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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   

*u   

ua    ub    ud    ug    uh    ui    uj    uk    ul    um    un    uN            up    ur    uR    us    uS    ut    uu    uy    uz    

*u   PWMP *u₁, genitive particle. WMP

*ua₁   PAN *ua₁, exclamation of surprise, etc.. Formosan WMP OC

*ua₂   PMP *ua₂, parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, Me. WMP CMP OC

*uak₁   PMP *uak₁, harsh cry, bellow, loud cry. WMP CMP

*uak₂   PMP *uak₂, retch. WMP CMP

*uaq   PMP *uaq, parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ. WMP OC

*uaʔ   PMP *uaʔ, parents' elder sibling. WMP CMP OC


 

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ub

*úba   PPH *úba, naked. WMP

*ubak   PWMP *ubak, tree bark. WMP

*ubal   PWMP *ubal, rise to the surface of water. WMP

*ubek   PWMP *ubek, immature rice grain (?). WMP

*ubeŋ   PMP *ubeŋ, to block, to dam up. WMP CMP

*ubet   PMP *ubet, buttocks, posterior. WMP CMP

*ubuC   PAN *ubuC, pluck, pull out. Formosan;  PMP *ubut, pluck, pull out. WMP

*ubun (ubun)   PWMP *ubun (ubun), fontanel; crown of the head. WMP

*ubuŋ   PMP *ubuŋ, ridge of the roof. WMP CMP

*ubus   PPH *ubus, to finish, consume, use up. WMP


 

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ud

*udahik   PWMP *udahik, upstream part of a river. WMP;  PWMP *um-udahik, go upstream. WMP

*udaliq   PWMP *udaliq, deception. WMP

*udehi   PMP *udehi, last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child. WMP CMP;  PCEMP *udi, follow, come after. CMP;  POC *uri, follow, come after. OC;  PMP *kama-udehi, rear part, stern or rudder of a boat. WMP CMP;  PWMP *ka-udehi-an, the last, at the rear. WMP;  PMP *ma-udehi, behind, last. WMP;  PCEMP *m-udi, last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside. CMP;  POC *muri, after, behind, stern of canoe. OC;  POC *m-uri qaqe, m-uri waqe, heel. OC;  PWMP *pa-udehi, behind, after. WMP;  PWMP *udehi-an, the one who is behind (?). WMP

*udip   PPH *udip, to patch a hole in a net or mat. WMP

*udu   PAN *udu, grass. Formosan WMP CMP

*uduŋ   PMP *uduŋ, hut, temporary shelter. WMP CMP;  POC *uruŋ, a shelter. OC

*uduq₁   PMP *uduq₁, stammer. WMP CMP

*uduq₂   PMP *uduq₂, carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection. WMP CMP


 

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ug

*ugaliq   PWMP *ugaliq, custom, manner, way, habit. WMP

*ugaq   PWMP *ugaq, loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake. WMP

*ugəŋ   PWMP *ugəŋ, spin without wobbling, of a top. WMP

*ugtu   PPh *ugtu, zenith; noon, mid-day. WMP


 

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uh

*uhaŋ   PWMP *uhaŋ, inttervening space. WMP

*uhaq   PWMP *uhaq, cry of a newborn infant. WMP


 

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ui

*uit₁   PWMP *uit₁, move. WMP

*uit₂   PWMP *uit₂, bring. WMP;  PWMP *um-uit, bring, carry. WMP;  PWMP *in-uit, brought by, carried by. WMP


 

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uj

*ujan   PMP *ujan, cargo; load a canoe. WMP;  POC *ucan, load, cargo, freight. OC

*ujuŋ   PAN *ujuŋ, nose. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *ucuŋ, nose. OC


 

