CMP

*tumpiq   PWMP *tumpiq, rice or sago cake (used as an offering?). WMP

*tumpuk   PWMP *tumpuk, small heap, rounded mass. WMP

*tumpul   PMP *tumpul, dull, blunt. WMP OC

*tuna   POC *tuna, true, believable, correct. OC

*tunaŋ   PWMP *tunaŋ, engaged, pledged to be married. WMP

*tunas   PWMP *tunas, sprout, plant shoot. WMP

*túnaw   PPH *túnaw, to melt, dissolve. WMP;  PPH *tunaw-en, to melt, dissolve. WMP

*tunay₁   PPH *tunay₁, thorn in the flesh. WMP

*tunay₂   PWMP *tunay₂, real, genuine, true, sincere. WMP

*tundaq   PPH *tundaq, to lead, conduct, escort. WMP

*tundek   PPH *tundek, poke, as with finger. WMP

*tunduk   PWMP *tunduk, to bend, bow, submit. WMP

*tuntun   PWMP *tuntun, instruction, guidance, help in getting started. WMP

*tuntún   PPH *tuntún, to lower, let something down, as with a rope. WMP

*tunuR   PPH *tunuR, sound, voice. WMP

*tuNa   PAN *tuNa, freshwater eel. Formosan;  PMP *tuna, freshwater eel. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*tuñen   PWMP *tuñen, to swallow. WMP

*tuŋ   PMP *tuŋ, booming sound. WMP CMP

*tuŋaw₁   PWMP *tuŋaw₁, tiny red itch mite. WMP

*tuŋaw₂   PPH *tuŋaw₂, a plant: Astronia spp., Melastomataceae. WMP

*tuŋgíl   PPH *tuŋgíl, clitoris. WMP

*tuŋkaq   PPH *tuŋkaq, sleepy, drowsy. WMP

*tuŋkúl   PPH *tuŋkúl, about, concerning. WMP

*tuŋkup   PWMP *tuŋkup, cover. WMP

*tuŋkus   PWMP *tuŋkus, bundle. WMP

*tuŋtuŋ₁   PWMP *tuŋtuŋ₁, knock anything hollow so as to extract what is inside. WMP

*tuŋtuŋ₂   PMP *tuŋtuŋ₂, peak, top. WMP CMP

*tupa₁   POC *tupa₁, painful swelling in limbs. OC

*tupa₂   POC *tupa₃, to divide, share out. OC

*tupád   PPH *tupád, fulfill a promise, comply with a wish. WMP

*tupáj   PPH *tupáj, to match, form a pair. WMP

*tupak   POC *tupak, mend, repair, set in order. OC

*tupelak   PWMP *tupelak, push away. WMP

*tupíq   PPH *tupíq, to fold, crease. WMP

*tupúk   PPH *tupúk, over-ripe, beginning to rot. WMP

*tupul   POC *tupul, send out new growth, of vegetation. OC

*tupuqa   POC *tupuqa, body; spirit; spirit being. OC

*tu(m)pus   PMP *tu(m)pus, to complete, finish. WMP CMP

*tuqa₁   POC *tuqa₁, back (anat.). OC

*tuqa₂   POC *tuqa₂, bone. OC

*tuqa₃   PWMP *tuqa₃, hardness, strength (of materials). WMP;  PWMP *ma-tuqa, hard, strong. WMP

*tuqan   PMP *tuqan, primary forest. WMP CMP

*tuqaS   PAN *tuqaS, old, of people; primary forest, old forest. Formosan;  PMP *tuqah, old, of people; mature, as fruit. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ka-tuqah, surpassing in age (?). WMP CMP;  PAN *ma-tuqaS, old, of people. Formosan;  PMP *ma-tuqah, old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism). WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *matuqa, old, older person, elder; old stand forest. OC;  PWMP *ka-tuqah-an, adulthood, maturity; old age. WMP;  PWMP *t<um>uqah, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PAN *tuqaS tuqaS, old. Formosan;  PMP *tuqah tuqah, old. WMP;  PAN *ma-tuqaS tuqaS, old, elder, senior. Formosan WMP

*tuqaw   PWMP *tuqaw, a bird sp. and its cry. WMP

*tuqay   PWMP *tuqay, leader in a group. WMP

*tuqed   PAN *tuqed, tree stump; stubble. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG

*tuqelaŋ   PWMP *tuqelaŋ, condylar bone, bone of fauna exclusive of fish. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tuqela-tuqelaŋ, protruding, of the bones of a skinny (bony) person. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nuqelaŋ, remove the bones from meat or fish. WMP;  PPH *ma-tuqelaŋ, bony. WMP;  PWMP *pa-tuqelaŋ-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP

*tuq(e)lid   PWMP *tuq(e)lid, straight. WMP

*tuq(e)maw   PPH *tuq(e)maw, suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially. WMP

*tuqtuq   PAN *tuqtuq, to hammer, pound, crush. Formosan WMP CMP

*tuqu₁   PMP *tuqu₁, right side. WMP OC

*tuqu₂   PMP *tuqu₂, true, real; truly, really. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *tuqu-tuqu, true, truly. WMP

*tuqud   PMP *tuquD, to stand. WMP;  POC *tuqur, to stand. OC

*tuqun₁   PPH *tuqun₁, to put on or over something. WMP

*tuquN   PAN *tuquN, an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa. Formosan

