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Updated: 7/13/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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A

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Abai Sembuak
Abaknon
Aborlan Tagbanwa
Acehnese
Achinese
Adonara
Adzera
Agta (Central Cagayan)
Agta (Dupaningan)
Agta (Eastern)
Agutaynen
Ahus
Aklanon
Alas
Ali
Allang
Alu
Alumbis Murut
Alune

Amara
Ambai
Amblau
Amblong
Ambon Malay
Amganad Ifugaw
Amis
Amis (Central)
Amis (Kiwit)
Amis (Sakizaya)
Amis (Utrecht ms.)
Ampana
Ampibabo-Lauje
Anakalang
Anakalangu
Andra
Anejom
Angkola-Mandailing
Angkola-Mandailing Batak

Aniwa
Ansus
Anuta
Aore
Apma
Araki
'Āre'āre
Arguni
Aroma
Arop
Arop-Lokep
Arop-Lukep
Arosi
Arosi (Eastern)
Arosi (Southern)
Arosi (Western)
Arta
As
Asilulu

Ata
Ata Manobo
Atayal
Atayal (Cʔuliʔ)
Atayal (Mayrinax)
Atayal (Palŋawan)
Atayal (Squliq)
Atchin
Atoni
Atta
Atta (Pamplona)
Aua
Avasö
Avava
Axamb
Ayta Abellan
Ayta Maganchi
Ayta Mag-antsi
Azera

1. Abai Sembuak (50) WMP (Lobel 2016)

afuglime (for betel) (PAN: *qapuR)

afuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-laatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

atudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

baa afuyember, glowing coal (PMP: *baRah)

batiscalf of the leg (PWMP: *baties)

buayocrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

butuʔpenis (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

daanbranch (PMP: *daqan₁) *daqan

daaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

duuʔhoney (PMP: *zuRuq)

faafoot (PAN: *paqa₁)

faitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

fanuʔfull (PMP: *penuq)

fulutsap (PMP: *pulut)

fundibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

fusodnavel (PMP: *pusej)

goŋgomfist (PAN: *gemgem)

kanuyeagle (NEAR)

kəm-ina-naunt (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina

Abai Sembuak (20 / 50)

ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = oko) (PMP: *ka₄)

kulatmushroom (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

layoginger (PMP: *laqia)

l<əm>idiʔto boil water (PMP: *diqdiq)

lifagopposite bank (PWMP: *di hipaR) *SipaR

liogneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lomokfat, obese (PMP: *lemek₂)

luaŋhole (PMP: *lubaŋ₁)

lumutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

ma-ayobig (PAN: *Raya)

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

matoŋarrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ

mbiliʔto choose (PAN: *piliq)

mutulbroken (as a bone) (PMP: *putul) *putun

nakodto climb (a tree) (PWMP: *taked₂)

namukmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ŋə-loboŋto bury (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

ŋgamaŋto crawl (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

owoyrattan (PAN: *quay)

paladpalm of hand (PMP: *palaj₁)

Abai Sembuak (40 / 50)

səbu-anbladder (PAN: *sebu)

siapchick (PAN: *siap)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

timugriver (PMP: *timuR)

titiʔbreast (PMP: *titiq)

tukadladder (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tumidheel (PWMP: *tumid)

ufohen (PMP: *qupa)

utokbrain (PMP: *hutek)

2. Abaknon (27) WMP (Jacobson 1999) [abx] (Inabaknon) Philippines [aka: Inabaknon]

agakto take care of, to rear (PMP: *aRak)

allorice pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

alonwave; current (PMP: *qalun)

ampugrandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

antaʔeat something raw (PAN: *qataq)

apolime (PAN: *qapuR)

asaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

babawshoal (PWMP: *babaw₂)

bahaʔonew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

ballito buy, purchase (PMP: *beli)

bawiwild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

dappato measure with armspan; fathom (PAN: *depah)

dawagrain like wheat (PAN: *zawa₂)

impontooth (PMP: *ipen)

iŋkotail (PAN: *ikuR)

kawaytentacle (PMP: *kaway₂)

lahaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

lahito run, run away; elope (PAN: *laRiw)

lalomdeep (PMP: *dalem)

lammokfat, stout, obese; greasy (PMP: *lemek₂)

Abaknon (20 / 27)

lutawto float (PWMP: *lutaw)

mayand (PMP: *mai)

pahistingray (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pannosea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

pannoʔfull (of a container); filled (PMP: *penuq)

passaʔto break (brittle objects) (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

pumponto gather; to store; to heap up (PWMP: *punpun)

3. Aborlan Tagbanwa (48) WMP (Reid 1971) [tbw] (Tagbanwa) Philippines

abakaabaca, Manila hemp (PPh: *abaká)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

amak-anreed mat used to dry rice (PWMP: *amak)

amen1pl ex oblique (PAN: *amen)

a-nuwhatchamacallit (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

aten1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *aten) *iten

babuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bayuʔuturtle (NEAR)

baʔbaʔmouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

bekenother, different (PWMP: *beken)

bɨtɨŋabdomen (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ₁

geneghear, listen (ROOT)

ikamɨnwoven mat, used for sleeping (PPh: *ikamen)

ikɨdcough (PWMP: *ikej)

ilap-ilapto slice thin (as meat) (PPH: *hilap₃) *hilap

ɨŋganot (PWMP: *eŋga)

itithat (3p remote) (PAN: *i-ti) *ti

ituthat (2p) (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

ka-gabiʔiyesterday (PMP: *ka-Rabiqi) *Rabiqi

kala-láwaʔspider (PWMP: *kala-lawaʔ) *lawaq₂

Aborlan Tagbanwa (20 / 48)

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamu2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kunumcloud (PWMP: *kunem)

laʔlurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu)

lundayoutrigger canoe (PPH: *lunday)

ma-agsemsour (PWMP: *ma-qaRsem) *qaRsem

ma-baŋlufragrant (PPH: *ma-baŋ(e)luh) *baŋ(e)lúh

ma-baŋlufragrant (PPH: *ma-baŋ(e)luh) *baŋ(e)lúh

ma-luʔnawgreen (PPH: *luh(e)naw)

manu-manukbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

m-ina-nMZ, FZ (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina

munuŋlip (PWMP: *munuŋ)

nipɨntooth (PAN: *nipen)

nutnutsuck weakly (PWMP: *ñutñut)

padɨkhusk of rice (PWMP: *padek)

pilata healed-over scar (PWMP: *pilat)

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

sa-ŋ-puluten (PMP: *ŋa)

siamnine (PPH: *siám)

s-inihere (PWMP: *si-ni) *-ni

Aborlan Tagbanwa (40 / 48)

s-ituthere (2p) (PWMP: *si-tu) *-Cu

sukato vomit (PPH: *suka₂)

sukayto delouse (PPH: *sukáy)

tagaynīpdream (PPh: *taRa-qinép) *qinep

tubagto answer (PPH: *tubaR)

tuʔlaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tuʔugdry (not wet) (PMP: *tuquR)

waʔwaʔchild (youth) (NOISE)

4. Acehnese (363) WMP (Kreemer 1931) [ace] (Aceh) Indonesia (Sumatra) [aka: Achinese]

abōʔmould, dust, grit, sawdust, scrapings (PMP: *qabuk)

aducompete (PWMP: *adu)

agaihsmall gnat or mosquito (LOAN)

agamareligion (LOAN)

alaŋtoo short, too little, insufficient, inadequate (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ₁) *alaŋ-alaŋ

aluëbrook, small river, tributary stream (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

ampōnpardon, forgiveness; apology; remission, absolution (PMP: *ampun)

ampōŋfloat of a fishing net, buoy (PMP: *apuŋ)

aneuʔ busuarrow (PMP: *busuR₂)

anɨʔchild; young shoot; pit, stone, kernel, seed; constituent part of something (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anɨʔ bɨdébullet (PMP: *anak i sumpit) *aNak

anɨʔ daramarriageable girl (PWMP: *anak daRa) *aNak

anɨʔ daramarriageable girl (PMP: *daRa₂)

anɨʔ gɨntaclapper of a bell (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anɨʔ gɨtuëŋadopted child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anɨʔ matapupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

anɨʔ matapupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’) (PMP: *anak nu mata) *maCa

anɨʔ pisaŋyoung banana shoots (PMP: *anak i kahiw) *aNak

anɨʔ reunjeunrung of a ladder (PWMP: *anak i haRezan) *aNak

anɨʔ titclitoris (PMP: *anak) *aNak

Acehnese (20 / 363)

anɨʔ ulèë barafirstborn child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anɨʔ uystepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

a-nòwhatchamacallit, a certain, someone, something that one does not want to, or cannot name (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

ansagoose (LOAN)

antatescort, accompany, convey, bring, transfer (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

aŋènwind, draft; also substitute term for taʔeun 'epidemic' (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋèn-aŋèncharm consisting of a bit of paper with something written on it which is waved over the fire to compel a thief to return something stolen (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋkatlift, raise, pick or take up (PWMP: *aŋkat)

apiunopium (LOAN)

apōŋfloating on the water, light in weight (PMP: *apuŋ)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asahope; trust; expectation (LOAN)

asabsmoke, soot, steam (PAN: *qaseb)

asahwhet, sharpen, file off (teeth) (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asamsour, tart, acid; make something sour; smear with citrus juice (as the blade of a weapon to make it shine); also name of various citrus fruits (PWMP: *qalesem)

asayorigin, provenance; provided that (LOAN)

aséëdog (PAN: *asu₁)

asèë pu-buruhunting dog (PAN: *buRaw)

asòëcontents, load, flesh (living or dead, but not slaughtered; also the flesh of fruits (PWMP: *asi₁)

asòë naŋgròëthe peopling of the land (PWMP: *asi₁)

Acehnese (40 / 363)

ateuëhup, above; high (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ateuëŋdyke in a wet ricefield (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

awancloud (PWMP: *hawan)

awaʔbody; person; crew (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awerattan (PWMP: *away₄)

aya-hfather (PMP: *aya₂)

ayōncradle (generally an oblong basket of plaited rattan filled with cushions) (PWMP: *hayun)

bagofësort, kind, manner; just like, identical to (LOAN)

baléʔturned over or around (PMP: *balik₂)

baluytake revenge; restore or replace after a loss (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

bambaŋred, yellow, jaundiced (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₈)

bambaŋ, baŋbaŋbutterfly (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₂)

ban-duaboth (PMP: *duha) *duSa

banieplank-like outgrowth under the branches of some trees (NOISE)

baŋkécorpse, cadaver (of a non-Muslim or animal) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋònform, shape, figure, posture, build, figure (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

barahorizontal tie-beams in a house (PMP: *bara₂)

baraŋordinary, everyday; gives a general sense to: whoever, whichever (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baratwest, westerly (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barōnew; just, just now; first (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

Acehnese (60 / 363)

baròëyesterday (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

basahwet, damp (PMP: *baseq)

bateəstone, rock, boulder; net sinkers (PMP: *batu) *batux

bayeuëpay, satisfy (in monetary terms) (PMP: *bayaD)

baʔtree, trunk, stem, stalk (NOISE)

besiiron (LOAN)

beudaʔwhitener, ointment (rubbed into the body of a sick person as medicine (LOAN)

beudéweapon, gun (LOAN)

beukahbreak, break through; broken; piece; broken off; to disperse, of a meeting (PMP: *bekaq)

beukaïhtrace, footprint; impression left behind, remains (PMP: *bekas₃)

beukayprovisions for a journey, supplies (PWMP: *bekel)

beunato rise, of the tide (PMP: *bena)

beunatrue, genuine, real, essential, certain, precise, good, upright, honest, fair (PMP: *bener)

beundaobject, thing, matter, affair, visible evidence, visible sign (LOAN)

beuneuŋthread, yarn (PWMP: *benaŋ)

beuŋèhangry, furious, malicious, bad-natured (PMP: *beŋis₁)

beureukaïhbunch, sheaf, bundle; tie into a bundle (PMP: *beRkes)

beureukat, beurkatblessing, salvation; blessed, prosperous (LOAN)

beureutéhburst open, rice that has popped while being roasted (PWMP: *beRtiq)

beutéhshinbone, the leg bone below the knee (PAN: *beties)

Acehnese (80 / 363)

biasaordinary, customary, in the habit of; experienced, practiced (LOAN)

biayaexpenses, costs; gifts (LOAN)

bibilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibi mataeyelid (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibi pukòëlabia of the vulva (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bicaraadvice, counsel; deliberation, discussion; consultation; opinion, intention; judgment (LOAN)

bidadifference, distinction (LOAN)

bidanmidwife (LOAN)

bideuëŋbroad, breadth; stretched out, spread out; unit of measure for cloth, mats, etc. (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bideuëŋbroad, wide; width; extended, spread out (LOAN)

bidoʔkind of outrigger canoe (LOAN)

bieuëpermit, allow, let (PWMP: *bihaR)

bijéhgrain, pip, pit, seed; seedlings (LOAN)

bilathe person who in justice is the object of blood revenge (LOAN)

biléhsmall fish, kind of anchovy especially eaten dried (PWMP: *bilis)

bileuenofficial enjoined with calling the faithful to prayer, and with the upkeep of the mosque (LOAN)

bileuëŋcount, sum up, enumerate, reckon (PAN: *bilaŋ₁)

biléʔroom, apartment (PMP: *bilik)

binasadestroyed, spoilt, devastated, annihilated (LOAN)

binataŋanimal, beast; cattle (opposed to manusia 'people') (LOAN)

Acehnese (100 / 363)

bintaŋstar; order of knighthood (LOAN)

bintaŋ lheəthe three brightly shining stars in the middle of Orion (PAN: *telu)

bintaŋ paròëa constellation, the Southern Cross (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

bintaŋ tujōha constellation, the Pleiades (PMP: *bituqen pitu) *bituqen

biŋètpeevish, touchy, short-tempered; difficult, troublesome; malicious (of animals) (PMP: *biŋit)

biŋkèrim, edge, border, frame (PWMP: *biŋkay)

biŋkōʔcrooked, bent, curved (PMP: *biŋkuk)

biŋóŋstupid, silly, confused, stupefied, dazed; to doze (LOAN)

biŋóŋstupid, silly, confused, stupefied, dazed; to doze (NOISE)

biraheasily hurt, hypersensitive; a type of Alocasia (PMP: *biRaq₁)

biri-biriberi beri (disease) (LOAN)

bisapoison, venom (esp. of animals) (LOAN)

bisanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried (the bisan of the bride are thus the consanguineal kin of her husband) (PWMP: *baisan)

biséʔto whisper (PWMP: *bisik₃)

biulaviolin (of European manufacture) (LOAN)

blahsplit, cleave, hack; be split, cloven (PAN: *belaq)

-blaïhformative for numerals from 11-19 (LOAN)

blòëbuy (PMP: *beli)

bóbóto babble, chatter (LOAN)

bòhfruit, bud, seed, nut, button, ball, weight, importance, egg, calf of the leg, nit (louse egg), spout of a vessel, penis, male sex organs; numeral classifier; element in names of body parts; objects used in games or gambling; also used in a number of figurative expressions (PMP: *buaq)

Acehnese (120 / 363)

bòh asèëpenis of a dog; bolt of a rifle (PMP: *buaq)

bòh atéhypocoristic term, sweetheart (PWMP: *buaq qatay) *buaq

bòh beutéhcalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

bòh beutéhcalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

bòh euŋkōtroe of fish (PMP: *buaq)

bòh gōŋboss of a gong; bolt of a rifle (PMP: *buaq)

bòh haleukōmAdam's apple (PMP: *buaq)

bòh kayèëfruit (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

bòh keumiròëoleaginous nut; also human testicles (PMP: *buaq)

bòh Klèŋlit. penis of a Kliŋ (Tamil) = kind of sea cucumber (PMP: *buaq)

bòh manoʔchicken egg (PMP: *buaq)

bòh meureuyamcannon shot (PMP: *buaq)

bòh pisaŋupper arm (PMP: *buaq)

bratheavy; important; pregnant (PMP: *beReqat)

breuëhhusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

bri, beurigive, endow, present to; allow, permit (PMP: *beRay)

bubèëkind of fish trap (many named varieties) (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubōŋroof, roof covering (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

budaʔchild, lad, boy (LOAN)

budhéenkind of preserve of small fish in brine (much eaten in Daya) (LOAN)

Acehnese (140 / 363)

budi, budi-manexhibit good behavior, sensible, wise (LOAN)

budōstupid, silly (LOAN)

buëhwild, savage; lewd (PWMP: *buas)

buëtwork, occupation, business; matter, affair, question, concern; action, way of acting; behavior, conduct, deed; suitable (PMP: *buhat₂)

buihleak, leak through an opening; flow, stream (PMP: *busbus)

bujaŋbachelor; squire, page, herald (LOAN)

bujaŋ rajathe king's herald (LOAN)

bukaopen (PMP: *buka)

buka puasabreak the fast (PMP: *buka)

bukètmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukònno, not, not be something; isn't it? (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

bulèëbody hair, feathers, wool, quills of a porcupine, etc. (PMP: *bulu₁)

buleuënmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buleuën peunòhfull moon (PMP: *penuq)

bulōhkind of bamboo used for blowpipes, cooking vessels, bobbins, sharpened spikes in pitfall traps (PAN: *buluq₂)

bunitree sp. (PWMP: *buRnay)

buntéŋpregnant, with young; also used of rice when the head is on the point of appearing (LOAN)

buntoʔinflated, swollen up (PMP: *buntuʔ)

buñòesound, noise, tone; rumor (PMP: *buñi)

buŋa apuyfireworks (PMP: *buŋa ni hapuy) *buŋa

Acehnese (160 / 363)

buŋkaihfor something to emerge, break the surface of the water; for the day to break (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋkoihpackage, bale, bundle; to wrap, pack up, roll up (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋkoʔhump; bent, curved (as the back, or the shoulders) (PMP: *buŋkuk)

buŋòkind of tree with good wood (PAN: *buŋuR)

buŋòŋflower, blossom; flower motif (in weaving, embroidery, wood carving, ornamentation, etc.); interest on a loan (PMP: *buŋaŋ)

buŋóŋ lawaŋclove (LOAN)

buŋòŋ uroefirst rays of the rising sun (PMP: *buŋaŋ)

buŋsuyoungest child, last-born (LOAN)

buréʔspeckled (PWMP: *burik)

burōŋto accept (a job); payment of a previously stipulated salary (LOAN)

burōthernia, enlarged scrotum (LOAN)

burōthernia, enlarged scrotum (NOISE)

buruhunt, drive before one (PAN: *buRaw)

buruto hunt, go hunting (NOISE)

busōŋswelling of the stomach; sandbank (PWMP: *busuŋ)

busuarcher's bow (PMP: *busuR₂)

butablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta tuloëblind and deaf (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butōhpenis, male sex organ (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butōh Kléŋkind of inedible black sea cucumber (lit. 'penis of a Tamil') (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

Acehnese (180 / 363)

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

danoh darahdysentery (PAN: *daRaq)

dapukitchen, fireplace (PMP: *dapuR₁)

dapu pandésmith’s furnace (PMP: *dapuR₁)

darahblood (PAN: *daRaq)

daratland, shore (PMP: *daRat)

datu ~ datoʔ ~ toʔgrandfather, ancestor; term of address for elders; title for the guardians of traditional law on the west coast; title of animals or things that are regarded as holy or especially feared (PMP: *datu)

deupafathom (PAN: *depah)

dipreposition of location: in, to, by, on, at, out, from (PAN: *di)

diriridge post, used to support the ridge pole of a house (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duroethorn, spike (PMP: *duRi)

gaséŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gatayitch, itchy; also restless, inconstant, desirous, lascivious (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

geugatdecayed through dampness, etc.; moth (PWMP: *getget₁)

geunabfull, complete; even (opposite of odd) (PWMP: *genep)

habéhfinished, done, at an end (PWMP: *qabiq)

hambōstrew, sow, scatter (PWMP: *qambuR)

hampato spread out; to be spread out, as a stone that from above appears stretched out and flat (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

hantughost, evil spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

Acehnese (200 / 363)

Hantu buruan evil spirit, the Spectre Huntsman (PAN: *buRaw)

hantu rimbaforest spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hañòtfloat away, be carried away (by a current) (PAN: *qañud)

haŋétodor of perspiration (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

(h)awiha tied cloth, cloth tied into a bundle (PWMP: *qawis)

(h)ayaʔsieve of plaited bamboo or metal wire; to sieve, sift (PWMP: *qayag)

hiehdecorate; ornament (LOAN)

himponcollected, gathered (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

hiramdark (of the face, through rage or shame) (PWMP: *qirem)

iboihthe gebang palm: Corypha gebanga Bl. (PWMP: *ibus₁)

idoŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iə matatears (PMP: *mata) *maCa

indahpretty (LOAN)

indaŋwooden vessel in which gold is panned (PWMP: *indaŋ)

ipōhvegetable poison (PWMP: *qipuq)

irehslice (PMP: *qiris)

iréŋwalk single-file, follow, accompany, form a procession (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

iseueŋgills (PWMP: *isaŋ)

isotshove (PMP: *isud)

kamɔə1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

Acehnese (220 / 363)

karamsuffer an accident, sink, shipwreck (PWMP: *kaRem)

katithe outrigger floats of a canoe (PMP: *katiR)

kawanherd, flock, crowd; friend, comrade, companion, mate; follower; assistant; adherent (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kawéangling; fishing line; fishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawéthook, as on clothing (PAN: *kawit)

kayeəwood, tree, stick, pole, beam (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kukuëtlower leg of an animal from the hoof to the ankle (PAN: *kudkud)

kulattoadstool, fungus (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kulétskin; bark; rind; hide; leather (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kulubreadfruit tree: Artocarpus incisa (PMP: *kuluR)

labaihcareless, without worries (NOISE)

lakòëhusband (PMP: *laki₁)

lalata fly (PMP: *lalej)

laŋian aromatic salve (PWMP: *laŋiR)

laŋkaha step, pace, stride (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

layeuësail (PAN: *layaR)

leumah buleuënmenstruation (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

lheəthree (PAN: *telu)

lɨbehmore, in a high degree; remainder (PWMP: *lebiq)

lidah ~ dilahtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

Acehnese (240 / 363)

lihiëneck (PAN: *liqeR)

likōtbehind; rear part; back (anat.) (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

lulōnspin with a spinning wheel; a roll of cleansed cotton; (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lumpòëdream (PWMP: *lupi)

lutōŋlong-tailed monkey with gray fur (PAN: *luCuŋ)

ma-kan-anto eat; all food other than rice (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

manoʔchicken, fowl; hen (PMP: *manuk)

manoʔ uteuënjungle fowl (PMP: *manuk)

m-asamsour tasting (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

mataeye; germ of a seed kernel; joint, articulation (of stalks like bamboo or sugarcane); gemstones, etc. (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata apuythe space above the hearth where foodstuffs are hung in the smoke to preserve them (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ceŋmeasuring marks on a scale (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata gɨnukuteeth of a coconut rasp (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata gōŋboss on a gong (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata iəspring, well, source of a river (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

mata itampupil of the eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kawethe sharp point of a fishhook (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kayεəknot in wood (PMP: *mata nu kahiw) *maCa

mata laŋayplowshare (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mataa spy (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

Acehnese (260 / 363)

mata pukatmesh of a net (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mata sərampaŋprongs of a harpoon (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata sikinthe blade of a knife (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ueyeholes in a coconut shell (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata urɔəsun (‘eye of the day’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

meu-awihcarry in a carrying cloth on the back (PWMP: *qawis)

meu-darahbleeding, bloody (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

meu-duadivide in two, to halve (PMP: *duha) *duSa

meu-gaséŋto spin tops (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

meu-geunabto discuss or deliberate with one another (PWMP: *genep)

meu-layeuëgo on a trip, to sail, be under sail, at sea (PAN: *layaR)

meu-salahsprained (as an ankle) (PWMP: *maR-salaq) *salaq₁

meu-tanɔhowning land (PMP: *taneq)

meu-tarōhto wager, place a bet on something (PWMP: *maR-taRuq) *taRuq

meu-ʔapuyburning, sending off sparks (PWMP: *ma-hapuy) *Sapuy

mɨʔ-anɨʔgive birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mu-bòhbearing fruit (PMP: *buaq)

mu-buleuën-buleuënfor months (PMP: *bulan-bulan₂) *bulaN

nibōŋpalm sp.: Oncosperma filamentosum Bl. (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

nòhsquid, cuttlefish, octopus (PMP: *nues)

Acehnese (280 / 363)

padaŋfield, plain (PWMP: *padaŋ)

pageuëfence, hedge (PMP: *pager)

pagiDay of Judgement (PWMP: *pagi)

paguattic, loft, ceiling (PWMP: *pagu)

pakufern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

palanutmeg tree and fruit (LOAN)

palaŋanything used as a barrier: crossbeam, bolt, etc. (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

paléhunlucky (PWMP: *palis₂)

paleŋturn, swerve, avert (PMP: *paliŋ)

paleuëtpalm of the hand (PMP: *palaj₁)

palikatcheckered cloth imported from the Palikat region of India (north of Madras) (LOAN)

paloŋtrough (PWMP: *paluŋ₁)

paluhit with a stick or other object (as in striking a gong) (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

panèëspots on human skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

paŋèwild tree from the seeds of which a good cooking oil is prepared (PWMP: *paŋi)

paŋgaŋroast (meat or fish) on a spit (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgecall, summon (LOAN)

papeuënplank (as in a coffin or grave) (PMP: *papan)

paraattic, loft (under the ceiling) (PAN: *paRa₁)

parahorde, troop (PMP: *paRa₂)

Acehnese (300 / 363)

parohoarse (PAN: *paRaw)

paròëstingray (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pasaŋpair, team, spouse, partner, equal (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasibeach, sand (PWMP: *pasiR)

peu-geunabto complete (PWMP: *pa-genep) *genep

peunòhfull, as a rice field full of water; laden (PMP: *penuq)

peu-taloetie with a rope or string (PWMP: *pa-talih) *CaliS

piléhchoose (PAN: *piliq)

prahō pukatfishing boat used especially for seine fishing (PMP: *puket₁)

pu-blòësell (PWMP: *pa-beli) *beli

pu-bukato open, loosen (PMP: *buka)

pukatseine, large dragnet (PMP: *puket₁)

pukɔəfemale genitals (PAN: *puki)

pukɔə ma kahyour mother’s vagina! (term of abuse) (PAN: *puki)

p<um>iléhto choose (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

pusatnavel, mid-point; also, touch-hole of a cannon or other weapon (PMP: *pusej)

putehwhite, gray (of hair); pure, upright, good-natured (PMP: *putiq)

raketraft (PMP: *Rakit)

rayabig, wide, extensive; considerable, very; vehement; full-grown (PAN: *Raya)

reunoŋ meu-kawétfruiting pole, pole with a hook at the end for bringing down fruit (PWMP: *maR-kawit) *kawit

Acehnese (320 / 363)

reuñeunsteps, ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

rɨsamkind of fern (PMP: *aResam)

rɨsamfern sp. (PMP: *qaRsam)

rumòhhouse, dwelling (PAN: *Rumaq)

rusoʔribs (of the body, of a leaf, a roof); side, border (PAN: *Rusuk)

sakétpain; sick, indisposed; labor (in childbirth); difficult, painful; trouble; torment; grief (PMP: *sakit)

sakét ulεəheadache (PMP: *sakit)

salahmistake, error, fault; offense (PMP: *salaq₁)

salɛsmoke something over a fire; to roast; suspend something in the smoke in order to dry in out (PWMP: *salay)

sambayvarious finely chopped leaves mixed with Spanish pepper, roasted coconut, salt, etc. (a kind of condiment) (LOAN)

seumaŋatsoul of a living person, life-force, (impersonal) soul; be conscious (PMP: *sumaŋed)

seumaŋat padésoul of the rice (PMP: *sumaŋet nu pajay) *sumaŋed

siaŋmade clean, bright (PWMP: *siaŋ)

s<ɨn>ambaʔdyke, dam, mound of earth, wall, rampart, parapet (PMP: *tambak₂)

s<ɨn>umpéta blowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

sirasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

sugɔεtoothbrush, specifically a roll of tobacco with which one brushes the teeth after chewing betel (PWMP: *sugi)

sulōhtorch (PMP: *suluq)

sumpétshoot with a blowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

susahtrouble, burden, distress, worry, grief, adversity (LOAN)

Acehnese (340 / 363)

taloerope, line, string, cord (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

talòë pusatnavel string (PWMP: *talih pusej) *CaliS

talɔə pusatumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

tanɔhground, land, earth (PMP: *taneq)

tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay (PMP: *taneq)

taŋirɔεkind of sea fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tarōhput down, wager (in a game or gambling contest) (PMP: *taRuq)

tarōh luathe wagers of the bystanders at a cockfight (PMP: *taRuq)

tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

təkato come, arrive (PMP: *teka₁)

t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about (PMP: *t<um>akut) *takut

teuneunto drive in the weft (in weaving) (PAN: *tenun)

thɛəto know, have knowledge of something, be able (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

t<ɨm>ambaʔto dam up, make a dyke; heap up earth; fill up (PWMP: *t<um>ambak) *tambak₂

t<ɯm>ubato catch fish by stunning them with tuba (PAN: *t<um>uba) *tuba

tubapoison, venom (PAN: *tuba)

tuba jinu ~ tuba jɯnua poisonous root-sap used to stun fish (so that they can easily be caught) (PAN: *tuba)

tujōhseven (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tumεtheel, hock (PWMP: *tumid)

turōn ~ trōnto descend, go down; to reduce, of prices; be descended from (PMP: *tuRun₁)

Acehnese (360 / 363)

ureuəŋ dapudescendants of slaves (PMP: *dapuR₁)

urɯəŋ mɯ-kulatpreparer of poison (PWMP: *ma-kulat) *kulaC

warehconsanguineal kin (LOAN)

Achinese (363) WMP. see: Acehnese

5. Adonara (54) CMP (Lebar 1972) [adr] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

ahodog (PAN: *asu₁)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

aŋiwind (PMP: *haŋin)

apefire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ariyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

ataperson (PMP: *qaRta)

baʔatheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

binesister (man speaking) (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

ikutail (PAN: *ikuR)

inamother (PCEMP: *ina)

inamother (PMP: *ina)

ipetooth (PMP: *ipen)

ka-awukashes (PMP: *qabuk)

kajotree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kakaelder sibling (same sex?; Lebar 1972:93) (PMP: *kaka₂)

kamewe (excl.) (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

lakehusband (PMP: *laki₁)

lima-thand (PAN: *qalima)

manuk-utabird (PMP: *manuk)

meared (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

Adonara (20 / 54)

me-nipithin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

m-enuto drink (PMP: *inum)

me-nuragreen (PMP: *ŋuda)

m-oriliving, alive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

m-utato vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

naŋeto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

nithis (PAN: *-ni)

nithis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

panato walk (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

patfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

puloten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

ramutroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

rarapath, road (PMP: *zalan)

rerasun (PMP: *qalejaw)

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

siasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

tahiksea (PMP: *tasik)

talerope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tana ekaearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

Adonara (40 / 54)

telothree (PAN: *telu)

te-ratuone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

t-itewe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

turu-tto sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

tuʔuold (people) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

ulasnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

urarain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

wairiver; fresh water (PMP: *wahiR)

wanaright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

watostone (PMP: *batu) *batux

wau ~ waʔusmell, odor (PMP: *bahuq)

wuafruit (PMP: *buaq)

wulamoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wuʔunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

6. Adzera (14) OC (Hooley 1971) [aka: Azera]

bururuŋburn, be on fire (POC: *pururuŋ)

gaitree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

inumto drink (PMP: *inum)

ma-ntongue (POC: *maya)

mara-neye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

nigitnest (POC: *ñikut)

nipu-ntooth; mouth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

rai-nbrother (POC: *taci) *Suaji

rama-nfather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

rina-nmother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

riŋa-near (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

sisu-nbreast (PAN: *susu₁)

yu-nnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

zaffire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

7. Agta (Central Cagayan) (176) WMP (Reid 1971) [agt] (Agta, Central Cagayan) Philippines (dialects: Eastern (Nickell and Nickell 1987) [duo] 46, Dupaningan (Robinson 2011) [duo] 98) [aka: Central Cagayan Agta]

addumany (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

alalitype of fish (PMP: *alali) Eastern

amótto clamp one’s hand over one’s own or someone else’s mouth to prevent talking or breathing; hold one’s nostrils so no air enters (PMP: *hemut) *Semut Eastern

amot-ánto pinch one’s nostrils so water doesn’t enter (PMP: *hemut) *Semut Eastern

appánbait for fishing (PAN: *paen) Dupaningan

ba-bbeywoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi Dupaningan

bahakpiglet (PAN: *beRek) Eastern

bátaŋkind of very hard, rather large bracket fungus, in the shape of an ear. It grows on trees and is not edible. (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Eastern

begloincloth, traditional g-string (PMP: *bahaR) Dupaningan

bitáŋanimal trap (PPH: *batéŋ) Eastern

bitáŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Eastern

bitustone (PMP: *batu) *batux Dupaningan

biyawin-law (PWMP: *bayaw) Eastern

búgsokto descend (PPH: *bug(e)suk) Eastern

búnogsmall fish (PPH: *búnuR) Eastern

dad-dákalparents (PPH: *dakél) Dupaningan

dakálbig, large (PPH: *dakél) Dupaningan

danʌold (persons) (PWMP: *dana)

daŋdáŋ-anput a pot next to the fire to keep food warm (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ Dupaningan

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN Eastern

Agta (Central Cagayan) (20 / 176)

dələkthunder (PWMP: *delek)

demefather (ref.) (PAN: *da-amax) *amax

di-diyaupstream (cp. di-lod ‘downstream’) (PWMP: *di-daya) *daya Dupaningan

digetsea, ocean (PMP: *daRat) Dupaningan

digiblood (PAN: *daRaq) Dupaningan

dilátongue (PMP: *dilaq₁) Dupaningan

dilanroad, path, trail (PMP: *zalan) Dupaningan

dinómwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum Dupaningan

dipogashes, dust (PMP: *dapuR₁) Dupaningan

ditagplain, small clearing (PAN: *dataR) Dupaningan

donleaf (PMP: *dahun) Dupaningan

d<um>igito bleed (PAN: *daRaq) Dupaningan

d<um>itáŋto arrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ Dupaningan

dúwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Dupaningan

e-nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu)

gisáto fry in fat (LOAN) Eastern

guhamayfinger, toe (PPH: *gulamay)

gúlpisudden, quick; very large amount of something; suddenly get everything of something (LOAN) Eastern

gúsoksternum, center of chest below breasts (PAN: *Rusuk) Dupaningan

gutgutto bite and tear with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₁) *gutgut Eastern

Agta (Central Cagayan) (40 / 176)

háyupanimal, creature, spirit (generic for any non-human creature, especially mammals, whether natural or supernatural; includes fairies, elves, goblins, etc.) (PPH: *háyup) Eastern

hiklemnight (ROOT)

hulibuttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

i-ditáŋbring something (PMP: *dateŋ) Dupaningan

igateel (PPh: *ígat)

iklug (< D)egg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

i-ko2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

i-kuyógto accompany, go with (PPH: *kúyug) Dupaningan

i-lákadrun away with, kidnap (PPH: *i-lákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

i-nataŋcook vegetables (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ Dupaningan

i-ped-pedto fan (PAN: *paid) Dupaningan

i-saŋlagto fry (PMP: *saŋelaR) Dupaningan

i-tánamto bury (PPH: *i-tanem) *CaNem Dupaningan

ka-həbiyesterday (PMP: *ka-Rabiqi) *Rabiqi

kali-dúwasoul (PMP: *duha) *duSa Dupaningan

kan-anfood, especially rice (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen Dupaningan

ka-nuwhen? (PMP: *ka-nu₂) *-nu

katálto scratch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel Eastern

kayúliving tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw Dupaningan

kemethand (PPH: *kemet)

Agta (Central Cagayan) (60 / 176)

kilátlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC Dupaningan

kilay-anraise one’s eyebrows; wink (PWMP: *kiray)

kíliŋbamboo (for odd jobs, not building) (PPH: *kilíŋ₂) Eastern

kisapto blink (PWMP: *ki(n)sap) Eastern

-kitawe, you and I; first person dual inclusive enclitic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁ Dupaningan