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uk

*uka₁   POC *uka₂, bowstring. OC

*uka₂   PAN *uka₁, negative existential: there is none. Formosan

*ukaŋ   PWMP *ukaŋ, slow and tentative movement. WMP

*u(ŋ)kaŋ   PWMP *u(ŋ)kaŋ, spread open, as the legs. WMP

*ukap   PPH *ukap, pull off, remove covering. WMP

*u(ŋ)kaq   PMP *u(ŋ)kaq, open. WMP CMP

*uki   PWMP *uki, vulva, vagina; pet name for girls. WMP

*ukir   PMP *ukir, carving, sculpture. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-ukir, to carve. WMP;  PWMP *ukir-an, carving, thing made by carving wood. WMP

*úkit   PPH *úkit, to remove something from an attached position. WMP

*ukub   PWMP *ukub, cover. WMP

*ukuk   PMP *ukuk, cough; to cough; sound of coughing. WMP CMP OC

*ukup   PMP *ukup, brood, sit on eggs; cover completely. WMP CMP

*ukuq   PWMP *ukuq, bent over, hunched. WMP

*u(ŋ)kuq   PWMP *u(ŋ)kuq, puppy (?). WMP


 

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ul

*ulak   PWMP *ulak, reel, spool (in weaving). WMP;  PWMP *ulak-an, reel, spool (in weaving). WMP

*ulaŋ   PAN *ulaŋ, repeat, do again. Formosan WMP CMP

*ulaqul   PPH *ulaqul, hypersensitive, weeping easily. WMP

*ulat   PWMP *ulat, scar. WMP

*ulaw   PAN *ulaw, confusion, perplexity. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-ulaw, dazed, confused. Formosan WMP

*ulay₁   PWMP *ulay₁, worm. WMP

*ulay₂   PMP *ulay₂, to stir, mix together. WMP;  POC *ule₂, to stir, mix together. OC

*ulayan   PPH *ulayan, tree sp.. WMP

*ule   POC *ule₁, penis. OC

*ules   PPH *ules, blanket. WMP

*uli   PCMP *uli, pry up, prise up. CMP

*ulila   PWMP *ulila, orphan. WMP

*uliq₁   PMP *uliq₁, return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro. WMP;  PCEMP *oliq, uliq, return. CMP OC;  PPh *i-uliq, take something home. WMP;  PPh *maka-uliq₂, able to return. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-uliq, return something; to. WMP;  PPh *maR-uliq, return; go back. WMP;  PMP *pa-uliq, return, send back. WMP OC;  PMP *paka-uliq, return something to someone. WMP OC;  PMP *um-uliq, return home. WMP CMP;  POC *m-ule, return home. OC;  PWMP *uliq-an, go home. WMP;  PWMP *uliq-en, go home. WMP;  PMP *uliq uliq, repeat. WMP;  POC *oliq oliq, to and fro. OC

*uliq₂   PWMP *uliq₂, get, obtain. WMP;  PWMP *maka-uliq₁, able to obtain. WMP

*ulit   PWMP *ulit, repeat. WMP

*ulitáu   PPh *ulitáu, bachelor, young unmarried man. WMP

*ulug   PWMP *ulug, mock, ridicule. WMP

*uluR   PWMP *uluR, flow, stream together. WMP

*ulus   PWMP *ulus, slide down. WMP


 

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um

*-um-   PAN *<um>, marker of actor focus. Formosan;  PMP *<um>, marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives. WMP

*umah   PPH *umah, to kiss. WMP;  PPH *umah-an, to kiss someone. WMP

*umaN   PAN *umaN, again. Formosan;  PMP *uman, again. WMP

*umaS   PAN *umaS, to pickle, preserve meat or fish. Formosan

*umat   PPH *umat, inquire about, mention someone. WMP

*umbak umbak   PWMP *umbak umbak, pump, pumping motion. WMP

*umbaŋ   PWMP *umbaŋ, to float. WMP

*umbaw   PMP *umbaw, top part; high. WMP CMP

*umbul   PWMP *umbul, spring, fountain. WMP

*umel   PMP *umel, speechless, dumb, mute. WMP SHWNG

*umpan   PWMP *umpan, bait. WMP

*umpaŋ   PMP *umpaŋ, plug, obstruct. WMP CMP

*umpeŋ   PWMP *umpeŋ, dam, water barrier. WMP

*umpis   PWMP *umpis, deflated, empty. WMP

*umpu   PMP *umpu, grandparent/ grandchild (recipr.); ancestor. WMP CMP;  PMP *ta-umpu, grandparent/ grandchild (referential term used reciprocally). WMP;  POC *tubu₂, grandparent/ grandchild; ancestor. OC