*tuquR   PMP *tuquR, evaporate, dry up. WMP CMP OC

*tura   POC *tura, post, pillar. OC

*turali   PWMP *turali, bamboo nose flute. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nurali, play a flute. WMP

*turaŋa   POC *turaŋa, to lead, guide; leader?. OC

*turik   PMP *turik, mark with a line or spot. WMP CMP

*turiŋ   PMP *turiŋ, fish sp.. WMP OC

*turiq   PPH *turiq, circumcision. WMP

*turis   PAN *turis, scratch a line, make a long shallow cut. Formosan WMP

*tu(rR)a   POC *tu(rR)a, friend. OC

*turu₁   PCEMP *turu₁, knee. CMP OC

*turu₂   POC *turu₂, to stand. OC

*turus   PMP *turus, stake, free-standing post. WMP;  POC *turus, stake, post. OC

*tuRa   PMP *tuRa, to string, put on a string. WMP CMP

*tuRa-   POC *tuRa-, same-sex sibling (?). OC

*tuRaŋ   PMP *tuRaŋ, kinsman, relative (undefined). WMP;  POC *tuRaŋ, kinsman, relative (undefined). OC;  PPH *ma-nuRaŋ, affinal relative, probably son-in-law and daughter-in-law. WMP

*tuRauk   PPH *tuRauk, to crow, of a rooster. WMP

*tuRi   PEMP *tuRi₂, the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana. SHWNG OC

*tuRsúk   PPH *tuRsúk, skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it. WMP

*tuRtuR   PAN *tuRtuR, resonant sound. Formosan WMP

*tuRu₁   POC *tuRu₁, to wade, wade across. OC

*tuRu₂   POC *tuRu₂, housepost. OC

*tuRukuk   PAN *tuRukuk, chicken. Formosan

*tuRun₁   PMP *tuRun₁, to descend, go down; to lower. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *t<um>uRun, to descend, come or go down. WMP;  PWMP *tuRun-an, waterfall (?). WMP

*tuRun₂   PWMP *tuRun₂, send off with a message. WMP

*tuRut   PWMP *tuRut, to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nuRut, to obey, follow orders. WMP

*tuRut-i   PWMP *tuRut-i, to allow, permit. WMP

*tusi   PCEMP *tusi, draw, make marks or designs. CMP OC

*tusiq   PMP *tusiq, to point at, indicate. CMP OC

*tustús   PPH *tustús, to hang down, to lower. WMP

*tustus   PPH *tustus, roll up a leaf, as a tobacco leaf. WMP

*tusuk   PMP *tusuk, pierce, skewer or string together. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *ma-nusuk, to pierce, penetrate, skewer. WMP

*tutu   POC *tutu, beat time on a drum or slitgong. OC

*tutub   PMP *tutub, to cover. WMP CMP

*tutuD   PWMP *tutuD, set on fire, burn. WMP

*tutuh   PAN *tutuh, beat, pound, bump, thump. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-nutu, to beat, pound. WMP CMP;  PWMP *tutu-en, pound. WMP

*tutuk   PMP *tutuk₁, bow, lower the head. WMP CMP

*tútuk   PPH *tútuk, to aim a weapon at. WMP

*tutuŋ   PMP *tutuŋ, to ignite, set fire to. WMP CMP OC;  PMP *tutuŋ-an, flaming, on fire. WMP OC

*tutup₁   PMP *tutup₁, to cover. WMP CMP;  POC *tutup₁, to cover. OC

*tutup₂   POC *tutup₂, to hammer. OC

*tútuq   PPH *tútuq, interjection used to call a dog. WMP

*tutuq   PWMP *tutuq, prune, trim branches. WMP

*tutur₁   PMP *tutur₁, to speak clearly and deliberately. WMP CMP

*tutur₂   PAN *tutur₂, cooing of a dove. Formosan WMP

*tutut   PAN *tutut, sparrow or similar bird. Formosan

*tutuy   PPH *tutuy, penis of a little boy. WMP

*tuyuq   PPH *tuyuq, point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally. WMP

*tuzak   PWMP *tuzak, to step on. WMP

*tuzaq   PWMP *tuzaq, thrust downward with sharp implement. WMP

*tuzu   PMP *tuzu, direction, goal, destination. WMP CMP

*tuzuk   PMP *tuzuk, point at, point out. WMP CMP

*tuzuq₁   PAN *tuzuq₁, to point at, point out; give directions. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *tusuq, to point at, point out; give directions. OC;  PWMP *i-tuzuq, to point at, indicate; teach, instruct. WMP;  PWMP *ka-tuzuq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an, point. WMP;  PWMP *ma-nuzuq, to point at, point out, show by pointing. WMP;  PWMP *pa-nuzuq, index finger. WMP;  PAN *pa-tuzuq, to point out, give directions (?). Formosan WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PMP *t<an>uzuq, index finger. WMP;  PWMP *t<in>uzuq, point. WMP;  PAN *t<um>uzuq, to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice. Formosan;  PWMP *tuzuq-an, to direct someone to something, to give instructions. WMP;  PAN *tuzuq-en, point. Formosan WMP;  PMP *tuzuq-i, to point, indicate; teach, instruct. WMP OC;  PWMP *tu-tuzuq, point. WMP;  PMP *tuzu-tuzuq, point. WMP OC

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_t.htm