-kita-mwe, first person plural inclusive nominative enclitic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁ Dupaningan

kon-pseudo-verb used to indicate quoted speech (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁ Dupaningan

kugitáoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa Dupaningan

kulata mushroom that grows from a dead tree (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC Dupaningan

kulemrain cloud (PWMP: *kulem)

kulettree bark, peel of a fruit, shell (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC Dupaningan

k<um>agetto bite (PMP: *k<um>aRat) *kaRaC Dupaningan

kútulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux Dupaningan

lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting) (PPH: *lakáj-an) *lakaj Dupaningan

lá-lakayold man; husband (PWMP: *lakay) Dupaningan

lallákiman, male (historically a plural) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁ Dupaningan

láŋawhousefly (PMP: *laŋaw) Dupaningan

láŋetsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC Dupaningan

lapdasto get marks on one’s shoulders from carrying a heavy backpack; to spank or whip s.o. with a switch or whip and raise welts (PPH: *lap(e)des) Eastern

layáginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia) Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (80 / 176)

legneck, throat (PAN: *liqeR) Dupaningan

ləppuash, dust (LOAN)

lésleshold up one’s skirt or pants legs (when crossing a river) (PPH: *lesles₁) Eastern

límafive (PAN: *lima) Dupaningan

lollobutterfly (NOISE) Dupaningan

ludludto scrape one’s body with a rock when bathing to remove dirt (PPH: *ludlud₁) Eastern

l<um>ákadto leave, to exit (PPH: *l<um>ákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

lumótmoss (PMP: *lumut) Dupaningan

lupáypaybroken arm that flops around (PPH: *lupaypáy) Eastern

luwáteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq Dupaningan

luwásgo out (PMP: *luas₁) Eastern

ma-digetrough, of the sea (PMP: *daRat) Dupaningan

mag-degustake a bath, bathe; play in water, swim around (PAN: *diRus) Dupaningan

mag-digito menstruate (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq Dupaningan

mag-gisgisto brush, as teeth (PAN: *gisgis₁) Dupaningan

mag-gutgutto gnaw, bite into something, tear at something with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₁) *gutgut Dupaningan

mag-kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih Dupaningan

mag-kanto eat, especially rice or a meal containing rice (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen Dupaningan

mag-kuletto peel, skin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC Dupaningan

mag-lákadto walk (PPH: *maR-lákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (100 / 176)

mag-laŋoyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy) Dupaningan

mag-lesleslift or roll up clothes when crossing a body of water so that they do not get wet (PPH: *lesles₁) Dupaningan

mag-lututo cook, especially rice (PWMP: *lutuq) Dupaningan

mag-naŋoyto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy Dupaningan

mag-ŋalŋalto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋalŋal) Dupaningan

mag-ŋatŋatto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC) Dupaningan

mag-potpotharvest a vegetable that grows in the ground; pluck, uproot (PAN: *putput₁) Dupaningan

mag-saŋetto cry, to weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Dupaningan

mag-sa-sáŋlagto fry; sizzle, hiss (PMP: *saŋelaR) Eastern

ma-katálitchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel Dupaningan

maki-affix indicating associative activity by a few people (PPH: *maki-) Eastern

ma-manukbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

mamitsweet (PAN: *ma-hemis) *hemis

manokbird, chicken (PMP: *manuk) Dupaningan

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

mapetbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-puluten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq Dupaningan

ma-sakétsick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit Dupaningan

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa Dupaningan

ma-tídugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (120 / 176)

meg-ke-teweto laugh (PWMP: *maR-ka-tawa) *Cawa

məg-təguto hide (PMP: *taRuq)

mə-sidugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR

me-ʔitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

nagenitive of common nouns (PAN: *na₃)

namokmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk) Dupaningan

nataŋvegetable (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ Dupaningan

nimarker of (singular) personal names (PAN: *ni) Dupaningan

niyógcoconut (PMP: *niuR) Dupaningan

ŋábŋabcrunching sound of chewing on something hard (PAN: *ŋabŋab) Eastern

ŋadaspalate (PMP: *ŋadas) Eastern

ŋadasgums (PMP: *ŋadas) Dupaningan

ŋasŋaschew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) (PMP: *ŋasŋas) Eastern

ŋátŋatchew food, betel nut, gum, etc. (PWMP: *ŋatŋat) Eastern

ŋilosensitive teeth (PAN: *ŋilu) Eastern

ŋipantooth (PAN: *ŋipen) Dupaningan

ŋítŋitfood stuck between the teeth (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) Dupaningan

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

payet, still (PAN: *pa₁) Eastern

pa-kan-anto feed a person or animal (PAN: *pa-kaen-en) *kaen Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (140 / 176)

pakófern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku Eastern

ped-peda fan (PAN: *paid) Dupaningan

pigəhow many? (PAN: *pijax)

pili-anchoose (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq Dupaningan

pílitto force, make something act against its will (PPH: *pílit) Eastern

pítuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Dupaningan

potput-anpluck, pull out, uproot, as a hair or a vegetable in the ground (PAN: *putput₁) Dupaningan

puléŋdirt or other matter stuck in the eye (PWMP: *puliŋ₂) Dupaningan

púsadnavel (PMP: *pusej) Dupaningan

pusúheart (PMP: *pusuq₁) Dupaningan

putputpull out of the ground; shed (feathers or hair) (PAN: *putput₁) Eastern

risalouse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS Dupaningan

sáklothold crossways in the arms (as to hold a sleeping child crossways in the arms) (PPH: *sak(e)lut-en) *sak(e)lút Eastern

salaŋdammar pine tree; its raw wood is waxy, as is burned as candles, Agathis philippinensis (PAN: *saleŋ) Dupaningan

saŋetcry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Dupaningan

sáŋoto scent (animal using nose to seek or track prey) (PPH: *sáŋu) Eastern

sʌpʌwwaterfall (PPH: *sampaw)

sayáddrag on the ground, scrape across the ground (as a boat being pushed across a sandbar, or a woman’s long dress dragging on the ground) (LOAN) Eastern

síkatsunrise (PPH: *sikát) Eastern

sikátpopular (< Tagalog) (PPH: *sikát) Eastern

Agta (Central Cagayan) (160 / 176)

síloloop, lasso, collar; trap made of loops for birds, pigs or deer (PPH: *síluq) Eastern

s-inathere (2p) (PMP: *i-na) *-na

sinagsunlight; weather; summer (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR Dupaningan

siŋótto sniff, snurf (PWMP: *siŋ(e)hut) Eastern

siyákcry, yelp (PWMP: *ciak) Eastern

siʔlaksplit; crack (PWMP: *siqelak) Eastern

sululight, any kind of device for emitting light (PMP: *suluq) Dupaningan

suŋsuŋ-anheadwaters, source of a stream or river (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁) Dupaningan

supitnarrow (PWMP: *supit) Eastern

tallóthree (PAN: *telu) Dupaningan

ta-titusmall puppy (PMP: *titu) Dupaningan

títupuppy (PMP: *titu) Dupaningan

tudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

útasto continue (PPH: *útas) Eastern

úttogsexually aroused (male) (PPh: *qutuR) Eastern

yanthis (PWMP: *ian₃)

Agta (Dupaningan) (98) WMP (Robinson 2011) [duo] (Agta, Dupaninan) Philippines

appánbait for fishing (PAN: *paen) Dupaningan

ba-bbeywoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi Dupaningan

begloincloth, traditional g-string (PMP: *bahaR) Dupaningan

bitustone (PMP: *batu) *batux Dupaningan

dad-dákalparents (PPH: *dakél) Dupaningan

dakálbig, large (PPH: *dakél) Dupaningan

daŋdáŋ-anput a pot next to the fire to keep food warm (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ Dupaningan

di-diyaupstream (cp. di-lod ‘downstream’) (PWMP: *di-daya) *daya Dupaningan

digetsea, ocean (PMP: *daRat) Dupaningan

digiblood (PAN: *daRaq) Dupaningan

dilátongue (PMP: *dilaq₁) Dupaningan

dilanroad, path, trail (PMP: *zalan) Dupaningan

dinómwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum Dupaningan

dipogashes, dust (PMP: *dapuR₁) Dupaningan

ditagplain, small clearing (PAN: *dataR) Dupaningan

donleaf (PMP: *dahun) Dupaningan

d<um>igito bleed (PAN: *daRaq) Dupaningan

d<um>itáŋto arrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ Dupaningan

dúwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Dupaningan

gúsoksternum, center of chest below breasts (PAN: *Rusuk) Dupaningan

Agta (Dupaningan) (20 / 98)

i-ditáŋbring something (PMP: *dateŋ) Dupaningan

i-kuyógto accompany, go with (PPH: *kúyug) Dupaningan

i-lákadrun away with, kidnap (PPH: *i-lákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

i-nataŋcook vegetables (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ Dupaningan

i-ped-pedto fan (PAN: *paid) Dupaningan

i-saŋlagto fry (PMP: *saŋelaR) Dupaningan

i-tánamto bury (PPH: *i-tanem) *CaNem Dupaningan

kali-dúwasoul (PMP: *duha) *duSa Dupaningan

kan-anfood, especially rice (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen Dupaningan

kayúliving tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw Dupaningan

kilátlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC Dupaningan

-kitawe, you and I; first person dual inclusive enclitic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁ Dupaningan

-kita-mwe, first person plural inclusive nominative enclitic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁ Dupaningan

kon-pseudo-verb used to indicate quoted speech (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁ Dupaningan

kugitáoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa Dupaningan

kulata mushroom that grows from a dead tree (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC Dupaningan

kulettree bark, peel of a fruit, shell (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC Dupaningan

k<um>agetto bite (PMP: *k<um>aRat) *kaRaC Dupaningan

kútulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux Dupaningan

lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting) (PPH: *lakáj-an) *lakaj Dupaningan

Agta (Dupaningan) (40 / 98)

lá-lakayold man; husband (PWMP: *lakay) Dupaningan

lallákiman, male (historically a plural) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁ Dupaningan

láŋawhousefly (PMP: *laŋaw) Dupaningan

láŋetsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC Dupaningan

layáginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia) Dupaningan

legneck, throat (PAN: *liqeR) Dupaningan

límafive (PAN: *lima) Dupaningan

lollobutterfly (NOISE) Dupaningan

l<um>ákadto leave, to exit (PPH: *l<um>ákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

lumótmoss (PMP: *lumut) Dupaningan

luwáteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq Dupaningan

ma-digetrough, of the sea (PMP: *daRat) Dupaningan

mag-degustake a bath, bathe; play in water, swim around (PAN: *diRus) Dupaningan

mag-digito menstruate (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq Dupaningan

mag-gisgisto brush, as teeth (PAN: *gisgis₁) Dupaningan

mag-gutgutto gnaw, bite into something, tear at something with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₁) *gutgut Dupaningan

mag-kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih Dupaningan

mag-kanto eat, especially rice or a meal containing rice (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen Dupaningan

mag-kuletto peel, skin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC Dupaningan

mag-lákadto walk (PPH: *maR-lákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

Agta (Dupaningan) (60 / 98)

mag-laŋoyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy) Dupaningan

mag-lesleslift or roll up clothes when crossing a body of water so that they do not get wet (PPH: *lesles₁) Dupaningan

mag-lututo cook, especially rice (PWMP: *lutuq) Dupaningan

mag-naŋoyto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy Dupaningan

mag-ŋalŋalto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋalŋal) Dupaningan

mag-ŋatŋatto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC) Dupaningan

mag-potpotharvest a vegetable that grows in the ground; pluck, uproot (PAN: *putput₁) Dupaningan

mag-saŋetto cry, to weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Dupaningan

ma-katálitchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel Dupaningan

manokbird, chicken (PMP: *manuk) Dupaningan

ma-puluten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq Dupaningan

ma-sakétsick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit Dupaningan

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa Dupaningan

ma-tídugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR Dupaningan

namokmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk) Dupaningan

nataŋvegetable (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ Dupaningan

nimarker of (singular) personal names (PAN: *ni) Dupaningan

niyógcoconut (PMP: *niuR) Dupaningan

ŋadasgums (PMP: *ŋadas) Dupaningan

ŋipantooth (PAN: *ŋipen) Dupaningan

Agta (Dupaningan) (80 / 98)

ŋítŋitfood stuck between the teeth (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) Dupaningan

pa-kan-anto feed a person or animal (PAN: *pa-kaen-en) *kaen Dupaningan

ped-peda fan (PAN: *paid) Dupaningan

pili-anchoose (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq Dupaningan

pítuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Dupaningan

potput-anpluck, pull out, uproot, as a hair or a vegetable in the ground (PAN: *putput₁) Dupaningan

puléŋdirt or other matter stuck in the eye (PWMP: *puliŋ₂) Dupaningan

púsadnavel (PMP: *pusej) Dupaningan

pusúheart (PMP: *pusuq₁) Dupaningan

risalouse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS Dupaningan

salaŋdammar pine tree; its raw wood is waxy, as is burned as candles, Agathis philippinensis (PAN: *saleŋ) Dupaningan

saŋetcry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Dupaningan

sinagsunlight; weather; summer (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR Dupaningan

sululight, any kind of device for emitting light (PMP: *suluq) Dupaningan

suŋsuŋ-anheadwaters, source of a stream or river (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁) Dupaningan

tallóthree (PAN: *telu) Dupaningan

ta-titusmall puppy (PMP: *titu) Dupaningan

títupuppy (PMP: *titu) Dupaningan

Agta (Eastern) (46) WMP (Nickell and Nickell 1987) [duo] (Agta, Dupaninan) Philippines

alalitype of fish (PMP: *alali) Eastern

amótto clamp one’s hand over one’s own or someone else’s mouth to prevent talking or breathing; hold one’s nostrils so no air enters (PMP: *hemut) *Semut Eastern

amot-ánto pinch one’s nostrils so water doesn’t enter (PMP: *hemut) *Semut Eastern

bahakpiglet (PAN: *beRek) Eastern

bátaŋkind of very hard, rather large bracket fungus, in the shape of an ear. It grows on trees and is not edible. (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Eastern

bitáŋanimal trap (PPH: *batéŋ) Eastern

bitáŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Eastern

biyawin-law (PWMP: *bayaw) Eastern

búgsokto descend (PPH: *bug(e)suk) Eastern

búnogsmall fish (PPH: *búnuR) Eastern

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN Eastern

gisáto fry in fat (LOAN) Eastern

gúlpisudden, quick; very large amount of something; suddenly get everything of something (LOAN) Eastern

gutgutto bite and tear with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₁) *gutgut Eastern

háyupanimal, creature, spirit (generic for any non-human creature, especially mammals, whether natural or supernatural; includes fairies, elves, goblins, etc.) (PPH: *háyup) Eastern

katálto scratch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel Eastern

kíliŋbamboo (for odd jobs, not building) (PPH: *kilíŋ₂) Eastern

kisapto blink (PWMP: *ki(n)sap) Eastern

lapdasto get marks on one’s shoulders from carrying a heavy backpack; to spank or whip s.o. with a switch or whip and raise welts (PPH: *lap(e)des) Eastern

lésleshold up one’s skirt or pants legs (when crossing a river) (PPH: *lesles₁) Eastern

Agta (Eastern) (20 / 46)

ludludto scrape one’s body with a rock when bathing to remove dirt (PPH: *ludlud₁) Eastern

lupáypaybroken arm that flops around (PPH: *lupaypáy) Eastern

luwásgo out (PMP: *luas₁) Eastern

mag-sa-sáŋlagto fry; sizzle, hiss (PMP: *saŋelaR) Eastern

maki-affix indicating associative activity by a few people (PPH: *maki-) Eastern

ŋábŋabcrunching sound of chewing on something hard (PAN: *ŋabŋab) Eastern

ŋadaspalate (PMP: *ŋadas) Eastern

ŋasŋaschew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) (PMP: *ŋasŋas) Eastern

ŋátŋatchew food, betel nut, gum, etc. (PWMP: *ŋatŋat) Eastern

ŋilosensitive teeth (PAN: *ŋilu) Eastern

payet, still (PAN: *pa₁) Eastern

pakófern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku Eastern

pílitto force, make something act against its will (PPH: *pílit) Eastern

putputpull out of the ground; shed (feathers or hair) (PAN: *putput₁) Eastern

sáklothold crossways in the arms (as to hold a sleeping child crossways in the arms) (PPH: *sak(e)lut-en) *sak(e)lút Eastern

sáŋoto scent (animal using nose to seek or track prey) (PPH: *sáŋu) Eastern

sayáddrag on the ground, scrape across the ground (as a boat being pushed across a sandbar, or a woman’s long dress dragging on the ground) (LOAN) Eastern

síkatsunrise (PPH: *sikát) Eastern

sikátpopular (< Tagalog) (PPH: *sikát) Eastern

síloloop, lasso, collar; trap made of loops for birds, pigs or deer (PPH: *síluq) Eastern

Agta (Eastern) (40 / 46)

siŋótto sniff, snurf (PWMP: *siŋ(e)hut) Eastern

siyákcry, yelp (PWMP: *ciak) Eastern

siʔlaksplit; crack (PWMP: *siqelak) Eastern

supitnarrow (PWMP: *supit) Eastern

útasto continue (PPH: *útas) Eastern

úttogsexually aroused (male) (PPh: *qutuR) Eastern

8. Agutaynen (719) WMP (Caabay et al. 2014) [agn] Philippines

abayfor people to sit or walk side by side; for boats to travel side by side; bridesmaid (PPH: *abay)

aboloyfood or money donated or given to a family who has just lost their house or lost a loved one (PPH: *abúluy)

adey ~ areyinterjection of pain or distress (PPH: *aráy)

ag-ka-pilay-enfor one’s leg, foot, arm to be asleep, feel numb or paralyzed (PAN: *piNay)

ag-laŋsi-anto be bothered by fishy smells (PMP: *laŋ(e)si)

ag-mata-mata-ento see something or visualize something in your mind, such as the face of a dead person (PPH: *mata-en) *maCa

ag-pa-ŋan-ento be eaten (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

alasace, as in playing cards (LOAN)

alawidfar, a great distance (PWMP: *alawid)

alipolotsmall whirlwind, dust devil (PPH: *qali-puRut)

amat-amatlittle by little (of continuous effort) (PWMP: *amat)

antabay-ento assist, support someone in walking somewhere by holding their arm; to lead someone by the hand or arm (PPh: *antábay)

apenlarge monofilament line usually used for catching large fish (said to be ‘archaic’) (PMP: *hapen)

apros-onto rub a person’s back; to brush dirt, sand, etc. off the surface of something; to remove grain heads of rice by rubbing or sliding the fingers down the stalk (PPH: *ap(e)rus)

aradoplow (LOAN)

araŋsomething that is in the way, or purposely placed somewhere as a barrier in order to prevent people, animals, or a flow of water from entering (PPH: *araŋ)

atadoone kilogram bundle, or string of meat for retail sale (LOAN)

atola large permanent fish trap made of rocks in the shape of a spade on a playing card; these atol fish traps are very large, and can easily be seen from an airplane (PAN: *atuR)

atoliground rice, cooked like porridge (sometimes it is used as a substitute for baby’s milk) (LOAN)

aʔketbelt (PPH: *hag(e)kes)

Agutaynen (20 / 719)

baflood (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

bagaya thing, an object; things to do; things in general (PPH: *bágay)

bakaŋbowlegged; for one’s walk or stance to be slightly bowlegged (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

bakokoa small land turtle (PPH: *baququ)

balloincloth (PMP: *bahaR)

balagenvines that grow as weeds in a field or forest (PWMP: *balaRen)

balatsea cucumber (generic); these are found in the tidal flats, are cylindrical in shape and express a white, sticky substance when squeezed; some are edible (PPh: *balát)

banabakind of large tree; the leaves or bark are boiled and then the water is drunk when one has a kidney problem or urinary tract infection (PPh: *banabá)

baŋbaŋto destroy something by making holes in it (as a wall destroyed by a dog making holes in it because he wanted to come into the kitchen) (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₄)

baŋil-anto wedge something under something to make it level or prevent it from wiggling (PPH: *baŋil)

baŋkorothe “noni” fruit. It turns black when ripe. Some people boil it and then use the water for medicinal purposes. (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

baŋlófragrant smell of something; nice, good smell (PPH: *baŋ(e)lúh)

basiŋ-anto reach out and grab someone’s calf (PPH: *batiŋ) *baq(e)tiŋ

bataŋdriftwood (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batiŋtiŋa musical triangle or wind chimes (PPH: *batiŋtiŋ)

bawaŋ-ana place where the water runs downhill (PPH: *bawaŋ₂)

bayato intentionally leave, desert or abandon someone or something, such as a husband leaving his family (PPH: *bayáq)

baybáyseashore; beach (PPh: *baybáy)

bayoŋbasket for shopping or carrying things in, made of woven bori leaves or abaca, or colorful plastic (LOAN)

baʔbakto split something by tearing or peeling it apart; to forcefully split or rip something apart, usually with a downward tearing action (PMP: *bakbak₁)

Agutaynen (40 / 719)

beltayoar; paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

belt-ento get revenge on someone; to avenge; to retaliate; to “get even” with someone (PAN: *bales₁)

beteŋ-ento pull something, or pull on something; to yank or jerk suddenly on a line (PPH: *beteŋ₃) *beteŋ₂

beteŋ-en ta talitug-of-war game (PPH: *beteŋ₃) *beteŋ₂

biglasudden; immediately; instantly (PPh: *big(e)láq)

bilaŋas if (PPH: *bilaŋ₂)

bilashusband of one’s sister-in-law; wife of one’s brother-in-law (PPH: *bilas)

bodbodpowdery substance such as laundry soap, sugar (PPH: *budbud₂)

bogbog-onto beat someone up; to hit someone forcefully, non-stop (PPH: *bugbug-en) *bugbug

bogtoŋonly offspring of a human or animal (PPH: *buR(e)túŋ)

b<om>awaŋfor water or rain to rush downhill, overflow a canal or bank; for water to flood a yard (PPH: *bawaŋ₂)

bonolk.o. small fish with yellow, white, and black stripes around the body (they live around large rocks in the reef) (PPH: *búnuR)

boŋboŋdynamite; explosives (PPh: *buŋbuŋ₂)

bosala muzzle for a dog; a halter for a horse or cow, including the bit (LOAN)

botonisbutton (LOAN)

boyboy-onto scold or belittle someone after giving them help, money, etc. (PPH: *buybúy)

boʔboksmall insects that eat wood or bamboo; woodborer; small weevils that bore into dried beans (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

boʔlilie, falsehood; a fib (PWMP: *buqeli)

butandiŋwhale shark (PPh: *butandiŋ)

dadagrandmother or great-grandmother (this is an old term of reference) (PPH: *dada₂)

Agutaynen (60 / 719)

da-dala-ŋ-dala-ŋteenager: more often used about girls (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dalamistraw, dried rice stalk (PMP: *zaRami)

dalanroad, street; fig., the way, methodology, standards one follows in one’s work, life, beliefs; the way by which something is achieved, accomplished (PMP: *zalan)

dala-ŋpuberty, male and female (PMP: *daRa₂)

d<al>ayaw-enpraiseworthy (PPH: *dáyaw)

daliksudden; unplanned (PPH: *dalíq)

dalik-ento startle someone by not giving prior notice about something (PPH: *dalíq)

dalitvenom (PPH: *dalit₃)

damaa game similar to checkers (LOAN)

damalday; morning (PPH: *damaR₂)

daŋawa measurement, the breadth of one hand span (PPH: *daŋaw)

daonleaf of a plant or tree (PMP: *dahun)

dapaka type of yellowish-brown, wide-bodied fish, caught with hook and line (PPH: *dapak)

dapatshould do something; should be a certain way; supposed to do (PPH: *dapat₄)

dapitto accompany a procession to, from church for a funeral, wedding, baptism, etc. (PWMP: *dapit)

dapoa person or animal that is hanging around a place that is not theirs (PPH: *dapu)

dapogleaves burned in slash and burn farming (PMP: *dapuR₁)

dapog-anto burn dried leaves (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR₁

dawamillet, a small grain used for porridge, or chicken feed (PAN: *zawa₂)

dawasmall, round grain, such as millet, sesame seeds or poppy seeds (some types can be made into porridge, others can be fed to birds) (PAN: *zawa₂)

Agutaynen (80 / 719)

dayopeople who are living at a place but are not from there, or are not permanent residents (PPH: *dáyu)

daʔtalfloor (PPH: *daq(e)taR)

depaa unit of measure the distance of outstretched arms (PAN: *depah)

depa-ento measure with outstretched arms (PWMP: *depa-en) *depah

didalthimble (LOAN)

dilaktongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilisa type of small, long-jawed anchovy fish used to make fish paste when soused in brine (PPH: *dilis)

dodoyterm of reference or address for a little boy (PPH: *duduy)

dolibone (PMP: *duRi)

doloŋbow, front of a boat (PWMP: *duluŋ)

domaother, other people (PAN: *duma)

d<om>apatfor something to lie flat, smooth, without sticking up all over; for something to settle down flat (PPH: *dapat₃)

d<om>apoto alight on or swarm on, gather around something; be attracted or drawn to something like a magnet (PPH: *dapu)

d<om>eʔdetto press up against another person’s back or side in a crowded place; to squeeze one’s way through a crowd (PAN: *detdet)

do-roatwo (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

doyanhammock; swinging cradle for a baby (can be made from a basket, blanket, net, etc.) (PPH: *dúyan)

doyoŋwhale (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

ebebto scrunch one’s body over; to curl one’s body up in a ball; for a chicken to sit in her nest with her wings curled over her body (PPH: *qebqeb)

elaŋa room divider; walls between rooms; separated by something (PMP: *qelaŋ)

enat-ento remove, take something off the stove (PPH: *enat-en) *enat

Agutaynen (100 / 719)

galaŋrespect (PPH: *gálaŋ)

galaŋ-ento show respect to someone or something (PPH: *galaŋ-en) *gálaŋ

galoŋgoŋhard-tail mackerel; this is a small fish, steel gray in color, without scales (LOAN)

gamitthings; possessions; tools; equipment; utensils, etc. (PPH: *Rámit)

gamitthings; possessions; tools; equipment; utensils, etc. (PPH: *gámit)

gaŋamouth open (PPH: *gaŋa)

gapasa small sickle, used for harvesting rice or cutting cogon grass (PPH: *gápas)

gasgasa bad scrape, scratch or abrasion on the skin or on an object (PWMP: *gasgas)

gatoŋfirewood (PPH: *gatuŋ)

geret-ento cut something with a knife or scissors (PAN: *gereC)

golayvegetables (this can also include dried native beans and edible leaves) (PWMP: *gulay)

golay-anto add vegetables, beans, or edible leaves to a meat or fish dish (PPH: *gulay-an) *gulay

golpisuddenly; immediately; instantly (LOAN)

gosokrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

goyoda kind of long-grain white rice that smells good when cooked (PPH: *guyud₂)

goyod-anto drag something; to tow something (PPH: *Rúyud-an) *Ruyud

i-babawto weed, to cut or pull out weeds (PMP: *babaw₄)

i-bilaŋto count or consider in a certain way (PPH: *bilaŋ₂)

ibosa snack made of steamed sticky rice and wrapped in coconut plam leaves or banana leaves (often served at wakes, birthdays, weddings, or just as a snack) (PPH: *ibus₂)

ibosa snack made of steamed sticky rice and wrapped in coconut palm leaves or banana leaves (LOAN)

Agutaynen (120 / 719)

i-boʔbokto pour or dump something out; to anoint with oil by pouring the oil on the person’s head (PPH: *i-bukbuk) *bukbuk₄

i-dagtato be carried away, drift away with the current; to wash up on shore (PPH: *dág(e)saq)

i-daldalto talk nonstop about something; to gab about something (PPH: *daldál)

i-lambedto tie or wrap a rope around something, scuh as a tree trunk (PPH: *la(m)béj)

ilap-ento fillet fish or meat (PPH: *hilap₃) *hilap

ilep-emto sip something, such as soup (PPH: *ilep)

ilotto massage muscles, joints; to set a fracture (PPh: *hílut)

impasconsumed; all used up; all gone; completely finished (PPH: *impas)

-in-marker of past tense, undergoer or instrument focus (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

ipa-laŋanto intentionally skip or miss something, be absent; to habitually do something every other time or every other day (PPH: *laŋan)

ipa-takoto make known (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

i-pa-tandigto lean one thing against another (as a ladder against a house) (PMP: *sandiR)

ipa-tepeŋto elevate oneself to the same position or status as another; to make, consider oneself equal to another (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

irawa type of medium-sized black snake which is not poisonous (they are very common, and often live in houses) (PPH: *idau)

i-sabitto hang something up on a nail; to attach something to something; to pin something on something, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt; to be involved in something, be a part of (PPH: *i-saqebít) *saqebit

i-salinto transfer, move something, as a cake from one plate to another (PWMP: *salin)

i-saysayto explain; narration (PPH: *sáysay)

i-tabed-tabedto wrap a rope around something; to tie something up (PWMP: *tambej)

itakinner/upper thigh, groin area (PPh: *hitaq)

i-talokto hide or put something away; to conceal something; to keep or save something for future use; to store something away (PMP: *taRuq)

Agutaynen (140 / 719)

i-tambelto patch a hole in clothing or fabric, using a patch or scrap of material (PWMP: *tambel)

i-taʔpawto put, place something on top of something else (PPH: *i-taq(e)paw) *taq(e)paw

i-teltelto dip food in a sauce, liquid, or salt when eating (PPH: *teltel)

i-teretto squash something by pinching between one’s thumbnails, for example small insects, hair lice, a pimple, dandruff, etc. (PWMP: *tedes)

kaindeed (PPH: *qa)

kaindeed (PPH: *qa)

kabana wooden box or trunk used like a bag or suitcase (these boxes were used in the past and are rarely used today) (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabana measurement for rice, holds approximately one “pasong” or 25 “ganta” of rice, which is equivalent to 62.5 kilos (LOAN)

kakaolder sister (PMP: *kaka₂)

kaladitaro root crop; this is a plant, not a vine, and the tuber can grow quite large; they are found in low-lying areas where the water stocks up (PWMP: *kaladi)

kalata basket made of rattan in a U-shape, used in trapping small fish (PPH: *qalát)

kalat-enfor something to rust, become rusty (PWMP: *karat₁)

kalimahand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

kalimahand (PAN: *qalima)

ka-lipayjoy, happiness (PPH: *lípay)

kalit-anto change place or activity (PPH: *qalis-an) *qalís

kaloa large wooden pestle used to pound rice, or to grind or mash something in a large wooden mortar (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

kanonaŋkind of large tree that produces green fruit; inside its green fruit there is a sticky substance which can be made into glue (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ)

kanotsoot from a flame, or from the exhaust of a vehicle or engine (PWMP: *qanuqus)

kapidtwin (PMP: *qapij)

Agutaynen (160 / 719)

kapitclothespins (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

kapit-enput a clothespin on something (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

kapoy-onto be overcome, as by sleep or tiredness; become out of breath when doing something (PPH: *kápuy)

kasilthe long outrigger of a boat (PMP: *katiR)

ka-soayenemy (PPH: *suay)

ka-talon-anforest, woods, jungle (PPH: *ka-talun-an) *CaluN

katosmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

katod-anfor two people to pound rice together in the same mortar (PPh: *qasúd)

kawaywave the hand back and forth (PMP: *kaway₁)

kepathe fine chaff left after milling rice grain (it is usually fed to pigs) (PWMP: *qepah)

ketarice bran (PMP: *qeta) *qeCah

ketelstrength; vigor (PAN: *keseR)

kiawmyna bird (PAN: *kiaw)

kilaw-anto squint because of looking at something very bright or glaring (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

kilaw-onto fillet or thinly slice raw fish or meat and then mix it with vinegar, onions, and spices (it is eaten raw or just partially cooked) (PPH: *kilaw₁)

kilpitclothespin (PPH: *qiR(e)pit)

kilpit-ento hand clothes on a line with clothespins (PPH: *qiR(e)pit)

kimon-anto feel or act jealous (PPh: *qimún)

kirodog (PPH: *qiduq)

kirodog (dogs are kept mostly as guard dogs, although people do get attached to them as pets; men are fond of eating dog meat along with alcoholic drinks) (NEAR)

Agutaynen (180 / 719)

kiwshark (PAN: *qiSu)

koamthrush infection in the mouth or throat (PMP: *guham) *guSam

kodalfence (LOAN)

kokofingernail, toenail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kolintatnecklace (PPH: *kulintas)

kolintat-ento wear a necklace (PPH: *kulintas)

kolodworms that live in the earth, on leaves, etc.; maggots or larvae that infest food or decaying flesh (PMP: *qulej)

k<om>abotto arrive at, or reach, a destination (PPH: *qábut)

k<om>alitto interrupt one’s work to take a few minutes to do another job (PPH: *qalís)

komboa native rice cake also known by the Tagalog term bibingka (LOAN)

k<om>opasto fade, as of colors, clothing; for flowers to lose their brilliance; for jewelry to become tarnished, or have the gold worn off (PPH: *kúpas)

kopasfaded (PPH: *kúpas)

koranrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

korita line made with a pencil, ballpoint pen, or a sharp object (PPH: *kurit)

korok-onto call a chicken (PWMP: *kuruk)

kotolsexual feelings or urges; orgasm (PPh: *qutuR)

k<um>eletto shrink, as wood or bamboo (PPH: *keles)

labawfor someone or something to be greater, higher, more important than everything else (PPH: *labaw₂)

labinight (PMP: *Rabiqi)

lagadihandsaw (LOAN)

Agutaynen (200 / 719)

lagaybribe (LOAN)

la-lanay dato be totally exhausted, without any more strength; to feel weak and limp (PPH: *lanay₂)

laloŋyoung cockerel with no comb yet (PMP: *laluŋ)

lamaŋonly; just; only just now; just as soon as (PPH: *lámaŋ)

lambanogsugarcane wine (PPH: *lambanug)

lambata traditonal large fishing net made of hemp rope and used in deep water (PWMP: *Rambat)

lambedto tie or wrap a rope around something, such as a tree trunk (PPH: *la(m)béj)

lambid-enfor two things, such as trees or pieces of wood, to be crossed over each other; to cross one’s arms on top of each other; to cross one’s legs/ankles (PPH: *lambid)

lamboŋclothes, or an article of clothing; garment (PPH: *lambuŋ)

lamotroot, as of a plant; a magic love charm, directed at a person by another in order to cause him/her to be attracted to her/him (PMP: *Ramut₁)

lamota magic love charm directed at a person by another in order to cause him/her to be attracted to him/her (PPH: *Ramut₂)

lamot-onto put a love charm on somebody (PMP: *Ramut₁)

lampakto intentionally throw or slam something down forcefully, or smash it against something; to beat or club a person or animal forcefully with a stick or piece of bamboo (PWMP: *lapak)

lampaso-anto mop a floor (LOAN)

lampincloth diapers (PWMP: *lampin)

laŋenstones for supporting a pot (usually three stones are used); hearth, native stove made of a firebox filled with sand, and stones or a metal rack for setting the cooking pot on (PMP: *laŋen₁) *laŋen

laŋen-ento use something to support a cooking pot (PMP: *laŋen₁) *laŋen

laŋkajackfruit (the fruit can be eaten cooked or uncooked; when cooked it is often mixed with coconut milk, or used in a dish called laoya, with boiled beef (PWMP: *laŋkaq₂)

láŋkajackfruit (LOAN)

laonold rice or cashew nuts, which have been stored for 1 to 2 years; old maid, spinster; old bachelor (PWMP: *laun)

Agutaynen (220 / 719)

lapidasomething made of marble or polished stone and engraved with a name, usually a gravestone or a name marker on a person’s office desk (LOAN)

lapikto intentionally snap or break something in half, or break something off (PWMP: *Rapiq)

lapotfor a person or animal to pass through a space, opening; for something to pass or drain through to the other side of something (PPH: *lápus)

lapot-onto bind or tie up a person by the arms and/or feet, or an animal by the feet, usually with a rope (PWMP: *Rapus-en) *Rapus

lasonpoison (LOAN)

latoktype of edible seaweed which looks like small clusters of green grapes (it is dipped in vinegar and eaten raw) (PMP: *latuq)

lawaysaliva; spittle (PPH: *láway)

lebatcompletely undressed, naked (PWMP: *lebas)

lebek-ento pound rice with a traditonal, large wooden mortar and pestle (PPh: *lebék)

lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; soft, as of a mattress, rotten fish, etc.; loose, as of a cough (PWMP: *lemeq)

lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; soft, as of a mattress, rotten fish, etc. (PWMP: *ma-lemek) *lemeq

lemet-ento intentionally drown a person or an animal (PWMP: *lemes-en) *lemes

lenlen-ento push something aside, or scrunch it up, in order to make room for something else (PPH: *lenlen)

letekthe sound of something clanging, pinging, or hitting against a metal object; a popping sound, as when lice eggs are squashed; a clicking or snapping sound; the hollow sound of wood or a skull being tapped; crunchy sound of candy, etc. being eaten (PWMP: *letek)

liabikey (LOAN)

liabi-anto unlock something with a key (LOAN)

líbatcross-eyed; a lazy, wandering eye (PPH: *libat)

lihasandpaper (LOAN)

likedfootprints (PPH: *liqed)

likelneck (PAN: *liqeR)