*umpuk   PWMP *umpuk, heap, pile, collection. WMP;  PWMP *umpuk-an, heap, pile, collection. WMP

*umuR   PAN *umuR, hold in the mouth. Formosan CMP


 

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un

*unab   PPH *unab, to wash rice or plants preparatory to cooking. WMP

*unah   PMP *unah, precede, go or be first; earlier, former. WMP CMP;  PMP *um-unah, go first. WMP OC;  PPh *unah-an, first. WMP;  PPh *unah-unah, precede, go before. WMP

*unduD   PWMP *unduD, retreat, move backward. WMP

*undur   PWMP *undur, retreat, fall back. WMP

*untay₁   PWMP *untay₁, hang. WMP

*untay₂   PMP *untay₂, citrus fruit. WMP CMP

*untul   PWMP *untul, bounce, rebound. WMP

*unum   PCEMP *unum, drink. CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *unum-unum, drink. OC

*unuŋ   PPH *unuŋ, fixed, constant, steady; forever. WMP

*unzan   PWMP *unzan, add to, increase. WMP

*unzet   PWMP *unzet, startled, make a startled movement. WMP

*unzur   PWMP *unzur, shove, thrust forward. WMP


 

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uN

*uNay   PAN *uNay, sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh. Formosan;  PMP *unay, sliver, splinter. WMP

*uNuq   PAN *uNuq, beads. Formosan;  PMP *unuq, beads. WMP


 

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*uñat   PPh *uñat, to stretch, straighten out. WMP;  PPh *ma-uñat, stretch. WMP;  PPh *uñat-en, stretch. WMP


 

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*uŋap   PMP *uŋap, open the mouth wide. WMP CMP

*uŋaq   PWMP *uŋaq, child. WMP

*uŋay   PAN *uŋay, ritually sacrificed monkey?. Formosan

*uŋet   PWMP *uŋet, anger. WMP

*uŋit   PWMP *uŋit, tease, vex, annoy. WMP

*uŋkat   PWMP *uŋkat, recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences. WMP

*uŋkir   PWMP *uŋkir, deny, refuse to acknowledge. WMP

*úŋur   PPh *úŋur, moan, growl. WMP

*uŋus   PWMP *uŋus, snout, beak. WMP

*uŋut   PWMP *uŋut, mumble angrily, grumble. WMP


 

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up

*upak₁   PWMP *upak₁, bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark. WMP

*upak₂   PWMP *upak₂, slap, hit, beat. WMP

*upaq   PMP *upaq, compensation, reward. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-upaq, pay for the use of something. WMP;  PWMP *upaq-an, be paid; payment. WMP

*upas₁   PMP *upas₁, poison, venom of a snake. WMP CMP

*upas₂   PPH *upas₂, fiber of banana stalk. WMP

*upaw   PPH *upaw, bald. WMP

*upe   PEMP *upe, end of tuber that is kept for planting. SHWNG OC

*upek   PWMP *upek, piece broken off, husk. WMP

*upi   PCEMP *upi, to blow. CMP SHWNG OC;  POC *upi-a, blow on or into. OC

*upik   PWMP *upik, break off. WMP

*upis   PWMP *upis, husk, bark. WMP

*upit   PWMP *upit, press, squeeze together. WMP

*upu   PEMP *upu, germinating coconut (?). SHWNG;  POC *ubu, young coconut. OC

*upuk   PWMP *upuk, clap, slap, pound. WMP

*upun   PMP *upun₁, gather in masses, as smoke. WMP CMP

*upus   PMP *upus, use. WMP CMP


 

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ur

*urit   PPH *urit, stripe, streak, line. WMP

*urub   PWMP *urub, flame. WMP


 

