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Updated: 9/22/2018


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)

Baba Malay
Babatana (Avasö)
Bahasa Indonesia
Balangingi Samal
Bali (Uneapa)
Balinese (High)
Balinese (Low)
Bantaeng Makasarese
Bare'e (Lalau)
Bare'e (Luwu)

Bario Kelabit
Batad Ifugaw
Batu Belah Berawan
Batu Merah
Bayninan Ifugaw
Berawan (Batu Belah)
Berawan (Long Jegan)
Berawan (Long Terawan)
Berawan (Long Teru)
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)
Bikol (Camarines Sur)
Bikol (East Miraya)
Bikol (Miraya dialects)
Bikol (Naga)
Bikol Romblomanon
Bilaan (Koronadal)
Bilaan (Sarangani)

Binongan Itneg
Bisaya (Limbang)
Bisaya (Lotud)
Bisaya (Sabah)
Bisaya Bukid
Bisaya Bukit
Bisayan (Panay)
Blaan (Koronadal)
Blaan (Sarangani)
Bolaang Mongondow
Borneo Malay

Botolan Sambal
Brunei Malay
Budai Rukai
Buginese (dial.)
Buginese (Soppeng)
Bugis Soppeng
Bulud Upi
Bunun (Isbukun)
Bunun (Northern)
Bunun (Takbanuad)
Bunun (Takituduh)

46. Ba'amang (15) WMP (Hudson 1967) [nij] (Ngaju) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

ba-putiʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa) (PMP: *datu)

hantelohegg (PMP: *qateluR)

kam-anak-ansibling’s child, cousin’s child (< *anak ‘child’) (PWMP: *kam- -an)

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

leŋearm (PMP: *leŋen)

ma-lujaʔto spit (PWMP: *luzaq)

mana-hanséŋbreathe (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

ma-naŋisto cry (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

man-tuhaʔparent-in-law (WF, WM, HF, HM) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

siluʔfingernail, claw (PWMP: *silu₂)

teluʔthree (PAN: *telu)

tueʔold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

y-akuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

Baba Malay (3) WMP. see: Malay (Baba)

47. Babatana (16) OC (Tryon and Hackman 1983) [baa] Solomon Islands (dialects: Avasö 2)

avawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

γazutree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

jolosubside (POC: *solo₃)

kiralorikeet (POC: *kiRak)

ku-kusuto spit (POC: *kusu₂)

kururuowl (POC: *kururu₂)

manaand (POC: *mana)

naand (PMP: *na₅) *Na₁ Avasö

po-posaraclap hands (POC: *pwajaR)

posohold in hand, hold onto (POC: *poso)

tapreposition of location: in, at, on, from, by (PCEMP: *ta₁)

tama-efather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tuluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tunatrue, real (POC: *tuna)

vittuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Avasö

zianine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

Babatana (Avasö) (2) OC

naand (PMP: *na₅) *Na₁ Avasö

vittuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Avasö

Babuyan (162) WMP. see: Ibatan

Babuza (55) Form.. see: Favorlang

48. Bada (1) WMP [bhz] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

antaʔeat humans, practice cannibalism (Adriani 1928, sub onta) (PAN: *qataq)

49. Baetora (9) OC (Tryon 1976) [aka: Nasawa, Navenevene]

ma-itodirty (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

manif-nifthin (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

mbito-navel (POC: *bito)

mbito-navel (POC: *bito)

minaand (POC: *mana)

natu-child (PEMP: *natu)

rik-riksmall (POC: *rikit) *dikit

seiwho? (PMP: *sei)

tagu-back (POC: *takuRu)

50. Bagobo (4) WMP [obo] (Manobo, Obo) Philippines

baganibrave men, warriors, a status of considerable prestige achieved by the taking of human life under culturally prescribed conditions (Lebar 1975) (PMP: *baRani)

kabatitia shrub: Callicarpa caudata Maxim., Verbenaceae (PPH: *kabatíti)

latoŋa stinging plant: Urtica bullata Bl. (Madulid 2001) (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

maganibrave men, warriors, a status of considerable prestige achieved by the taking of human life under culturally prescribed conditions (Lebar 1975) (PWMP: *ma-baRani) *baRani

51. Bahasa Indonesia (231) WMP (Poerwadarminta 1976) [ind] (Indonesian) Indonesia (Java and Bali)

adaskind of hemp, Cannabis sativa; a substance such as marijuana, hashish, etc., made from the leaves and flowers of this plant (PWMP: *aqedas)

-anthe suffix -an is used to form nouns from various types of base ... It is also used to form a small number of adjectives and adverbs ... When added to a root which can function as a noun, the suffix -an 1. occasionally produces a noun which hardly varies in meaning from the base noun (e.g. ruaŋ 'room' : ruaŋ-an 'room'); 2. more usually it produces a noun whose referent has some real or fancied resemblance to the referent of the base noun (e.g. achir 'end' : achir-an 'suffix', anak 'child' : anak-an 'interest (on an investment)', rambut 'hair' : rambut-an 'a fruit, the hairy cherry'; 3. when added to a noun root (usually reduplicated) the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to a collection of the referents of the simple noun, or of related referents (e.g. bintaŋ 'star' : bintaŋ-an 'constellation', pohon 'tree' : pohon-pohon-an 'trees, the vegetable kingdom'; 4. when added to a numerative (usually only satu, or those which can be preceded by satu in the form se-), the suffix -an forms a noun referring to a group consisting of that number (e.g. satu 'one' : satu-an 'a unit', -puluh 'ten' : puluh-an 'decade, a group of ten'; 5. when added to a verb (all other prefixes and suffixes being lost), the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to what is involved in the performance of the action referred to by the verb, whether as the product or the instrument (e.g. makan 'eat' : makan-an 'food', me-lukis 'to draws, paint' : lukis-an 'a drawing, painting', meŋ-ayun 'to rock, sway' : ayun-an 'cradle'. Such nouns in -an contrast with nouns in ke- -an, per- -an and peŋ- -an in that they refer to more concrete or definite things, while the three latter groups refer to more abstract processes. Nonetheless, there is sometimes a congruence in meaning between the noun in -an and the other nouns, especially those in per- -an and peŋ- -an... 6. Such nouns, derived from verbs by the addition of -an, refer to a collection of items, when the root is reduplicated (e.g. meŋ-gali 'to dig' : gali-an 'what is dug up' : gali-gali-an 'minerals, root crops', tembak 'to shoot' : tembak-an 'shot' : tembak-tembak-an 'shooting'; 7. Just as the suffix -an, added to a reduplicated noun root, produces a noun referring to a collection of items, the same suffix, added to a few adjective roots, usually reduplicated, produces a noun referring to a collection of items which can be characterized by that adjective (e.g. enak 'delicious' : enak-enak-an 'delicacies', manis 'sweet' : manis-an 'candy, sweets'; 8. Otherwise, adjectives and the occasional verb root, when reduplicated and followed by -an, produce adjectives, or adverbs of manner (e.g. teraŋ 'bright' : teraŋ-teraŋ-an 'frank', takut 'afraid' : takut-takut-an 'bashful', buta 'blind' : buta-buta-an 'at random, blindly') (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:65ff). (PAN: *-an)