Agutaynen (240 / 719)

liketlouse egg; nit (PWMP: *liqes)

likoto turn a certain direction; to turn away; to be crooked (PWMP: *liku₂)

likocrooked, bent; curved (PMP: *likuq)

liko-onto intentionally bend something, like a wire (PMP: *likuq)

limat-anto bail out water (PWMP: *limas-an) *limas

limat-ento bail out water; water inside a boat (PWMP: *limas-en) *limas

limosalms; money or goods given as charity to people (LOAN)

l<in>asonto be poisoned (LOAN)

linawabreath; air in the lungs (PPH: *linawa)

línolinen cloth; flax (from which linen is made) (LOAN)

l<in>ogawrice porridge (PPH: *l<in>ugaw) *lúgaw

lípeŋto feel faint, breathless; to faint, lose consciousness (PPH: *lipeŋ)

líralyre (LOAN)

liʔbelsediment, particles or dirt in water (PPH: *liq(e)beR)

lobakbumps in a road (LOAN)

lobak-lobakuneven area of road with many bumps and potholes; rough road (LOAN)

lobid-lobida native pastry like donuts, twisted into the shape of a figure eight (PPH: *lúbid)

lobid-lobid-ento twist into a figure eight (PPH: *lubid-en) *lúbid

lodto kneel down, to kneel down in front of someone (PPH: *luhúd)

logaw-onto make rice porridge (PPH: *lugaw-en) *lúgaw

Agutaynen (260 / 719)

loktears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

loktears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

loktears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lok-anto produce tears; to tear, water (of the eyes) (PPH: *luheq-an) *luSeq

lokoba curved chisel for making holes in wood or bamboo (LOAN)

lolagrandmother (LOAN)

lolograndfather (LOAN)

lolodshin; bones in the front of the lower leg (PMP: *luluj)

lolonto roll up a mat (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lolon-onto roll up a mat (PWMP: *lulun-en) *luluN

lo-lotaw-lotawfor something to float, bob around on the surface, without going forward (PWMP: *lutaw)

l<om>apawfor water to rise, come up and overflow a boundary, flowing into structures or submerging bridges (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

l<om>apotfor a person or animal to pass through a space, opening; for something to pass or drain through to the other side of something (PPH: *l<um>ápus) *lápus

l<om>apotfor a person or animal to pass through a space, opening; for something to pass or drain through to the other side of something (PWMP: *la(m)pus₂)

l<om>awigfor something, someone to become taller; to an item to increase, go up in price; for one’s blood pressure to go up (PPH: *lawig)

lomaya magic love charm directed by a person at another in order to cause him or her to be attracted to them (PPH: *lumay)

lomay-ento put a love charm on someone (PPH: *lumay-en) *lumay

lomboythe Java plum, a type of dark purple berry that grows in clusters on a tree; they are round or oblong and are the size of a medium to large olive, with a single seed; when eaten, they leave a fleeting, numb feeling in the mouth (PPH: *luŋ(e)búy)

l<om>igidto roll, as of a stone, coconut, etc. (PWMP: *ligid)

l<om>iŋgaŋfor a boat to rock back-and-forth, from side to side; to intentionally rock something back-and-forth (PWMP: *liŋgaŋ)

Agutaynen (280 / 719)

lomomeat without tendons, the part called the ‘loin’ in English (PMP: *lumu₂)

l<om>odto kneel (PPH: *l<um>uhúd) *luhúd

lomonto live with someone in their house for free, without payment (PPH: *lumun)

lomotmoss (PMP: *lumut)

lomot-onfor something to be covered with moss (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

lonatarp; tarpaulin; awning on house (LOAN)

londaysmall boat without outriggers (at one time these were made from one long piece of hollowed-out wood, much like a canoe) (PPH: *lunday)

lonoa person in a vegetative-type state (PPH: *lunu₂)

lopiŋpiŋfor the crown of a chicken to be flopping over; for an animal to have ears that are long and floppy; for the brim of a hat to be floppy, not stiff (PPH: *lupíŋ)

lotawfor something to float on the surface of water; the waterline of a boat; the part of the hull which is above the waterline (PWMP: *lutaw)

lotoŋa large wooden mortar used in pounding rice, or grinding or mashing something with a large wooden pestle (PMP: *lusuŋ) *Nusuŋ

ma-baŋlofragrant, nice smelling; to smell good (PPH: *ma-baŋ(e)luh) *baŋ(e)lúh

ma-belakfor something to accidentally become cracked or split; for the earth to crack open during an earthquake (PAN: *belaq)

ma-boat taŋ dilaktalkative (derogatory; lit. ‘long tongue’) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

ma-dagdagfor an object to fall off from where it is attached; for fruit to fall off a tree; to fall out of a bag or container (PPH: *dagdag)

ma-daldaltalkative (PPH: *daldál)

ma-dalitvenomous, poisonous (PPH: *dalit₃)

ma-deketto be crowded or squeezed together (PPH: *ma-deket) *dekeC

ma-dolichoke on a bone or have one stuck in one’s throat (PWMP: *ma-duRi) *duRi

ma-elettight; tightly; firm (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

Agutaynen (300 / 719)

mag-abosoto create a disturbance, often using insulting language or cursing (LOAN)

mag-agagto sift flour, sand, etc. (PWMP: *agag)

mag-alsato raise, lift something up; to carry something by lifting it up; to elevate something (LOAN)

mag-amomato entertain visitors, care for their needs; to host visitors, show hospitality to them (PPH: *amuma)

mag-anadto get used to doing something; to train, accustom yourself to do something; to train a dog, small child, etc. to do something (PPH: *anad)

mag-aŋkatfor a person to ride a bike or drive a motorcycle together with another person riding on the back; to let another person ride behind you (PPH: *aŋkás)

mag-aradoto plow (LOAN)

mag-arnis-anto box or sword fight, usually in play (LOAN)

ma-gasgas-anfor something to become scraped or scratched up (PWMP: *gasgas)

mag-ayosto fix or repair something; to arrange things; to get something ready, in order; to solve a problem, fix things up between people (PPH: *áyus)

mag-aʔketto wear a belt; to tie, fasten something around the waist (PPH: *hag(e)kes)

mag-bakaŋto become bowlegged (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

mag-batiŋtiŋfor something to make a tinkling sound (PPH: *batiŋtiŋ)

mag-bawasto reduce, lessen, decrease the amount of something; to subtract from, deduct from (PPH: *bawas)

mag-belakto crack or split something open with a blade or knife (PAN: *belaq)

mag-beletto repay, return a favor or help; to reciprocate (PAN: *bales₁)

mag-beltayto row or paddle a boat or raft (PMP: *beRsay)

mag-botonisto sew buttons onto clothing (LOAN)

mag-boʔbokto pour or dump something out; to anoint with oil by pouring the oil on the person’s head (PPH: *bukbuk₄)

mag-boʔlito lie about something; to lie to someone (PWMP: *buqeli)

Agutaynen (320 / 719)

mag-damalfor an event or activity to continue all night long, until daybreak (PPH: *damaR₂)

mag-dapogto burn dried leaves (PMP: *dapuR₁)

mag-dáwatto reach, hand something to someone; to reach out and take something that is being handed (PPH: *dáwat)

mag-dayato cheat in a game; to cheat a person (LOAN)

mag-dayawto praise or think highly of a person; to praise or glorify God (PPH: *dáyaw)

mag-dayoto go and stay in a place temporarily for a purpose, usually to trade or to fish (PPH: *dáyu)

mag-daʔtalto make a floor (PPH: *daq(e)taR)

mag-deŋanto go together somewhere; to do something together at the very same time; familiar spirit (a familiar spirit is one which acts as a companion or a servant to a person) (PMP: *deŋan)

mag-depato measure with outstretched arms (PPH: *maR-depa) *depah

mag-dilam-dilamto stick one’s tongue out at someone and wiggle it (PPH: *dilam)

mag-dodato doubt something or someone; to be doubtful of a person’s actions; to suspect (LOAN)

mag-dokotto be resentful, or hold a grudge against someone; to refuse to speak to someone (PWMP: *dukut₁)

mag-dolokto clean up a field after it has been burned (any remaining brush which wasn’t burned is now burned, and the large rocks are put to the side to form the boundary of the field (PPH: *duluk)

mag-doloŋto be positioned on the bow of a boat (PWMP: *duluŋ)

mag-galoto mix, stir something such as cement (PMP: *galu)

mag-gamitto use something (PPH: *Rámit)

mag-gamitto use something (PPH: *gámit)

mag-gapasto cut, harvest with the use of a sickle (PPH: *gápas)

mag-gisato sauté food in a small amount of oil (LOAN)

mag-goyodto drag something; to tow something (PWMP: *Ruyud)

Agutaynen (340 / 719)

mag-idalto complain, fuss about the amount of one’s work or chores as compared to someone else’s; to push off the work onto someone else (PPH: *idal)

magin-iwikto oink or squeal, as of a pig or a large fruit bat (PPh: *íwik)

mag-ipesto quiet down, stop laughing, talking or crying; to keep quiet about a secret (PPH: *hipes)

mag-isipto think, to give thought to something; to consider something (PPh: *ísip)

mag-kaliawto yell, shout loudly, as of a drunk person or people fighting; to scream (PPH: *qaliaw)

mag-kalog-kalogto shake something (PPH: *kalug)

mag-kanotfor a kerosene torch, firewood, etc. to produce soot and get things sooty (PWMP: *qanuqus)

mag-kiʔkibto eat or gnaw on something large while holding with the hands; to tear something apart with the teeth (PPH: *kibkíb)

mag-kodalto build a fence, to enclose something with a fence (LOAN)

mag-kopitto pilfer; to steal small amounts of money (PPH: *kúpit)

mag-koskosto rub, scour something, such as a pot or floor (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

mag-koykoyfor an animal to dig in the ground with their claws; for a person to dig in the dirt with their hands; to dig away the dirt or sand covering or surrounding an object (PPH: *kuykúy₂)

mag-labrato shave, make straight and smooth a piece of wood with a bolo or knife (LOAN)

mag-lagadito saw something with a handsaw (LOAN)

mag-lagayto bribe someone (LOAN)

mag-lamboŋto wear clothes; to get dressed; to change clothes (PPH: *lambuŋ)

mag-lampasoto mop a floor (LOAN)

mag-lampinto put diapers on a baby, have a child wear diapers (PWMP: *lampin)

mag-lapoto steam or scald food in hot water; to parboil food (PPH: *lapu)

mag-lapotto bind or tie up a person by the arms and/or feet, or an animal by the feet, usually with a rope (PMP: *Rapus)

Agutaynen (360 / 719)

mag-larato start weaving the bottom of a basket, using strips of bori or pandanus leaves, or to start weaving the edge of a sleeping mat (PWMP: *laja)

mag-lasonto poison a person or animal (LOAN)

mag-latagto spread something out flat on the ground, as tree branches or leaves to burn in a field, gravel before laying cement, or clothes to dry in the sun (PPH: *latag)

mag-latayto walk on a gangplank or makeshift bridge; something placed across a canal or muddy area in order to walk to the other side (PPH: *latay)

mag-layasto run away, run off; to flee, escape;to take off, leave, or abandon someone (PPH: *layas₁)

mag-lebatto take off, remove an article of clothing or shoes (PWMP: *lebas)

mag-liatfor something to become dislocated; to slip out of one’s grasp; to move out of position; to veer off, go off course (PWMP: *lias)

mag-libakto backbite, talk badly of others behind their back; to slander someone (PPH: *libák)

mag-libotto walk around; go around from place to place; to circle around an area; to make a loop around a place (PWMP: *libut)

mag-likedto step in or on something (PPH: *liqed)

mag-likofor something to become bent or crooked (PMP: *likuq)

mag-limatto bail out water, such as when cleaning out a well, or from the bottom of a boat (PMP: *limas)

mag-lipayto cheer someone up; to console or comfort someone (PPH: *lípay)

mag-lipokto break or snap something in half (as a pencil) (PPH: *lipuk)

mag-loatto remove, take off clothing (PPH: *luas₂)

mag-lodlodto scrub the skin or an object hard with the hands to remove dirt (PPH: *ludlud₁)

mag-lonlonto eat food all by itself rather than eating it along with the foods that usually accompany it (PWMP: *lunlun)

mag-lotokto cook something (PWMP: *lutuq)

mag-níwaŋbecome thin, lose weight (as a domestic pig) (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

mag-okasto take something off, remove an item such as shoes, a ring; for something to unintentially come off or fall off (PWMP: *hukas)

Agutaynen (380 / 719)

mag-oripto repair woven material such as nipa palm shingles on a root, a mat, or a basket (PPH: *udip)

mag-osisato investigate; search, research; examine; question; interview (LOAN)

mag-osisato investigate; search, research; examine; question; interview (LOAN)

mag-oyon-anto agree together about something; for a group of people to be agreed, united, unified in a decision (PPH: *uyun₂)

mag-palato shovel earth, cement, etc.; to use a shovel to dig a hole (LOAN)

mag-pa-sineŋto stare intently; carefully; to scrutinize (PWMP: *sineŋ)

mag-pa-sirapto glance at somebody; to look at, view something from a distance (PPH: *sirap)

mag-pa-takonwithin a year; for one year (PMP: *taqun)

mag-patisfor fermented fish to become, turn into fish sauce (the fish becomes watery and the salted water is what is called patis) (LOAN)

mag-pegeŋto hold tightly to something; to put pressure on something (PWMP: *pegeŋ)

mag-penpento cover up one’s ears, eyes, nose, etc.; to put one’s hands over a person’s mouth; to hold onto one’s private area when needing to urinate (PWMP: *penpen₂)

mag-piarto lend money or other things with trust, believing it will be handled carefully or will be repaid (LOAN)

mag-pikoto break things up with a pickaxe (LOAN)

mag-pilafor people to form a line; to line up one behind the other (LOAN)

mag-pintasto put a curse or hex on someone with the help of an evil spirit, by using a picture of the person or an item of clothing; to practice sorcery (PPH: *pintás)

mag-pintikto release the rubber strip on a spear gun or slingshot, i.e. to shoot the spear gun (PMP: *pitik₁) *pitik

mag-pirek-pirekto blink the eyes or flutter the eyelids; for an electric light to flicker on and off (PWMP: *pidek₁)

mag-poasfor the wind to lessen, die down, diminish; for the rain to stop or let up; for a flood to subside, recede; for a fever to go down (PWMP: *puas)

mag-potolto cut something off (PMP: *putul) *putun

mag-sabitto hang something up on a nail; to pin something on, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt (PWMP: *sabit)

Agutaynen (400 / 719)

mag-saboagto spread, as of news or gossip, to scatter news or have it come out suddenly (PPH: *sabuag)

mag-salinto pour a liquid into another container; to transfer something to another container or plate (PWMP: *salin)

mag-santikto hit or clink two things together, as stones, or even heads; to strike a match using a matchbox (PPH: *santik)

mag-silotto punish (LOAN)

mag-soay-anto fight each other; quarrel (PPH: *suay)

mag-solsolto stir up; prod somebody to do something; to convince; to incite; make people discontented with the way things are (LOAN)

mag-sontokto box, to hit with the fist (PPH: *suntúk)

mag-soplakto oppose; to contradict, go against (NEAR)

mag-soʔsokto insert something inside a space; to plug into a socket (PAN: *suksuk)

mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food (PWMP: *maR-taban) *tabaN

mag-taban-anto elope (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

mag-tabatto cut something, as material (PWMP: *tabas₂)

mag-tagayto pour liquor into individual glasses (LOAN)

mag-taketto measure something, someone using a tape measure (PPH: *takes₂)

mag-taki-takito have diarrhea (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

mag-talokto hide something somewhere; to keep or reserve something for future use (PWMP: *maR-taRuq) *taRuq

mag-tambakto pile or stack things up; to cover or fill in a depression in the ground; to fill in a large hole (PMP: *tambak₂)

mag-tampelto cover up a hole in something; plug something so that the contents will not spill out; put a patch on something (as a patch of oregano on the head to cure headache) (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

mag-taŋato branch into two or three parts, or directions, such as a road (PMP: *saŋa₁)

mag-taŋkebfor something to shut, close tightly, close all the way (PWMP: *ta(ŋ)keb) *ta(ŋ)keb₁

Agutaynen (420 / 719)

mag-tapalto apply something to a surface, as leaves to a wound or sore area (PWMP: *tapal)

mag-tapokto shake, knock the dust off something (PPH: *tapuk₂)

mag-tastasto rip out the seams of a garment; to undo stitching (PAN: *tastas)

mag-tawadto bargain; to give a discount, lower the price of something (PWMP: *tawaD)

mag-tebekto stick a needle, pin into something; to thread a needle (PAN: *tebek)

mag-tekelto grab tightly around the neck; to choke or strangle a person or animal; to accidentally be strangled (PMP: *cekel)

mag-tipidto be thrifty, careful with finances and other resources (LOAN)

mag-toaŋfor two people to carry something, such as a stretcher, between them; for two people to carry a heavy item, like a bucket of water or a pig, hung in the middle of a long bamboo pole (PPH: *tuaŋ₂)

mag-tobli-anto miss each other by passing different ways or arriving at different times (PPH: *sub(e)líq)

mag-tokato vomit (PPH: *suka₂)

mag-tokodto start building a house; to put in the first posts for a house, or to lay the foundation (PAN: *tukud)

mag-tokonto carry something on the head or shoulders (PPH: *tuqun₁)

mag-tokonto carry something on the head or shoulders (PAN: *suquN)

mag-toldokto point something out to someone; to show someone the location of something; to teach (PPh: *tulduq)

mag-toldokto point to or at something (LOAN)

mag-tompokto pile something up in a heap (PWMP: *tumpuk)

mag-torolto give something; to give something that is asked for; to offer something; to submit something (PPH: *tudul)

mag-walito give advice, to advise; to “lecture” someone, often a teen-ager (PPH: *wali₂)

mag-waswasto shake something out to remove dirt, bugs, etc.; to swish clothes up and down in water to remove dirt or soap (PPh: *waswás₁)

ma-idal-ena complainer (PPH: *idal)

Agutaynen (440 / 719)

ma-iŋgitto envy; feel envious; jealous (PPH: *iŋgit)

makaŋstand with the legs spread apart (as someone blocking a doorway) (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

ma-kilawglaring, as of a bright light (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

ma-kimayfor a part of the body to become atrophied; small bananas with no flesh because of excessive heat (PPH: *kimay)

ma-kiwifacial paralysis of one side of the mouth, causing the mouth to appear crooked and droopy; to intentionally screw up one’s mouth in disgust (PPH: *kiwih)

ma-labi-anto be overcome by the night; to be benighted (PPH: *ma-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

ma-lakarare, seldom; to be spaced or thinned out (PWMP: *ma-laka) *la(ŋ)ka

ma-lanetfor plants, leaves, crops to become dried up, withered (PPH: *lanés)

ma-lanetfor plants, leaves, crops to become dried up, withered (PPH: *lanét)

ma-láŋegrancid; musty smelling (of rancid food, or clothes that have been sitting in water) (PPH: *laŋeg)

ma-laŋsifishy smelling (PMP: *laŋ(e)si)

ma-lāwayimpolite, rude, coarse, vulgar; immodest, indecent, shameful, immoral (PPH: *law(e)qay)

ma-lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; mushy, of rotten fish, etc. (PAN: *lemek₁)

ma-lemetto accidentally drown (PPH: *ma-lemes) *lemes

ma-ligitthe action of rolling a round or cylindrical object over something, for example, expressing juice from leaves by rolling a glass jar over them like a rolling pin (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

ma-lipayto be joyful, to feel happy (PPH: *lípay)

ma-lisedpoor; needy; destitute (PPH: *lised)

ma-liwagdifficult or hard to do or endure; scarce, hard to come by (PPH: *liwag)

ma- liʔbelturbid; cloudy water; water having sediment stirred up or suspended (PPH: *ma-liqeb(e)R) *liq(e)beR

ma-lobot-anfor something to become consumed, be used up; to run out of something; for something to cease (PPH: *lubús)

Agutaynen (460 / 719)

ma-logawto be watery, like porridge; to be soft and spongy (PPH: *lúgaw)

ma-lomotmossy (PMP: *lumut)

ma-loslosfor something like a pair of pants to slip down; fallen testicle, often resulting in a hernia (PMP: *luslus)

ma-lotafor vegetables to become overcooked; to overcook vegetables (PPH: *lusa₂)

ma-lotokcooked; ripe, as of fruit, vegetables (PWMP: *ma-lutuq) *lutuq

mamagrandfather (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mamag-lamanothe action in the ring game, idal-idal, where young people clasp hands in a circle with their fingers intertwined; then, as they move their hands back-and forth, to the right and left, a ring is passed unseen from one to another (LOAN)

mamag-tayawto dance, perform a folk dance (PPH: *tayaw)

ma-maŋanto eat a meal, to eat something (PMP: *paŋan)

ma-masiŋto reach out and grab someone’s calf (PPH: *ma-masiŋ) *baq(e)tiŋ

ma-milikto choose something (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-mositto go out looking for squid (PPH: *pusít)

manparticle showing concession; whether; even if; no matter what (PPH: *man)

ma-nabanto elope (PWMP: *ma-naban) *tabaN

ma-nalokto hide from (PWMP: *ma-naRuq) *taRuq

ma-nalokfor a person to hide from others (PMP: *taRuq)

ma-nambekto become fat or healthy; to gain weight (PWMP: *tabeq)

ma-nambelto patch a hole in clothing or fabric, using a patch or scrap of material (PWMP: *ma-nambel) *tambel

man-delepto bathe, play, swim in the ocean, lake, or river (PMP: *delep)

ma-nebekto catch sea worms, octopuses, etc. by sticking a sharp stick into their holes to pierce them (PAN: *tebek)

Agutaynen (480 / 719)

manipeanut (LOAN)

ma-nipitthin (as cloth) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-níwaŋthin, skinny (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

man-liked-likedto walk carefully in tidal flats, in the sea greass, trying to detect or feel small clams with the feet, in order to gather them to eat (PPH: *liqed)

maN-lolonto pack up; get ready to leave (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

ma-nobato catch fish using the sap from the root of the toba tree (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

ma-nolōkfor a rooster to crow (PPH: *tuRauk)

man-takito defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

man-tampokto clap one’s hands (as in applause) (PMP: *tampuk₁)

maŋ-agatto sift flour, sand, etc. (PWMP: *maŋ-agag) *agag

maŋ-enatto remove, take something off the stove (PPH: *enat)

maŋ-inemto drink water, juice, etc. (PWMP: *inem)

maŋ-ŋanito definitely, really do something (PPH: *ŋani)

ma-oyonto like the taste of something; to like, to find something agreeable (PPH: *uyun₂)

ma-pakitbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-pa<n>tekfor a hen to hatch (lit. crack) her eggs (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

ma-paosto become hoarse (as from too much shouting) (LOAN)

ma-pasofor the skin to be accidentally burned or scaled by hot or caustic substances (PPH: *ma-pásuq) *pásuq

ma-petekfor something fragile like glass to crack or shatter, become broken (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

ma-pietnarrow; tight; crowded (PPH: *piet)

Agutaynen (500 / 719)

ma-pikotto trap somebody into marriage, often by the girl getting pregnant (PPH: *píkut)

ma-pilikchoosy, picky (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-pitoto make something seven (PWMP: *ma-pitu) *pitu

ma-popodto become worn down, small, flattened (as of a lamp wick, tooth, soap, pencil lead) by being consumed in use (PPH: *ma-pudpud) *pudpud

ma-potolto cut off (PMP: *putul) *putun

mā-poyatto go to bed; to sleep, be asleep; to fall asleep (PPH: *ma-púyat) *púyat

ma-sebsebto fall on one’s face (PPH: *sebseb)

ma-silawglaring, as of a bright light, or light being reflected off something (PWMP: *ma-silaw) *silaw

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tabed-tabedto become wrapped around something; to become tangled up in something (PWMP: *tambej)

ma-tagekvery juicy and/or sticky (PPH: *tagek)

ma-tamadlazy; unmotivated; bored (PPH: *tamád)

ma-tambekfatty, as of a cut of meat; to be fat and/or healthy (people, animals, plants) (PWMP: *tabeq)

ma-tandato remember, recall; to keep in mind (PPH: *tandaq)

ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land (PMP: *taneq)

ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed (PMP: *taneq)

ma-tebatfor rice, grain to be completely harvested (PWMP: *tebas₁)

ma-tenekfish with sharp dorsal fins; something that is covered with thorns or spikes; for a part of the body to be pierced by a thorn, or jabbed or stuck by the sharp dorsal fin of a fish (PPH: *ma-tenek) *tenek

ma-tipidthrifty (LOAN)

ma-toltokfor an eye to be pierced with a sharp instrument or a stick (PPH: *tuRsúk)

Agutaynen (520 / 719)

ma-tonay-anto be pierced, stuck by a thorn, etc., with a piece left deep in the flesh (PPH: *tunay₁)

ma-topadto fulfill a promise or agreement; for something to come true or be realized; to achieve one’s goal; for a prophecy to be fulfilled (PPH: *tupáj)

ma-topadto fulfill a promise or agreement; for something to come true or be realized; for a prophesy to be fulfilled (PPH: *tupád)

ma-tuʔlidstraight (PWMP: *tuq(e)lid)

mayaricebird; sparrow; they are small, brown, or black, or sometimes reddish in with lighter stripes, and can be found in flocks in rice fields, where they eat the rice (PPH: *máya)

mostasamustard (LOAN)

namomosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nanagrandma (term of reference and address) (PPH: *nana₂)

nanakpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nan-takonlast year (PMP: *taqun)

naraNarra tree or wood; this is a forest tree whose wood is yellowish-red and is used for furniture (now protected) (PMP: *nara)

nipitthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

niwaŋthinness (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

ŋaniindeed; really; very (PPH: *ŋani)

obad-ento untie or unwrap something (PPh: *hubád-en) *hubád

oŋ talokin secret; secretly; in private (PMP: *taRuq)

opawbald (PPH: *upaw)

oyawto laugh at something concerning an animal, and then be struck by lightning, as if it is revenge by the animal (PPH: *uyaw)

oyaw-ento laugh at something concerning an animal, and then be struck by lightning (PPH: *uyaw-en) *uyaw

payet; still; additionally; what’s more; moreover (PAN: *pa₁)

Agutaynen (540 / 719)

pag-tepeŋ-ento put two things or people next to each other to see if they are level or the same height (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

pa-isolto step back a bit; walk backwards (PPh: *isul)

pakathigh; leg (PAN: *paqa₁)

pa-ketel-anto push hard to get a job done; to exert effort; to make something loud, strong (as one’s voice) (PAN: *keseR)

pakiawcontractual work (the parties involved decide on the amount of money which will be paid for the job, rather than paying an hourly or daily wage) (LOAN)

pakitbitter taste; bitterness (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

palashovel (LOAN)

pa-laka-ento become thinned out; to be spaced out, as to plant seed with spaces between (PWMP: *la(ŋ)ka)

pala-ma-ŋan-andining room (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

pa-likoto turn a certain direction (PMP: *likuq)

pa-lotawsmall doughy balls cooked in coconut milk which float to the surface when fully cooked (PWMP: *lutaw)

palpalstakes used for tethering an animal or securing a tent (PPH: *palpál₂)

palpal-anto stake an animal out to graze (PPH: *palpál₂)

pa-masosomething which causes a caustic burn (PPH: *pásuq)

panakan arrow (this can refer to both the bow and the arrow) (PAN: *panaq)

pa-nipit-ento make something thin (as cloth when weaving) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

panoldokindex or forefinger (PPh: *tulduq)

pantalanwharf, pier (LOAN)

paŋajaw (PPH: *paŋah)

paŋ-ígpitclip, hairpin (PPH: *qiR(e)pit)

Agutaynen (560 / 719)

paŋpaŋcliff; steep dropoff into the ocean (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

pa-oyonto agree to something; to consent (PPH: *uyun₂)

papagstretcher made of bamboo (PPH: *papag)

pa-popod-onto cause, or wait for, something to be completely consumed, used up, worn down, burned down/up (PPH: *pa-pudpud-en) *pudpud

parawa boat similar to a lansa (cargo boat), but with outriggers, used for fishing (it pulls smaller outriggers out to deeper water where they can fish); the entire entourage is called a paraw (PWMP: *padaw)

p<ar>ompoŋa kind of white rice with very small kernels; the grain heads are numerous, and are in clusters on the end of the stalk (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₂)

paspasquickly, in a rush (PPH: *paspás₄)

paspas-ando something quickly, at once, nonstop, or in a rush (PPH: *paspas-an₂) *paspás₄

pa-tako-onto make known (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

pa-tambek-ento fatten up an animal (PWMP: *tabeq)

pa-taʔpawto go up to the surface (PPH: *taq(e)paw)

patiincluding; even; also (This is a Tagalog word, but is widely used nowadays, especially by younger people) (PPH: *patí)

patisfish sauce (LOAN)

pegeŋ-anto control oneself; to exercise self control, self discipline; to restrain, hold oneself in check (PWMP: *pegeŋ)

peltaboil; abscess (PPH: *peRsa)

pelta-ento have or develop a boil or abscess (PPH: *peRsa)

petek-ento intentionally crack something open (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

piaŋa person with a crippled or deformed leg (the person can still walk, but with a limp) (LOAN)

pidasoa single, whole piece of something (LOAN)

pikopickaxe (LOAN)

Agutaynen (580 / 719)

pilaa line, row (LOAN)

pilaksilver (LOAN)

pilayfor a person to be paralyzed, crippled in the legs, due to a stroke or accident (PAN: *piNay)

pilikchoose something (PAN: *piliq)

pilik-anchoosy, picky (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

pilik-ento choose something (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pinpinan old hide-and-seek game played at night, with two groups (LOAN)

pintasa strong curse or hex, put on a person by a traditional healeer who has the power to do this (PPH: *pintás)

pipinocucumber (LOAN)

pisopeso (LOAN)

pispiscricket (if the sound of a cricket is heard in the house it means that a visitor is arriving) (PWMP: *pispis₂)

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pito-m-polokseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pito-onto make something seven (PWMP: *pitu-en) *pitu

piyakbaby chicken (PMP: *piak)

pokthe sound made by an owl (PMP: *puk₂) *puk

polawa wake for the dead (PPH: *pulaw)

polpoldumb; not smart (LOAN)

poniala machete with a sharply pointed end (LOAN)

ponsibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

Agutaynen (600 / 719)

poŋpoŋ ~ pompoŋa cluster of fruit, berries, or grain heads on the end of a stalk (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₂)

poŋsosmall mound of earth (PWMP: *puŋsu)

popod daworn down flat (as a tooth that becomes hard to extract) (PPH: *pudpud)

poroisland (PPH: *pujuq)

poroisland (PPH: *pujuq)

positsquid (PPH: *pusít)

potosmall, round steamed cakes made with rice flour; these are often served at birthday parties, and at other special occasions (LOAN)

potol-onto cut something off (as bamboo that has grown too long) (PMP: *putul) *putun

potota short person (PWMP: *putut₂)

poyadnest (LOAN)

poyat-ento feel sleepy, drowsy, tired (PPH: *puyat-en) *púyat

sakaŋcrotch (PMP: *sakaŋ)

santik-anto hit or clink two things together, as stones, or even heads; to strike a match using a matchbox (PPH: *santik-an) *santik

sawalisplit woven bamboo walling material (LOAN)

seŋet-seŋetfor a wound or tooth to throb with sharp, on and off pain (often occurs with the production of pus) (PPH: *seŋet-seŋet)

siamnine (PPH: *siám)

sibokawa type of tree with red wood; it can be used for medicinal purposes, and is also used for tool handles (PPH: *sibukaw)

sikaŋ-kaŋto be in the position of having one’s legs spread apart (as when slipping on a waxed floor) (PWMP: *sikaŋ)

sikepto catch, trap fish in a kalat trap made of rattan (PMP: *cikep)

s<in>abatthat which was cut, leftover material or scraps (PWMP: *tabas₂)

Agutaynen (620 / 719)

si-no-pawho (singular; da-no-pa = ‘who?, plural’) (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu

sisiŋring worn on a finger (LOAN)

solibreach birth, delivery; impossible (going against reality) (PAN: *suli₂)

s<om>ilabfor a fire to blaze or flare up, or spread; for something to burst into flames (PWMP: *sirab)

s<om>iŋarato look up above (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

s<om>ogodto continue on going; to go directly somewhere or to somebody, with no delay; to rush to confront or challenge somebody about a disagreement (PPH: *sugud)

s<om>ogodto continue on going; to go directly somewhere or to somebody, with no delay; to rush to confront or challenge somebody about a disagreement (PPH: *s<um>ugud) *sugud

sompoŋto be moody; to have, be in a bad mood; to act according to one’s mood, feelings (LOAN)

sompoŋ-onmoody (person); be overcome bysomething; have an attack of some kind (high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack); become temporarily crazy, insane; be overcome by one’s power to become a witch, causing one to do strange things (LOAN)

sosoa kind of banana, small to medium size (PMP: *susu) *susu₂

taour; us; we (PAN: *-ta)

tabakotobacco (LOAN)

taban-ento carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tabat-ento cut something, as material (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tageksap of trees, plants; juice of fruits (PPH: *tagek)

tag-si-siamnine each (PPH: *siám)

taketmeasurement; dimention; size (PPH: *takes₂)

takifeces, manure (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takoto know a fact; to know how to do something; to learn something (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

takonyear (PMP: *taqun)

Agutaynen (640 / 719)

takon-anyears gone by (PMP: *taqun)

takon-takonyearly (PMP: *taqun)

talaksin; fault; wrong; crime; guilt, guilty (PMP: *salaq₁)

talatansoutheast direction, wind (PWMP: *salatan)

talinoma type of vegetable with edible leaves (it is the top, tender leaves which are cooked and eaten) (PPH: *talínum)

talonforest, woods, jungle (some people believe that evil spirits and elves live in places like this) (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tamacorrect, right; accurate; appropriate; proper (PAN: *tama₁)

tamad-anfor a person to feel lazy, tired; to be disinterested in, bored or tired of doing something (PPH: *tamad-an) *tamád

tambak-ento pile up; to fill in, such as a hole (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambekfat (substance) (PWMP: *tabeq)

tamiloka type of large, edible worm; they burrow into driftwood or boat hulls to lay their eggs; the young worms, which are white and elongated and look similar to an umbilical cord, are considered a delicacy (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamilok-onfor the hull of a boat to become full of holes made by these worms burrowing in to lay their eggs (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamiŋshield used by soldiers for protection (PMP: *tamiŋ)

tamohere (close to the speaker) (PMP: *tani₂)

tananall; every; the total amount or number of something (PPH: *tanan)

tandig-anback of a chair (PMP: *sandiR)

tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody (PMP: *taneq)

taniŋa certain amount of time left to live; for one’s life to be limited, have a limit or end point (LOAN)

tanodlocal security guards or watchmen (they help the police keep peace and order by patroling the barangay at night and investigating disturbances) (PPH: *tánud)

taŋabranch of a tree (PMP: *saŋa₁)