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uR

*uRem   PWMP *uRem, hold in the mouth, hold with the mouth. WMP

*uReŋ   PAN *uReŋ, horn of an animal. Formosan WMP

*uRis   PPH *uRis, albino, unnaturally white. WMP

*uRsa   PWMP *uRsa, deer. WMP

*uRup   PWMP *uRup, assist, assistance; to help, assist. WMP


 

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us

*usauR   PPH *usauR, to go downstream, go with the current. WMP

*usay   PPH *usay, to explain, elucidate, talk through a problem. WMP

*u(n)sek   PMP *u(n)sek, press into. WMP CMP;  POC *usok, press into. OC

*usi   PCMP *usi, relative of the third ascending or descending generation. CMP

*usik   PMP *usik, disturb, annoy. WMP OC

*usiŋ   PPH *usiŋ, charcoal. WMP

*uso   POC *uso, core of a fruit. OC

*usu   POC *usu, push, launch a canoe. OC

*usuk   PMP *usuk, press into, crouch; enter crouching; drive in stakes. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *usuk-an, drive in (stakes, etc.). WMP

*usuq   PMP *usuq, rub, wipe. WMP OC;  POC *usuq-a, rub (it), wipe (it). OC

*usuri   POC *usuri, copy, imitate, pass on. OC;  POC *paka-usuri, to teach. OC


 

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uS

*uSa   PAN *uSa, go. Formosan;  PAN *pa-uSa, to send away. Formosan;  PAN *um-uSa, to go, to walk. Formosan


 

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ut

*uta   PCMP *uta, chaff. CMP

*utan   PAN *utan, taro variety. Formosan WMP

*utaña   PMP *utaña, ask, inquire. WMP CMP SHWNG

*utaq   PAN *utaq, vomit. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *ka-utaq, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-utaq, to vomit. WMP;  POC *mu-mutaq, to vomit. OC;  PAN *pa-utaq, cause to vomit. Formosan WMP;  PAN *um-utaq, to vomit. Formosan WMP CMP;  PCEMP *mutaq, to vomit. CMP OC;  PAN *utaq-an, vomit (imperative). Formosan WMP;  PAN *utaq-en, vomit. Formosan WMP

*útas   PPH *útas, to keep on doing something, continue in one’s ways. WMP

*uteŋaq   PWMP *uteŋaq, wobble, come loose, of something attached. WMP

*utik   PMP *utik, marine fish with thorny skin. WMP SHWNG

*utiŋ   PMP *utiŋ, tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle. WMP CMP

*uton   POC *uton, fish net float. OC

*utuŋ   PWMP *utuŋ, extremity, tip. WMP

*utuq   PWMP *utuq, vocative term for boys. WMP

*utuR   PCMP *utuR, a string of something; to string. CMP

*utus₁   PMP *utus₁, break under tension, as a rope. WMP OC

*utus₂   PWMP *utus₂, send on a mission, command someone to do something. WMP


 

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uu

*uu   PMP *uu, moan. WMP CMP OC


 

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uy

*uy   PMP *uy, exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc.. WMP CMP

*úyaŋ   PPH *úyaŋ, polite term of address to an older woman (?). WMP;  PPH *uyáŋ-en, polite. WMP

*uyaw   PPH *uyaw, to mock, ridicule, jeer at. WMP;  PPH *uyaw-en, to mock, ridicule, jeer at. WMP

*uyeg   PWMP *uyeg, shake, sway, stagger. WMP

*uyug   PWMP *uyug, shake, sway, stagger. WMP

*uyun₁   PWMP *uyun₁, bunch, bundle (probably of long objects). WMP

*uyun₂   PPH *uyun₂, to agree. WMP

*uyuR   PMP *uyuR, shake, sway, stagger. WMP CMP

*uyut₁   PWMP *uyut₁, carrying pouch or small basket. WMP

*uyut₂   PWMP *uyut₂, to swing, be unsteady. WMP


 

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uz

*uzeg   PMP *uzeg, drive in, erect, as a piling. WMP CMP

*uzi   PWMP *uzi, test, assay, examine. WMP

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-hw_u1.htm