anakoffspring; young person or animal; person who originates from or was born in (a given country, area, etc.); person belonging to a certain occupation (family, etc.), as anak kapal 'crewmember of a ship'; small part of some larger thing, as anak baju 'undershirt', anak bukit 'small hill (at foot of mountain)', anak air 'small tributary stream' (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak-aninterest on money (PWMP: *anak-an) *aNak

anak anakmany children; a small child (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anak anak-andoll (PWMP: *anak anak-an) *aNak

anak anak-an mentimunchild adopted for one's wife (lit. 'cucumber doll') (PWMP: *anak anak-an) *aNak

anak buahpeople who belong in one's family, (nation, etc.) (PMP: *anak buaq) *aNak

anak gampaŋillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak mérahneonate (lit. 'red child') (PMP: *anak a ma-iRaq) *aNak

anak oraŋnon-relative (PMP: *anak i tau) *aNak

anjaŋlong, tall (abbreviation of panjaŋ) (NOISE)

antar-anmoney, etc. given by the groom's family to his future parents-in-law; goods which are taken or sent on request; person who escorts or accompanies (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

antar-meŋ-antaraccompany one another, send to one another (as gifts of food) (PWMP: *maŋ-hateD) *SateD

añam-anwhat has been plaited or woven; things that have been plaited (PWMP: *añam-en) *añam

añam-an rambuta plait or braid of hair (PWMP: *añam-en) *añam

apa apaanything; what(so)ever (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁

asah-aninstrument used to whet or sharpen (PMP: *hasaq-an) *Sasaq

asah-anwhat has been sharpened (PWMP: *hasaq-en) *Sasaq

asin-anvegetables (fruits, etc.) that have been salted (PWMP: *qasin-an) *qasiN

Bahasa Indonesia (20 / 231)

babattripe (PWMP: *babat)

baloŋshallow pond (PWMP: *baqeluŋ)

bambaŋflat and wide, spacious (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₁)

baŋun-anwhat is erected, what is constructed (house, building, bridge) (PWMP: *baŋun-an) *baŋuN

baŋun-baŋunform, shape, build (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baurto mix (PWMP: *bahuR)

baur-anmixture (of foods, vegetables, etc.) (PWMP: *bahuR-an) *bahuR

be-ratus-ratushundreds and hundreds (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ber-baurmixed, mixed with (PWMP: *maR-bahuR) *bahuR

ber-buatdo, perform something (PWMP: *maR-buhat) *buhat₂

ber-deŋarlistened to, followed, obeyed (PWMP: *maR-deŋeR) *deŋeR

ber-hujan-hujandeliberately walk (play, etc.) in the rain (PWMP: *maR-quzan) *quzaN

ber-kaituse a hook (PWMP: *maR-kawit) *kawit

ber-kayucontaining wood; search for wood in the forest (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ber-limafive together (as five people living in the same house) (PWMP: *maR-lima) *lima

ber-lubaŋhaving a hole or depression (PWMP: *maR-lubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

ber-ludahto spit (PMP: *ludaq)

ber-pilih-pilihchoose very carefully (PWMP: *maR-piliq) *piliq

bər-pisah-pisahto keep to oneself (PWMP: *pisaq)

bər-saŋkutconnected with, involved with (PWMP: *saŋkut)

Bahasa Indonesia (40 / 231)

bər-saŋkut-aninvolved with, implicated (PWMP: *saŋkut)

bər-sinaw-sinawsparkle and shine (PWMP: *sinaw)

bər-sintukto rub the body, as when bathing (PWMP: *sintuk)

ber-tanamto plant, engage in the work of planting (PWMP: *maR-tanem) *CaNem

buah tomattomato: Solanum lycopersicum (probably < Dutch tomaat) (LOAN)

buatfor (someone), because of (PMP: *buhat₂)

buat-anwhat is made; result of work; way of making (PMP: *buhat-an₂) *buhat₂

buat apawhy? For what reason or purpose? (PWMP: *buhat apa) *buhat₂

bubardisperse, scatter (of people who have been gathered in one place) (LOAN)

burasdelicacy made of rice and soft coconut pulp wrapped in a banana leaf (LOAN)

dapur-dapurexternal part (of things, or parts of the body) (PWMP: *dapuR dapuR) *dapuR

dataŋ-dataŋjust arrived, newly arrived (PMP: *dateŋ)

derisa sound like that of walking through dry grass, cloth being cut, etc. (ROOT)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-duatwo by two, two at a time (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

dua hatihesitant, unsure (PMP: *duha) *duSa

erat-eratfirmly, tightly, of binding (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

gagumute, dumb (PWMP: *gagu)

getak-getuksound of knocking (PWMP: *getuk)

giathard-working, industrious; enthusiastic (about activities, etc.) (PWMP: *giqed)

Bahasa Indonesia (60 / 231)

gubitsummon by waving (fingers motioning downward and inward) (ROOT)

halaŋ-anthe cause or reason that a plan cannot be executed (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

hambathold back, impede (PWMP: *habed)

hati-hatiwatch out! take care! (PWMP: *hatay)

hujanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

huján lebatheavy rain, downpour (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

hujan panassunshower ( = "hot rain") (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

hujan rintik rintikdrizzling rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

imbaŋweigh, balance; compare (PMP: *imbaŋ)

kacawmixed indiscriminately; tangled, disordered; disturbed, not at peace (PWMP: *kacaw)

kailfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

ka-laut-anthings connected with the sea (PWMP: *ka-lahud-an) *lahud

k-anak k-anaksmall child (usually below seven years of age) (PMP: *ka-anak) *aNak

kanduŋpocket, pouch; womb (PWMP: *kanduŋ)

kantuksleepiness (PWMP: *kantuk)