Agutaynen (660 / 719)

taŋ geretone slice of something (PAN: *gereC)

taŋkalpigpen or chicken coop made of bamboo (PPH: *taŋkal)

taŋkoŋa plant with leaves and stalks like spinach, used as a vegetable (PPH: *taŋkuŋ)

taŋladlemon grass, used in flavoring dishes, and also as one of the leaves in the pamegat bath water (medicinal wine or bath water, for preventing a relapse) (PPH: *taŋ(e)laj)

tapik-ento tap or slap somebody lightly on the back or other part of the upper body (excluding the face); if a person slaps you lightly on the shoulder, it could mean that they are poisoning you or putting a curse on you; in order to reverse or stop the poison or curse the recipient must return the slap (PMP: *tapik)

tapos-onto finish or complete work, a project, a speech, etc,; to finalize something, to finish school, graduate from school (PAN: *tapus)

t<ar>abako-ancontainer used to hold tobacco (LOAN)

ta-tandak-tandakstamping the feet, as a child who is angry about being told to do something (PWMP: *tanzak)

tawaddiscount (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawasalum (LOAN)

tawtawpupil of the eye (PMP: *tau tau) *Cau

tayawfolk dance (PPH: *tayaw)

taʔnaya small handful of something (as of rice porridge) (PPH: *taq(e)nay)

taʔpawthe surface or top of something; on top of something (PPH: *taq(e)paw)

taʔpaw-anto put, place something on top of something else (PPH: *taq(e)paw-an) *taq(e)paw

tebhigh tide (PWMP: *taeb)

tebelto be constipated (PPH: *tebel₁)

tebel-anto be constipated (PPH: *tebel₁)

tekebto attack or fight, as of dogs, cats, or people, particularly two women; to pounce on (PPH: *tekeb₂)

telegcurrent (PWMP: *seleg)

Agutaynen (680 / 719)

t<el><el>epeŋsame height (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tenekthorn; the sharp dorsal fin of a fish (PPH: *tenek)

tilemvery dark-skinned (not a polite word to use) (PWMP: *tilem₁)

tinahair dye (LOAN)

t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat) (PWMP: *t<in>aban) *tabaN

tintiŋ-ento ring a bell, such as the church bell; to make a ringing sound, usually by hitting metal against metal (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

tiŋeldeaf, hard of hearing (PPH: *tiŋeR)

tisaorange (or other colored) chalk used by tailors and seamstresses to mark fabric (LOAN)

titinipple; breast; udder (PMP: *titi)

titinipple; breast; udder (LOAN)

tiʔgaymaggots (LOAN)

toal-ento pry out, dig out something that is exposed, such as a rock (PMP: *sual)

tobaa kind of tree whose root can be used to blind or poison fish around rocks in shallow water and cause them to come to the surface (PAN: *tuba)

tobolinstructions; command; order (PPH: *tubul)

tobol-onto instruct or order someone to do something; to send someone on an errand (PPH: *tubul)

togtogthe sound of something being played, such as an instrument, music, radio, etc. (PWMP: *tugtug)

tokayoterm of address used by two people having the same name; a person’s namesake (LOAN)

tokot-onto charge a fee, to collect a fee, a fare, or a debt; to request payment for a fee or a debt (PPH: *sukut)

tolaybridge (PPH: *tuláy)

toldokfinger (PPh: *tulduq)

Agutaynen (700 / 719)

toldokfinger (LOAN)

toloktorch (made of a bottle filled with kerosene and with a rag for a wick, or a coconut palm frond or piece of bamboo with fire on the end; rarely used anymore) (PMP: *suluq)

tolōkcrow of a rooster (PPH: *tuRauk)

t<om>akasto escape from prison (PMP: *taŋkas)

t<om>akonnext year (PMP: *taqun)

t<om>ampekfor waves to hit and spray up over, or into, a boat (PMP: *tampek)

t<om>andakto stamp one’s foot; to stamp or stomp on something (PWMP: *tanzak)

t<om>andigto lean, recline against something (PMP: *sandiR)

t<om>aŋkabfor an animal, such as a dog or lion, to lunge at someone, something; for an animal to snatch, grab s.t. in its mouth and eat it; for s.o. to viciously bite, or bite off s.t., usually in a fight (PPH: *sa(ŋ)kab)

t<om>ayato lay out one’s bet in a gambling game (PPH: *tayáq)

t<om>okokfor a person to duck or bow their head; to look down at the ground; to bend over slightly from the waist; for mature fruit to bend over on the vine or branch (PWMP: *tukuk)

t<om>omawfor worms, termites, insects, etc. to seem to appear out of nowhere, in large numbers (PPH: *tuq(e)maw)

t<om>ompokfor things to pile up, such as clothes to wash, work to do (PWMP: *tumpuk)

tompolfor the sharp point of something to become dull, worn down, or broken off, e.g. a pencil, stick pin, bamboo fencing (PMP: *tumpul)

tonayreal, not fake; authentic; genuine (PWMP: *tunay₂)

toŋkodsupport post; cane; staff (PAN: *tukud)

toŋkod-onto brace something up (PAN: *tukud)

toŋtoŋ-onto go forwards against the wind or current (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

toroŋhead covering, such as a piece of cloth wrapped around the head, or a hat with a brim (PMP: *tuduŋ)

totoyeuphemism for the penis of a small boy (PPH: *tutuy)

Agutaynen (720 / 719)

waliadvice (archaic) (PPH: *wali₂)

watak-watakthings dropped and scattered around, often referring to trash or food scraps (PPH: *watak-watak)

wisik-anto sprinkle water or another liquid on something; to accidentally be splattered, spattered by something (PPH: *wisik)

9. Ahus (48) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [anx] (Andra-Hus) Papua New Guinea

a-heŋto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

aŋo-anyellow (POC: *aŋo)

a-teŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

buhbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

calpath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

ciltopstick of the sail (POC: *jila)

cu-cuhirsmall cockatoo (POC: *supiri)

ha-hufour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

hassea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

heliŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

isewho? (PMP: *i-sai) *sai

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kamalman/male; men’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

ka-mawleft side (POC: *mawiRi) *wiRi

kanasmullet (PAN: *kaNasay)

kaurbamboo (POC: *kauru)

kiecoutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

kitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

laltrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

Ahus (20 / 48)

laŋa-name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

laŋa-nhis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

lime-hfive (PAN: *lima)

liyginger (PMP: *laqia)

luo-htwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

mara-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mihi-mihdream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

nattall latex-yielding tree with edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

nhahconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

nhalslitgong (POC: *drali)

niwcoconut palm (PMP: *niuR)

ono-hsix (POC: *onom) *enem

pahpandanus tree and fruit (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

patstone (POC: *patu) *batux

paythe smallest kind of stingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

poscanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

punsea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

sa-ŋ-atone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

se-ŋ-ohten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

susu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

Ahus (40 / 48)

tama-nhis/her father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

teluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tine-nhis/her mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tolawnorth wind; north (POC: *tokalaur)

ullobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

wafresh water; lake (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

we-lawspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

yahfire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

10. Aklanon (1522) WMP (Zorc 1969) [akl] (Inakeanon) Philippines

aexclamation of discovery; "ah" (with high intonation) (PMP: *a₃)

-asuffix attached to verbs of object focus #1 (with infix -in- or suffix -on) to express a command (PAN: *-a₁)

abága(h)shoulder(s); take responsibility, to shoulder, take on (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

abá(h)to get, climb up on one's back (PPh: *aba₂)

abá(h)an exclamation expressing strong disbelief: Really? Ah, go on! (PWMP: *abá)

abaká(h)abaca fibres, Manila hemp: Musa textilis (PPh: *abaká)

ábaŋobstruct, block, hinder; waylay, ambush (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ábaysponsor (at wedding or baptism) (PPH: *abay)

abó(h)ash(es); to make ashes (PMP: *qabu)

abótarrive, get to one's destination, go as far as; catch up (with/to); overcome by, overwhelmed (PPH: *qábut)

ábota late-comer to dinner (or any meal) (PPH: *qábut)

ábota late-comer to dinner (or any meal) (NOISE)

abuh-óngray, ashen color(ed) (PWMP: *qabu-en) *qabu

ádlawday; sun (PMP: *qalejaw)

ádlaw-ádlawdaily, every day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

ae-agaw-án (< *ar-agaw-anmake a scramble for (in order to take or get) (PAN: *qaRaw)

áeakto distil (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage) (LOAN)

áeakto distill (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage) (LOAN)

ae-ayag-án (< *ar-ayag-an)screen (for sifting) (PWMP: *qayag)

ágapgive time to, concentrate, think carefully (while working) (PWMP: *a(ŋ)gap)

Aklanon (20 / 1522)

ágawgrab, take, seize, snatch, get (without being one's due) (PAN: *qaRaw)

ágda(h)invite, remind someone of an invitation (NEAR)

ágiwsoot, black smoke deposit on wall or ceiling; to smudge, blacken with soot (PPH: *ágiw)

agíw-onsooty, smudged (PPH: *ágiw)

ágomto taste, receive one’s due, enjoy, obtain, attain (PPH: *águm)

akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

ákopgreedy, selfish (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

alímato use one’s hands on (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

alíma(h)hand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

alim-pu-púdw-an (< R)crown of head (where hair whorls) (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju

ali-pudw-anhair whorl (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju

alitáptapglowworm, found on rocks at high tide (PMP: *qali-petpet)

ali-táptapglowworm, founds on rocks at high tide (PMP: *teptep)

áma-ámastepfather (PWMP: *ama ama) *amax

amá(h)father (PAN: *amax)

amák-anmat of woven bamboo (PWMP: *amak)

ámanto beware of, be careful with (PPH: *áman)

ámbonfog, mist, haze (PWMP: *ambun)

amíhannortheast wind (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

amihán-annorth(erly) (PPh: *qamihan-an) *qamiS

Aklanon (40 / 1522)

ámo(h)lord, master, overseer (LOAN)

ámpawpopped rice candy (PMP: *ampaw)

amúma(h)to entertain, take care of (PPH: *amuma)

-ancommon suffix denoting a place or a referent. Used with (1) verbs: ginbáke-an sánda it dúlsi 'candy was bought for them', (2) nouns: simbáh-an 'church' (from símba(h) 'worship'), tindáh-an 'market' (from tínda(h) 'goods for sale'), (3) adjectives: baʔbá-an 'talkative' (from báʔbaʔ 'mouth') (PAN: *-an)

ánadto be used to, be accustomed to; familiar with (PPH: *anad)

anáhawfan palm: Livistona rotundifolia (PMP: *qanahaw)

anákgodchild; become a godparent, be a godparent (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ananáyto go slowly, work carefully, do gradually (PPH: *ananay₂)

ánaytermite (general term) (PAN: *aNay)

ánito harvest, gather a crop (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

aníh-anthe harvest (PWMP: *qanih-an) *qaniS

anílawsmall tree: Grewia eriocarpa (PMP: *qanilaw)

anino(h)shadow, reflection; image; silhouette (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

anítosbenevolent lesser spirits who go around counteracting the evil done by devils or evil spirits (the pagan version of a "saint") (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ánodfollow the current, drift (PAN: *qañud)

a-nó(h)what?; do what? (particle that can be used as any part of speech) (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

antábaywait for (PPh: *antábay)

antabáy-anwait for one another (PPh: *antábay)

ántadgap, distance, space (PWMP: *antad)

ántiŋkeen, good, sharp (of hearing) (PPh: *ántiŋ)

Aklanon (60 / 1522)

ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, charm (supposedly possessing a secret power allowing a person to avoid injury); power of invulnerability (LOAN)

ánwaŋcarabao, water buffalo (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

aŋáyto complement, be a good match for, be fitting, harmonize; to adjust; to tune a musical instrument (PPH: *aŋáy)

áŋhitsmelly, having strong body odor (or an odor like the body odor; said of butter and some animals) (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

áŋkasto ride together, hop on (a bicycle) (PPH: *aŋkás)

áŋkatget on credit (PWMP: *aŋkat)

áŋkitto bite, nip (PMP: *a(ŋ)kit)

áŋkobseal, filling, joiner, gap-filler (PWMP: *aŋkeb)

áŋsodunderarm odor (PWMP: *aŋ(e)cej)

áŋsodunderarm odor (PWMP: *qaŋ(e)sej)

áŋso(h)having the smell of urine (PPh: *qaŋ(e)su)

áŋtodsmelling overcooked (said of food, esp. rice) (PPh: *qaŋ(e)téj)

apánlocust (NOISE)

apasfollow after, go a little later (NOISE)

ápdohbile; bile duct (and/or) gall bladder (PAN: *qapejux)

ápdoʔbile; bile duct (and/or) gall bladder (PWMP: *qapejuq)

ápeodhaving the flavor of raw or unripe bananas (PMP: *apeled)

apídjoin, attach, enclose (PAN: *qapid)

ápogpowdered lime (used in chewing betel nuts); to put lime (into) (PAN: *qapuR)

apog-ánlime box, case used for storing lime powder (PWMP: *qapuR-an) *qapuR

Aklanon (80 / 1522)

apó(h)grandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

á-pʔatfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

asáwaspouse: husband, wife; married (said of a woman) (PAN: *qasawa)

ásiksplash, spatter (Also Hiligaynon ágsik 'fly off, scatter, spray') (ROOT)

asínsalt; to salt, put salt into (PAN: *qasiN)

asin-isalt it! (imperative) (PWMP: *qasin-i) *qasiN

áslommake sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

ásoglesbian; any woman who acts outside of the female role; tomboy (PWMP: *asug)

asó(h)smoke, fumes (visible); to give off smoke, to smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

áswaŋvampire, evil creature (preying on people, sucking liver bile and leaving them weak or with some strange afflictions) (LOAN)

átaboverflow slightly, flood over a little bit (PPh: *atáb)

atá(h)Oh, my goodness (expression of surprise) (PPh: *atá)

atáŋa room divider (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

atáŋput up, hoist (PWMP: *ataŋ₂)

átasevaporate (PMP: *asat)

atáyliver (of animals or people) (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

átaʔfluid, potion, liquids, semen (NOISE)

atímoncanteloupe: Cucumis melo L. (PMP: *qatimun)

átiplarge board or piece of wood used as a brace or support, particularly when grinding (PMP: *qatip₁)

atipúyoŋfeel faint, be dizzy (PAN: *qaCi-)

Aklanon (100 / 1522)

átisa fruit, the sugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn. (LOAN)

átissugar apple: Annona squamosa L. (LOAN)

átissugar apple: Annona squamosa Linn. (LOAN)

atóproof (PMP: *qatep)

atsi(h)sneeze (NOISE)

atúbaŋface (up to), confront, stand/appear in front of; front (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubáŋ-anfront, in front of (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubaŋ-ángenitals (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

áwayto fight, quarrel, argue (PPH: *áway)

ayinterjection: my! oh! what? (shock, surprise) (PAN: *ai₂)

ayágto screen, sift (PWMP: *qayag)

áyamdog; chase with a dog, sic a dog on (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ayátto challenge (to a fight) (PWMP: *ayat)

ayáwabandon, leave behind (PPh: *ayáw)

ayód-ayódmove the waist up and down, back and forth (as in the act of intercourse) (PWMP: *ayud)

áyonto be in favor of, support, agree with (PPH: *áyun)

ayonbe in favor of, support, agree with (LOAN)

bæágonvine (generic) (NOISE)

bæaŋkaʔtake apart, dismantle (ROOT)

bábadsoak (PPh: *bábad)

Aklanon (120 / 1522)

ba-báyiwoman; female (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bádbadunravel, take apart (as threads in a garment); to fray, get unravelled (PWMP: *bajbaj)

bádlitlines or marks in the palm (ROOT)

baeábagblocking, obstructing, put across, stretching over; thwart, hindrance, obstruction (PPh: *bala(R)báR)

baeágonvine (generic term) (PWMP: *balaRen)

b<ae>ahóg-anfeeding trough for pigs (PWMP: *bahuR)

baeánakfish sp. (PWMP: *balanak)

baeanáwpuddle (of water) (ROOT)

baeáŋaloss of attention, distraction (PWMP: *balaŋa(q))

baeássand (PMP: *badas)

baeas-ónsandy, having sand (in) (PMP: *badas)

baeátedible green or black eel found at seashore (PPh: *balát)

baeátikbooby trap, improvised trap, (to catch by surprise) (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

baeáyi(h)the relationship of the parents of each wedded couple; co-parents-in-law (PPh: *balaqih)

báebaeto whip, beat (PAN: *balbal₁)

báeosrevenge, repayment; pay back (a favor), revenge (a crime), get even (PAN: *bales₁)

bága(h)glowing ember; be aglow, smoulder (PMP: *baRah)

bagáni(h)hero, patriot (PMP: *baRani)

baganíh-anheroism, patriotism; heroes, patriots (collectively) (PMP: *baRani)

bágaysuits, matches; complementary, becoming; to complement, be appropriate, match; tune a musical instrument (PWMP: *bagay)

Aklanon (140 / 1522)

bágaything, case; the right thing (PPH: *bágay)

bágaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bagáʔswollen, swelled up (PAN: *baReq)

bagóbefore, prior to (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bágo(h)bago tree: Gnetum gnemon (PWMP: *baguh)

bagsákbedbug (NEAR)

bágyo(h)hurricane, storm (PAN: *baRiuS)

bágʔaŋmolar tooth, molar teeth (PMP: *bageqaŋ)

bagʔó(h)new; recently (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

ba(h)interjection, expressions of disbelief (PMP: *ba₂)

bahágG-string, breechcloth; underwear (PMP: *bahaR)

báhawcold rice; cool off, get cool (said of food) (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

baháʔflood; to overflow, flood (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

bahógswill, slop, pig food; to feed pigs; pour soup on (PWMP: *bahuR)

báhoʔsmell, odor, stench; to stink (PMP: *bahuq)

bakánkind of tree (PWMP: *bakan)

bakáŋto walk with the knees apart, walk bowleggedly; bowlegged (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

bákashurry up, hasten, quicken (PMP: *bakas)

bakáw-antree that is good for firewood: Rhizophora mucronata (PWMP: *bakehaw)

bákbaktake off the bark of a tree (PMP: *bakbak₁)

Aklanon (160 / 1522)

baléteʔbalete tree: Ficus benjamina L. (PPh: *balítiq)

balíbroken, fractured (PMP: *baliq)

baliláʔfish -- quite long, with plenty of spines (PWMP: *balidaq)

balintawáknative dress, knee-length, worn only for dances (LOAN)

baliŋ-baliŋunsteady, aimless (said of a flying object without aim) (PWMP: *baliŋ baliŋ) *baliŋ₂

balisóŋlong, sharp knife common to Batangas (LOAN)

balítaʔnews, report; newspaper; to report (LOAN)

balíwbewitched (PMP: *baliw₂)

báliʔget broken in two, get fractured (as an arm) (PMP: *baliq)

banabá(h)medicinal tree: Premna cumingiana Schaver (PPh: *banabá)

bana-bana(h)tree, fruit, guayabano. Anona muricata L. (NOISE)

bánawto wash (hands, feet) (PMP: *bañaw)

banáʔagrays (of the rising sun); to be rising (said of sun), send off rays (PMP: *banaqaR)

banaʔ-banaʔestimation, calculation; opinion (NOISE)

bánbanherb used for roofing: Donax cannaeformis (PWMP: *banban)

bánlawrinse out (with water after soaping) (PPh: *bal(e)ñáw)

banógbird of prey (hawk) (PPh: *banúR)

bántaeto dam up (PWMP: *bantal)

bántogfamous, noted, well-known; to announce (PPH: *bantug)

banwá(h)town, country (PMP: *banua)

Aklanon (180 / 1522)

banyágaʔcriminally-inclined, evil-minded (LOAN)

baŋa(h)palm tree: Orania palindan (PWMP: *baŋa₁)

baŋbaŋfall down, cave in (such as sides of riverbank) (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₄)

baŋgáʔambush; collide, hit together (LOAN)

baŋílshim (something used to level off an unbalanced table or chair that is wobbling) (PPH: *baŋil)

báŋkaetree with reddish fruit: Nauclea junghuhnia (PMP: *baŋkal)

báŋkatwoven basket (for small fishes) (PWMP: *ba(ŋ)kat)

báŋkawspear (PWMP: *baŋkaw)

báŋkaycorpse, dead person (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋkilíŋa tree: Cicca acida (PWMP: *baŋkiriŋ)

báŋonget up (out of bed), arise (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

báogto putrefy, rot (like old eggs) (PPH: *báqug)

baógputrid, ruined, spoiled, rotten; sterile (incapable of bearing children) (PPH: *báqug)

bæo(h)knowledge, awareness of (NOISE)

báraŋblack magic, voodoo, witchcraft (NOISE)

baráŋgaynative boats -- of historical import, which brought the first Malaysian settlers; club, group, organization (PPh: *baraŋgay)

bárlakshine, radiate (ROOT)

basbáschip off, trim off (PWMP: *basbas₃)

bátaʔchildish, young, youthful, immature (PWMP: *bataq)

bátbatpound out metal (PWMP: *batbat)

Aklanon (200 / 1522)

batíʔiscalf, lower leg (PWMP: *baties)

batóstone (PMP: *batu) *batux

bató-báto(h)kidney (PMP: *batu₂)

bátoknape of neck (PWMP: *batuk₂)

báwiʔto reclaim, repossess, take back, salvage (PPH: *báwiq)

bawogbamboo spring in a booby trap (PPH: *baweR)

báyadpayment; pay (PMP: *bayaD)

bayáʔto ignore (PPH: *bayáq)

bayáʔto ignore (NOISE)

báybaybeach, seashore; bank (of a river) (PPh: *baybáy)

bayóto box, hit, pound, pummel (PAN: *bayu)

bayúoŋburi bag (usually for one cavan) (PWMP: *bayuquŋ)

báyw-on taI’ll box you (PAN: *bayu)

báʔakcut bamboo lengthwise (PMP: *baqak₁)

báʔbaʔmouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

bíbiduck (LOAN)

bibíglip(s) (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bi-bíŋkacake made of rice or cassava, cooked between two fires (LOAN)

bída(h)hero (of story, movie); main actor (LOAN)

bidh-án-anfilled with fish eggs (PWMP: *bihed)

Aklanon (220 / 1522)

bigá-onoversexed (female) (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bígaʔsexual excitement or feeling (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bígkissash (piece of cloth wrapped around the waist) (ROOT)

bíhagcapture; get the prize (at a cockfight) (PWMP: *bihaR)

bíhodfish eggs, caviar (PWMP: *bihed)

biká(h)shard, potsherd (broken piece, chip off earthenware vessels) (PWMP: *bika)

bíkaʔspread the legs apart, do a split (PMP: *bikaq₂)

bílaŋsomewhat like, considered as, like; consider (as), reckon (as) (PAN: *bilaŋ₁)

bílaŋsomewhat like, considered as, like; to consider as, reckon as (PPH: *bilaŋ₂)

bilaŋgó-anprison, jail (LOAN)

biláŋgoʔto imprison, jail (LOAN)

bilásthe relationship between two outside in-laws, such as the wife of one brother to the wife of another brother (PPH: *bilas)

bilí(h)cost, price, value, worth; be worth, have a value, be priced at (PMP: *bili)

bílinleave behind; order, request (PWMP: *bilin)

b-il-itay-ángallows, place of hanging (PPh: *bítay)

bilógsolid, entire, whole; full (moon) (LOAN)

bílogconsolidate, unify, make into a single unit; unit (LOAN)

b<in>abáyiact like a female (said of a male), be effeminate (PPh: *b<in>a-bahi) *bahi

bínhiʔseed, grain (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

b-in-íraysailboat -- usually three boats tied together during a water festival (LOAN)

Aklanon (240 / 1522)

b-iniʔássection, internode, joint (of plant, finger) (PWMP: *biqas)

bíntoefish trap (PWMP: *bintul)

b-in-úeanmonthly (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

b-in-úhatcreature, creation (PMP: *buhat₂)

b-in-úmbawas pumped by (LOAN)

b-in-umbah-ánwere bombed (LOAN)

b-in-útw-anblistered, having blisters (PMP: *betu₃) *beCu

b-in-útw-anblistered, having blisters (PMP: *butu₁) *buCu

bíŋatpull open, pull apart (PPh: *biŋát)

bíŋka(h)dessert cake (LOAN)

bíŋkitjoin, unite, tie together (PPh: *biŋkit)

bíŋkoŋcurl up (fingers, paper) (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

birásock, punch, box, hit (PWMP: *bida)

bíri-bíriberi beri (disease caused by lack of thiamine) (LOAN)

bísaeffect, result (LOAN)

bítasslit open, split up; pull apart (PMP: *bitas)

bítayhang, suspend (PPh: *bítay)

bítbitcarry in one's hand (usually by a handle, like a suitcase or a trunk) (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bitíkflea (as on dogs) (PMP: *bitik₁)

bitíkflea (as on dogs) (NOISE)

Aklanon (260 / 1522)

bítinpull up; dangle, hang (from) (PPh: *bítin)

bitínpoisonous snake (PPh: *bítin)

bitúʔonstar (general term) (PAN: *bituqen)

biʔásjoint, notch (of finger); internode of flora, the part between the joints of flowers and plants (PWMP: *biqas)

biʔásjoint; notch (of finger); internode (of flora -- the part between the joints of flowers and plants) (LOAN)

bóbofish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

bólaball (LOAN)

bolah-ánballfield (LOAN)

bolímbodto tie up (by running the string around many times) (ROOT)

bosínahorn (as on motor vehicles) (LOAN)

botítipoisonous fish with bloated stomach; bloated, swollen, inflated (PWMP: *butiti)

bóto(h)to vote for (LOAN)

bótoʔpenis, male organ (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

bóʔboʔpour out, dump out (PMP: *buqbuq)

buástomorrow (PPh: *buás)

bubónopen well (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

búbon-búbonsoft spot or crown (of infant's head) (PWMP: *bubun bubun) *buNbuN

bubóŋinside roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

buboŋ-ánrafters, attic, inside area of roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

búdbudto wind up; spindle (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

Aklanon (280 / 1522)

búdbudwind up; spindle (NOISE)

budíŋsoot, carbon (PWMP: *budiŋ)

bueáddry out in the sunshine (PWMP: *belaj)

bueágto separate, disjoin, put/pull apart; leave one another, separate, go apart (NOISE)

búeakflower (generic) (PWMP: *bujak)

búeak-búeakembellishment (in speech); artificial flower (PWMP: *bujak)

búeanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bueáŋblade (used in cock fighting); enter a rooster into a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bueáŋ-angallery, arena, place for a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bueáwbecome jaundiced (PAN: *bulaw)

bueáwfish with yellow stripe (NOISE)

bueáw-angold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bueawán-ongolden (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bueáʔfroth, foam, bubbles; to form bubbles or foam; talk with pride about oneself or others (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

búebuehair (of animals or people); feathers (of fowl) (PPh: *bulbúl)

bueo-bukóankle (PMP: *buku)

buéoŋmedicine, cure; to medicate, cure, administer medicine (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

b-ue-uhát-onwork, deed (PMP: *buhat₂)

bufyʔadhave one's stomach protrude or stick out (NOISE)

bugá(h)exhale, blow out (smoke of a cigarette) (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

Aklanon (300 / 1522)

bugáŋkind of grass used for making brooms: Phragmites vulgaris (NOISE)

bugásuncooked, polished rice (PMP: *beRas)

búgawto shoo, drive away, evict (PAN: *buRaw)

bugáwfly whisk; matchmaker, pimp (PAN: *buRaw)

bugáygive, offer (PMP: *beRay)

búgbugbeat to unconsciousness, knock out; get knocked out (PWMP: *bugbug)

búgkosbundle, package; to tie up, bundle, package (PMP: *beRkes)

búgnaytree with red fruit: Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. (PWMP: *buRnay)

búgsaypaddle; oar (for boat); to paddle, row (a boat) (PMP: *beRsay)

búgtoŋonly child (PPH: *buR(e)túŋ)

búgʔakproud, haughty, boastful (ROOT)

búgʔatbecome heavy, get heavier (PMP: *beReqat)

búhatto make, do, work; create (PMP: *buhat₂)

buhísa tax; impose a tax (PWMP: *buhis) *buhís

buhókhair (on head) (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

búhosto open a dam (PWMP: *buhus)

búkadunroll, roll open, unwrap (PWMP: *bekaj)

bukáeto boil (said of heated liquids) (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukásto open up (window, door) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

búkawowl (PWMP: *bukaw)

Aklanon (320 / 1522)

bukáʔto open up (usually something that is hinged, like an oyster or can; also lips); get opened up (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

búkbukbamboo gnat; powder or dust left by boring of insects (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

búkeadopen up (as the hand) (PMP: *bekelaj)

búkeadto open up (as hand) (PPh: *buk(e)lad)

búkidmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukíd-nonmountaineer (PAN: *bukij)

bukójoint (of bamboo); wrist (PMP: *buku)

búkoevery young coconut; swell up, protrude, stick out, stick through (like a pen underneath a piece of paper) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bukónnot, no, it is not (used to negate nominals and adjectives or similar descriptions) (PWMP: *beken)

bukónnot, no, it is not (used to negate nominals and adjectives or similar descriptions) (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

búktothunchbacked, stoop-shouldered (PWMP: *beketut)

búktothunchbacked, stoop-shouldered (PPh: *buk(e)tút)

buladórkite (LOAN)

bulalákawbird, believed to be carrier of evil spirits (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

búligto help, assist; help, assistance (PWMP: *bulig)

búligbunch of bananas or similar fruits (PMP: *buliR)

bulilítdwarfish, tiny (PPh: *bulilít)

bulináwvery small fish (PPh: *bulínaw)

bulíʔrear, back (PMP: *buliq₂)

bulíʔrear, back (NOISE)

Aklanon (340 / 1522)

bulóŋwhisper, speak softly (LOAN)

bulóŋ-buloŋ-anrumor, gossip, whisperings (LOAN)

búmbato bomb, drop bombs on (LOAN)

búmbato pump (water, gas) (LOAN)

búmba(h)pump (for water, gasoline, etc.) (LOAN)

búnaebeat up, batter (PWMP: *benal)

bunáestick (used for beating) (PWMP: *benal)

búnaebeat up, batter (PPh: *bunal)

bunáestick used for beating (PPh: *bunal)

bunákwet, damp; to moisten, dampen, wet (NOISE)

búnbunyoung rice seedlings, rice shoots (PMP: *bunubun) *bunabun

búnokrain heavily, rain "cats and dogs" (NOISE)

bunótcoconut husk or fibers; to husk a coconut (PMP: *bunut₁)

bunóʔto stab (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

búnt-ihusk it! (PPh: *bunut-i) *bunut₁

búntispregnant (PWMP: *bentis)

búntispregnant (PPh: *buq(e)tis)

búnyagto water, sprinkle with water; baptize; watering, sprinkling; baptism (PPh: *buniag)

bunyag-í ro búeakwater the flowers! (PPh: *buniag)

búnʔiwhite skin disease, ringworm (PMP: *buqeni)

Aklanon (360 / 1522)

búŋabear fruit (PMP: *buŋa)

búŋa-buŋásmall mouse (PMP: *buŋa)

búŋa(h)fruit; betel nut (palm, nut): Areca catechu var. Alba (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋah-ánlist of answers for an exam, 'cheat sheet' (PMP: *buŋa)

búŋbuŋpartition; temporary wall (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

buŋíʔhaving a harelip (PPH: *buŋiq)

buŋíʔharelip (NOISE)

búŋkagdismantle, take apart, undo; be disrupted, get taken apart (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

búŋkagdismantle, take apart, undo; be disrupted, get taken apart (PMP: *buŋkaR)

búŋkoghump (bump on back of some animals) (PWMP: *buŋkug)

buŋkog-ánhaving a hump (PWMP: *buŋkug)

buŋóedeaf, unable to hear; become deaf (PMP: *beŋel)

búŋogfool, stupid fellow, jerk (NOISE)

búŋotwhiskers, beard, facial hair (PPh: *beŋet₂)

búŋotwhiskers, beard, facial hair (PWMP: *buŋut)

buŋóʔskull (PPH: *buŋuq)

buŋóʔskull (NOISE)

burbúrsemen; sexual fluids (NOISE)

burí(h)buri palm (tree, fibers): Corypha elata (PMP: *buri)

buriŋótbad-humored, moody, out-of-sorts, crabby (ROOT)

Aklanon (380 / 1522)

búsbustear open, puncture, slit open (as with a knife, a chicken tearing open a sack so that the rice inside gets scattered) (PMP: *busbus)

búskadto open wide (like a flower) (PPh: *bes(e)káj)

busógbe full, satisfied (after eating) (PAN: *besuR)

busónmail box, postal box (LOAN)

búswaŋerupt, open up (sore, boil) (PPh: *busuáŋ)

búsʔakto chop (wood) (PPh: *bus(e)qák)

butáblind; blinded (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butá-bútaa game, 'Blindman's bluff' (PWMP: *buta buta₁) *buCa

butígwart (PMP: *buteliR)

butíʔpopcorn, popped rice (PWMP: *beRtiq)

butíʔpopcorn, popped rice (PPh: *butíq)

bútkonarm, upper arm; sleeve (of shirt, dress) (PWMP: *beteken)

butóblister (PMP: *betu₃) *beCu

butóblister (PMP: *butu₁) *buCu

butódswell up (due to gas), become bloated (stomach) (PWMP: *buntuD)

butóŋbamboo: Bambusa vulgaris (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

bútoŋto pull, yank (PPH: *beteŋ₃) *beteŋ₂

butóttadpole (baby frog) (NOISE)

búybuy'cotton tree', used for stuffing pillows and mattresses: Ceiba pentandra Linn. (PPh: *buybuy)

búybuycotton tree, used for stuffing pillows and mattresses: Ceiba pentandra L. (NOISE)

Aklanon (400 / 1522)

buyó(h)to deceive about, conceal one's real intentions (LOAN)

búyokcharmed, convinced (PWMP: *buyuk)

búyoŋspin, turn round and round, go in circles (LOAN)

búyoŋspin, turn round and round, go in circles (NOISE)

búyoʔleaves for chewing: Piper betle (PWMP: *buyuq)

buyʔón-anhaving a bloated stomach or beer belly (PPh: *buyequŋ-an) *buyequŋ

buʔóeheel (of foot) (PPh: *buqel)

búʔoŋto break (PPh: *búquŋ)

dáanolder, ancient; the former (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

dáboŋbamboo shoot (Masbatenyos, like most Filipinos, boil young bamboo shoots for food); immature, young (refers to children, unripe fruits or untempered metal) (PPH: *dabuŋ)

daeágagirl, young lady, young unmarried woman; maiden (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dáeanroad,way, path, trail, street; be carried away by, be led by; almost forget (something else) (PMP: *zalan)

d<ae>apit-ánferry landing (PWMP: *dapit)

dáeomto get deep(er) (PMP: *dalem)

dagámirice stalk, straw (from rice) (PMP: *zaRami)

dágatsalt water; sea (PMP: *daRat)

dagátget motion sickness, get seasick (PMP: *daRat)

dágsaʔget washed ashore (PPH: *dág(e)saq)

dáhonleaf, leaves; to produce leaves (PMP: *dahun)

dahón-dahóngrass snake (PMP: *dahun-dahun) *dahun

Aklanon (420 / 1522)

dakídandruff (PMP: *daki)

daki-hónhaving dandruff (PMP: *daki)

dakópto capture, catch (as dog, person, fish) (PAN: *dakep)

dálitvenom, poison (PPH: *dalit₃)

dalit-anvenomous, poisonous (PPH: *dalit₃)

damá(h)Spanish checkers; king checkers (LOAN)

damah-áncheckerboard (LOAN)

danáwlake, pond (PAN: *danaw)

danáʔthat (PPH: *danáq₂)

dáŋawhandsbreadth (unit of measurement about 8 inches long) (PPH: *daŋaw)

dáŋdaŋwarm up, put near the fire, heat up (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

dápdapkind of tree (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dápitto ferry across (PWMP: *dapit)

dapítsituated, located (PWMP: *dapit)

dápitsituated, located (PPH: *dapít)

dapógstove, hearth (PMP: *dapuR₁)

datágopen field, plain, prairie (PAN: *dataR)

dátu-ʔruler, king; rich, wealthy, powerful (through money) (PMP: *datu)

dáwa(h)grass; rice grain dessert preparation (PAN: *zawa₂)

dáwatto take, receive, get from above (PPH: *dáwat)

Aklanon (440 / 1522)

dáyawto praise, honor, laud (PPH: *dáyaw)

da-ywato make into two, raise or lower to two (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

da-ywa(h)two (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

dílapto lick (PWMP: *dilap₂)