kayuwoody tree; wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu apifirewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kə- -anmarker of the adversative passive; kə-hujan-an ‘be caught in the rain, be caught in a downpour’ (cf. hujan ‘rain’); kə-siaŋ-an ‘to oversleep’ (cf. siaŋ ‘bright daylight’); kə-tidur-an ‘to fall asleep inadvertently (as when needing to stay awake)’ (cf. tidur ‘sleep’); kə-panas-an ‘be overcome by the heat of the sun’ (cf. panas ‘hot’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ke-benar-ancoincidence (PWMP: *ka-bener-an) *bener

ke-berat-anobjection (PWMP: *ka-beReqat-en) *beReqat

Bahasa Indonesia (80 / 231)

ke-dataŋ-anthe arrival of something (PWMP: *ka-dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

ke-deŋar-anable to be heard; to be heard (PWMP: *ka-deŋeR-an) *deŋeR

ke-duasecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

ke-hujan-anbe caught in the rain (PWMP: *ka-quzan-an) *quzaN

kəjatbe stiff, rigid, as with fear (Echols and Shadily) (PWMP: *kezat)

kəlap-kəliptwinkle, flicker (of a lamp, star, firefly, etc.); to blink (of the eyes) (PMP: *kelap₂)

ke-mati-anoccurrence of death; suffer because of a death (PWMP: *ka-m-atay-an) *aCay

(k)emisbeg (LOAN)

ke-nulaŋ-anhave a fish bone stuck in the throat (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

ke-salah-anmistake, error; fault, offense (PWMP: *ka-salaq-an) *salaq₁

ke-tahu-anknowledge, what is already known (PWMP: *ka-taqu-an) *Caqu

ke-takut-ana state of fear; a feeling of fear; a condition of fear; hesitation; worry; anxiety; be struck by fear (PWMP: *ka-takut-an) *takut

kətawato laugh (PWMP: *ka-tawa) *Cawa

kə-tənaŋ-ancalmness; fixedness, certainty in one’s thinking (PWMP: *ka-teneŋ-an) *teneŋ

ke-toloŋ-anreceive help or assistance (PWMP: *ka-tuluŋ-an) *tuluŋ

ke-turun-andescendants; generation (PMP: *tuRun₁)

kimpalcompact, without spaces inside (PWMP: *kimpal kimpal) *kimpal

kipayto wag the tail, of a dog (PWMP: *kipay)

lanjaŋlong and thin (NOISE)

laut-anvery wide sea, ocean (PWMP: *lahud-an) *lahud

Bahasa Indonesia (100 / 231)

(lawi)-lawilong curved tail feather of rooster or bird (PWMP: *lawi-lawi) *lawi₁

lubaŋhole, depression in the ground (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

ludahsaliva (PMP: *ludaq)

lumpiaconfection consisting of a fritter filled with meat, bamboo shoots, etc., then rolled and fried, or sometimes boiled (LOAN)

lumpiaChinese pastry filled with meat or fish and vegetables (Echols and Shadily 1963) (LOAN)

mata guntiŋsharp edge of scissors (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata hatideep feelings (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata hurufletter of the alphabet (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata jalaholes in the mesh of a net (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata jalanlookout, scout (‘eye of the path/road’) (PMP: *mata nu zalan) *maCa

mata kailpoint of a fishhook (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kayuhardest part of wood, corewood of tree (PMP: *mata nu kahiw) *maCa

mata lukaopening of a wound (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matidie; dead; not having ever lived; various figurative senses, including: break up, of a gathering; quiet or ceased (wind); not moving any longer (machine parts); waterless (wells or springs); numb (skin); extinguished (lamp, fire, etc.); dead-end (path, etc.); fixed or agreed so that it cannot change (price, agreement, etc.); fallen quiet (as marketplace); not used any longer (as a language); set (sun) (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mati beranakdie in childbirth (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mati kutu(ña)unable to do anything any more (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

me-laŋitto go “sky high” (of prices) (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

me-lesitsquirt out (PWMP: *lesit)

me-libatto bandage, wrap up (PWMP: *libej)

me-ludahto spit (PMP: *ludaq)

Bahasa Indonesia (120 / 231)

me-ludah-ito spit at or on (PMP: *ludaq)

mə-mayuŋ-ito shade with a parasol (PWMP: *ma-mayuŋ) *payuŋ

me-milihchoose something that is desired (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

memper-anak-kangive birth to children (PWMP: *mampaR-anak aken) *aNak

memper-duadivide into two parts (PMP: *duha) *duSa

me-nanakto boil rice in a pot (PWMP: *ma-nanek) *taNek

men-cucutsip, suck (PWMP: *cutcut)

men-deŋarto hear (PWMP: *man-deŋeR) *deŋeR

men-duabecome two times, etc. (PWMP: *man-duha) *duSa

men-dua-iadd one until it becomes two (as of wives) (PWMP: *duha-i) *duSa

me-nulaŋ-iremove the bones (as from fish) (PWMP: *ma-nuqelaŋ) *tuqelaŋ

me-nurunto descend (PMP: *tuRun₁)

me-ñakit-ito cause pain to someone (sadness, suffering, etc.) (PWMP: *ma-ñakit) *sakit

mə-ñəsakbecome tight or difficult (of breathing, one’s life); become packed or stuffed to overcrowding; to press or force (PWMP: *ma-ñeksek) *seksek₁

me-ñesapto drink by sipping, as a bird or an animal; to suck; to nurse, as a baby (PWMP: *ma-ñepsep) *sepsep

me-ŋailto fish with hook and line (PAN: *kawil₁)

me-ŋailto fish with hook and line (PWMP: *ma-ŋawil) *kawil₁

meŋ-alapfetch (knock down) fruits, etc. (PWMP: *maŋ-alap) *alap

meŋ-amaŋ amaŋfrighten someone, threaten (by pointing a weapon at them, etc.) (PWMP: *amaŋ amaŋ)

meŋ-ambil hati(lit. 'fetch the liver') win someone's affection (PMP: *qalap qatay) *qaCay

Bahasa Indonesia (140 / 231)

meŋ-ampun-ipardon, forgive (PWMP: *maŋ-ampun-i) *ampun

meŋ-anak semaŋwork as a servant, do menial labor (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

meŋ-anak suŋaistream profusely (blood, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

meŋ-antar-(kan)send or accompany a person on his way (PWMP: *maŋ-hateD) *SateD

meŋ-añamplait (laths, pandanus leaves, etc.), as in making a mat or basket (PWMP: *maŋ-añam) *añam

meŋ-añam rambutplait or braid hair (PWMP: *maŋ-añam) *añam

meŋ-apa(apa)-ido something to (PWMP: *maŋ-apa-i) *apa₁

meŋ-apilike fire, resembling fire, becoming fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

meŋ-asakcram something in so that it is compact or full (PWMP: *maŋ-hasek₂) *hasek₂

meŋ-asak-ipush or press against (PWMP: *hasek-i) *hasek₂

meŋ-asin-isalt something, put salt on (PWMP: *qasin-i) *qasiN

meŋ-atasclimb up, ascend (PWMP: *maŋ-atas) *aCas

meŋ-aturmake (pile, stack, put, arrange, place, etc.) nicely so that everything is neatly in place (PWMP: *maŋ-qatuR) *qatuR

meŋ-ayutcopulate (PWMP: *ayut)

mə-ŋəjapto flicker (of lamps, lightning, etc.) (PWMP: *kezap)

meŋ-emisto beg (LOAN)

meŋ-gamak-gamakgrip or handle something, as to determine its weight (PWMP: *gamak)

meŋ-halaŋto block, obstruct, lie athwart (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

meŋ-hambatrestrain, hinder, block, obstruct (PMP: *qambat)

meŋ-hujanlike rain (in great quantities, for example) (PWMP: *maŋ-quzan) *quzaN

Bahasa Indonesia (160 / 231)

meŋ-uŋkit-uŋkitbring up old grievances (NOISE)

me-ŋutu-iseek out lice, pick lice from the hair (PWMP: *ma-ŋutu) *kuCux

olok-olokwords intended to tease or ridicule, or just to have fun (PWMP: *ulug)

pem-baŋun-anprocess or manner of construction (PWMP: *paŋ-baŋun-an) *baŋuN

peŋ-nominal prefix often forming words that denote agents, or less commonly products of an action (PWMP: *paŋ-)

pe-ŋailperson who fishes with hook and line; equipment for fishing with hook and line (PWMP: *pa-ŋawil) *kawil₁

peŋ-ampun-anforgiveness, absolution (PWMP: *paŋ-ampun-an) *ampun

peŋ-antarperson who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting (PWMP: *paŋ-hateD) *SateD

peŋ-apittwo people who stand on the right and left of the bride or groom (PWMP: *paŋ-hapit) *Sapit

peŋ-asah-anmanner or action of whetting or sharpening (PWMP: *paŋ-hasaq-an) *Sasaq

peŋ-emisbeggar (LOAN)

peŋkolto curve, bend (as a road) (PMP: *pikul)

pe-ŋulitthe person who skins or peel something (PWMP: *pa-ŋulit) *kuliC

per-The prefix per- replaces the prefix ber- of verbs and adjectives, and so forms a noun indicating the person or instrument performing the action referred to by that verb, or possessing the quality referred to by that adjective (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:99) (PWMP: *paR-) *paR-₁

per- ... -anin a few cases per- replaces ber- in verbs and combines with the suffix -an to form nouns referring to the process of the action referred to by the verb; occasionally the noun refers to the place where the action is performed (Soenjono and Macdonald 1967:100) (PWMP: *paR- ... -an) *paR-₁

per-anak-anuterus, womb; mixed descendants of native population and immigrants (PWMP: *paR-anak-an) *aNak

per-awak-anposture, shape or condition of the body (PWMP: *paR-hawak-an) *Sawak

per-buat-anwhat is done, what is carried out (PWMP: *paR-buhat-an) *buhat₂

pilihchoice (PAN: *piliq)

pilih-anwhat is chosen, one’s choice (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

Bahasa Indonesia (180 / 231)

pukaŋcrotch (Echols and Shadily 1963) (PWMP: *pukaŋ)

ratus-anhundreds and hundreds (PWMP: *Ratus-an) *RaCus

rawananxious; emotion, tenderness (PMP: *rawan)

regukgulping down (PMP: *re(ŋ)guk)

rimpuŋtied together of the feet (PMP: *rimpuŋ)

sakit bulanmenstruation (PWMP: *sakit bulan) *bulaN

samaof one kind; not different; aligned (PWMP: *sama)

sama-samaall of them; equally for both sides (PMP: *sama-sama) *sama

santakpunch, jerk at something (PWMP: *santak)

saŋgahreject, turn back, oppose; protest, have a different view or opinion (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

sawaŋplant used to treat kurap: Cordyline fruticosa (PWMP: *sabaqaŋ)

sawaŋ laŋitspace between earth and sky (PWMP: *sawaŋ₂)

se-beraŋacross; on the other side (PMP: *beraŋ)

se-kilap matamomentary closure of the eyes; a moment (PMP: *kilep)

selaŋbetween; intervening (of time, events, space, etc.) (PWMP: *selaŋ₁)

seŋgak-seŋguksob uncontrollably (PWMP: *seguk)

seŋgukshort broken respiration, as in sobbing (PWMP: *seguk)

sepakkick (forward or to the side) (LOAN)

sepak ragaa game played with a ball woven of rattan, using the foot and head (to keep it aloft) (LOAN)

sesap-anplace where a bird drinks (PWMP: *sepsep-an) *sepsep

Bahasa Indonesia (200 / 231)

siarticle used before personal names (usually regarded as somewhat disrespectful); to highlight the person who executes or is affected by an action (si pengirim ‘the sender’, si penipu ‘the one who was deceived’, etc.); used with the names of various kinds of vegetation, animals, etc. (PAN: *si₁)

sinaw s<əm>inawshining (PWMP: *sinaw)

sisir ~ me-ñisirfollow (the coast, etc.) , walk along the edge of something (PMP: *siDsiD)

solaŋargue with, repudiate, reject, deny (something said) (PWMP: *suleŋ)

suato approach one another, to meet (NOISE)

sulitdifficult, complicated; hidden, kept secret; unclear (PWMP: *sulit₁)

tabuhanlarge wasp that usually nests in trees (PMP: *tabuqan)

tahuunderstand after seeing (witnessing, experiencing, etc.); familiar with; clever, capable; aware; already (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

takut-takut-aneasily startled; afraid of things; shy; hesitant (PWMP: *takut-an) *takut

tali taliplant with beautiful blossom: Quamaclit pennata (PWMP: *tali tali)

tampuŋreceive and collect together (produce from an area, excess produce, etc.) (PWMP: *tampuŋ)

tanjakstretching upward (of headcloth, sail, etc.), tilting up the tip; to climb; become higher (PWMP: *tazek)

temut-temutmumble (PWMP: *temud)

tər-prefix marking accidental or uncontrolled action (PAN: *taR-)

ter-aŋkatraised, lifted (PWMP: *taR-aŋkat) *aŋkat

ter-halaŋimpeded (to that it cannot go forward or be carried out) (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

ter-kikihgiggle (ROOT)

tər-kilasfleeting, in an instant (PWMP: *kilas)

tər-kulayhanging limply; almost broken but still hanging (of hands, tree branches, etc.), hanging limply (as the ears of dogs, a flag); drooping, as a flower in the heat (Echols and Shadily 1963) (PWMP: *kulay₂)

tər-saŋkut hativery much attached to another person (PWMP: *saŋkut)