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

diláʔ-ansharp-tongued (referring to a gossiper) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

d<in>ugo-ána Filipino dish made from the blood and intestines of pigs, chickens, etc. (PMP: *zuRuq)

díŋdiŋwall (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

dúeokto clear away the stumps of trees and other vegetation in order to plant (PPH: *duluk)

dueómto get darker (PPH: *dulem)

dúgmonnest or mat for a pig (PPH: *dug(e)mún)

dugóʔblood; to bleed (PMP: *zuRuq)

dúha-dúhahesitation, doubt, fear (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

dúha-dúha(h)to doubt, be hesitant; delay, hesitate (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

dúkotto stick together (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dukóthard cooked rice at the bottom of the pot; to stick to, cling to; to get pregnant (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dúkotto pick someone’s pocket (PPH: *dúkut)

dúlisshooting star (PPH: *dúlis)

dúmdumto remember, keep in mind (PAN: *demdem₁)

dúnoŋwisdom, knowledge (PPH: *dunuŋ)

Aklanon (460 / 1522)

dúŋoglisten to, hear, give ear to (PMP: *deŋeR)

duŋógfame, honor, reputation (PMP: *deŋeR)

dupáarmsbreadth, armspan [unit of measure]; to stretch out one’s arms, hold one’s arms out sideways (PAN: *depah)

dúsdusto push, shove (PPH: *desdés)

dútdutto tighten, squeeze together (usually by pushing) (PAN: *detdet)

dúyanhammock; cradle; to rock [a baby] to sleep (PPH: *dúyan)

dúyan-dúyanto rock back and forth (PPH: *dúyan)

eaba(h)to launder, wash clothes (LOAN)

eábnoga medicinal shrub: Ficus hauili Blanco. (PPH: *lab(e)nuR)

eáboŋgrow steadily, multiply, expand, be prolific (PWMP: *labeŋ)

eábotaffair, concern, business (PPH: *labut)

eaeá (h)to weave mats (PWMP: *laja)

eagáʔred, reddish (ROOT)

eákadto step over (with big steps) (PMP: *lakaj)

eakáwto amble, go around (PMP: *lakaw)

eákiman, male (PMP: *laki₁)

eakin-onmannish (PMP: *laki₁)

eáli(h)fish (PMP: *lajih)

eámboŋshirt; blouse; dress (PPH: *lambuŋ)

eámonto eat (of an animal); to eat like a pig, eat voraciously and sloppily (PPH: *lamun₂)

Aklanon (480 / 1522)

eanábto flood a little bit, overflow a little (PPH: *laq(e)nab)

eanáb-eanábto rise (said of the river’s water level) (PPH: *laq(e)nab)

eánosa somewhat old coconut (PPH: *lanés)

eánotabaca fiber (PPH: *lánut)

eantíŋhigh-pitched (voice) (ROOT)

eaŋjust, only (PPH: *laŋ)

eáŋawfly (general term for this family of insects) (PMP: *laŋaw)

eáŋitsky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

eaŋóyto swim (after/the length of) (PWMP: *laŋuy)

eaónold (rice; maid); spinster, spinstress (PWMP: *laun)

eapáwsurpass, exceed, excel (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

eápdosto strike with a downward motion (PPH: *lap(e)des)

eápidto join, unite, put together (PPH: *lapid)

eásg-onhaving enlarged testicles (PMP: *laseR)

eásogtesticle (PMP: *laseR)

eátayto cross a small bamboo bridge (PPH: *latay)

eatay-ánriver-crossing, small bamboo bridge (PPH: *latay)

eátiʔfield (for farming) (PWMP: *latiq)

eátʔastry to get to some place by a route not ordinarily taken (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

eáwayto salivate, froth at the mouth (PPH: *láway)

Aklanon (500 / 1522)

eáwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

eawáʔ-eawáʔcobweb, spiderweb (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

eawódocean, sea (PAN: *lahud)

eáwʔayto be indecent; become, get ugly (PPH: *law(e)qay)

eayádry land (PAN: *daya)

eayágsail [of boat] (PAN: *layaR)

eáyoglong range; high; very high; tall (as coconut trees) (PPH: *láyug)

eubák-eubákholes in the road (LOAN)

eubógmurky, clouded, dirty (water) (PWMP: *lebuR)

eúbosdeep; sincere; true (PPH: *lubús)

eudh-ankneeler, kneeling bench (PPH: *luhúd)

eúeodshin (part of leg) (PMP: *luluj)

eúgawto make rice broth, cook rice porridge (PPH: *lúgaw)

eúhaʔteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

euháʔto shed tears; to water (of the eyes) (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

euhódto kneel (PPH: *luhúd)

eúkso(h)to jump over (PPH: *luk(e)súh)

eúktonsmall locust (PPH: *luktun)

eúktonsmall locust (PPH: *luk(e)tún)

eumó (h)to consider easy, find easy (PWMP: *lemu)

Aklanon (520 / 1522)

eúmonto live with or dwell with as an outsider (PPH: *lumun)

eumósto drown (either accidentally or intentionally) (PMP: *lemes)

eúmotmoss, algae – growing in sea (PMP: *lumut)

eúnudsink, go under water (PWMP: *leñej)

eupíʔto get bent, crushed (PWMP: *lupiq)

eupóʔpoisonous freshwater fish (PMP: *lepuq₂)

eútoʔripe, ready to eat (fruit); ripen, get ripe (PWMP: *lutuq)

euwásoutside; to save from [troubles, evil]; free, liberate; aside from, outside of (PMP: *luas₁)

eúya(h)weak, feeble, not strong (PWMP: *luya₂)

gábitaro: Colocasia esculenta (PPH: *gabi)

gabíievening, nighttime (PMP: *Rabiqi)

gabókto rot, become rotten (PMP: *Rabuk)

gábotto pull (out) (PPH: *gábut)

gáliŋto grind, mill (PWMP: *galiŋ)

galiŋ-ángrinder, mill (PWMP: *galiŋ)

gamótroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

gáodpaddle; oar (PPH: *gáqud)

gaódto paddle; to row (a boat) (PPH: *gáqud)

gáposto tie up, bind (PMP: *Rapus)

gapóstwine, rope (PMP: *Rapus)

Aklanon (540 / 1522)

gásagauze; wick of lamp (LOAN)

gatóŋfuel, firewood; to use fuel or firewood (PPH: *gatuŋ)

gatóshundred; one hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gawaŋdoor (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

gawáŋdoor (PWMP: *gawaŋ)

gíkasstrip, trim, cut (PWMP: *Ri(ŋ)kas)

gilákglitter, shine (PMP: *gilak)

gilákglitter, shine (ROOT)

gi-nháwabreath, health (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gi-nháwa(h)to breathe (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gin-unáh-anwent ahead of (PMP: *unah)

gíŋawkind of fish (PWMP: *Riŋaw)

gíʔokto thresh rice with one’s feet (PAN: *Riqek)

gúeaŋto get older (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gulpi(h)sudden(ly), quick(ly), without warning; to be taken aback, surprised, be a victim of a sudden act (LOAN)

gúntiŋscissors, shears; to cut with scissors or shears (LOAN)

gúsokrib bone (PAN: *Rusuk)

gúyodto drag, pull along [the ground] (PWMP: *Ruyud)

gúyodto drag, pull along the ground (PWMP: *Ruyud)

habágatsouth wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

Aklanon (560 / 1522)

háboeblanket, use a blanket (PPH: *habél)

habóeto weave (PPH: *habél)

háeabto graze, eat grass (PPH: *hárab₂)

haeó(h)large lizard which eats chickens (PWMP: *haluh)

haeókto kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

háeʔopestle, pounding stick (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

hágakbragging, boastful, proud, over-exaggerating (ROOT)

hágdanstair(s), step(s) (PMP: *haRezan)

hágoŋgroan, moan (due to severe pain or sickness) (PMP: *haRuŋ) *SaRuŋ

hagóŋin death throes due to disease (PMP: *haRuŋ) *SaRuŋ

hágoŋgroan, moan (ROOT)

hákotget, gather, bundle up (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

hákot-hákotbee-like insect building nests of mud (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

halígi(h)column, post, mainstay, support (of house) (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

hálintransfer, move to another place (PMP: *halin)

hamakparticle used for strong emphasis or stress (NOISE)

hámbogproud, swell-headed, boastful (PPh: *hambúg)

hámpakto beat, belt, spank, slap (PPh: *hampak)

hámpaŋto play (a game) (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

hámtaklong bean: Vigna sesquipedalis (PWMP: *hametak)

Aklanon (580 / 1522)

haŋádintend, try, aspire (for/to) (LOAN)

háŋinair, wind (PMP: *haŋin)

haŋín-onpretentious, boastful; crazy, foolish (PWMP: *haŋin-en) *haŋin

háŋitirritated, provoked, angry (PMP: *haŋit)

háŋospant (from loss of breath); breathless (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

háŋosto pant (from loss of breath); breathless (PPH: *haŋes)

hápdiʔcause pain, smart, hurt a lot; be in pain, feel a smarting pain (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

hápdoshurt a little, be painful (PMP: *hapejes)

hápinput something underneath (to protect the bottom surface from heat, dirt or the like) (PMP: *hapin)

hapíncover, covering, placemat (PMP: *hapin)

hápitstop for, pick up (when on one's way) (NOISE)

háplitto whip, lash (PPh: *hap(e)lít)

háponafternoon; to roost, go to roost, settle down (birds) (PPh: *hápun)

hapón-anperching rod or twig, roost (PPH: *hapun-an) *hápun

hapuhápfeel around, feel for (something -- as when searching a thief for something stolen or for a weapon) (PMP: *hapuhap) *SapuSap

hásaŋgill (of fish) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

hátagto give (something) (PPH: *hátaR)

hátd-an imáwescort him (imperative) (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

hátœto judge, render judgment (LOAN)

hatódto escort, take, deliver safely, conduct (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

Aklanon (600 / 1522)

háwakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

háwanclear up, clean up, make open (PWMP: *hawan)

háwʔasto take out (from container) (PPH: *haq(e)was)

háyopmammals, cattle (PPh: *hayep)

hiásjewels, treasures (LOAN)

híasseed; idea, thought (NOISE)

hi-bílin, i-bílinleave behind; order, request (PPh: *hi-bilín) *bilin

hígopinhale, sip (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

hígottie up (PPh: *hiRét)

higótstring (for tying) (PPH: *higút)

hígotto tie up (PPH: *higút)

híla(h)to pull (PWMP: *hilah)

hilamónto pull grass out, pull weeds (LOAN)

hiláwraw, uncooked; unripe (PPh: *hiláw)

híligfond of, inclined to, having a liking for; hobby (PPh: *hírig)

hilítcorner, side (PPh: *hilít)

hílotrestore a broken bone; massage (PPh: *hílut)

hímokpersuade, convince (NOISE)

hi-níŋa(h)take out food particles between one's teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

hi-ŋáeanto pronounce, say, name (PMP: *ŋajan)

Aklanon (620 / 1522)

hi-ŋutóto take out lice from someone’s hair (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

hípagsister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

híponsmall shrimp (PPh: *hípun₂)

híposto keep silence, be quiet; to keep secret (PPH: *hipes)

hítaʔcrotch, groin (PPh: *hitaq)

hítoʔfish sp. (PMP: *hituq)

híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side (PWMP: *hiwiʔ)

híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side (NEAR)

hoecry to stop a carabao (PMP: *huy)

hoyexpression used to call the attention of another; term used to drive a dog away or stop it from barking or biting another (PMP: *huy)

húbadunravel, untie, unwind (PPh: *hubád)

húbadunravel, untie, unwind (ROOT)

hubáslow tide (PPh: *hebás)

hueámborrow (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

húeawstop raining, "let up" (rain only) (PMP: *hedaw)

húeogto drop (something); mail (a letter); to fall, get dropped (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

hueom-ónto borrow (PPh: *hedam-en) *Sezam

húgasrinse, wash off (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

hugóŋ-húgoŋrumors (PMP: *heReŋ)

hugóŋ-hugóŋrumors (PMP: *huRuŋ)

Aklanon (640 / 1522)

hugótto tighten, make firm (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

húkastake off, unstitch (PWMP: *hukas)

húlidsleep with, share a bed with, be in bed with (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

hulíkapto pet, feel around (the body) (ROOT)

humáycooked rice (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

húmbakwave, crest (PWMP: *humbak)

húnaʔ-húnaʔspeculate, think of, consider; speculation, idea, thought (PPh: *henaq)

huní(h)chirp, sing (like birds or crickets); to blow (said of whistle or siren) (PMP: *huni) *Suni

húnosto pull (out); draw (gun) (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

húnos-húnosjerk back and forth, push and pull (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

hurósslip (off), become loose (PWMP: *hurus)

húyaŋshake, rattle (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

huyápto count, enumerate (PPh: *huyáp)

huyáʔface, pride; shame; be disgraced, be shamed (PMP: *heyaq) *Seyaq

húyoŋshake, rattle (PMP: *huyuŋ)

huyópto blow (air) on (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

húyʔabto yawn (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

húʔoyes. Used quite differently than the English equivalent -- the Aklanon "yes" can mean "the former" or "yes, your statement (in the negative) is true" (PMP: *heqe)

iclassic noun prefix used to show locations (PAN: *i₂)

i-prefix for future and command verb forms in the instrumental focus (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

Aklanon (660 / 1522)

here (near the speaker) (PMP: *ia₂)

i-bábawtop, uppermost part; upstairs (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

íba(h)go together, be companions (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibá(h)accompany, go along with; different, other, another (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibá(h)different, other, another (PPH: *iba)

ibaʔtree with sour fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L. (LOAN)

íbogattracted to, desire, like (PMP: *ibeR)

i-dáeombelow, bottom, underneath (PMP: *i dalem) *dalem

ídlapshine, glow (ROOT)

ígateel (PPh: *ígat)

ígpitto clip, catch, hold between two things (PPh: *hig(e)pít)

ígpitto clip, catch, hold between two things (PPH: *qiR(e)pit)

íhiʔurine, urinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

ika-pitóseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

ika-siyámninth (PPH: *siám)

ika-siyámninth (PPH: *ika-siám) *siám

i-káwyou (singular) (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

i-ka-waeóeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

íkogtail (of any creature) (PAN: *ikuR)

íkotto go around; revolve (PPH: *íkut₃)

Aklanon (680 / 1522)

íkʔikto cheep, chatter (sound of animal -- like monkey) (PWMP: *qikqik)

ilá(h)wild, untamed, undomesticated (fowl) (PMP: *ilah)

i-lawódthe seaward part of any town (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

i-layáinland (section of town) (PAN: *daya)

ilígto flow (downstream); to flow, drop (PWMP: *qiliR)

ilih-ánplace, location (PMP: *qilih)

il-ihiʔ-ánurinal, place to urinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

ilógto flow (PAN: *iluR₂)

ílo(h)orphan; to be left an orphan (PWMP: *ilu)

ilóŋ-anfish sp. (PWMP: *ijuŋ-an) *ijuŋ

ílosto ladle out (PAN: *qidus)

íluk-onunderarms, armpit (NOISE)

ímbawclam shell (PMP: *qibaw₁)

imn-adrink (imper.) (PWMP: *inum-a) *inum

ímoyour (sg.), you (PMP: *imu) *Simu

ímonbe possessive (of), hold on to (PPh: *qimún)

imótmiserly, thrifty, penny-pinching (PPh: *ímut)

ímpaspay in full, pay one's account (PMP: *qimpas)

ímponmingle, mix with; consist of (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

-in-object focus and intensive infix (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

Aklanon (700 / 1522)

ináM (PMP: *ina)

ína-ínafoster mother; stepmother (PWMP: *ina ina) *ina

in-ápograndchildren (PPh: *in-apu) *apu

in-atáyliver disease (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

in-áyamact like a dog (implying overt sexual behavior) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

índaŋa tree: Artocarpus cumingiana Trec. (NOISE)

índoŋ-índoŋeel (NEAR)

in-ínsikChinese (language) (LOAN)

ínitto heat, make hot (PWMP: *qinit)

inog-turóʔindex finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

inómto drink (up) (PMP: *inum)

ínotsave up, be thrifty with (PWMP: *qinut)

ínsikChinese, Chinaman (LOAN)

íntokbecome smaller, shrink (PMP: *itek)

iŋaʔto bellow (carabao) (< *-ŋaq?) (ROOT)

iŋítcrabby, out of sorts, in a bad mood (ROOT)

íŋkiŋtrifling, trivial, insignificant (PWMP: *iŋkiŋ)

iŋókto grunt (like a pig) (ROOT)

íŋosmoan in sadness; purr (PMP: *iŋus)

iótfuck; very strong term of anger or disgust (PAN: *qiut)

Aklanon (720 / 1522)

ipa-causative verb prefix used in giving commands about direct objects (PPh: *ipa-)

ípila tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

ípiŋside-by-side with, next to (NOISE)

isdáʔfish (PPh: *sidáq)

ísipegoistic, selfish, always considering oneself; think of, consider, reckon, ponder; thought, consideration (PPh: *ísip)

isíp-onthink over (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

ísoemove backwards (PPh: *isul)

isótbecome smaller; almost, barely, nearly (PWMP: *isut₁)

itíkduck (PWMP: *itik₂)

itikto tickle (PWMP: *qitik₂)

itíphard-cooked rice (at the bottom of the pot) (PPh: *itíp)

itlógegg; testicle (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

itúmblack, dark (colored) (PMP: *qitem)

iwíkto squeal, howl (said of a pig) (PPh: *íwik)

iyót“fuck” (very strong term of anger or disgust) (PPH: *iut₂)

ka-very productive adjective prefix, indicating a high degree (when standing alone), or the superlative (when with the -an suffix) ka-gwápo ‘very good looking’ (cp. gwápo ‘handsome’) (PPH: *ka-₃)

ka-noun prefix: ka-támɁis ‘sweetness’ (cp. ma-támɁis ‘sweet’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

kayou singular (contraction of ikáw) (PMP: *ka₄)

ka-amah-ánfatherhood (PWMP: *ka-ama-en) *amax

ka-áŋhitbody odor (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

Aklanon (740 / 1522)

ka-áŋsothe smell of urine (PPh: *qaŋ(e)su)

ka-apó-apó-hanfuture generation(s) (of grandchildren) (PPh: *ka-apu-an) *apu

ka-áwayenemy (PPH: *áway)

ka-ba-bátw-anstony area/place (PWMP: *ka-batu-an) *batux

kábagto have gas pains (in stomach), suffer from hyperacidity or indigestion (PPH: *kábag)

kabánfootlocker, trunk (for clothes) (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabáncavan (unit of measure-- 25 gantas); a sackful of grain weighing approximately 100 pounds (LOAN)

ka-bantog-anfame, popularity (PPH: *bantug)

kabáoŋcoffin (LOAN)

kabásikind of fish (PWMP: *kabasi)

kabítto cling to, hang on to; franchise, collaborate; mistress, paramour (PPH: *kabít₂)

káblitto touch lightly with one’s finger (PPH: *kab(e)lít)

káblitto touch lightly with one’s finger (PPH: *kab(e)lit)

kabógfruit bat (PPH: *kabég)

kabósto be short, run short of, not have enough of (PMP: *kabus₁)

ka-bukír-anmountain range (PPh: *ka-bukij-an) *bukij

ka-búlighelper, assistant (PWMP: *bulig)

ka-dáeomdepth (PMP: *dalem)

kádlitmark, draw a line (ROOT)

ka-duŋg-án-anhonor, fame, repute (PWMP: *ka-deŋeR-an) *deŋeR

Aklanon (760 / 1522)

kaeámaybrown sugar (PWMP: *kalamay)

ka-eánot-anabaca plantation (PPH: *lánut)

ka-eaŋít-anthe heavens; Heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

kaeátrope (made of abaca fibers) (PWMP: *kalat)

kagátclaw, pincher (of crab) (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

ka-gueáŋ-anforest (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ka-gueaŋ-áneldest, oldest (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ka-hípossilence, quietude (PPH: *hipes)

káhoytree (general term); wood, lumber (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-hulidbedmate, bed partner (PWMP: *ka-hulij) *Sulij

ka-ibáto be different, differ (PPH: *iba)

ka-ibah-ancompanion (PWMP: *ka-ibah-an) *ibaS

ka-ìmonpossessiveness, jealousy (PPh: *qimún)

ka-ísipegoism, selfishness, self-consideration (PPh: *ka-ísip) *ísip

ka-isótlittleness, tininess; triviality (PWMP: *ka-isut) *isut₁

ka-kahóy-anforest, jungle (PWMP: *ka-kahiw-an) *kaSiw

kakáwcacao tree and fruit --- used to make chocolate: Theobroma cacao L. (LOAN)

ka-kiláeaan acquaintance, friend (PAN: *kilala)

k<al>íŋkiŋlittle finger, pinky (PWMP: *k<al>iŋkiŋ) *kiŋkiŋ₃

ka-lípayjoy, happiness (PPH: *lípay)

Aklanon (780 / 1522)

ka-lisóddifficulty, hardship (PPH: *lised)

kamáliggrain house or shed (PMP: *kamaliR)

kámaŋcrawl on all fours (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

kamáŋa(h)flint, fine stone used for sharpening razor (PPH: *kamaŋa)

kamátistomato: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (LOAN)

kámyawhite flower, camia (PPH: *kamiá)

ka-nípáʔ-annipa swamp (PMP: *nipaq)

ka-níwaŋthinness, skinniness (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

kán-onrice; staple food (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

ka-nyog-áncoconut plantation, coconut grove (PMP: *niuR)

kanʔ-aeat it! (imper.) (PMP: *kaen-a) *kaen

káŋkaŋto stretch or spread out one’s feet (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

káonto eat; to take (in chess), jump (in checkers) (PAN: *kaen)

kápaypropeller (on ship); to propel, paddle (boat) (PMP: *kapay)

kapínmore so, all the more, especially (PWMP: *kapin)

kápitcling to, adhere to (PMP: *kampit)

ka-putíʔwhiteness (PWMP: *ka-putiq) *putiq

ka-ragát-anopen sea; ocean (PPh: *ka-daRát-an) *daRat

káraŋbamboo sled (PWMP: *kazaŋ₁)

ka-saeáʔto sin (morally), do evil (PWMP: *ka-salaq) *salaq₁

Aklanon (800 / 1522)

ka-saeʔ-án-ansinfulness; sins (PWMP: *ka-salaq-an) *salaq₁

ka-sákítsuffering, pain (PWMP: *ka-sakit) *sakit

ka-saŋáyto have the same first name (PWMP: *saŋay)

ka-sári-sáribe varied, be assorted/different (LOAN)

kásiŋ-kásiŋheart; core (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

ka-taeón-anrural areas (PPH: *ka-talun-an) *CaluN

ka-támadlaziness, indolence (LOAN)

ka-tamn-anorchard, plantation (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

ka-támn-anorchard; plantation (PAN: *ka-tanem-an) *CaNem

ka-tawóh-anhumanity (PMP: *ka-tau-an) *Cau

ka-táʔasheight, tallness (PMP: *atas) *aCas

kati-ándecoy; “stool-pigeon” (PPH: *kátiq)

kátigoutrigger (of a boat) (PMP: *katiR)

ka-tímbaŋequal, equivalent (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

kátiʔto decoy, entice (like using one chicken to catch another) (PPH: *kátiq)

kátl-anoversexed, sex-crazy (female) (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katóeitchy; disease – having an itchy head (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katókcrazy (PPH: *katúk)

kátribed (LOAN)

ka-túbw-ansugarcane plantation (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

Aklanon (820 / 1522)

ka-tueógto be asleep; to doze off, fall asleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

ka-tueóg-onsleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR-en) *tuduR

ka-tunáy-antruth, genuineness (PWMP: *tunay₂)

katúraytree with edible blossoms: Sesbania grandiflora (PPH: *katúday)

ka-tuyóʔ-anpurpose, aim (PPH: *tuyuq)

ka-uháw-onthirst (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

ka-utaŋ-ándebts, accounts payable (PWMP: *ka-qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

kawáyanbamboo: Dendrocalamus merrillianus (PAN: *kawayan)

kawíllong deep sea fishing line with reel (PAN: *kawil₁)

káwiŋto have intercourse with; fuck; to draw near to, approach (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

kiláeato be acquainted, get introduced (PAN: *kilala)

kilátflash of lightning, lightning bolt (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kílawto marinate in vinegar and serve raw (PPH: *kilaw₁)

kili-kíliarmpit (PPH: *kili-kíli)

kilíŋ-kilíŋto ring a bell (PPH: *kilíŋ₁)

kilíŋ-kilíŋto ring (a bell) (ROOT)

kímpittweezers, tongs; clothespin; to pinch together; to press or hold between two things (PAN: *kipit)

k<in>abásibolo (having shape of kabási) (PWMP: *kabasi)

kina-daánvery old, ancient (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

k<in>áonwas eaten by someone (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

Aklanon (840 / 1522)

k<in>ilawmeat or fish marinated and served raw (PPH: *kilaw₁)

kíŋkiŋhop (on one foot) (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

kípotto close, shut; tighten (up) (PMP: *kiput)

kipóttight, not loose (PMP: *kiput)

kisáw-kisáwto flicker, have a tic (said of one’s eyes) (PPH: *kisaw)

kitáŋdeep fishing line with hooks (PPH: *kitáŋ)

kiyawkind of bird (PAN: *kiaw)

-komy, mine, I (PAN: *-ku)

kóŋkoŋto curl inwards (of one’s toes) (PMP: *kuŋkuŋ₂)

kue-ka-túeogto pretend to be asleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

kueóbface down(wards) (PWMP: *kureb)

kueóbface downwards (PPH: *keléb)

kúeonearthenware pot (for cooking) (PAN: *kuden)

ku<eu>yog-ánplace of assembly, meeting grounds (PPH: *kúyug)

kugítaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kugontall grass: Imperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata (PMP: *guRun)

kukú(h)fingernail; toenail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kulíntasnecklace, medallion and chain (PPH: *kulintas)

kúlismark up, scratch (PWMP: *kuris₂)

k-um-a-íŋkiŋlittle finger, "pinky" (PWMP: *iŋkiŋ)

Aklanon (860 / 1522)

kúmpayfodder, grass or food for cattle; to feed (cattle) (PPH: *kumpáy)

kúpasto fade (color), to lose color (PPH: *kúpas)

kúpitto pickpocket; to embezzle a small amount; a small amount which was embezzled (PPH: *kúpit)

kúpkopto embrace, hug (PMP: *kupkup₃)

kúritmark up, make lines in (PMP: *kur(e)qit)

kurótto pinch (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

kusógbicep; strength, vigor, power (PAN: *keseR)

kuták-kutákcackle (sound of chickens) (PPH: *kuták)

kutánato ask, question, inquire, query (PMP: *kutaña)

kútibto mutter (PPH: *kútib)

kútkutdig, excavate; gnaw at, said of rats (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

kútolouse, lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kúyogto assemble, congregate, group together (PPH: *kúyug)

lapádsmall flat-sided bottle; hit with the broad side of a bolo (ROOT)

liádto bend backwards, bend over backwards (PWMP: *liad)

libákmalicious gossip; slander; backbiting (PPH: *libák)

libátcross-eyed (PPH: *libat)

líbotturn, spin, revolution (PWMP: *libet)

líbtoŋquiet, deep, silent (waters) (PPH: *lib(e)túŋ)

lígidto roll in circles (PWMP: *ligid)

Aklanon (880 / 1522)

lígisharrow (farmer's tool) (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

ligísroll over, smooth out (by rolling); harrow, run over (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

lígtasto escape, get free (PPH: *lig(e)tas)

lígwanlarge horsefly (< *qali-Ruan) (PMP: *qani-Ruan)

likáwto avoid, veer away from (PAN: *likaw)

likódback (as of a building, one’s body) (PAN: *likud)

likóʔto turn (around a corner) (PMP: *likuq)

likóʔ-ancrossing, turning point (PMP: *likuq)

limáfive; make into five, raise or lower to five (PAN: *lima)

limásto bail water out of a boat (PMP: *limas)

límbokpounded rice (ROOT)

l<in>a-eakíto act like a man (said of a woman) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

línogearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

l<in>úgawporridge (rice soup) (PPH: *l<in>ugaw) *lúgaw

l-in-úmotcovered with algae (PMP: *lumut)

líŋa líŋahard of hearing, slightly deaf; not listening (PWMP: *liŋa₂)

líŋa-liŋáhard of hearing, slightly deaf; not listening (PWMP: *liŋa₁)

liŋáwto be noisy, make a racket (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

liŋáwbe noisy, make a racket (PWMP: *liŋáw)

liŋíʔaskew, awry, crooked, unbalanced, not level (PPH: *liŋiq)

Aklanon (900 / 1522)

líŋliŋpeer at (while hiding), sneak a look at, peek or peep at (PWMP: *liŋliŋ)

lipátto forget, to leave behind (something) (PPH: *lipat)

lípayto be happy, glad (PPH: *lípay)

lipáyvine like poison ivy --- causes swelling and itching (PPH: *lipay)

líwanoutside; outside of, aside from (PPH: *líwan)

líʔogneck (PAN: *liqeR)

ma-ámbonfoggy, covered with haze, hazy (PWMP: *ambun)

ma-áslomsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

ma-asósmoky (PMP: *ma-qasu) *qasu₃

ma-báhoʔsmelly, malodorous, stinky (PWMP: *ma-bahuq) *bahuq

ma-bákasquick, fast, speedy (PMP: *bakas)

ma-búgʔatheavy, weighty (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

ma-buŋah-ónfruitful (PMP: *buŋa)

ma-busógfull, satisfied (after eating) (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

ma-dáeomdeep (PAN: *ma-dalem) *dalem

ma-ga-gabókrotten (PMP: *Rabuk)

mag-amárelated as father and child (PAN: *maR-amax) *amax

mag-asawábe husband and wife, be married (PWMP: *maR-qasawa) *qasawa

Mag-bu-búhatCreator (PMP: *buhat₂)

mag-ináto be mother and child (relationship) (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina

Aklanon (920 / 1522)

mag-salápidto plait, to braid, to twist (hair, etc.) (PWMP: *salapid)

ma-gúeaŋold, elder (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ma-gueáŋelder sibling (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ma-háŋinwindy, stormy (PPh: *ma-haŋin) *haŋin

ma-haŋít-onirritable (PMP: *haŋit)

ma-háwanclear, having no obstructions, expansive (PWMP: *hawan)

ma-hípossilent, quiet (PPH: *hipes)

ma-húmbakwavy, stormy, rough (sea) (PWMP: *ma-humbak) *humbak

ma-huyáŋshaky (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

ma-ilá(h)wild, untamed (PWMP: *ma-ilah₁) *ilah

ma-ila(h)wild, untamed (PWMP: *ma-ilah₂) *ma-ilah

ma-ímonpossessive, overly protective, selfish (PPh: *qimún)

ma-inithot (PPh: *ma-qinit) *qinit

ma-intoksmall, short, tiny (PPh: *ma-intek) *itek

ma-ísipegoistic, selfish (PPh: *ma-ísip) *ísip

ma-isótlittle, tiny, small (PWMP: *ma-isut) *isut₁

ma-itúmblack, dark-colored (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

maka-aptative future verb prefix in actor focus, marking ability to do something (PWMP: *maka-)

maka-bu-e-úsogfilling, quickly makes one satisfied (PWMP: *maka-besuR) *besuR

maka-ŋi-ŋílo(h)causes one to grimace, sets the teeth on edge (as when eating something very sour or hearing a grating noise) (PAN: *ŋilu)

Aklanon (940 / 1522)

makúpaa tree and its fruit: Eugenia aquea (PPH: *makúpa)

ma-kúsogstrong, powerful, mighty (PAN: *ma-keseR) *keseR

m-alícome on! let's go! (PWMP: *um-ari) *ari

ma-líkoʔroundabout, indirect; improper (way of doing) (PMP: *likuq)

ma-liŋáwnoisy, boisterous, raucous (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

ma-liŋáwnoisy, boisterous, raucous (PWMP: *liŋáw)

ma-lípayhappy, glad, joyous (PPH: *lípay)

ma-lisódto find something hard, difficult (PPH: *lised)

mamáhgreat grandfather (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mama-matáythose destined to die (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mamáʔto chew (tobacco, betel nut) (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-mísoat one peso each (LOAN)

mananswer or response particle; it can mean “also” or “too”, but is used far more frequently than those English equivalents (PPH: *man)

ma-nákawthief (PWMP: *ma-nakaw) *Cakaw

man-d<ur>úkotthief, pickpocket (PPH: *dúkut)

maniclitoris (LOAN)

mani(h)peanut (LOAN)

ma-nipísthin, narrow, not thick (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-níwaŋskinny, thin (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

manóg-pa-kiláeaemcee, master of ceremonies; introducer (PAN: *kilala)

Aklanon (960 / 1522)

manókchicken (PMP: *manuk)

manók-manók-onalmondine (said of eye’s shape) (PPh: *manuk-en) *manuk

ma-nu-nuróʔa teacher (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

ma-ŋa-ŋáhoywood-gatherer (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

ma-paʔítbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-píliʔchoosy, selective, “spoiled” (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-píntascruel, savage, mean, brutal (PPH: *pintás)

ma-putíʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

ma-sakítpainful, hurting; sick, ill (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

matáeye; to be awake; to wake up, awaken, awake; to observe, raise, rear (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp (PWMP: *ma-tazem) *Cazem

ma-támadlazy, inactive, indolent (LOAN)

matá-matá (h)to look down on, belittle (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

m-atáydie (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-táʔastall, high (PWMP: *ma-atas) *aCas

ma-tíbaydurable, longlasting (cloth) (PPH: *tíbay)

ma-tínʔawclear, crystalline, crystal clear (PPH: *tin(e)qaw)

ma-unodfleshy (PPh: *ma-qunej) *qunej

máyarice bird (destructive of crops) (PPH: *máya)

m<in>a-gueáŋrelating to older people or ways; “of the older generation”; “adult way” (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

Aklanon (980 / 1522)

múhmuhcrumbs of rice, scattered rice droppings (PPH: *muhmuh)

mustásamustard (plant): Brassica integrifolia (LOAN)

naparticle showing that an action has begun and/or is enduring; now, already, just (PMP: *na₄) *Na₂

nábawbecome shallow(er) (ROOT)

námnamdelicious, flavorful (PAN: *ñamñam)

nánaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

ná-nowhat (noun form only) (PAN: *na-nu) *-nu

n-átonour; we (incl.) (PPH: *n-aten) *iten

nátoʔa tree with reddish fruit, Nauclea junghuhnii (PMP: *ñatuq)

nisingular associate marker for the name of a person or a pet, used in postpositive position [marks possession] (PAN: *ni)

nípaʔpalm --- used for roofing or siding: Nipa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

nipísto become thin(ner), less thick (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

níwaŋget thinner, become skinny, lose weight (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

niyógcoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

nunóktree -- believed to be bewitched or enchanted (PMP: *nunuk)

ŋáeanname (one’s personal name); give a name to (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋáeŋaeto cry, whimper (PPH: *ŋalŋál)

ŋákŋakbabble, sing or say meaningless syllables (PMP: *ŋakŋak)

ŋáŋa(h)to open up (as the mouth) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₂)

ŋiló(h)very sour, acrid, caustic (PAN: *ŋilu)

Aklanon (1000 / 1522)

ŋípontooth, teeth (PAN: *ŋipen)

ŋísŋisto giggle, snicker (PMP: *ŋisŋis₁)

ŋísŋisto giggle, snicker (PPH: *ŋisŋis₂)

ŋúsŋusto whine, whimper; purr (PAN: *ŋusŋus)

ŋuyŋuywhimper, cry, simper (in the fashion of a spoiled child trying to get its way) (PPH: *ŋuyŋuy)

óba(h)undressed, naked, bare; to take off one’s clothes (PPH: *úba)

óbusgone, used up, exhausted, all out (PWMP: *ebus)

óbus, úbosgone, used up, exhausted, all out (PMP: *qubus)

olitáwomaster, sire; bachelor, young man (PPh: *ulitáu)

-oncommon object focus verb suffix for future time; common adjective suffix showing the quality of a person or thing (PAN: *-en)

ótoʔ-ótoʔtake advantage of, play for a fool (NOISE)

pasustaining particle with the sense of English “yet” or “still” (PAN: *pa₁)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pæa-common noun or adjective prefix denoting a fondness for or a continuous repetition of some act (NOISE)

pa-ágawthrow things for others to catch (PAN: *qaRaw)

pa-ánodgo downstream; let drift (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud

pa-áslomcause to become sour, let get sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

pa-áyonto parallel, agree with (PPH: *áyun)

pa-báŋonto awaken, wake (someone) up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

pa-báŋonto awaken, wake someone up (PWMP: *pa-baŋun) *baŋuN

Aklanon (1020 / 1522)

pa-bayáʔto let pass, not care about, ignore (PPH: *bayáq)

páboturkey (LOAN)

pa-buás-buásprocrastinate, put off until later, delay (PPh: *buás)

pa-bueáʔtalk nonsense, 'foam at the mouth' (PWMP: *pa-bujeq) *bujeq

pa-búkaeto boil in water, bring to a boil (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

pa-búkidgo to the mountains, head for the hills (PAN: *bukij)

pa-búligask for help, have someone assist (PWMP: *bulig)

pa-búnaeaccept a beating (PPh: *bunal)

pa-búŋato bear fruit (PMP: *buŋa)

pa-buŋóeact as if deaf, play deaf (PMP: *beŋel)

pa-dugóʔto bleed, let bleed (PMP: *zuRuq)

pa-dúkotto dance close together (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

pa-dúmdumto remind (of) (PAN: *demdem₁)

pa-duŋógto honor, celebrate, give honor to (PWMP: *pa-deŋeR) *deŋeR

pa-eagíwrun away and hide, avoid (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

p<ae>ákpakto clap for, applaud (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pa-eámonto feed an animal (used insultingly of people) (PPH: *lamun₂)

pa-eatʔas-anshortcut (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

páeayrice (growing in the fields), Oryza sativa; rice seeds (freshly harvested, unmilled) (PAN: *pajay)

paeófish sp. (PPH: *palú)

Aklanon (1040 / 1522)

páeoŋto put out (fire), turn off (light); to die out (fire), to go out (light) (PAN: *padeŋ)

pagátpata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.) (PWMP: *paRatpat)

págbobeam, girder (supporting roof) (PPh: *paR(e)bu)

pághidrub one's hands on something in order to get dirt off; clean off (by scraping -- without water) (LOAN)

págiray, ray fish (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pag-káonfood (PAN: *kaen)

págotgrind one's teeth (PWMP: *pagut)

pagútputlet out much air while defecating (PPh: *p<aR>utput) *putput₂

pa-háŋinlet fresh air blow over something (PMP: *pa(ka)-haŋin) *haŋin

pa-háŋin-háŋingo out for some fresh air (PMP: *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

páhoʔsmall mango: Mangifera altissima Blanco (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pa-hueámlend (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

pa-hueómto lend (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

pa-i-lawódto go seawards (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

pa-i-layáto go inland (PAN: *daya)

pa-inomto give to drink (PMP: *pa-inum) *inum

paka-matáycommit suicide (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

pa-káonto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakig-ímpongather, mingle with (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

pa-kiláeato introduce, acquaint (PMP: *pa-kilala) *kilala

Aklanon (1060 / 1522)

pákpakwing; to spank, slap (children) (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pakú(h)a fern: Athyrium esculentum (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pálhiinhabited with evil spirits, enchanted (PAN: *paliSi)

pa-líbatto cross one’s eyes; to look out of the corner of one’s eye (in observation) (PPH: *libat)

palidget blown away by the wind (PWMP: *palij)

pa-líkoʔto turn (something); have someone turn (PMP: *likuq)

paltikhomemade gun--for only one bullet (PWMP: *paletik)

páltikhomemade gun -- for only one bullet (PWMP: *pale(n)tik)

pa-máhawbreakfast; snack (so-called because it generally consists of cold leftovers, particularly rice; to eat breakfast (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

pa-matáyslaughter, kill off, exterminate (in great numbers) (PWMP: *paŋ-m-atay) *aCay

pa-míhaginvade and capture, take over, seize (PWMP: *bihaR)

pa-mínhiʔprepare seeds for planting (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

pa-múkawserenade; alarm clock (PWMP: *pukaw₃)

p<am>únoʔto lead, start out first (PWMP: *p<am>uqun) *puqun

pa-nábaŋprayer (imploring divine help or favor) (PMP: *tabaŋ)

pa-nábascut or style of clothing (PWMP: *tabas₂)

pa-naeóg-ansupport or brace for bamboo flooring (PMP: *saleR)

pa-nagáʔto fish with a hook (LOAN)

pa-nakáwtheft (PMP: *pa-nakaw) *Cakaw

pa-nambít-anproverb, saying (PWMP: *pa-ña(m)bit-an) *sa(m)bit

Aklanon (1080 / 1522)

pánawgo on foot, walk; leave, depart, go (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

pa-nawágto call out (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

panáʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

panihóewhistle, whistling (with lips) (PMP: *sihul)

pa-níktikto spy (on) (PPH: *tiktík₃)

pa-nímbaŋto adjust one’s personality or ways to others; to be cautious or careful with others (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

pa-nimbáŋ-ancounterbalance (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

pa-nípisto have a very close call (danger, death); to pass through a crowd or crowded area with great difficulty (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

pánitskin, flesh; to peel off, to skin (PWMP: *panit)

pa-nulíto clean one’s ears (of ear wax) (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

pa-númdumto ponder, think, concentrate (PAN: *demdem₁)

paŋáhook (for getting fruits) (PAN: *paŋa₁)

pa-ŋahóyto gather/collect wood (PWMP: *pa-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

paŋánayfirst born, first to do (PPH: *paŋánay)

paŋ-ánodcloud (PPh: *paŋ-añud) *qañud

pa-ŋawílto go deep sea fishing (PWMP: *pa-ŋawil) *kawil₁

paŋ-áyamto hunt (with dogs) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

paŋ-ayátto affront, challenge (a whole group) (PWMP: *ayat)

páŋdana tree and its fruit: Pandanus tectorius (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

paŋ-diláʔ-diláʔstick out one’s tongue (in a taunting manner) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

Aklanon (1100 / 1522)

paŋ-hi-nakítto feel sorry for, sympathize with; to bear a grudge, feel bad about, take ill (someone’s actions or talk) (PMP: *sakit)

pa-ŋilátto be lightening, flashing, of lightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

pa-ŋ<in>áonto have an appetite, eat well (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

pa-ŋitáŋto fish with a long line having many hooks (PPH: *kitáŋ)

páŋpaŋbank (of river); shoreline (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋ-túeogpyjamas, sleeping clothes (PAN: *tuduR)

paŋ-úeoto lead, head, be the head (of) (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paŋ-umáto farm land, be a farmer (PWMP: *paŋ-quma) *qumah

paŋ-utánaquestion, inquiry (PMP: *kutaña)

paónbait (for fishing); to put on bait (PAN: *paen)

pa-palidto winnow, separate the grain from the chaff in the wind (PWMP: *palij)

pa-putíʔto whiten, make white (PMP: *pa-putiq) *putiq

parakóeaxe (LOAN)

paráwsailboat (PWMP: *padaw)

pa-sákitto cause/inflict suffering on (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pa-síkatto be a show-off, exhibit one’s prowess conceitedly (PPH: *pa-sikat) *sikát

pa-sósoto suckle, breastfeed (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

páspasto hurry up, speed up, go faster; fast, quick, hurried; rash, too quick (PPH: *paspás₄)

pa-tábasto have tailor-made, bring to a tailor (PWMP: *tabas₂)

pa-takáeto have a sow serviced (PPH: *takál₂)

Aklanon (1120 / 1522)

pa-ta-likódto make someone turn around; to do behind one’s back (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

pa-táwadto forgive (PWMP: *tawaD)

p-atáykill (person, animal); put out, turn off (a light); corpse, dead person (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patáy-pátay"dead", poor, slim, inadequate, lousy (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pa-táʔaslet get taller, let grow (PMP: *atas) *aCas

patíkbeat, rhythm, count (in music) drumstick (PWMP: *pa(n)tik)

patísseasoning made from fish oils and salt (LOAN)

pa-túboʔto let grow; lend with/on interest (PPh: *pa-tubuq) *Cubuq

pa-túeogto put to sleep, hypnotize (PWMP: *pa-tuduR) *tuduR

pa-túeoʔto let trickle or drip (PAN: *tuduq)

pa-tukár-onsteep, uphill (PWMP: *tukad₂)

pa-udtoh-óngibbous (waning); 3rd quarter (PPh: *ugtu)

pa-úliʔhave (something) returned; ask to return (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

pa-útaŋcredit; lend money; give, extend credit (PWMP: *pa-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

pawíkanlarge sea turtle (PPH: *pawíkan)

páypayto beckon to, call over by waving one’s hands (PPH: *paypáy)

páʔathigh, upper leg (PAN: *paqa₁)

paʔítbitterness (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

paʔpáʔto chew thoroughly (PMP: *paqpaq₁)

píhakto cut into two equal parts; halve (PWMP: *pihak)

Aklanon (1140 / 1522)

pihákthe other side; half (PWMP: *pihak)

pihak-ánuneven-sized, one is larger than the other (PWMP: *pihak-an) *pihak

pikíttight; get tight(er) or more crowded (PMP: *pikit)

píkomattock, hoe (LOAN)

píkpikpat with one's hand (PAN: *pikpik)

piláhow much? [money], how many? [in quantity] (PAN: *pijax)

pílaksilver; wealth (LOAN)

pilák-anwealthy, well-to-do (LOAN)

piláŋ kasome, a few (PAN: *pijax)

pili-li-ánelection(s); choosing (PAN: *piliq)

pílitto force, compel, insist on (PPH: *pílit)

pílitglue, paste (PMP: *pilit₁)

pilítto glue, stick together, fasten with paste (PMP: *pilit₁)

píliʔto select, choose, pick out; to take out any bad or ruined grains from rice pile (PAN: *piliq)

pilóʔfold, bend, crease; hem (of dress) (PMP: *piluq)

p<in>ilí-anleftovers (after others have taken the best) (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

píntasto treat cruelly, be brutal with (PPH: *pintás)

pisíksplatter, fly off in all directions (PMP: *picik)

píso ~ písospeso (LOAN)

pitákgranary, warehouse (for grain) (PWMP: *pitak₂)

Aklanon (1160 / 1522)

pitíka flick of one’s finger; to flick with one’s finger; a line (usually made by flicking a taut piece of string coated with ink or dye) (PMP: *pitik₁) *pitik

pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pítowhistle (instrument blown) (LOAN)

píto(h)to blow a whistle (LOAN)

poʔpoʔgather, harvest (fruits) (PMP: *puqpuq₁)

púasto become clear (said of weather); to become optimistic (after some dark days) (PWMP: *puas)

puea(h)become red or reddish (PMP: *pula₁)

pueáwstay up late at night, go to bed late (PPH: *pulaw)

púeohandle of a bolo (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

pueótsticky sap, syrup (PMP: *pulut)

pueóʔisland (PPH: *pujuq)

púgadnest; to nestle, be in the nest (PPH: *pugad)

pugar-ánnest, nesting place (PPH: *pugad-an) *pugad

púgaʔto wring out, squeeze (to get out excess water) (PAN: *peReq)

púkawto awaken, wake up (someone) (PWMP: *pukaw₃)

púkpukto pound, knock, bang (PAN: *pukpuk)

púliŋto get something in one’s eye, get blinded (with foreign elements in the eye) (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

púnaytype of dove (PAN: *punay)

puno-ánleader, leadership (PWMP: *puqun-an) *puqun

púnoʔtree, trunk (of tree); base, bottom; beginning, start; leader, head (PMP: *puqun)

Aklanon (1180 / 1522)

punóʔfull; to fill up (as a bottle with liquid) (PMP: *penuq)

púŋpuŋto bundle up; a bundle (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₂)

púsodnavel, belly button (PMP: *pusej)

púsoʔbanana flower, banana heart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

púsʔonstomach area below the navel (PPH: *pus(e)qun)

putíʔto become white(r) (PMP: *putiq)

pútorice bread (LOAN)

putóeshort, brief; trimmed, clipped; cut off, amputated; to shorten, clip off; amputate (PMP: *putul) *putun

putótshort, little, small, runt (PWMP: *putut₂)

pútputto putt (make the sound of a slow engine) (PMP: *putput₂)

puyómudfish (PWMP: *puyu₁)

sareferent marker, used to illustrate locations, indirect objects, beneficiaries and agents in causative constructions; it is also used to indicate future time with any words stating time (PAN: *sa₂)

sabáwjuice; soup, broth (PWMP: *sa(m)baw)

sábodto feed (fowl or poultry) (PWMP: *sabuD)

sáboŋcockfight, cockfighting (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

sabótpubic hair (PWMP: *sabut)

sábsabto lap up. drink (with tongue), said of animals (PAN: *sabsab)

sabsáb-anfeeding trough (PAN: *sabsab)

sabúnotto pull hair when fighting (PPH: *sabunut)

sábwagto sow, to scatter (seeds); to broadcast seeds (PPH: *sabuag)

Aklanon (1200 / 1522)

sábʔasmall round banana, good for cooking, Musa sapientum var. compressa (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sábʔitto hang up (on the wall) (PMP: *saqebit)

saeápaŋspear, javelin (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

saeápidto braid, entwine (PWMP: *salapid)

saeáʔsin, error, mistake, wrongdoing; to err, make a mistake, do wrong (PMP: *salaq₁)

sáeodcatch a dripping liquid like tuba (coconut wine) (PWMP: *saluD)

saeódvessel used for gathering tuba (PWMP: *saluD)

saeógsplit bamboo stick (used for flooring); floor (PMP: *saleR)

sáeoŋsap of tree (PAN: *saleŋ)

ságocarrion, dead or decaying flesh or body (PWMP: *saRu₂)

sagocarrion, dead/decaying flesh or body (PWMP: *sagu₂)

sago(h)ball of starch made from araro (arrow root), and used in desserts (PMP: *sagu₁)

ságʔobto fetch water, get water; bamboo container about two meters long used to fetch water—carried on shoulder (PPH: *saR(e)qeb)

sa idáeomunderneath (PAN: *sa₂)

sakáyride (on), travel (on), get on (vehicle), mount (an animal) (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakítillness, ailment, infirmity; to be hurt by, suffer from; to hurt (physically), cause pain (PMP: *sakit)

salídsidto slice thinly, cut near or on the surface (PPH: *sarijsij)

sa Lúneson Monday (PAN: *sa₂)

sámbitto speak of, mention (PWMP: *sa(m)bit)

saŋáa branch; to branch off (river); produce branches (tree) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

Aklanon (1220 / 1522)

saŋáynamesake, person having the same first name (PWMP: *saŋay)

saŋgáɁbase, platform; dish of water used to keep ants from getting into another container on that dish (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

sáŋitto get entangled, get tangled up, delayed, get hung up (PPH: *saq(e)ŋit)

sáŋkaptool, utensil; well-equipped, complete, having all that is needed (PPH: *saŋkap)

sáŋkaptool, utensil; well-equipped, complete, having all that is needed (NEAR)

saŋ-kurótlittle, few, a little bit, just a little (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

sáŋsaŋbe harsh on, be stern with (PPH: *saŋsáŋ)

sapáɁpond, small lake (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapáɁ-sápaɁpond, very small lake (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapáɁ-sapáɁ-anoverflooded in areas, covered with puddles, ponds (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapínshoes (PPH: *sapín)

sápsapfish sp. (PPH: *sapsáp)

sápsapchip, piece of; to chip off, get a piece of (PWMP: *sapsap)

sapúpo(h)to nurse back to health; revive, help (the sick) (PPH: *sapúpu)

sári-sáriassorted, varied, different; sári-sári store (LOAN)

sasánipa leaves (for roofing) (PMP: *sasah)

sasá(h)to derib nipa leaves (PMP: *sasah)

sawásnake (generic term) (PMP: *sawa)

sawáliʔwoven bamboo (< Tagalog) (LOAN)

sáwa-sáwagame where a group of people line up, hold on to the waist of the one in front of each, and follow the leader (PMP: *sawa)

Aklanon (1240 / 1522)

sáysayto tell, relate, describe, narrate (PPH: *sáysay)

sitopic marker for the name of a person or a pet, denoting the singular (PAN: *si₁)

síbaɁto devour, swallow (said of large animals, as a crocodile) (PPH: *sibáq)

sibítto scratch or cut out (a sliver or thorn embedded) (PPH: *sibít)

sígasparkle, shine (PMP: *siRa₂)

sígato sparkle, shine (PMP: *siga)

sigáysea shell --- used as toy by children or as gambling pieces by some gamblers (PWMP: *sigay)

sí<g>lak-sí<g>lakto shine, radiate (PMP: *sirak₁)

síkadto press/push with one’s foot; brace oneself; to kick (PPH: *síkad)

sikátpopular, popularly accepted; “cool”, “groovy”, “neat” (PPH: *sikát)

síkoelbow (PAN: *sikux)

síkoeto elbow, hit with elbow (PMP: *siŋkul)

síkuto elbow, hit with elbow (PAN: *sikux)

sílaksunshine, sunlight; to shine (of the sun) (PMP: *silak₁) *silak

siŋkamástuber --- yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus) (LOAN)

síŋkitalmondine (eyes) (PPH: *siŋkít)

sipíɁsection, as of an orange or jackfruit (PPH: *sipíq)

sípitcarry under one’s arm (PAN: *sipit)

sipítlarge tongs (used for asjusting a fire); hairpin (PAN: *sipit)

sítsitto hiss; call a person with “pssst” (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

Aklanon (1260 / 1522)

siyámnine (PPH: *siám)

sósofemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

súbliʔto take another’s place, replace, substitute for (PPH: *sub(e)líq)

súbsubto be headed downwards; dip; fall headlong; have the front down (PPH: *sebseb)

súdlaycomb; to comb out (NEAR)

súdsudblade of plow (PPH: *sudsud₂)

súdsudblade of plow (PPH: *sedsed₃)

sueóʔtorch; to use as a torch (PMP: *suluq)

súesueto ignite, set on fire, kindle (PPH: *súlsul)

súgodbite, sting (said of insects) (PWMP: *seRed)

súkato vomit (out), throw up (PPH: *suka₂)

sukótto collect debts (PPH: *sukut)

súksukhouse lizard (small) (PWMP: *cekcek)

súmpaʔpromise, oath, pledge, vow (in good connotation); curse (in bad connotation); to vow, swear, promise; to curse (PWMP: *sumpaq)

súmpitto jet out, splurt, squirt (out); blowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

súmpoŋto ‘blow up’, get/become hot-headed (PPH: *sumpuŋ)

súmpoŋto ‘blow up’, get/become hot-headed (LOAN)

súndaŋknife (LOAN)

súndaŋknife (LOAN)

súntokto rap or hit with one’s knuckles, especially on the head (PPH: *suntúk)

Aklanon (1280 / 1522)

súntokrap or hit with one's knuckles (ROOT)

súntokrap or hit with one's knuckles (ROOT)

súŋayhorn (of animals) (PPH: *súŋay)

súŋitserious, solemn, crabby, out of sorts (PWMP: *seŋit)

súŋo“whisker” of shrimps (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

súŋsuŋstopper, cork; to cork up, stop up, put a stopper in (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

supáʔto munch on, chew thoroughly with the pupose of getting out the juice or the flavor (PWMP: *sepaq)

súpotpaper or cloth bag (PPH: *súput)

súyodsteel-spiked harrow; to harrow with this implement (LOAN)

táanfish net (across river) (PAN: *taqan₁)

tabákswordlike beak (of a swordfish); long pin, hat pin (PPH: *tabák)

tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food) (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tábaŋto help, assist (PMP: *tabaŋ)

tábasto cut into shape, tailor (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tabáʔfat, stout, plump (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabídattach, join (PWMP: *ta(m)bid)

tábogto shoo, scare away (PPH: *tabuR₂)

tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies) (PPH: *tabuR₂)

tábogto shoo, scare away (PPH: *tabuR₂)

tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies) (PPH: *tabuR₂)

Aklanon (1300 / 1522)

tábtabto chop, cut (up) (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

ta-bulíʔturn the rear to (PMP: *buliq₂)

ta-bulíʔturn the rear to (NOISE)

tábʔáŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tábʔaŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless, flavorless (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tádtadto hack, hit repeatedly with a blade (PWMP: *tadtad)

tadtar-ánchopping block, cutting board (PPH: *tadtad-án) *tadtad

taeabáoyster (PPH: *talabá)

t<ae>ámn-anfield [for planting] (PAN: *tanem-an) *CaNem

taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

táeonfield; underdeveloped or overgrown land (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

táetaeto remove, take down (PWMP: *taltal₁)

tagá-noun prefix denoting a place of origin or where a person hails from, often thought of as an equivalent for the English preposition “from” (LOAN)

taga-búkidperson from the mountains (derogatory, implying backwardness) (PAN: *bukij)

taga-liʔóg“neck-deep” (in troubles), be on edge, edgy (PAN: *liqeR)

tágayto pour out (slowly) (PPH: *tágay)

tagáʔto strike with a sharp object (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tagáʔhook (LOAN)

tag-b-ue-uŋáfruit-bearing season (PMP: *buŋa)

tag-búhatcraftsman, creator (PMP: *buhat₂)

Aklanon (1320 / 1522)

tag-íhiʔfeel like urinating (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

tagi-pusóʔ-onheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

tágkosbinder, a piece of cloth wrapped around a painful part of the body, usually head or waist (PPH: *tag(e)kés)

tagóksap (of tree) (PPH: *tagek)

tagómmedicinal tree (PMP: *taRum)

tahíʔto sew (manaN-, paN-) (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tahópto sift (PMP: *tahep) *tapeS

táistool, feces; to defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takáeboar, male pig; oversexed man, sex maniac (PPH: *takál₂)

tákaŋto totter, half walk (said of baby only) (PPH: *tákaŋ)

tákawsteal, take (without permission) (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

tákbato service, engage in intercourse (like animals, from behind rather than in front) (PPH: *tak(e)bá)

takósto measure out, allot; mete out (PPH: *takes₂)

ta-likódto turn one’s back to; turn one’s back on, refuse help; give up (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

talinuman herb: Talinum triangulare (PPH: *talínum)

talísaytree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa L. (PMP: *talisay)

ta-líwanto bypass, go by, pass by (PPH: *líwan)

tamádto feel lazy, not feel like working; a lazy person (LOAN)

tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro (PWMP: *tamadaw)

támaʔright, correct, enough; to hit directly, make a bullseye, hit straight on (PMP: *tamaq₁)

Aklanon (1340 / 1522)

támbaemedicine: coagulant; to stop bleeding (PMP: *tambar)

tambaemedicine --- coagulant (PPH: *tambal₂)

támbakpile; to pile up (one on top of another); fill (hole) (PMP: *tambak₂)

támbawbe over one another, overlapping (ROOT)

tamíloklarge edible worm found in trees (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamíŋshield (PMP: *tamiŋ)

tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger) (PMP: *tamiq)

támpoemedicinal leaf used as plaster (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

támsakto splash, splatter (ROOT)

támsiksplash, splatter (ROOT)

tanaŋáwrice bug (damages rice by sucking the unripe grains) (PWMP: *tanaŋaw)

tándaʔto mark; remember, commemorate (PPH: *tandaq)

taníŋlimit (to life); predestination (LOAN)

tánomrice seedling, rice shoot (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanómto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tánʔawto see, look at (PPH: *taq(e)náw)

taŋáscatter-brained, absent-minded, foolish, gullible (PMP: *taŋa) *taŋa₁

táŋagto elope with (PPH: *taŋaR)

taŋáʔto look upward (PWMP: *taŋaq₂)

táŋeadlemon grass (used for seasoning): Andropogon citratus DC (PMP: *taŋelaj) *Caŋelaj

Aklanon (1360 / 1522)

taŋígilarge, delicious fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taŋílshim, something used to level off an unbalanced table or chair that is wobbling (PPH: *taŋíl)

taŋíliʔa tree: mahogany (PPH: *taŋíliq)

táŋisto cry, bawl (tears) (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

táŋpaʔto pay tax for (PPH: *taŋ(e)paq)

tápadried meat (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapá(h)to dry out (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapah-ándrying rack (PWMP: *tapa-an) *Capa

tápayyeast (PWMP: *tapay)

tápiʔboard, lumber (PPH: *tapiq₁)

tapósto finish, complete, end, come to a close (PAN: *tapus)

tásikbrine, salty water (PMP: *tasik)

tátlothree (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tátlo(h)to raise or lower to three, make three (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

táwaddiscount (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawágto call (for), page (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

táwoperson, people; man (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tayáʔa bet, wager; to bet, wager something (PPH: *tayáq)

táʔasbecome taller, grow taller; raise, elevate (PMP: *atas) *aCas

taʔónfish trap in river (PMP: *taqen)

Aklanon (1380 / 1522)

tiáwa delicious soft-boned fish (PMP: *tiqaw₂) *Ciqaw

tibókto beat, thump (said of the heart) (PAN: *tibuk)

tígisto pour out (PMP: *tiRis)

tig-pitóseven-by-seven, seven at a time (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

tigú-dwatwo by two, two at a time (PMP: *duha) *duSa

tíktikwitch, evil spirit (in form of bird or human -- named after the sound it makes (PMP: *tiktik₁)

tíktikdetective, spy, agent (PPH: *tiktík₃)

t<il>ipon-ánplace of assembly (PPH: *típun)

tímbaŋto balance, compare weight; equate; partner, pair (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

tímogthe east wind (PMP: *timuR)

timónrudder of a boat; to steer, man the helm (LOAN)

t<in>ábasrags; clothing scraps (PWMP: *tabas₂)

t-in-uhog-anpierced ears (for earrings) (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

tínʔawto become clear or clean (PPH: *tin(e)qaw)

tiŋáfood particles caught between teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tíŋgilclitoris (PPH: *tuŋgíl)

tíŋkoʔclink, hit lightly against (as glasses carried in a tray) (PMP: *tiŋkuq)

típonto gather, collect, assemble (non-homogeneous things) (PPH: *típun)

títinipple, teat (childrens word) (PMP: *titi)

tiyánstomach, abdomen; womb (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Aklanon (1400 / 1522)

tiyan-ánhaving a large, curved stomach; fish with a big stomach (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tubashrub, nut, medicinal: Jatropha curcas L. (PAN: *tuba)

túbasto end, finish off (harvesting) (PWMP: *tebas₁)

tubáʔto cut down bananas (PMP: *tebah) *tebaS

tubósugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tubódflow out, gush, well up (said of liquids) (PAN: *Cebuj)

tubóehard, dry stool (feces) (PPH: *tebel₁)

tubor-ánspring, well (PAN: *Cebuj)

túboʔto grow, sprout, develop; increase; interest on loan, growth (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tueáya bridge (PPH: *tuláy)

túeogto be asleep; to sleep off/through (PAN: *tuduR)

túeotto permit, allow (NOISE)

túeoʔto drip, leak (of faucet, water) (PAN: *tuduq)

t-ue-úbd-anspout, place where water flows out (PAN: *Cebuj)

túgonto order, request (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

túgonto order, request (PPH: *tugen)

túgotto permit, allow (PWMP: *tuRut)

tugótstring of/for kite (PWMP: *tuRut)

túhodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

túhogpierce, pass or cut through, penetrate (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

Aklanon (1420 / 1522)

tukádto go out of town; to go uphill (PWMP: *tukad₂)

tukóbto bite, nibble (said of fish) (PPH: *tekeb₂)

tukónbamboo pole (PMP: *teken)

túktukto chop continually; tenderize (meat) by pounding it with a blade (PAN: *tektek₁)

tulíear wax; ear drainage (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

túliʔto circumcise (PPH: *turiq)

tulíʔcircumcised (PPH: *turiq)

túmanobey, follow, oblige (PWMP: *tuman)

túnawto melt, dissolve (PPH: *túnaw)

túnaypure, true, genuine, real, actual (PWMP: *tunay₂)

tuŋáwvery, very small red insect (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

túŋaʔto cut in half (PMP: *teŋaq)

tuŋáʔone half; middle (PMP: *teŋaq)

tuŋógtree with bark used as food coloring (PMP: *teŋeR)

túŋtuŋstand on; upon; be on top (of); step on (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

tuŋtúŋ-anplatform, stage (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

tuódstump of a tree (PAN: *tuqed)

tupádto go or be side-by-side with (PPH: *tupáj)

túpoŋto level, make equal (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tupóŋlevel, equal; enjoying/having the same privileges (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

Aklanon (1440 / 1522)

turósto squeeze, crush with one’s fingernails (as lice) (PWMP: *tedes)

turóʔto teach (a subject), point out (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tústusto lower, let down, loosen (PPH: *tustús)

tuwádput one's rear end out to, bend over and stick one's buttocks toward (PWMP: *tuad)

tuwáyclam --- shell (PMP: *tuay)

túyoʔpurpose, aim, intention (PPH: *tuyuq)

úaŋto howl, cry, screech (about) (PAN: *quaŋ₂)

úbangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ubán-ongray-haired, having gray hair (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

úbipurple yam: Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

úbodthe inner white part of the trunk of banana, nipa or coconut palms; core, pith (PMP: *qubuj)

údtoabout directly overhead (in the sky) (PPh: *ugtu)

ueánrain; rain water; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ueáŋriver shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

ueátscab, scar; miscolored skin (left by a wound); to heal, form a scar (said of a wound) (PWMP: *ulat)

úeh-anthe head, top (of bed) (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

úeodstomach worm(s) (PMP: *qulej)

úeo(h)head (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ueónlie down, rest one's head on a pillow (PMP: *qulun₂)

ueótinterval, space, unit of space (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

Aklanon (1460 / 1522)

ugáliʔcustom, tradition; habit (PWMP: *ugaliq)

ugámcoating or deposit on the tongue when one is sick, resulting in bad-tasting food or drink (PMP: *guham) *guSam

ugátblood vein; tendon (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ugótbe angry; get peeved (ROOT)

ugtoat the zenith, directly overhead; half moon (waxing or waning) (PPh: *ugtu)

úhawbe thirsty (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

úhaystalk (of rice) (PPh: *quhay)

úhoŋmushroom (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

ulíhi(h)be late, tardy; behind; later on (PMP: *udehi)

úliŋcharcoal; make charcoal out of (PAN: *qujiŋ)

ulíŋ-onany wood or substance to be made into charcoal (PPh: *qujiŋ-en) *qujiŋ

úliʔreturn, bring/give (something) back (PMP: *uliq₁)

ulíʔgo home, return (to one's place, country) (PMP: *uliq₁)

-um-verbal infix used on command or conditioned forms (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

umá(h)parm; plantation; field(s) (PMP: *quma) *qumah

umánnext time; repetition; repeat, do again, do over (PAN: *quman)

úmaŋhermit crab (PAN: *qumaŋ)

úmoepress with one's palm, squeeze into small balls (PPh: *qemel)

úmʔumsuck on, dissolve in the mouth without swallowing, as is done to medicine or candy (PAN: *qemqem)

únafirst; go first, go ahead, precede (PMP: *unah)

Aklanon (1480 / 1522)

únatstretch, straighten out; unbend, unkink (PPh: *uñat)

únl-anpillow, cushion (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

unódmeat, flesh, muscle (PMP: *qunej)

únosbe in motion; blow (wind), flow (water) (PMP: *qunus)

úntayto stretch, straighten out, extend (PWMP: *quntay₁)

uŋáecry out, scream (PMP: *quŋal)

uŋásidiot, fool (LOAN)

uŋáʔchild; son/daughter; give birth (humans) (PWMP: *uŋaq)

upárice husk (PWMP: *qepah)

úpakskin, peeling (of fruits, vegetables); rind; to peel, take off (the skin or peeling) (PWMP: *upak₁)

úpawto fall out (said of hair); to be flat broke (PPH: *upaw)

úpawfall out (said of hair) (NOISE)

upóŋgather stalks of rice and bundle them together during the harvest (PAN: *qupuŋ)

upósconsumed, used up; cigarette butt (PMP: *upus)

usá(h)deer (PWMP: *uRsa)

usokpole (of a fence), fencepole (PMP: *usuk)

usókpole (of a fence) (PMP: *u(n)sek)

usókpole of a fence, fencepole (PMP: *esek₂) *hesek₂

utáka blunted knife (used for weeding) (PPh: *eták)

útanvegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

Aklanon (1500 / 1522)

útaŋdebt; owe to, be indebted to (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utásslash, cut off (with a blade) (PWMP: *etas)

utásslash, cut off (with a blade) (PWMP: *qutas)

utógerection of penis; to erect, be sexually excited (penis) (PAN: *qeCuR)

utógerection (of penis); to erect, become sexually excited (penis) (PPh: *qutuR)

útogbe/get sexually excited (PPh: *qutuR)

útokbrain (PMP: *hutek)

útok it bulináwdull, stupid, brainless (PPh: *bulínaw)

utótflatulence; let some gas (PMP: *qetut)

utótflatulence, bad air, fart (PMP: *qutut)

uwákcrow (PMP: *uak₁)

uwáyrattan (PAN: *quay)

waeáʔdisappear, become nothing; run out of; left without (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

waeóeight (PAN: *walu)

wágwagrice (traditional variety) (PPh: *wagwág₁)

wákatroots of mangrove trees (PMP: *wakat)

wakwáklarge bat-like creature (believed to be a witch's messenger) (PAN: *wakwak)

wáliŋ-wáliŋorchid (LOAN)

wásayaxe; chop with an axe (PWMP: *wasay)

wáswasshake (off), rid something of dirt (PPh: *waswás₁)

Aklanon (1520 / 1522)

wawáʔmouth of a river (PPh: *wáqwaq)

wíʔwiʔsplit open further (e.g. a buttonhole), enlarge by splitting (PPh: *wíqwiq)

11. Alas (22) WMP (Akbar, Ahmaddin and Mardjo 1985) [btz] (Batak Alas-Kluet) Indonesia (Sumatra)

abetcoil; cloth that is wound around the body (PWMP: *ambet)

abinhug a child who is cold (PMP: *qabin)

asakstuff or press in (PWMP: *qasak)

bayoubrother-in-law (woman speaking), sister-in-law (man speaking) (PWMP: *bayaw)

burikspotted, striped (PWMP: *burik)

lakihusband (PMP: *laki₁)

lateŋstinging nettle (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

limefive (PAN: *lima)

linurearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

lisenit, louse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

saburscatter seed, sow (PMP: *sabuR)

sandarlean against (PWMP: *sandaR)

sawepython (PMP: *sawa)

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

siresalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

susunstack up (PMP: *susun) *susuN

taŋkowto steal (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

terepforest tree with fruit similar to breadfruit (PWMP: *teRep)

tuhutrue; truly, really (PMP: *tuqu₂)

ubunfontanel (PWMP: *ubun (ubun))

Alas (20 / 22)

udanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utahvomit (PAN: *utaq)

12. Ali (25) OC

aiwood, tree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

amyou (pl.) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

ati-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

e-seiwho? (PMP: *sai)

lasto sniff, smell (POC: *acok) *Sajek

-mato come (POC: *maRi) *aRi

mamfather (POC: *mama) *mamah

mawáŋright side (PMP: *wanan) *waNan

miəŋbird (POC: *manuk)

miətto die; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

muaŋman, male (POC: *maRuqane) *RuqaNay

ñuəmmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

routwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

rouŋleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

seito sew (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

susfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tapu-ŋyoung drinking coconut (POC: *tabwa)

tiəŋto cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tuəlthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

warrope (PMP: *waRej)

Ali (20 / 25)

wuli-skin (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

wutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

yisu-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

yitwe (PAN: *ita₁)

ʔeilto dig (POC: *kali ~ keli) *kalih

Allang (23) CMP. see: Wakasihu

Alu (95) OC. see: Mono-Alu

Alumbis Murut (41) WMP. see: Murut (Tagol)

13. Alune (104) CMP (Niggemeyer 1951-52) [alp] Indonesia (Maluku) [aka: Murnaten]

aiwood; tree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ai-lamut-itree root (PMP: *Ramut₁)

aku~ au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

alakwehornbill (PMP: *kalaw)

alakwehornbill (PMP: *kalaw)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

ami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *ami)

amu2pl. possessive, your (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

anuflow, stream (PAN: *qañud)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

babaabove, on top (PAN: *babaw₃)

besay, tell (PCMP: *bei)

bedapowder (LOAN)

betasibling of opposite sex (PMP: *betaw)

betuwake up; emerge, appear suddenly; be awake (PMP: *betu) *betu₁

binawoman; female (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

boi-niits stench; stench of (PMP: *bahuq)

buafruit (PMP: *buaq)

bualeap up (PMP: *buhat₃)

bua-inumeral classifier for roundish objects such as eggs, pearls, heads, etc. (PMP: *buaq)