Bahasa Indonesia (220 / 231)

ter-tanamalready planted (PWMP: *taR-tanem) *CaNem

tər-tidurto fall asleep unintentionally (tidur‘sleep’) (PAN: *taR-)

tidak apa apait's nothing, never mind (PWMP: *NEG + apa apa) *apa₁

tipak ~ tepakslap with the palm or the back of the hand (PWMP: *tipak)

tiris-anplace where a leak occurs (PWMP: *tiRis-an) *tiRis

tuŋkuswrapped (as rice in a banana leaf) (PWMP: *tuŋkus)

turundescend (PMP: *tuRun₁)

turun t<əm>urunfrom grandparents to grandchildren (PWMP: *t<um>uRun) *tuRun₁

uakretching; physical nausea (PMP: *uak₂)

untuŋprofit, gain (LOAN)

urisscratch; draw a line (Also Acehnese uréh 'line, scratch') (ROOT)

Bakatan (4) WMP. see: Bekatan

52. Balaesang (47) WMP (Himmelmann 2001) [bls] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

akitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

bawipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

buku usukrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

bulu kireeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray)

dalaŋroad (PMP: *zalan)

do-ruatwo (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ka-kaoscratch (an itch, the body) (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

kompoŋbelly (PWMP: *kempuŋ) *kempeŋ

láiaginger (PMP: *laqia)

lalehousefly (PMP: *lalej)

ma-jaʔatbad, rotten, nasty (PMP: *ma-zaqat) *zaqat

ma-nanoŋto bury (PWMP: *ma-nanem) *CaNem

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

meki-kitabe seen (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

me-lampato walk (PMP: *lampaq)

miu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

mo-kupugrandchild (PMP: *kempu)

mo-munito hide something (PWMP: *maŋ-buni) *buNi

nimpisthin (object) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

Balaesang (20 / 47)

nipaa swamp palm: Nipa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

no-nolato fry (PMP: *saŋelaR)

ntomu mesi-to meet, come across (PWMP: *temu₂)

pa-katuto send (PAN: *kaCu)

peitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pe-pituseven (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

pisomachete (PMP: *pisaw)

puputo pick, pluck (PMP: *pupu₁)

ranolake (PAN: *danaw)

ruithorn (PMP: *duRi)

saluriver mouth (PWMP: *saluR)

sambunito hide (PWMP: *sambuni)

s-ami1pl. excl., we (PAN: *ami)

se-sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

sipitnarrow (PAN: *sipit)

s<um>aŋitto weep, to cry (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

sumpit-anblowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

suuŋcarry on the head (PAN: *suquN)

Balaesang (40 / 47)

taiexcrement, feces (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tanoŋto bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

ta-taŋamiddle, center (PMP: *teŋaq)

tondokfence, hedge (PWMP: *tendek₂)

tooperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

ule saasnake (PMP: *sawa)

upaŋbait (PWMP: *umpan)

Balangao (12) WMP. see: Balangaw

53. Balangaw (12) WMP (Reid 1971) [blw] (Balangao) Philippines [aka: Balangao]

adino, negation of non-nominal expressions (PAN: *adi)

agirelated people of same generation; a "sibling" word (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

andulong (PWMP: *a(n)duq)

d-itawe (dual incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

d-ita-wwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

he-nowho? (PAN: *-nu)

iápcount; read (PMP: *ihap)

lawɨ'dbetel leaf (PWMP: *Rawed)

-no2sg. minimal postnominal possessor; your (PWMP: *nu₂)

-no2sg possessor and non-subject agent (PWMP: *-nu)

y-adithat (3p) (PMP: *a-di) *-di

y-adithat (demonstrative) (PWMP: *qadi)

Balangingi Samal (1) WMP. see: Samal (Balangingi )

54. Balantak (43) WMP (van den Berg and Busenitz 2012) [blz] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

anakchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

apufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

atoproof (PMP: *qatep)

bituʔonmoon, month (PAN: *bituqen)

buayacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

bubutpull out (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

bunutcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

duyuŋdugong (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

ipersonal article (PAN: *i₃)

inumto drink (PMP: *inum)

kaanto eat (PAN: *kaen)

kabusfinished (PMP: *kabus₁)

limahand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

ma-polospainful (PMP: *hapejes)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mon-sosopto suck (PAN: *sepsep)

mo-tuʔaold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

naanname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nuurcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

oerattan (PAN: *quay)

Balantak (20 / 43)

oriiʔpole, post (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

oromimmerse (PAN: *edem₂)

penekto climb (PMP: *panahik)

puputo pick (PMP: *pupu₁)

pupusfinished (PWMP: *puspus₁)

raŋ-gugurto tremble (PWMP: *gurgur₂)

roŋorto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

roonleaf (PMP: *dahun)

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

salaʔwrong (PMP: *salaq₁)

tobokto stab (PAN: *tebek)

toluthree (PAN: *telu)

tumpugrandchild (PMP: *ta-umpu) *umpu

tunuto burn (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tuurknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

usanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utokbrain (PMP: *hutek)

uusto chew (PMP: *ququs)

wakatroot (PMP: *wakat)

wawato carry, bring (PMP: *baba₁)

Balantak (40 / 43)

weerwater (PMP: *wahiR)

wewerlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

witiscalf of the leg (PMP: *bities)

55. Bali (Uneapa) (67) OC (Ross n.d. b., Anastasia Vuluku Kaue from Makiri village, courtesy of Hiroko Sato) [bbn] (Uneapa) Papua New Guinea [aka: Uneapa Bali]

borokopig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

bughacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

chiro-chiromooyster (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

darikisea (PMP: *tasik)

ga-ravievening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

ga-ravievening (POC: *ka-Rabiqi) *Rabiqi

ghami1pl exclusive subject pronoun (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

ghandoracuscus (POC: *kadoRa) *kandoRa

ghate-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ghawamouth (POC: *qawa₂)

ghazusmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

ghita1pl inclusive subject pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

ghumatasnake (POC: *qumata)

ghumuŋuearth oven (PMP: *qumun)

ghuzaŋarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

ighaŋafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

izunose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

kavulime for betel chew (PAN: *qapuR)

kulubreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

lavaratastrong wind and rain (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