Alune (20 / 104)

bubuleinsect, beetle, worm; wood worm (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

bukato open (PMP: *buka)

bukademolish (PMP: *buŋkaR)

bulanemoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulibear fruit (PMP: *buliR)

buli-nia cluster of fruit (PMP: *buliR)

bulufeather, fur (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

bunukill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunu-eextinguish (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

busukstinking, rotten (PMP: *busuk)

busulepig trap; spring-set spear trap; hunting bow (PMP: *busuR₂)

butu-iheap, pile (PCEMP: *butu₂) *butu

dani ~ ranito weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

esaone (PAN: *esa)

ianefish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ilahow much? how many? (PAN: *pijax)

ile3pl., they, them (PMP: *ida)

itewe, us (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

kaneto eat (PAN: *kaen)

Alune (40 / 104)

kenabe hit, injured (PMP: *kena₁)

keteto bite (PMP: *keteb)

keteto bite (PMP: *ketep₁)

-ku, au... -ku1sg possessive suffix (PAN: *-ku)

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kʷalaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

kwalisibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

kwalueight (PAN: *walu)

kwelewater; river (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

laidirt (PMP: *daki)

lalablood; red (PAN: *daRaq)

lalanepath, road (PMP: *zalan)

laleheart, inner part; contents (PMP: *dalem)

lanitesky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lapiasago (PMP: *Rambia)

latalelevel land, plain (PAN: *dataR)

latuvillage head (PMP: *datu)

leneto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

loi-niits leaf; leaf of (PMP: *dahun)

Alune (60 / 104)

lo-laudownstream, toward the sea (PCEMP: *laur) *lahud

luatwo; both (PMP: *duha) *duSa

maito come; here (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-kwayawn (PCEMP: *mawab) *Suab

malilaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

m-anuflow, stream; float away; carried off on a current (PMP: *ma-qañud) *qañud

manuebird (PMP: *manuk)

masacooked, done; ripe, mature (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

masacooked, done; ripe, mature (PMP: *ma-hasak) *Sasak

matadead, die (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-ledead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mata-losiwindow (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-torato belch (Ludeking 1868:217) (PMP: *teRab) *CeRab

matua-neold man (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ma-tulusleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

meteneblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qetem) *qitem

mtuaold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

m-uliafter, behind; to follow (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

nabuto fall, drop (PMP: *nabuq)

Alune (80 / 104)

nikwelecoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ninureflection (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

nunubanyan (PMP: *nunuk)

nusaisland, land (PMP: *nusa₁)

penufull (PMP: *penuq)

salafault; mistake (PMP: *salaq₁)

sanabranch (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sikwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susu mata-inipple of the breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

tabuliconch shell trumpet (PMP: *tabuRi)

tamataperson (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

tauneyear (PMP: *taqun)

təluthick (PCEMP: *təlu)

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

teta ~ tetecut off, chop off, split into two pieces (PAN: *tektek₁)

tia-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tibalegong (PCMP: *tibal)

ulanerain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uleneearthenware cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

Alune (100 / 104)

upugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *umpu)

uribanana (PAN: *punti₁)

uri buli-nia stalk of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

utanewild vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

14. Amara (23) OC (Thurston 1987)

a-puacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

emekbird (POC: *manuk)

-into drink (PMP: *inum)

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kat-kateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

-keneat (POC: *kani) *kaen

-lago (POC: *lako) *lakaw

-loŋoto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

-mecome (POC: *mai) *ai₃

meteeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

motoufear (POC: *matakut) *takut

o-loŋofly (insect) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

o-puonet (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

peiget (POC: *pa-i) *pa₂

-ponfull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

-punto hit, kill (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

ruotwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

soŋoulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ta-manemale (POC: *maRuqane) *RuqaNay

telthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

Amara (20 / 23)

telŋe-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

temefather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tnemother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

15. Ambai (20) SHWNG (Anceaux 1961) [amk] Indonesia (Papua)

aiwood, tree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

atatbird with blue feathers that nests in the holes of trees (LOAN)

baia plant: Falcataria Moluccana (PCEMP: *bail)

bofruit (PMP: *buaq)

bo-rutwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

bo-toruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

-humy, mine, marker of general possession (house, book, boat, etc.) (PAN: *-ku)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

karacockatoo (PEMP: *kaRa)

mataifear (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

raŋpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

riŋfive (PAN: *lima)

tawaa tree: Pometia spp. (PMP: *tawan)

u3sg., he, she (PAN: *ia₁)

ul-utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ve-vorunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

viviŋwoman, female (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

wefoot, leg (PAN: *waqay)

yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

yau1sg., I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

16. Amblau (23) CMP (Stresemann 1927, van der Miesen 1911) [amv] (Ambelau) Indonesia (Maluku)

afufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

auwood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

barustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

berasister (man speaking) (PMP: *betaw)

bulamoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

faafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

falarice (PAN: *pajay)

fitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

lanaoil (van der Miesen) (PMP: *laña)

laniresky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lima-hand (PAN: *qalima)

luatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

matecuscus (PCEMP: *mansər)

m-odalto rain (PMP: *q<um>uzan) *quzaN

olohead (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

puriwhite (PMP: *putiq)

rehoegg (PMP: *qateluR)

reluthree (PAN: *telu)

ularain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ula-ishrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

Amblau (20 / 23)

urulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

waloeight (PAN: *walu)

waʔacanoe (PCEMP: *waŋka)

17. Amblong (40) OC (Tryon 1976)

aiwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

amalmen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

ani-anto eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

batu-head (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

bembebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

budo-navel (POC: *buto)

eldigging stick (POC: *kali ~ keli) *kalih

fatustone (POC: *patu) *batux

fulu-hair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

imahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

lanohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

leso-testicles (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

luato vomit (POC: *lua-ki) *luaq

ma-satbad (PMP: *ma-zaqat) *zaqat

matto die (POC: *mate) *aCay

mata-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matasnake (POC: *mwata)

mo-bonnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

mo-limafive (PAN: *lima)

mo-ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

Amblong (20 / 40)

mo-tolthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

mo-vatfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

mo-vizahow much/how many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

na-nizawhen? (PMP: *ŋa-ijan) *ijan

natu-child (PEMP: *natu)

n-au1sg., I (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

no-matdead (POC: *mate) *aCay

savawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

sonavulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tanto cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tofusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tšamanaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

turto stand (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

uracrayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uri-skin (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uzarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

vanto go (POC: *pano) *paNaw

Ambon Malay (2) WMP. see: Malay (Ambon)

Amganad Ifugaw (4) WMP. see: Ifugaw (Amganad)

18. Amis (580) Form. (Fey 1986) [ami] Taiwan (dialects: Utrecht ms. 1, Central (Blust 2002) [ami] 10, Kiwit (Ogawa 1933, Ferrell 1979) 28)

aa connecting particle with some of the meaning of "and"; modifying particle (PAN: *a₅)

afalashoulder (PAN: *qabaRa₁) Central

akuŋcrooked (ROOT)

alato take (PAN: *ala)

ala-enbe taken (PAN: *ala-en) *ala

alafohdust blown by the wind (ROOT)

alunahlarge variety of ant (PAN: *alujah) Kiwit

amafather (Hualien county) (PAN: *amax)

ano-cilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

anu-sauniafter, later (Tsuchida 1976) (PAN: *Sauni)

anu-tsilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

apaclate in arising; slow to arrive; primitive (NOISE)

apekpowder, flour (ROOT)

atalet's go! (PAN: *ata)

ayáexclamation showing displeasure or question (PAN: *aya₁)

ayaexclamation showing displeasure or question (NOISE)

ayaexclamation showing displeasure or question (NOISE)

canominative case marker for plural personal names (PAN: *sa₁)

cadiwto sharpen (PAN: *saNiw)

cafaycompanion to do something (PAN: *sabay₁)

Amis (20 / 580)

cahdalthe condition when the sun comes out for a moment between rain showers (PAN: *saheNaR)

cakalmuzzle for ox, water buffalo (PAN: *sakal)

cakatarise, go up (PAN: *sakat)

cakcakcut into pieces with a machete, as sweet potatoes; hoe ground until it is well tilled (PAN: *saksak₁)

caleŋpine tree or wood (PAN: *saleŋ)

caliwborrow, lend (PAN: *saliw)

camolmixture (PAN: *samuR)

caŋrayto lean back against something (PAN: *saŋeday)

capetto grab with the hand; catch (PAN: *sapet)

cekcekto press, crowd together, shake down (of people, grain, etc.) (PAN: *seksek₁)

celcelslip through a crowded place (PAN: *selsel₁)

celemto sink into (as setting sun); dive into the water (PAN: *selem₁)

ceŋettick (insect) (PAN: *seŋet₂) Kiwit

cepcepto suck (as a mosquito sucking blood) (PAN: *sepsep)

cfosto splash liquid or water on something (PAN: *sebuS)

ciproper name prefix (PAN: *si₁)

cidalsun (PAN: *siNaR)

cikoelbow; intersection, corner (PAN: *sikux)

cila-cilafrequently (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

cila satonext day (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

Amis (40 / 580)

ci-losaʔto have tears (PAN: *luSeq)

c-imawho? (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

c-ima c-imawhoever (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

c-ima c-ima-anto whomever (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

ci-mataable to see; to wear glasses (PAN: *maCa)

ci-tiyad-to cigrashe has a belly (i.e. she is pregnant) (PAN: *tiaN)

ciwciwbaby chick, baby bird (PAN: *siwsiw)

ckelbow the head (PAN: *sekel)

ckelbow the head (ROOT)

cmetan interval of sleep (NEAR)

cocobreast of a female; udder; teat (PAN: *susu₁)

cokcokto lock (PAN: *suksuk)

cokerto prop up, support, help, as the cross pole in the hitch of a wagon (PAN: *suked)

cokorwalking stick, cane (PAN: *sukud)

coledinsert; push inside a slot or opening; put into a handbag or basket (PAN: *suleN)

colireturn, retort (PAN: *suli₂)

copcopto suck (as a mosquito sucking blood) (PAN: *supsup)

cowiɁa bird, Common Sandpiper (appears at sunset with its call) (PAN: *suiq)

dateŋgeneric term for vegetables; any kind of cooked food served except rice (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

demdemendure, referring to illness or personal feelings (PAN: *demdem₁)

Amis (60 / 580)

dihifcave, den (PAN: *Nihib)

ditaʔa lump of clay for making pottery; clay; a type of soil (PAN: *diteq)

ditaʔclay (ROOT)

doʔesbone marrow (PAN: *NuqeS)

facaʔwash clothes (PAN: *baseq)

facfacto hit, strike -- as a child or a water buffalo (PAN: *basbas₁)

fadalthorny briar plant (PAN: *baNaR)

fafacarry a baby tied on one's back; to ride piggy back (PAN: *baba₁)

fa-fahiwife (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

fa-fahi-anfemale; woman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

fafawheadwaters, source of a river; leaders with higher rank (PAN: *babaw₃)

fafoypig; wild boar (PAN: *babuy₃)

fafoy-anpigpen (PAN: *babuy-an) *babuy₃

fakecput a belt on (PAN: *bakes₁)

fakigrandfather (Ferrell 1969); uncle (the authoritiy figure in the home for giving instructions; Fey 1986) (PAN: *baki₂)

fakoŋname of an herb used on broken bones (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

falahember (PAN: *baRah) Kiwit

falatcrossbeam in a house; horizontal, as opposed to vertical (PAN: *baRat₁)

falatcrossbeam in a house; horizontal, as opposed to vertical (PAN: *barat₁)

falaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

Amis (80 / 580)

faliwind (PAN: *bali₃)

faliwind, air (LOAN)

faliyostyphoon; monsoon winds and rain (PAN: *baRiuS)

faloeight (PAN: *walu)

falodto bind; a bundle (PAN: *baluN)

fanawto wash articles of any kind (not cloth) (PAN: *bañaw)

fanawlake, pond (PAN: *banaw)

fanawlake, pond (LOAN)

fanaʔgeneric term for knowledge, including understanding what is heard (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

fanaʔgeneric form for knowledge (NOISE)

faniwmushrooms (PAN: *bajiw)

faŋasChinaberry tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

faŋawbedbug; flying insect (PAN: *baŋaw)

faŋesskin (PAN: *baŋeS)

fariostyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS) Central

fasawcooled off (PAN: *baSaw)

faʔigrandmother (PAN: *baqi) Central

faʔlohnew; renew (PAN: *baqeRuh)

fecolfull, satisfied from eating (PAN: *besuR)

fedfedbe bound with a lot of string wrapped around; ball of string with a hollow center (PAN: *bejbej₁) *bejbej

Amis (100 / 580)

fedoledema, have fluids retained in one's flesh causing swelling (PAN: *bedul)

fekotbend one's body, as to hump over double (PAN: *bekuC)

felacmilled rice grain (PAN: *beRas)

fesobloated; filled with air (stomach, bread, balloon); bladder (PAN: *beCu)

fetakcracked; dry, as of soil (PAN: *betak₁) *betak

fetikwet fingers with wine and snap them to the gods; pluck the strings of a musical instrument (PAN: *betik₁) *betik

fickotto cramp, double up with pain; have a spasm, convulse (ROOT)

fikfikshake off, shake out (as clothing) (NOISE)

filaʔleaf used to wrap betel nut for chewing; plant sp. (PAN: *biRaq₁)

filfillips (PAN: *biRbiR)

firaŋanger (PAN: *biraŋ)

firaŋanger (NOISE)

fitokastomach, place where food is digested (PAN: *biCuka)

fitokoldried and bent over, though still alive (trees) (ROOT)

flatto flicker; light appearing and then disappearing, as of a lighted match (ROOT)

focolquiver, sheath for arrows (PAN: *busuR₂)

fofoa fish trap for catching fish and crabs in rivers (PAN: *bubu₂)

fofograndchild/grandparent (PAN: *bubu₆)

fohaŋlarge hole (PAN: *buhaŋ)

fohetsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

Amis (120 / 580)

fokeshead hair (PAN: *bukeS) Central

foladmoon, month; menstruation cycle (PAN: *bulaN)

folawto fight; war against, causing the community to leave (PAN: *buRaw)

folfolbreak into small pieces, to crumble (PAN: *bulbul)

foloddo or go together (PAN: *buluN)

foloʔspecies of bamboo that makes very small poles (PAN: *buluq₂)

fonorthe falling of dry twigs or leaves or fruit from a tree (NOISE)

fonosmachete (PAN: *bunuS)

foŋohhead (NOISE)

fotfotto pull up, as weeds (PAN: *buCbuC)

fowakto bubble, gurgle, motion of water (PAN: *buak)

hakaptouch lightly, intending to find out the identity of an object (ROOT)

hcekpost, wooden pillar (PAN: *hesek₂)

hcekpost, pillar (ROOT)

hcepsoak up (ROOT)

hicepto slurp water (PAN: *hisep)

hicepslurp water (ROOT)

hmaycooked rice (PAN: *Semay)

hokaʔloosen something that was tight, as a belt (PAN: *hukaq)

honi, soninoise, sound (PAN: *Suni)

Amis (140 / 580)

igrammatical particle indicating place (PAN: *i₂)

iparticle indicating time past (NOISE)

ikorafter, behind (PAN: *ikuD)

inamother (PAN: *ina)

ina-cilayesterday (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

inihere, near at hand (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

iruswooden spoon (PAN: *qidus) Kiwit

isiʔurine, urinate (PAN: *iSiq)

iso2sg. (PAN: *iSu)

ka-connective in negative word combinations where ma- would be used in a positive statement (Fey 1986:370): caay ka-fanaɁ kako ‘I don’t know’ (cp. ma-fanaɁ kako ‘I know’) (PAN: *ka-₂)

ka-active verbal particle: ka-tayal ‘work as an activity not necessarily in process’ (cp. ma-tayal ‘refers to the activity of working’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-tayal-an ‘place of business’ (cp. tayal ‘work’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

kaenpertaining to food (PAN: *kaen)

ka-fanaʔbe known (PAN: *ka-bajaq) *bajaq

kafitattached to, stuck to; to hang (PAN: *kabit₁)

kafoŋhat, anything worn on the head (LOAN)

kahotto take in one’s hands; a handful (NOISE)

kakaolder sibling (brother or sister); one more advanced than Ego; in a superior position (PAN: *kaka₂)

ka-kaen-enfood, things to eat (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ka-kawita small sickle (PAN: *kawit)

Amis (160 / 580)

kako1sg.; I (PAN: *k-aku) *aku

ka-k<om>aen-antable, dining area (PAN: *ka-kaen-an) *kaen

ka-lafi-andinner time (PAN: *ka-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

kalaŋcrab (PAN: *ka-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

kalaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

(ka)-lawalflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

kaleŋa deep voice (ROOT)

kalichannels for water in the fields; ditch (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

kali-tosa-enbe divided into two (PAN: *duSa)

kaloŋkoŋthe echo of thunder (PAN: *kaluŋkuŋ)

kamay ~ kayamhands, including the arm (PAN: *kamay)

kamayaa bush, the Taiwan Ebony Velvet Apple: Diospyros discolor (PAN: *kamaya)

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamo2pl. nominative, you all (PAN: *k-amu) *amu

kamorawpomelo (in some areas) (LOAN)

kanoosfingernail, toenail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁

kanuʔusfingernail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁ Kiwit

kaŋkaŋa plow (LOAN)

ka-panay-anthe time of harvest (PAN: *ka-pajay-an) *pajay

ka-piliʔ-anone who is chosen (PAN: *ka-piliq-an) *piliq

Amis (180 / 580)

kapkapreach out and feel with the hands for something you cannot see, grope (PAN: *kapkap)

karkardig in the soil (PAN: *karkar)

karotrake the muddy fields with a buffalo; rake rubbish (PAN: *karut₁)

kasoyfirewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

kasuytree; firewood (PAN: *kaSiw) Kiwit

katawacastor oil plant, castor bean (PAN: *katawa)

kawananright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN Central

kawasheaven (Ferrell 1969); Kawas-God; gods; spirits, supernatural beings, ghosts’ (PAN: *kawaS₁)

ka-wilileft (as opposed to right); out of step; awkward (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kawitto knit, crochet; to make nets (PAN: *kawit)

kawkawsickle, long-blade knife with curved handle (PAN: *kawkaw₁)

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁) Kiwit

ka-ʔorip-ansource of livelihood (PAN: *ka-qudip-an) *qudip

keɫatsaygray mullet (PAN: *kaNasay)

kelkelheart response causing a person to shake (PAN: *keRkeR)

kemkemto chew something hard (PAN: *kemkem₂)

kepitto close eyes (PAN: *kepit)

kiaw-kiawpullet, young chicken (PAN: *kiaw)

kickicto cut flesh off the bones (PAN: *kiskis)

kilimlook for, search for (PAN: *kiRim)

Amis (200 / 580)

kilim-enlook for (it) (PAN: *kiRim-en) *kiRim

kiŋkiŋbells (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

kiskisscrape off a surface, strip (PAN: *kiSkiS)

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kletuse a sickle to cut off twine (PAN: *keRet)

kliwthread; the plant from which string or thread is made: China Grass-Ramie (Boehmeria frustescens) (PAN: *keRiw)

kloŋresounding noise, as to hear a door being closed (PAN: *keRuŋ)

kodicmange; skin disease (PAN: *kudis)

kofitbutton (ROOT)

kohpicthin (opp. thick) (ROOT)

kolitthin, underweight (PAN: *ma-kuliC) *kuliC

k<om>aento eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

komespubic hair found in the groin area (PAN: *kumeS)

koŋkoŋto knock at the door; to knock on a drum (slit-gong or hollow log) (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

kopiteyes closed; to close eyes (PAN: *kupit)

korawitgrasp or pull in with a hook (ROOT)

koreŋlarge earthen vessel for salted meat, water, or wine (PAN: *kudeŋ)

korkorto dig in the soil (PAN: *kurkur)

koskosto scratch one's body (PAN: *kuSkuS₂)

kotkotto use metal to scrape (PAN: *kutkut₂)

Amis (220 / 580)

kotolouse, lice (PAN: *kuCux) Amis

kowaweagle (PAN: *kuaw)

ktilpinch with fingernails (PAN: *ketil)

ktilto pinch with fingernails (PAN: *getil)

ktoncut something long, with literal and figurative meanings (includes promises and agreements) (PAN: *ketun)

kuanhamlet (PAN: *kuan₁)

kurenpottery (Vakon dial.) (Chen 1988:111) (PAN: *kuden)

lafelto let run loose, roam (as sheep that are not penned up) (PAN: *labeR₂)

lafidinner; the evening meal (PAN: *Rabiqi)

lafiithe middle of the night; midnight (PAN: *Rabiqi)

lahodsteam, vapor (PAN: *lahuN)

lalanpath, road, street, highway; direction figuratively; means to do something (PAN: *zalan)

lalaŋto forbid, refuse permission (PAN: *laRaŋ)

lalaʔto menstruate, have monthly period (PAN: *daRaq)

la-lima-yfive (people) (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

ɬa-ɬintaqmountain leech (PAN: *qaNi-meCaq) *-meCaq Kiwit

laliwleave behind; desert, escape (PAN: *laRiw)

laliʔclay (PAN: *daRiq)

lamecto mix with the hands (PAN: *Rames)

laviʔievening, night (PAN: *Rabiqi) Kiwit

Amis (240 / 580)

lawatto step, to take a step; a single step (NEAR)

lciksmall broken pieces that have flown and landed someplace (PAN: *lecik)

lidoŋshelter; shadow, shade (PAN: *liduŋ)

lifawaswell, be swollen; tumor (PAN: *Ribawa)

ɬihivcave (PAN: *Nihib) Kiwit

likatlight from a source (PAN: *likaC)

likatlight, ray; lamp (PAN: *likaC) Kiwit

likat nu tsiɬalray of sunlight (PAN: *likaC) Kiwit

likesmosquito, fly (PAN: *likeS)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

liʔelneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lolodto roll up, as to roll up a mat or paper (PAN: *luluN)

lomaʔbuilding, a house, a home (PAN: *Rumaq)

losaʔtears (PAN: *luSeq)

lotayto be exhausted, either physically or emotionally (PAN: *lutay)

lotoŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

ɬukawound, injury (PAN: *Nuka) Kiwit

l<um>akatto walk (PAN: *lakat₂) Central

ɬuqus nu ukakmarrow (lit. ‘marrow of the bones’) (PAN: *NuqeS) Kiwit

ma-alabe taken (PAN: *ma-ala) *ala

Amis (260 / 580)

maca-colidisagree with each other (two parties) (PAN: *suli₂)

ma-caʔitto be hung up (PAN: *saqit)

ma-cidalshining, of the sun (PAN: *siNaR)

ma-dokaʔwounded, hurt (PAN: *ma-Nuka) *Nuka

ma-faŋawrice which doesn't mature (PAN: *baŋaw)

ma-fasawcold, as rice that has been left to sit too long; cooled off, of anger; grown cool, as one’s feelings toward someone (PAN: *ma-baSaw) *baSaw

ma-folawto leave the village (PAN: *ma-buRaw) *buRaw

ma-kaento have eaten (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-kilimfound (PAN: *ma-kiRim) *kiRim

ma-koŋkoŋto be hollow inside (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

ma-lafito eat dinner (as in ma-lafi kita ‘Let’s eat dinner!’) (PAN: *Rabiqi)

mali-kakabrothers and sisters belonging to each other (PAN: *kaka₂)

ma-likatto be burning, glowing (PAN: *likaC)

mal-oinafamily with the mother (< wina 'mother') (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina

ma-nanamtamed (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

ma-oradrainy (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

mapa-pdekto blink (PAN: *pedek)

ma-pikpikflap the wings (PAN: *pikpik)

ma-piliʔbe chosen (PAN: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-potonbobbed, as a cat’s tail; amputated, as a person’s arm (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

Amis (280 / 580)

ma-psiʔsqueeze out juice, as from a pepper (PAN: *peSiq)

ma-simdimdark (PAN: *ma-demdem) *demdem₂ Utrecht ms.

mataeye (PAN: *maCa)

ma-talawafraid (PAN: *ma-talaw) *talaw

ma-tawato laugh (PAN: *Cawa)

ma-tawato laugh (PAN: *ma-Cawa) *Cawa

ma-toʔasold, of people (PAN: *ma-tuqaS) *tuqaS Central

ma-ʔinapjealous (PAN: *qijap)

mi-camolto mix (PAN: *samuR)

mi-caʔitto hang up (PAN: *saqit)

mi-cocoto suck or nurse; give the breast to (PAN: *susu₁)

mi-folawto force to leave the village (PAN: *buRaw)

mi-kalatto bite; to be burned, as by the sun; to have an allergic reaction (PAN: *kaRaC)

mi-kaŋkaŋto plow a field (LOAN)

mi-kasoyto hunt for firewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

mi-keskesscratch (PAN: *keskes₁)

mi-kiŋkiŋto ring a bell or bells (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

mi-ɬaŋuyto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy) Kiwit

mili-matato put out someone’s eye (PAN: *maCa)

mili-ŋaŋanto take the name of someone else for oneself; to take land distributed for oneself (PAN: *ŋajan)

Amis (300 / 580)

mi-osato approach a person (PAN: *uSa)

mi-pacekto nail, hammer a nail into (PAN: *pasek)

mi-paluto fight with fists (PAN: *palu₃) Kiwit

mi-patsukto stab (PAN: *pasuk) Kiwit

mi-pikpikto fly, of birds (PAN: *pikpik)

mi-porodto wind string into a ball (PAN: *puduN)

misaka-lafito prepare dinner (PAN: *Rabiqi)

misa-lomaʔto build a building or house (PAN: *Rumaq)

misa-ʔadado evil against; make a person out to be bad (PAN: *qaNa)

mi-taqisto sew (PAN: *CaqiS) Kiwit

mi-tfosto harvest sugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

mi-tivukpound rice (PAN: *tibuk)

mu-nanawwash (hands, feet) (PAN: *ñawñaw)

nagenitive of plural personal nouns (PAN: *na₃) Central

namoyour, by you (agent/possessor form) (PAN: *n-amu) *amu

nanomwater (PAN: *daNum)

neŋneŋto look, see (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

neŋneŋ-enlook at someone or something (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

nigenitive of singular personal names (PAN: *ni) Central

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

Amis (320 / 580)

ŋafŋafeat grass, as a cow does (PAN: *ŋabŋab)

ŋaŋanname, title, designation; character, reputation (PAN: *ŋajan)

ŋisŋisbeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS)

ŋitŋitto gnaw (on bones or wood) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁)

ŋosoʔnose (PAN: *ŋusuq)

olattendons; blood vessels (PAN: *huRaC)

omahfield, farm (PAN: *qumah)

o-nathis (PAN: *-na)

osaapproach (PAN: *uSa)

otaʔvomit (PAN: *utaq)

otaʔ-envomit (a command) (PAN: *utaq-en) *utaq

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-cafayto be a companion, to go with (PAN: *sabay₁)

pa-camolto add something to (PAN: *samuR)

paceka nail, nails (PAN: *pasek)

pa-cidalto put out in the sun (PAN: *siNaR)

pa-cmetto nap (NEAR)

pacokto slaughter, to kill with a knife or sword (PAN: *pasuk)

pa-colito oppose, rebel (PAN: *suli₂)

pacpacbeat hard; thresh out; hit with twigs (PAN: *paspas₁)

Amis (340 / 580)

padeŋto put out, literally to extinguish a fire; to turn off (PAN: *padeŋ)

pa-fa-fahi-enget someone a wife (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

pa-hcekput stakes of wood in the ground, as when staking claims (PAN: *hesek₂)

pahkotype of fern that is edible (PAN: *paheku)

paka-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

pa-kaento feed, give food (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-kafoŋ-ento put a hat on someone (LOAN)

paka-tawa-enmake someone laugh (PAN: *Cawa)

paki-ʔafalacarry on the shoulders (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

pakpakto clap hands, to hit with the hand (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pa-lafito give dinner to (as in feeding a child) (PAN: *Rabiqi)

palittied, ensnared (ROOT)

paloto hit with something large or flat-surfaced, or with the hand (PAN: *palu₃)

panayrice; the harvested grain (PAN: *pajay)

panaʔbow for shooting arrows (PAN: *panaq)

pa-osatake food to someone, as to workers in a field (PAN: *pa-uSa) *uSa

pa-pinahow many? (of people) (PAN: *pa-pija) *pijax

pa-pina-pinaseveral (people) (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

pa-pitoseven (people) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

parparto beat out grain or beans from the shells or husks (LOAN)

Amis (360 / 580)

pa-semastick out the tongue (PAN: *Sema)

pa-talato prepare (PAN: *taRah)

pa-talawto threaten (PAN: *talaw)

pa-taŋic-ento beseech, try to force someone to comply (PAN: *pa-Caŋis) *Caŋis

pataydeath; die; figuratively to be crushed and despair; go to extreme limits to do something (PAN: *pa-aCay) *aCay

patseknail (PAN: *pacek)

pa-walito dry outside (PAN: *waRi₁)

pa-ʔorip-ayprovider, rescuer; deliverer, saviour (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

pa-ʔorip-enbe saved (physically, as from drowning; spiritually) (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

paʔpaʔchew; the action of the jaws and teeth in chewing (PAN: *paqpaq₁)

pdekto put out, as when lights are turned off (PAN: *pedek)

pedpedto crown, pack solid (PAN: *pedped₁)

pekpekto beat with hand or board (PAN: *pekpek₁)

pi-flac-ana basket for rice that has been milled (PAN: *beRas-an) *beRas

pi-kaŋkaŋ-antime to plow; field to be plowed (LOAN)

pi-koŋkoŋ-ana drum made from a tree trunk, used to arouse the village to action (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

piliʔto choose, pick one (PAN: *piliq)

pinahow many?; several (PAN: *pijax)

pisa-dateŋ-anvegetable garden (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

pispisto tear in pieces (paper or material) (LOAN)

Amis (380 / 580)

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pi-tosorto kneel (PAN: *tuduS)

plaʔsplit in two (ROOT)

plocpull off (as a ring), disengage (as to let down a baby that has been tied on its mother's back) (PAN: *pelus)

pokiwomen’s genitals; labia; a vegetable called komiyat [chayote] is given this term for a nickname because of its shape (PAN: *puki)

poloŋall, all together (as people gathering for some occasion) (PAN: *puluŋ)

poloʔgroup of ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

ponanavel (PAN: *puja)

ponoʔbrain (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

poroda ball of string or yarn (PAN: *puduN)

pota7soil, soft mushy dirt (ROOT)

potapotto work in the rice field pulling weeds and cultivating young rice plants (PAN: *putput₁)

potapotto work in the rice field pulling weeds and cultivating young rice plants (NOISE)

potonto cut off, referring to someone or thing with a stump from a missing limb (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

procslide down (PAN: *perus)

procslide down (ROOT)

psiʔto smash dead, as an insect; to squeeze juice (PAN: *peSiq)

puluqquail, partridge (PAN: *puRuq)

rafrafbe inflamed with (anger) (NOISE)

rakatmovement; walk (PAN: *rakat)

Amis (400 / 580)

rakescamphor tree (PAN: *dakeS)

risristo hoe out grass, roots and all (PAN: *riSriS)

romaother, another; different; some, some other, sometimes (PAN: *duma)

roma-satomoreover (PAN: *duma)

sa-cadiwinstrument used for sharpening, as a rock (PAN: *saNiw)

sa-fakeca belt (PAN: *bakes₁)

safalatsouth wind (PAN: *SabaRat)

safitlong cloth used as a band to tie a baby on one's back; cloth used as a belt; cloth used as a headdress; cloth wrapped around the feet to help climb betel nut tree (PAN: *Sabit)

sa-kafoŋ-ento put on one’s hat (LOAN)

saka-limathe fifth (PAN: *lima)

saka-siwaninth (PAN: *Siwa)

sakina-tosasecond time (PAN: *duSa)

salilipost (Chen 1982:141) (PAN: *SadiRi)

samaʔtender edible greens which look somewhat like dandelions (PAN: *Samaq)

saneka bad odor, smell (PAN: *Sajek)

sanekto sniff, smell something (PAN: *Sajek) Central

sa-pa-ʔoripthe provision of salvation (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

sa-pdekeyelashes, something for blinking (PAN: *pedek)

sa-pikpíkwing (PAN: *pikpik)

sapsapfeel with one's hands; figuratively feel: find out (PAN: *SapSap)

Amis (420 / 580)

sa-qaɬevdoor (PAN: *qaNeb) Kiwit

sa-spatfour (animals and humans) (PAN: *Sa-Sepat) *Sepat

sa-toktoka hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

sawquestion particle indicating that the speaker expects the answer to be obvious (PAN: *Saw)

sawsawgeneric word for wash (PAN: *SawSaw)

sa-ʔdefa door (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

sematongue (PAN: *Sema)

siketbe attached, joined to (PAN: *Siket)

siketattached to, joined to (ROOT)

simaloil, grease, fat; gasoline (PAN: *SimaR)

sirigoat (PAN: *Sidi)

sisirscraping sound; to slide (NOISE)

siwanine (PAN: *Siwa)

siwitslant, set at an angle, off course (PAN: *Siwid)

siwitto slant, set at an angle (NEAR)

skakthe crow of a rooster; to crow (PAN: *Sekak)

sodocpull out, draw, as a sword (PAN: *SuNus)

sololslide down (as a log down a hill) (PAN: *SuluR)

solotto pull; draw something literally; attract, exert influence on (PAN: *SuRut)

solot-enpull (imper.) (PAN: *SuRut-en) *SuRut

Amis (440 / 580)

solsolto thread through holes and draw, as to run a drawn string through holes; to string together (PAN: *SuRSuR)

sosoʔto let drip out, to drain (PAN: *SuSuq)

sotaʔearth, dirt; mud; land (ROOT)

sowafto yawn (PAN: *Suab)

soʔawthirsty (PAN: *quSaw)

soʔsoʔto drip, drain water off (PAN: *SuqSuq)

spatfour (PAN: *Sepat)

stekto literally cut, sever (PAN: *Setek)

tademgrave, tomb (PAN: *CaNem)

tadem-ento bury (PAN: *CaNem-en) *CaNem

tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war (PAN: *tabaN)

tafaktobacco (LOAN)

tafoto wrap up, to make a bundle (PAN: *Cabu)

takawsteal (PAN: *Cakaw)

takecembrace (PAN: *ta(R)kes)

takecto embrace, to hold in one’s arms (PAN: *takes₁)

takecembrace (ROOT)

taktakto pour out of a container (PAN: *taktak₁)

talato wait (PAN: *taRah)

talawbe afraid, fear (generic term) (PAN: *talaw)

Amis (460 / 580)

talitaro (PAN: *Cali)

taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around (PAN: *taliuk)

talodall kinds of grass, weeds (generic term) (PAN: *CaluN)

taloʔanhut, temporary shelter for use in the fields (PAN: *taRuqan)

tamato find; to be right; to hit on target (PAN: *tama₁)

tanamtry to do something; taste (PAN: *tañam)

tanamto try to do something; to taste (PAN: *taNam)

ta-neŋneŋ-ansomething to look at and get an idea from (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

tano-cokorto take along nothing but a cane; for an old person to have only a cane on which to lean (PAN: *sukud)

taŋiccry; expressed or unexpressed grief (PAN: *Caŋis)

taŋilaear, ears (PAN: *Caŋila)

tarodoʔfingers, toes (LOAN)

ta-tolothree, of humans (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

ta-tosatwo, of people (PAN: *da-duSa) *duSa

tawageneric for laugh with positive and negative meanings (PAN: *Cawa)

təfossugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

tekepthe name of a trap (PAN: *tekep)

tekoŋto bang; the sound of a thud (PAN: *tekuŋ₂)

tektekto peck, with reference to birds and chickens (PAN: *tektek₁)

tepeŋto measure grain with a large measure (PAN: *tepeŋ₃)

Amis (480 / 580)

terter ~ teltelto be shaken or jolted, as when riding in a vehicle (PAN: *terter)

tevunwell (water source) (PAN: *Cebuj) Kiwit

tfona well, a source of water (PAN: *Cebuj)

tifekto mill grain (ROOT)

tikolaca quail, bamboo partridge (PAN: *tikuRas)

timolsouth (PAN: *timuR)

tinaɁiintestines (PAN: *C<in>aqi) *Caqi

tiŋashave food caught in one's teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

tisekto stick a needle through the middle of to hold together, as a hair bun (NEAR)

t-ita-ananto us (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

tiyadbelly, stomach (PAN: *tiaN)

tkepkind of trap (ROOT)

tkessmall species of bamboo (PAN: *CekeS)

tkiʔmake a sound; the sound of rocks hitting (PAN: *tekiq)

tkoŋto bang (ROOT)

tnemsalty water (as is found in the village of Haciriwan) (PAN: *tenem)

todaan eel (PAN: *tuNa)

todohto burn (generic); to roast, barbecue (PAN: *CuNuh)

todoh-ento burn something (PAN: *CuNuh)

tokara ladder, stairs (PWMP: *tukad₁)

Amis (500 / 580)

tokeda crossbeam in a building (PAN: *tuked)

tokothe large center beam of a house or a ship's mast (PAN: *tuku₁)

toktokto hit with a hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tolothree (PAN: *telu)

t<om>aŋicto cry, weep (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

tomaythe Formosan black bear; be fierce, violent (PAN: *Cumay)

t<om>okolto sprout, come out of the ground (PAN: *tukul)

tonathese (unnamed) people (NOISE)

toŋtoŋthe sound of drums (PAN: *CuŋCuŋ)

toris, tosira line on paper or a line of planted rice plants (PAN: *Curis)

toros ~ tosorknee (PAN: *tuduS)

toroʔto point with the finger; to point figuratively; to pick (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

toroʔ-enbe pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁

tosatwo (non-humans) (PAN: *duSa)

tsekpierce, stab (PAN: *Cesek)

tsiɬalsun (PAN: *siNaR) Kiwit

tumushead louse (PAN: *CumeS) Kiwit

vaŋesskin (PAN: *baŋeS) Kiwit

vetuʔcallus (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *beCu)

wadistooth (PAN: *waNiS)

Amis (520 / 580)

wakwakwhite-breasted water hen (PAN: *wakwak)

walaystring; noodles (PAN: *walay)

waliEast (PAN: *waRi₁)

w-amafather (PAN: *amax)

warayseparate two parties that are quarreling (PAN: *waray)

watawatwave something back and forth (as a flag) (PAN: *watawat)

wawaoffspring, children (NOISE)

waʔaylegs including the feet (PAN: *waqay)

wiŋawiŋwag one's tail (PAN: *wiŋawiŋ)

ʔacawachild’s spouse, son-in-law or daughter-in-law (PAN: *qasawa)

ʔadaenemy (PAN: *qaNa)

ʔadawaŋgateway (ROOT)

ʔadigoshadow; human soul or spirit (PAN: *qaNiŋu)

ʔaditscab over a healing wound (PAN: *qaNiC)

ʔafalashoulder (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

ʔafaraʔ-anshoulder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

ʔafoashes; fertilizer (PAN: *qabu)

ʔalapittweezers, chopsticks (ROOT)

ʔalemanteater with long tongue: Manis tricupis (PAN: *qaRem)

ʔaƚipaŋpaŋbutterfly (Ogawa 1934) (PAN: *qaNi-)

Amis (540 / 580)

ʔalolbe carried away by water so that it is no longer seen (PAN: *qaluR₁) *qaluR

ʔalolbe carried away by water so that it is no longer seen (PAN: *qañud)

ʔamisnorth (PAN: *qamiS)

ʔanikakcrow (ROOT)

ʔaŋlisstrong smell of fish (PAN: *qaŋeRiS)

ʔaŋsitthe stink of a skunk; the smell of certains kinds of plants (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

ʔaolbamboo (generic) (PAN: *qauR)

ʔapocokthe very top of a mountain (PAN: *qapucuk)

ʔapolwhite; lime paste made from burnt white stone soaked in water that becomes powder (PAN: *qapuR)

ʔardoswamp grass, used in making things (PAN: *qaReNu)

ʔasoloa wood or stone pestle used to mill rice (PAN: *qaSelu)

ʔatayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

ʔatimelafleas (PAN: *qatimela)

ʔatipa weaver's bar (PAN: *qatip₁)

ʔawʔawto bark; the noise of a dog (PAN: *qawqaw)

ʔayambird, chicken (PAN: *qayam₁)

ʔcakripe, edible; cooked, done (PAN: *qesak)

ʔdefto close (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

ʔdefspread out over the whole area (PAN: *qeNeb₂)

ʔəmuNew Year’s cake, made of sweet sticky rice (PAN: *qemu)

Amis (560 / 580)

ʔetolsexual arousal, sexual passion (PAN: *qeCuR)

ʔian untranslatable particle at the end of a dependent clause (NOISE)

ʔilostoilet paper; anything used for wiping (PAN: *qiluS)

ʔinapjealousy, be jealous (PAN: *qijap)

ʔkoŋowl (PAN: *qekuŋ)

ʔmincomplete; all; every one included (PAN: *qemin)

ʔoaŋto howl; high-pitched sound of a dog (PAN: *quaŋ₂)

ʔokotto huddle, as when cold (PAN: *qukut)

ʔokothuddle, as when cold (ROOT)

ʔoniŋdirt, soil of clothing or skin (PAN: *qujiŋ)

ʔoŋtopipe for smoking (LOAN)

ʔoradrain (PAN: *quzaN)

ʔoriplife (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

ʔosŋetan expression of anger (PAN: *quSeŋeC)

ʔotkokto huddle, as when cold (ROOT)

ʔowalpry with a crowbar (NOISE)

ʔowayreeds made from a plant that grows in the mountains; plant used in tying together poles, furniture, baskets (PAN: *quay)

ʔpihem (< *-pi) (ROOT)

ʔtahchaff (PAN: *qeCah)

ʔtotto pass gas from bloating (PAN: *qetut)

Amis (580 / 580)

ʔuƚuqbeads (PAN: *quNuq)

ʔuɬuqbeads (Tsuchida 1976) (PAN: *uNuq)

Amis (Central) (10) Form. (Blust 2002) [ami] (Amis) Taiwan

afalashoulder (PAN: *qabaRa₁) Central

fariostyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS) Central

faʔigrandmother (PAN: *baqi) Central

fokeshead hair (PAN: *bukeS) Central

kawananright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN Central

l<um>akatto walk (PAN: *lakat₂) Central

ma-toʔasold, of people (PAN: *ma-tuqaS) *tuqaS Central

nagenitive of plural personal nouns (PAN: *na₃) Central

nigenitive of singular personal names (PAN: *ni) Central

sanekto sniff, smell something (PAN: *Sajek) Central

Amis (Kiwit) (28) Form. (Ogawa 1933, Ferrell 1979)

alunahlarge variety of ant (PAN: *alujah) Kiwit

ano-cilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

anu-tsilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

ceŋettick (insect) (PAN: *seŋet₂) Kiwit

cila-cilafrequently (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

cila satonext day (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

falahember (PAN: *baRah) Kiwit

ina-cilayesterday (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

iruswooden spoon (PAN: *qidus) Kiwit

kanuʔusfingernail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁ Kiwit

kasuytree; firewood (PAN: *kaSiw) Kiwit

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁) Kiwit

ɬa-ɬintaqmountain leech (PAN: *qaNi-meCaq) *-meCaq Kiwit

laviʔievening, night (PAN: *Rabiqi) Kiwit

ɬihivcave (PAN: *Nihib) Kiwit

likatlight, ray; lamp (PAN: *likaC) Kiwit

likat nu tsiɬalray of sunlight (PAN: *likaC) Kiwit

ɬukawound, injury (PAN: *Nuka) Kiwit

ɬuqus nu ukakmarrow (lit. ‘marrow of the bones’) (PAN: *NuqeS) Kiwit

mi-ɬaŋuyto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy) Kiwit

Amis (Kiwit) (20 / 28)

mi-paluto fight with fists (PAN: *palu₃) Kiwit

mi-patsukto stab (PAN: *pasuk) Kiwit

mi-taqisto sew (PAN: *CaqiS) Kiwit

sa-qaɬevdoor (PAN: *qaNeb) Kiwit

tevunwell (water source) (PAN: *Cebuj) Kiwit

tsiɬalsun (PAN: *siNaR) Kiwit

tumushead louse (PAN: *CumeS) Kiwit

vaŋesskin (PAN: *baŋeS) Kiwit

Amis (Utrecht ms.) (1) Form.

ma-simdimdark (PAN: *ma-demdem) *demdem₂ Utrecht ms.

Amis (Sakizaya) (41) Form.. see: Sakizaya

19. Ampana (12) WMP (Adriani 1928)

ajabreeding animal, stud (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ali-wombobutterfly (PMP: *beŋbeŋ₄)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ilabirthmark, mark on skin (PMP: *qila)

kawu-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

ma-wunihidden (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

mo-kali-mumurinse the mouth (PWMP: *kali-muRmuR) *muRmuR

padahigh grass, cane grass (PWMP: *padaŋ)

pusu mbuainflorescence of the areca palm (PMP: *pusuq₁)

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

t<in>ujuindex finger (PWMP: *t<in>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

tiŋafood or other matter between the teeth (Adriani 1928) (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

20. Ampibabo-Lauje (26) WMP (Himmelmann 2001) [law] (Lauje) Indonesia (Sulawesi)

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

babipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bonuohouse (PMP: *banua)

bulaŋmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buliŋsoot (PWMP: *budiŋ)

eleosun (PMP: *qalejaw)

itoŋblack (PMP: *qitem)

lanolake (PAN: *danaw)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mo-nalagto fry (PWMP: *ma-naŋelaR) *saŋelaR

mo-ñavato breathe (PMP: *ma-ñawa) *NiSawa

mo-tuluto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

mo-ʔopugrandchild (PMP: *kempu)

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

obolsmoke (from a fire) (PAN: *qebel)

ogo baafloodwaters (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

pampaŋland; plain (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

pasigcoral reef (PWMP: *pasiR)

tai nu tuliʔearwax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

tooperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

Ampibabo-Lauje (20 / 26)

ujaŋrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

(u)ŋa-lagavirgin, young girl (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

utipenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

ʔayuwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ʔilatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

ʔitoto see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

Anakalang (51) CMP. see: Anakalangu

21. Anakalangu (51) CMP (Fox n.d.) [aka: Anakalang]

amafather (PAN: *amax)

amuroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

atiliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

authou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

awaŋsky (PMP: *awaŋ)

binufull (PMP: *penuq)

buatuheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

dauŋuyear (PMP: *taqun)

inamother (PCEMP: *ina)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

itato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kukuclaw (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

laralara (PMP: *zalan)

la-wanaright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

limafive (PAN: *lima)

maito come (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

ma-raninear (PMP: *adani)

masisalt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

Anakalangu (20 / 51)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matito die (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

ma-winiwoman (PAN: *ma-b<in>ahi) *bahi

moniman, male (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

mutavomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

ŋanito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

ŋaraname (PMP: *ŋajan)

paluto hit (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

patufour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

piraŋuwhen? (PCMP: *pijan) *ijan

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

puhuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

rablood (PAN: *daRaq)

raŋuhear (PMP: *deŋeR)

rarared (PMP: *rara)

rauleaf (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

rutugrass (PMP: *dukut₂)

taat (PCEMP: *ta₁)

tabuniafterbirth, placenta (PMP: *tabuni₁)

tauperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

Anakalangu (40 / 51)

tunuburn (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

umahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

uraŋrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

waiwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

walueight (PAN: *walu)

watustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

wausmell (PMP: *bahuq)

wuafruit (PMP: *buaq)

wulamoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulufeather (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

wutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

22. Andra (29) OC

ate-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

batstone (POC: *patu) *batux

bihinfemale, woman (POC: *papine) *bahi

biŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

calpath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

deŋto cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

draŋahwrasse (POC: *taŋapa)

drassea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

gutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

i3sg., he, she (PAN: *ia₁)

laŋa-nname (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

lehe-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

lima-hfive (PAN: *lima)

lime-hand (PAN: *qalima)

liwo-htwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

meto come (POC: *maRi) *aRi

metto die; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

mihi-mihto dream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

onsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

ono-hsix (POC: *onom) *enem

Andra (20 / 29)

ou2sg., you (POC: *ko) *kaSu

ro-mutvomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

sa-ŋatone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

susbreast (PAN: *susu₁)

talo-hthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tamofather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tine-mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

umhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

wawater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

23. Anejom (25) OC (Lynch 2001a)

a-haŋečforage on the reef (POC: *paŋoda)

a-pan ~ hango (POC: *pano) *paNaw

a-tleŋ/e-tleŋto swallow (POC: *toloŋ)

e-mtaγfear (POC: *matakut) *takut

e-tma-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

-iconstruct suffix: of (inja era-i pikad ‘blood of a pig’ [blood passive.possessive-construct suffix pig] (PAN: *ni)

-k1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

masdie; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

maslow tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

matraw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

na-ŋaicanarium almond (POC: *kaŋaRi)

na-teŋa shrub or tree with medicinal uses: Ficus adenosperma (POC: *taŋa₃)

na-θeθfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

na-tpʷa(-nean)spongy mass inside a coconut that has started to shoot (POC: *tabwa)

n-aubamboo (PMP: *qauR)

na-urasMorinda citrifolia (POC: *kurat)

ne-γetlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ne-koablenny: Ecsenius sp. (POC: *kakawa₂)

ne-tosugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

n-haua flowering plant, Hibiscus tiliaceous (POC: *paRu) *baRu

Anejom (20 / 25)

ni-jhotooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

n-iθaname (POC: *isa₂)

no-hosbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

n-umwearth oven (PMP: *qumun)

n-waifresh water (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

Angkola-Mandailing (10) WMP. see: Angkola-Mandailing Batak

24. Angkola-Mandailing Batak (10) WMP (Siregar 1977, Warren 1959) [akb] (Batak Angkola) Indonesia (Sumatra) [aka: Batak, Angkola-Mandailing]

anak ni taŋanfinger (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

antatadurather large caterpillar that adheres to leaves (PWMP: *hantatadu)

antatadurather large caterpillar that adheres to leaves (PWMP: *qantatadu)

asak-asakiron used to clean gun barrel (PWMP: *qasak)

atasabove, over (PMP: *atas) *aCas

hali-mismishave a sty on the eye (PWMP: *mismis₁)

lai-laitip, extremity (PWMP: *lawi₂)

ma-ñuanto plant (PWMP: *suan)

-nia3sg. possessor (PAN: *ni-a) *-a₂

sabawet ricefield, rice paddy (PWMP: *sabaq)

Aniwa (3) OC. see: Futuna-Aniwa

25. Ansus (28) SHWNG (Anceaux 1961) [and] Indonesia (Papua)

aefoot (PAN: *qaqay)

aytree, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ayabird (PAN: *qayam₁)

bocanoe paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

-enasleep (PAN: *qinep)

i3sg., he, she (PAN: *ia₁)

ina-mother (PCEMP: *ina)

karacockatoo (PEMP: *kaRa)

ko-dutwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rato walk (PMP: *lakaj)

ra-macome (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tapuypig (LOAN)

tawana tree: Pometia spp. (PMP: *tawan)

tobusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₂) *CebuS

unu(ŋ)to drink (PCEMP: *unum)

ura-ruavein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

vavi(ŋ)woman (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

ve-vorunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

Ansus (20 / 28)

wacanoe (PEMP: *waŋka)

wanuvillage; house (PMP: *banua)

warahand (PMP: *baRa₁)

we-rauŋleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

woaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

wonasix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

wurubody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

y-au1sg, I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

26. Anuta (236) OC (Feinberg 1977) [aud] Solomon Islands

aparticle placed between a preposition and a personal pronoun or a proper name, but not before a common noun (PMP: *a₁)

alo-alobelly inside (POC: *qarop) *qadep

amaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

anusaliva, spit, spittle (POC: *qanus₂)

anusaliva, spit, spittle (POC: *qanusi)

aodaytime (as opposed to night), day (as in day of the week) (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

apifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

arapath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ateplant sp.: Wedelia biflora, Adenostema lavenia (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

atubonito (POC: *qatun)

atuindicates action directed away from the speaker or point of reference (PMP: *atu)

atuaspirit being (PMP: *qatuan)

aturetype of small fish that comes into the shallow reef water in large schools. Ranges in size from about one to one and a half pounds (PMP: *qatulay)

auocean current (PMP: *qaRus)

e aiby whom? (PMP: *sai)

e mata piahow many tens of fish? (POC: *pica) *pijax

e-nathat, there (PAN: *-na)

e piahow many is it? (POC: *pica) *pijax

e toko piahow many people? (POC: *pica) *pijax

Anuta (20 / 236)

i aiwith whom? (PMP: *sai)

ie-nihere, in this place (PAN: *ia-ni) *-ni

iioyes (PMP: *qio)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

ipia tree: Inocarpus fagiferus (POC: *ipi₂)

ipoto descend; downwards (POC: *sipo)

iramole (on a person's skin) (PMP: *qila)

ivibone (in certain constructions and words) (POC: *suRi₁)

kaito eat; generic name for food crops (POC: *kani) *kaen

kai taeeat shit! (curse) (POC: *kani) *kaen

kapa-kapato flap wings (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

kipreposition: to, toward (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

ki aito whom? (PMP: *sai)

kiatothwart or outrigger boom of canoe (POC: *kiajo)

kira-kirashiny (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

kiriskin, outer covering (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kiuismall bird which comes only during monsoon season (POC: *kiwiwi)

ko aipronoun: who? (PMP: *sai)

kopito embrace (POC: *kobit₁) *kepit

ku piahow many was it? (POC: *pica) *pijax

Anuta (40 / 236)

kutuhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

loant (generic) (POC: *loRo)

maa-ramathe light part of the day; daylight; light, bright; intelligent (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

maatoruthick (POC: *matolu) *təlu

maiparticle indicating action toward some point of reference, generally the speaker; from (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mai aifrom whom? (PMP: *sai)

makasling (for hurling stones) (POC: *maga)

malomen’s loin garment, made from a strip of bark-cloth (PCEMP: *malaw)

mamato prepare food to be fed, usually to an infant, by chewing; may also be used as a generic term for chewing, but the usual word in that case would be kamu (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-mapaheavy (POC: *mapat)

manapower; almighty (POC: *mana₂)

manava-navashort of breath (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manipi-nipithin (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

maru ~ maruuprotected; dry (as the inside of a well-constructed house when it is raining); shady; protector (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru-marushady; dry (as a result of being protected from the rain) (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

mataraw; green (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mataraw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

mataeye (including the immediate surrounding area); face (has this meaning when used in plural); front end of an object (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataŋiwind; old name for Anuta (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

Anuta (60 / 236)

mata putinew shoot springing from old banana plant (‘eye of banana’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata taua line of men in battle formation (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matautatooing chisel (POC: *matau)

matedie (POC: *mate) *aCay

matuahusband; important, major, primary; adult, mature; ripe (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

ma-urilive, be alive; life, soul (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mimiurine; to urinate (PMP: *mimi)

mitito suck (POC: *miti)

miti-mitihard candy or other object to be sucked (POC: *miti-miti) *miti

mo aiwith whom? (PMP: *sai)

mo-monafat, grease; greasy (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

m-uriback; the rear portion of something; behind; a village just to the west (i.e. "behind") Mua (POC: *muri) *udehi

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nimafive (PAN: *lima)

nima matauright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

nipotooth, teeth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu matayoung coconut (PMP: *niuR)

nonua tree, of which there are two subvarieties; te nonu kuru (with larger fruit), and te nonu vao (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

nopoto dwell; to sit; to be alive (POC: *nofo)

Anuta (80 / 236)

ŋa maatuaaparents (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

(ŋa)-roŋonews (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ŋarubreakers, surf (rarely: wave) (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋauto chew (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋutumouth; cutting edge (of knife, scissors, axe, adze, etc.) or the striking edge of a club or point of a spear (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu korekoreto curse someone or shout in anger (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋuua hum or soft groan; to utter such a sound (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ōto go, to come (POC: *oRo)

okatransverse beams supporting roof of house (POC: *oka₂)

okatransverse beams supporting roof of house (POC: *sokar) *seŋkar

onebeach; beach sand (POC: *qone) *qenay

one-onebeach; beach sand (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

oŋefamine (POC: *soŋe)

ooprovisions for a voyage (POC: *qoso)

otasago palm (NOISE)

otifinish (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

pafour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

pai matauright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

paka-causative prefix (mate ‘die’ : paka-mate ‘commit suicide’, taŋi ‘to cry, to moan’ : paka-taŋi ‘to blow a conch shell or other type of whistle, horn, etc.’) (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

Anuta (100 / 236)

panaany implement which discharges projectiles (PAN: *panaq)

pano-panowash the hands (POC: *paño) *bañaw

papacarry a person -- generally a small child -- on one's back, piggyback fashion (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

papaboard, plank; any hard flat surface, as the top of a plank, a flat rock (POC: *baban) *papan

papiefirewood (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

papinewoman; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

parusmall red reef fish (NOISE)

patastorage shelf inside a house (PMP: *pataR₁)

paturock, stone (POC: *patu) *batux

patu manavaheart (POC: *patu) *batux

penurubbish (POC: *benu)

pikisticky sap, as that of the breadfruit; glue (POC: *bikit) *pikit

piki-pikisticky (POC: *bikit) *pikit

piri-pirinear (PMP: *pilit₁)

pitonavel, umbilical cord (POC: *bito)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ponogeneral assembly of the island; generic for any council of a political nature; to meet in political council (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

ponusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

poroto swallow (POC: *polon) *belen

pua pituseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

Anuta (120 / 236)

pukuprotuberance; erection of penis (POC: *buku)

puŋatop surface of something (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

puŋacoral stone abrader (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

puŋatop surface of something (POC: *puŋa-puŋa)

puŋa pareceiling, roof (lit.: top of house) (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

puŋa teatype of white coral which is used for finishing woodwork (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

pu-puruwash an object other than oneself (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

puput-ipull something up from the ground; stretch something like a piece of rubber (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

purafor a spark to ignite upon rubbing a stick on a wood platform or fire plow (POC: *bula₁)

puratype of fish (NOISE)

puriturn something around (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

purito turn something around (POC: *puri)

puri-iturn something over (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

purucoconut husk and fiber (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

purufibrous material including body hair (not head hair, which is te rau uru), animal fur, bird feathers (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

puru-ŋakere(lit. 'washing the dirt') name of the Anuta circumcision rite (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

puru o manubird feather (POC: *pulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

puru-puruwash one's self (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

puru-puru ou nimawash your hands (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

put-ipull in a length of line such as fishing line or anchor line (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

Anuta (140 / 236)

putibanana (generic term) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

putukind of tree: Barringtonia asiatica (POC: *putun₁) *butun

putu-putufor crops to be planted close together (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

puu-kaaconch shell (blown to signify the start of church); shell trumpet (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

raasail (PAN: *layaR)

raa-kautree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan

raa-kau ~ ra-kautree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

raeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

rakato step over something (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

rakato step over something (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly (POC: *lakar-lakar) *lakaj

raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

rakinorthwest; wind coming from northwest; season during which winds from this direction predominate (i.e. monsoon season) (PCEMP: *raki)

raŋofly (insect) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

raotesticle (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

rapaa kind of skin fungus marked by severe itching, and very difficult to cure (POC: *lapa₂)

rararoast something on a spit over an open fire (only birds are prepared this way on Anuta) (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

rarodown (direction); below (place); west (POC: *ralom) *dalem

rauleaf; frond; head hair; sheet of paper (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rau tariŋaearlobe (POC: *raun ni taliŋa) *dahun

Anuta (160 / 236)

rereto travel quickly – to run; to fly; a ship or canoe racing over the water is also said to rere (POC: *rere₂)

rianit (egg of head louse) (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

rikismall (POC: *rikit) *dikit

rimuseaweed; algae growing on the reef (PMP: *limut)

rimu ŋa utamoss (lit. ‘inland algae’) (PMP: *limut)

roalong (in time) (POC: *loan)

Roaroalong (in either time or distance) (POC: *loan)

roŋoto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋoto hear about (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruato vomit; to be seasick (PMP: *luaq)

ruohole (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

ruruhawk; owl (POC: *druru)

taa ~ tato strike, to hit; an implement used for striking (i.e. a club); to chop down; to cut; to build (as in cutting out the shape/building a canoe) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taeentrails; excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-pikointestines (lit. ‘crooked feces’) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

taiwater covering the reef (PMP: *tasik)

t-ai-na"sibling" of the same sex, "sibling-in-law" of opposite sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tainamumosquito net (POC: *tai ñamuk)

ta-ku, to-kupossessive pronoun, first person singular (my), with singular object (POC: *-gu) *-ku

Anuta (180 / 236)

tanuto bury (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋataman, person; male (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taŋito cry, to moan (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taospear (POC: *jaot) *saet

tapato cut the stomach of a fish in order to remove the gut; to circumcise (POC: *tapa₂) *tapa₁

tapeocean current (POC: *tape₁)

tape-ato drift (POC: *tape-a) *tape₁

tarabarb (of a spear, fishhook, etc.) (POC: *salaŋ)

tarabarb (of a spear, fishhook, etc.) (PEMP: *sala)

tarisennit cord used for lashing canoes (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta (POC: *talos) *tales

ta-tou ~ taa-toufirst person plural inclusive personal and possessive pronoun; we, us; our, ours (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tauyear (PMP: *taqun)

te ponua string figure (POC: *poñu) *peñu

te rau poethe flat surface of canoe paddle blade (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

tikaa type of dart made from a reed shaft about four feet long, and tipped with a heavy hardwood head; a type of contest in which men compete to see how far they can throw their tika darts before they come to rest (POC: *tika)

tike-tiketo squat (POC: *tike)

tikoto defecate (POC: *tiko)

tiko-ŋatoilet (POC: *tiko)

timuto rain lightly, drizzle (PMP: *timuR)

Anuta (200 / 236)

tinobody (LOAN)

tioto look (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tioa kind of very small shellfish (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

toaironwood tree (POC: *toRas) *teRas

tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time (POC: *toka₂)

tokoto set, of the sun (POC: *toko)

tonuright, correct; true, truthful (POC: *tonuq)

toruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

totoblood; red (POC: *toto)

tuaback (anatomical part); rear portion of something; outside; away (POC: *tuqa₁)

tueiwait; old, ancient (POC: *tuaRi)

tuito point with one’s finger (PMP: *tusiq)

tuk-ito strike by extending one’s arm, as in boxing or karate (as opposed to slapping or hitting by bringing the arm down, which is ta); to puncture or drive an object through something; to hammer, strike, or beat something, as in mashing tubers to make a pudding; club (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tunuroast something over an open fire; roasted (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupaland crab (POC: *tubaRa)

tuputo grow (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tupuaa spirit which was never a human being (POC: *tupuqa)

t-upu-nagrandparent/ancestor (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tututo pound something, as in the preparation of bark cloth or pandanus leaf for making mats (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

Anuta (220 / 236)

tu-turideaf (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

uaneck (POC: *Ruqa)

ukathin line or cord (POC: *uka₂) *uka₁

unaturtle shell (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

unu-ipull out (POC: *unus-i) *SuNus

upiyam (generic) (PMP: *qubi)

urepenis (POC: *ule)

uruhead (POC: *qulu) *quluh

utasupplies or cargo lying in the hold of a boat or canoe (POC: *ucan) *ujan

uubreast; nipple (PAN: *susu₁)

vaedivide a group of objects into subsets (POC: *wa(n)se)

(vae)-raŋiheavens, sky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

vaiwater container (PEMP: *waip)

vai-akaroot (PMP: *akaR)

vai niucoconut shell water bottle (PEMP: *waip)

vaograss (POC: *wao)

varueight (PAN: *walu)

27. Aore (30) OC (Tryon 1976) [aor] Vanuatu

a ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

asechin (POC: *qase) *qazay

asu-smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

a suanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

a toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

a walueight (PAN: *walu)

laŋohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

matasnake (POC: *mwata)

mata-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m̈atedie, dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

na-tuaiold (POC: *tuaRi)

niudry coconut (PMP: *niuR)

onesand (POC: *qone) *qenay

raniday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

rau-leaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

salapath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

sama-outrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

tae-excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tassea (PMP: *tasik)

tia-belly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Aore (20 / 30)

tine-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tovusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

uracrayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

usarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

utlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

visiɣo-flesh (POC: *pisiko)

vosecanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

vua-fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wari-root (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

witasquid (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

28. Apma (48) OC (Tryon 1976) [app] Vanuatu

agacanoe (POC: *waga) *waŋka

bekeshark (POC: *pakewak)

bopig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

buŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

cisugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

cineguts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

daliŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

halpath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

hawinwoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

idoliegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

ikfish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

ka-cilthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ka-limfive (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

ka-limfive (PAN: *lima)

kamelmen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

ka-rutwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ka-vetfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

kilito dig (POC: *kali ~ keli) *kalih

kitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

-kitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

Apma (20 / 48)

kuitsquid (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

leŋhousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

liwo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

manubird (POC: *manuk)

matto die (POC: *mate) *aCay

mbito-navel (POC: *bito)

mcuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mtaciafraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

nucuchild (PEMP: *natu)

ŋusunose (PAN: *ŋusuq)

onsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

renday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

renday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

roŋoto smell (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

su-bone (POC: *suRi₁)

susu-breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tanearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

tema-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

te-matdead (POC: *mate) *aCay

Apma (40 / 48)

te-mnipnipthin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

te-saŋwulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

usrain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

valhouse (POC: *pale) *balay

vanto go (POC: *pano) *paNaw

vetstone (POC: *patu) *batux

wohcanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

wulmoon (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

29. Araki (46) OC (François 2002) [akr] Vanuatu

aiwater; fresh, drinkable water, collected from rain or from rivers (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

akaboat (POC: *waga) *waŋka

alov-ibeckon, wave to someone (PAN: *qalep)

dauleaf, palm leaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

doŋoto hear someone or something; feel physically; feel one way or another, feel well or ill; feel that, realize that something is going on; feel like, fancy (doing) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

esechin, lower jaw (between ears) (POC: *qase) *qazay

ha-possessive classifier for food (POC: *kana-)

ham̈alimen’s clubhouse, where eminent men traditionally meet and take important decisions (PMP: *kamaliR)

huriskin; tree bark (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

hurulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ilawild, from the bush (of animals) (POC: *ila₁) *ilah

imahouse, home (PAN: *Rumaq)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

jihicroton: Codiaeum variegatum (PMP: *siRi)

-ku1sg possessive pronoun: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

laŋiwind (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laso-testicles (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

loin, on, at; locative preposition referring to space (POC: *lom) *lem

lo-los-iswim (POC: *loso-loso)

Araki (20 / 46)

luato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

lum-lummoss, seaweed, lichen (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

m̈anukind of black and white flying-fox (POC: *manuk)

mo visahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

nahoface (POC: *nago)

naho danimorning (‘face of the day’) (POC: *nago)

naho hocofront teeth, including canines and incisors (POC: *nago)

naru-child (of someone) (PEMP: *natu)

-n(i)construct suffix, always followed by a noun phrase referring to possessor (PAN: *ni)

oβusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

paratrunk of a tree; hence the tree itself, vs. its fruits (vae), or its other parts (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

par̃atrunk of a tree; hence the tree itself vs. its fruits (vae), or its other parts (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

rasisea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

rasisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

roluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ruaibefore, beforehand; in olden time, a long time ago (POC: *tuaRi)

salaroad, path, way (POC: *salan) *zalan

sa-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

seinterrogative, who? (PMP: *sei)

suato row, paddle (PEMP: *suak)

Araki (40 / 46)

sui-bone, skeleton (POC: *suRi₁)

susu-breast; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

usarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

va-punered-bellied fruit dove: Ptilinopus greyii (POC: *bune) *punay

visihoflesh, meat (POC: *pisiko)

xuariroot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

30. 'Āre'āre (420) OC (Geerts 1970) [alu] (’Are’are) Solomon Islands

-apersonal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed to verb (with or without verbal suffix) as object, and to prepositions as an anticipatory object, and used both of persons and things: him, her, it; where the object is collective the anticipatory object is used in the singular, and not in the plural (PMP: *-a₂)

ae-naanus (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

ahara-nashoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

ahe-ta ni waia dry river bed (POC: *tape₁)

aiaexclamation of assent, of wonder (PAN: *aya₁)

ana apa maion this side (POC: *taba₂)

ani-ato eat; to wear out, to burn (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

aniria fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

ānogarden, garden-ground (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-ato bury, fill a grave with sand, to fill a hole, cover with earth (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

āno-ānodust (POC: *tanoq tanoq) *taneq

ano-miato bury (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

anu-iato shake, move (POC: *kañul-kañul) *kañul

aothe black heron (POC: *kao)

ao ekethe white heron, egret (POC: *kao)

apawing (POC: *kabak) *kapak

apa-ato flap the wings (POC: *kabak) *kapak

apa-apaside, part, portion, half (POC: *taba₂)

a-pinutwisted, out of shape, flabby, folded, bend over (POC: *pinu)

apotaegg (POC: *posaq) *peceq

Are'āre (20 / 420)

āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children (POC: *tabu) *tambu

āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness) (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid (POC: *tabu-ni-a) *tambu

aralarge green parrot, red under the wings (POC: *kaRa)

ara-iato bite (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

arami-ato permit, consent, allow (POC: *taRamwi)

ārotaro (several varieties) (POC: *talos) *tales

arua green coconut, good for drinking (POC: *karut₂)

āsisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

āsi māethe calm sea in lagoons and passages, as opposed to āsi mauri, the open sea (POC: *mate) *aCay

āsi maethe quiet sea in the lagoon (lit. ‘dead sea’) (PMP: *tasik)

āsi maurithe open sea (lit. ‘living sea’) (PMP: *tasik)

asuherat (POC: *kasupe) *kazupay

a-teiinterrogative pronoun: who? (PMP: *sei)

atoa rafter of wood or bamboo (PMP: *kasaw₁)

eri-ato dig, harvest; dig a hole; bury, cover with earth (PCEMP: *keli)

fiuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fiu-naseventh (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

stage, shelf, small platform above the fireplace, used as a depository (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

hahacarry one the back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

Are'āre (40 / 420)

haifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

hakastrange, foreign; ship (POC: *pakaq) *baŋkaq

haka ro-rohoairplane (POC: *Ropok) *Rebek

haneclimb, ascend, rise (of sun and moon); rise, ferment (POC: *panek) *panahik

haneia ūnuordeal, judgement by hot stones, trial by fire (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

hanoa skin disease, white spots without scales (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

hanualand, as opposed to asi sea; district, place, country, island; the territory, area where a person lives, where his possessions are, such as food, bamboo, trees, pigs, water and graves is called his hanua (POC: *panua) *banua

haorunew, fresh, young (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

hapatimber; a canoe seat (POC: *baban) *papan

haraspread, of the arms; stretch; to stroke (NOISE)

harehouse of retirement for women during menstruation and after childbirth (POC: *pale) *balay

harepalate (NOISE)

haristingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

harilop off branches, cut off a bunch of bananas, betelnuts (POC: *paRi₃) *paRi

hari-a(OG. lop off branches (NOISE)

hari-manubig ray fish (PMP: *paRih manuk) *paRiS

harisigrass, small clover (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

harisigrass, small clover (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

haropierce, bore, drill (POC: *paRo₁)

harua few, some, several (POC: *palu₆) *balu₃

Are'āre (60 / 420)

hasi-ato plant (of food except taro) (POC: *pasi)

hau manu-manupumice stone (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

haʔa-mata-ato dry fish or meat over the fire before the final cooking between hot stones (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

haʔa-usuri-ato teach, instruct (POC: *paka-usuri) *usuri

haʔuthe pandanus tree, which has broad leaves; used by men as perineal bandage; also used to make a kind of mat called haʔu (POC: *pakuŋ) *bakuŋ₂

hihi-nalabia (POC: *pipiR) *biRbiR

hinanataro pudding (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

hinaŋataro pudding (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

hioroto fast, starve (POC: *pitolon)

hioro-nahunger, fasting, famine, starvation (POC: *pitolon)

hirawild taro; there are several varieties, of which some are edible. It is used also in magical curing of the sick (POC: *piRaq₂) *biRaq₁

hira-hirato scar, to cut; a scar, a cut (POC: *pilat₂) *bilat₂

hiri-achoose, pick out, select (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

hiri-si-achoose, pick out, select (PAN: *piliq)

hiriʔ-iatwist, entwine, tie, bind, with a vine; tighten a vine around the waist of a woman in order to provoke an abortion (PMP: *pirit)

hiro-atowring out, squeeze, twist (POC: *piro)

hirucurly, of hair; to wind (rou