Bali (Uneapa) (20 / 67)

limahand (PAN: *qalima)

lo-luakato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

loŋor-ito hear, listen (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lotosore (POC: *lotos)

luidugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

lumutumoss, algae (PMP: *lumut)

maito come (POC: *maRi) *aRi

maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

manukubird (POC: *manuk)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mateto die (POC: *mate) *aCay

maurileft side, left hand (PEMP: *mauRi) *wiRi

mazaghichisick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mazakacooked; ripe (PEMP: *ma-qosak) *qesak

nanakapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

ndalaŋapath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

ŋizaŋawhen? (PMP: *ŋa-ijan) *ijan

ŋorapayesterday (POC: *ñoRap) *ñeRab

pe-liuto turn and go back (PMP: *liu₂)

potumountain (POC: *potu₂) *potu

Bali (Uneapa) (40 / 67)

puro-navel (POC: *pusoc) *pusej

raghidry season (PCEMP: *raki)

raraŋaburned skin (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

rauŋuleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

robokoto fly (POC: *Ropok) *Rebek

rumakahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

taŋichito mourn for the dead (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tawangaa tree: Pometia pinnata (PMP: *tawan)

te-toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

toŋoromangrove tree (PMP: *teŋeR)

tuvaplant with root that is pounded and mixed with water to stun fish: Derris elliptica (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

uratavein (POC: *uRat) *huRaC

vaghorunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

vakararoot (POC: *wakaR-a) *wakaR

vaŋan-ito feed (POC: *paŋan-i) *paŋan

vatustone (POC: *patu) *batux

vizito tie (POC: *pisi₁)

vonukufull (of a container) (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

vulu-vulututree sap (POC: *bulut) *pulut

vunutucoconut husk (POC: *bunut₁)

Bali (Uneapa) (60 / 67)

wagacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

zagharureef (PMP: *sakaRu)

zaghatabad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

zamanaoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

zaŋavulukuten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

zurukacoconut milk (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

zuzufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

56. Balinese (1680) WMP (Barber 1979) [ban] (Bali) Indonesia (Java and Bali) (dialects: Low 4, High 6)

-asuffix indicating the third person (singular or plural) as a pronoun expressing the genitive, or the agent of a passive verb, or the direct object of a transitive verb (PMP: *-a₂)

abaŋgutter, drain-pipe, channel (PWMP: *abaŋ₂)

abaŋ-anchannel, groove (PWMP: *abaŋ₂)

a-belahhalf a fathom (from fingertip to center of chest) (PAN: *belaq)

a-bidaŋone page, one sheet (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

abinhold in the lap (PMP: *qabin)

abuashes, earth mixed with ash; cigar-ash; dirt; dust, powder (PMP: *qabu)

abutpull out, pull up; raise (anchor) (PMP: *abut)

acarpickles; pickled (not sweet) (LOAN)

adabe, exist; existence, being (Low Balinese) (PMP: *wada)

adanname, appellation; give a name (PMP: *ajan)

adasmint, a sort of herb used in medicine and cooking (PWMP: *hadas)

adas manisaniseed (PWMP: *hadas)

adeksmell, be smelt, follow a scent (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

adek-insmell this! (PAN: *Sajek-en) *Sajek

adeŋcharcoal, carbon; ashes of a cremated body (PMP: *qajeŋ)

adiyounger sibling; afterbirth, placenta (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

adi-yaŋbe regarded as or called 'younger brother' (PAN: *Suaji-an) *Suaji

adufighting, duel, quarrel (PWMP: *adu)

aḍuhalas, oh! (pain, grief); address to superiors; illness, groaning (PMP: *aduq)

Balinese (20 / 1680)

agakattitude, manner (LOAN)

agamareligion (LOAN)

agemhold (PWMP: *agem₁)

agukshout (PWMP: *haguk)

ahafig (PMP: *qaRaʔ)

ahi, wahiday (PAN: *waRi₁)

ahusan air-current, draught (PMP: *qaRus)

ajaktake with one, take along, invite to do something with one; the verb can only be used to equals or inferiors (iriŋ~ŋiriŋ) must be used for superiors); it implies that one or more persons desires others as individuals (including animals) to do something, to act in some way with the subject or agent (PWMP: *azak)

ajegerect, stand upright (Also Sundanese andeg 'remain standing') (ROOT)

ajimantra, religious formula (allegedly in Sanskrit) (LOAN)

akahroot, tree root (PMP: *akaR)

akahroot, tree root (PMP: *wakaR)

akaklaugh loudly (PMP: *akak)

akaklaugh loudly (PWMP: *hakhak)

akalintend, be intended for; mind, intention (LOAN)

akalmind; intention (LOAN)

aka-ŋolder brother or sister (PWMP: *aka-ŋ) *aka

alahdestroy, defeat, abandon; destruction (PWMP: *alaq₂)

alahbe like, resemble (PWMP: *alaq₃)

alaptake off, pluck (fruit), harvest; take away, abduct; the fruit-harvest (PAN: *alap)

Balinese (40 / 1680)

alap-anthe harvesting of fruit (PWMP: *alap-an) *alap

alasuninhabited land, jungle, forest; desert, wilderness; wild (PMP: *halas) *Salas

alas-anwilderness, inaccessible wild area (PWMP: *halas-an) *Salas

aluiguana (PWMP: *haluh)

alunwave of the sea (PMP: *qalun)

alurcurrent (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

amaheat (PWMP: *amaq)

amah-anwood eaten into dust (by worms); cooked rice (PWMP: *amaq-an) *amaq

ambahweak, tasteless (e.g., lime for betel) (PMP: *qambaR)

ambaŋhinder, interfere with (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ambarkind of jewelry; musk civet (LOAN)

ambedstrap, girth (horse) (PWMP: *hambej)

ambedstrap, girth (horse) (PWMP: *qa(m)bej)

ambedstrap, girth (horse) (PWMP: *Ra(m)bej)

ambé-nfront balcony, porch, veranda, gallery (PWMP: *ambiq)

ambeŋkeep watch to prevent people from passing; close a road (PWMP: *hambeŋ)

ambetstrap (PWMP: *ambet)

ambet basaŋsaddle-girth (PWMP: *ambet)

ampaŋlight, easy, not heavy (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

ampasremnants, left-overs; the remains of pressed sugarcane when the juice has been extracted (fed to pigs) (LOAN)

Balinese (60 / 1680)

amperugall, bile (PAN: *qapejux)

ampetstanch, stop the flow (PWMP: *ampet)

ampinbunch (of leaves), bundle, pile, heap (PWMP: *ampin)

ampisthin, worn thin (PWMP: *Rampis)

ampiun, apiunopium (LOAN)

amplastree with hard, rough leaves which are used like sand-paper to smooth down wood (PMP: *qampelas)

ampukwidely scattered, dispersed (PWMP: *ampuk)

ampunpardon, forgive (PMP: *ampun)

ampuŋharvest rice (ROOT)

ampuraforgive, pardon (NOISE)

amukrave, be furious; attack in fury (PMP: *hamuk)

amuk-amuktumult, great noise; furious, mad rage (PMP: *hamuk)

anakperson, human individual; the word originally meant 'child' as in Malay ...; it is the widest word for 'human being', and needs to be qualified with other nouns or with adjectives to give it content; alone it may even be used with nouns indicating animals (bémasé ento anak 'those goldfish'), and with personal pronouns (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak anakpeople, persons (as individuals, as opposed to woŋ which = a person or persons as members of a category) (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anak bugisa Buginese (LOAN)

andalevel, degree, stage (NOISE)

aniayatyranny, unjust treatment (LOAN)

antemstrike, hit hard (PWMP: *qantem)

antiexpect, wait for (NOISE)

antiŋ-antiŋear-pendants (LOAN)

Balinese (80 / 1680)

a-nuone, a certain one'; di dina anu 'on a certain day (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

a-nu-n(preceding a personal name) the one belonging to, that of (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

añiharvest rice (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

añi añithe kind of knife traditionally used for cutting rice; the heads are cut off just below the grain, leaving most of the straw standing in the field (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

aŋenliver, 'heart'; consider, meditate on (LOAN)

aŋethot, warm, tepid (water) (NOISE)

a(ŋ)gutsnatch at something with the mouth, bite at (dog) (ROOT)

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋin-anbe bloated with wind (PWMP: *haŋin-an) *haŋin

aŋin-aŋinfan (PMP: *haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

aŋin-aŋin-anempty-headed (PWMP: *haŋin-en) *haŋin

aŋkasbe always just about to do something; be always prevented from doing what one intends (ROOT)

aŋkatset off, march to war, depart (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋkebcover(ing), lid, bed-spread, table-cloth (PWMP: *aŋkeb)

aŋkepdouble, fold double (ROOT)

aŋsagoose (LOAN)

aŋsanaspecies of tree (LOAN)

aŋsaŋgills of fish (PMP: *hasaŋ)

aŋsaŋ-angills of fish (PWMP: *hasaŋ-an) *hasaŋ

aŋsekthrong, be close together, push on each other (PMP: *hasek₂)

Balinese (100 / 1680)

aŋsek-aŋbe pushed close together (PMP: *hasek₂)

aŋseŋbreathe (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

aŋseŋ-anbreath, breathing; hot blast of air (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

aŋussmell like burnt rice (PMP: *haŋus₂)

apawhat?; apa is used as an 'empty' word at the beginning or end of a sentence to indicate that the sentence is a question (PMP: *apa₁)

apa apawhatever?; also indefinite pronoun: anything (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁

apaplevel, flat, even (ROOT)

apemsort of puff-cake (LOAN)

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

apitplace between two things, shut in on both sides; be between (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

apit-ana trap; a bet, wager; a sort of claw with which women fasten the warp in the loom (PWMP: *hapit-an) *Sapit

apit-apita split bamboo into which the ribs of the roof run (PWMP: *hapit hapit) *Sapit

apuhlime, chalk (for betel) (PAN: *qapuR)

arakspirit (drink) (LOAN)

arakspirit (drink) (LOAN)

artamoney (LOAN)

asalorigin; customary, usual (LOAN)

asatvery thirsty, dried out (PMP: *asat)

asemtamarind; sour, acid (PWMP: *qalesem)

asem-asem-anfruits which taste sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

Balinese (120 / 1680)

asepsmoke, give off smoke; the smoke of sacrifice, incense; thick smoke (PWMP: *asep)

asepsmoke, give off smoke; the smoke of sacrifice, incense; thick smoke (PWMP: *qasep)

asep meñanthe smoke of incense (PWMP: *asep)

asep meñanthe smoke of incense (PWMP: *qasep)

asihlove, like, favor (PMP: *qasiq) High

asilresult, crop, yield (LOAN)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asukgo in, enter (PWMP: *hasuk)

atagspur on, incite, encourage; invite; drive out (PWMP: *atag)

atahyoung, unripe (fruit); green (leaves); not fully cooked (PWMP: *hataq)

atatgreen parrot (LOAN)

atawaeither, or (LOAN)

atehlead away, follow, accompany, escort (Low Bal.) (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

ateh-anexport (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

atiliver; mind, soul, heart, desire, will (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ati-atidesire passionately (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ati-atiname of a magic plant (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

awakbody; life; the self (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awanclouds (PWMP: *hawan)

awanjourney, travel (NOISE)

Balinese (140 / 1680)

awaŋ-awaŋair, sky, unlimited space (PMP: *awaŋ)

awewave the hands, make signs with the hands (PMP: *away₁)

awiperform, carry out, do; compose (writings) (NOISE)

awusthirsty (NOISE)

aya-hfather (refined speech) (PMP: *aya₂)

ayamcock, hen, domestic fowl (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ayaŋcharming, pretty (NOISE)

ayumblock (a passage); set up obstacles (PWMP: *ayum)

ayunto rock, swing (PWMP: *hayun)

ayun-ana swinging cot for a baby; cradle; a swing (PWMP: *hayun)

babadto clear forest; clearing, a cleared space (PWMP: *bajbaj)

babadstomach of an animal (LOAN)

babakscrape, graze (the skin), blister (from walking or working); peel off (skin) (PMP: *bakbak₁)

babak-anbark of a tree (PWMP: *bakbak-an) *bakbak₁

babudomestic servant, maid (LOAN)

bacokstab, pierce (PWMP: *bacuk)

badbaddisentangle, open, clear (PWMP: *bajbaj)

bagahole, gap, groove, ravine; vulva (NOISE)

bagaltoo large, too coarse (basketry, carving) (PMP: *bagal)

bagusbeautiful, handsome (man); title of brahman men (LOAN)

Balinese (160 / 1680)

bahaglowing coal, a coal fire (PMP: *baRah)

bahahswollen and red, inflamed (of a wound) (PAN: *baReq)

bahahswollen and red (as a wound) (NOISE)

bahasgrain, i.e. rice; the uncooked seeds (PMP: *beRas)

bahatheavy; loaded; difficult, burdensome; important (PMP: *beReqat)

bahbahshatter, scatter, fall to pieces; scattered, dispersed (PWMP: *baRbaR)

bahem warakrhinoceros horn (supposed to arouse potency in men) (LOAN)

bahunew; newly, just now (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bahukrotten (NOISE)

bakula small basket (PWMP: *bakul)

bakuŋlily (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

balanweal raised by a blow with a thin stick or lash (PMP: *balan)

balaŋgrasshopper, locust (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

balea platform, raised on pillars, with a thatched roof and walls on one or two sides; most houses have more than one of these in the complex, and the life of the family is lived on them ... there are bales also in temples and in public places in buildings (PMP: *balay)

bale paŋguŋa high platform (PWMP: *paŋguŋ)

balesreward, recompense, desserts; to reward, repay, retaliate; respond, reply (to a letter) (PAN: *bales₁)

balimake offerings, sacrifice (NOISE)

balianshaman, healer (many named varieties) (PWMP: *balian)

balikbe wrong way round, be reversed, (come) from the opposite side (PMP: *balik₂)

balik sumpaha great festival of offereings to turn such a curse back on its layer (PWMP: *sumpaq)

Balinese (180 / 1680)

balyan m-anak-anmidwife (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

banahyam sp. (NOISE)

banidare, to bold, venture (PMP: *baRani)

bantalpillow, cushion; kind of sweets wrapped in young coconut leaves (PWMP: *bantal)

banṭéŋbovine, cow, bull (High Balinese) (LOAN)

bantiŋstrike, throw (PMP: *bantiŋ)

bantiŋstrike, throw (LOAN)

ban-uwater (LOAN)

baŋbaŋhollow place, esp. in a road; pit, grave; den; dig a hole or pit in the ground (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₃)

baŋbaŋspecies of large sea fish (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₅)

baŋesnoisome, unpleasant in smell or taste (PMP: *baŋ(e)qes)

baŋgaboastful, proud; resistant, recalcitrant (LOAN)

baŋkudua tree: Morinda spp. (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

baŋunrise, get up (from bed) (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baraŋthing, property, matter (LOAN)

barisstrip, row, rank (ROOT)

basehwash, rinse; wet, damp (PMP: *baseq)

baseh-inbe washed by someone (PWMP: *basaq-en) *baseq

batesborder, boundary, limit (PMP: *bates)

bates-inbe limited (PMP: *bates)

Balinese (200 / 1680)

baṭikbatik cloth (PWMP: *batik₁)

batisfoot, leg (PWMP: *baties)

batu-n butuhtesticles (PMP: *batu) *batux

bawipig, boar (PAN: *babuy₃)

bayarrelease from a debt, pay a debt (PMP: *bayaD)

béapayment for work; payment for a religious festival; customs-duty, toll; cost, expense (LOAN)

bebeda tight band or ring round the waist; having a tie round it; born with a dark ring round the belly (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bébéka water-fowl (LOAN)

bebek, bekbekpowdered herbs or spices; powder; grit (PMP: *bekbek₁)

bébék aŋsaswan bébék doloŋgoose bébék mameriduck (LOAN)

bebelstump; shoot of a plant; a blockhead; dull, blunt; unintelligible (PMP: *belbel₁)

bebeŋdam, dike, closure (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

bedwind round, tie round (PWMP: *embej)

bedwind round, tie round (Also ebed 'wrapped up, wrapped about') (ROOT)

bédadifferent; difference (LOAN)

bedbedtie, bandage, wrap a cloth round (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bedbed-aŋbe tied around something, be wrapped around something (PWMP: *bejbej-an) *bejbej

beḍilgun, firearm (LOAN)

beḍil-beḍil-anplay at shooting (LOAN)

beḍuglarge heavy drum, such as is used in mosques (LOAN)

Balinese (220 / 1680)

bedugape, large monkey (LOAN)

begbegstout, stocky (person) (NOISE)

béhéŋhave swollen lips (PWMP: *biRiŋ₂)

bekelmoney or provisions for a journey; livelihood (PWMP: *bekel)

bekel-aŋbe given provisions or money (PWMP: *bekel)

bélasacrifice; support, help, stand by someone; look after, care for; commit sati, die on a husband's funeral pyre, kill oneself as a sign of loyalty (LOAN)

belah(noun) crack, split, break, half; (adj.) half (PAN: *belaq)

belah-anfragment, fraction, piece (PAN: *belaq)

béla matisacrifice one's life for someone (LOAN)

belantiktiger-trap (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

belaŋspeckled, spotted (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

belaŋ buŋkema spotted dog with black mouth (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

belassever, separate, part from, divorce; wean (a child) (NOISE)

belatcleft, space between, border, limit; to limit, set a limit to (PMP: *belat₁)

belatuksp. of woodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

belatukspecies of woodpecker (PWMP: *belatuk)

belibuy (PMP: *beli)

beli-aŋbe bought for someone (PWMP: *beli-an) *beli

belidaweaver's beam (PMP: *balija) *baRija

beli-nwas bought by (PWMP: *beli-en) *beli

Balinese (240 / 1680)

beliŋbiŋspecies of fruit which grows on trees (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

belua species of long grass (NOISE)

b-el-usbusstream out, come out together (many people) (PMP: *busbus)

benariver-mouth, estuary (PMP: *bena)

benalstrike, whip, beat (PWMP: *benal)

benal-inbe beaten, whipped (PWMP: *benal)

benaŋthread, very thin string, sewing-thread (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benbenbe filled full (as a beehive full of larvae) (PWMP: *benben₁)

bencahwreck, break in pieces; perish, piece, fragment (ROOT)

benehright, correct; just, true, sincere (PMP: *bener)

beneh-inbe put right, be repaired (PMP: *bener)

bentisbe slightly swollen (PWMP: *bentis)

bentukshape, form; curve (PMP: *bentuk)

beŋaŋopen, spacious (PMP: *beŋaŋ₃)

beŋaŋ-aŋbe made open, be cleared (PMP: *beŋaŋ₃)

beŋernot make a great effort to hear (PWMP: *beŋeR)

beŋkekbe short, stumpy; be low (voice), not loud (PWMP: *beŋkek)

béŋkotcrooked (wood); bent, as a person under a load (PMP: *bikut)

beŋkuhbent, crooked (PMP: *beŋkuq)

beŋkukcrooked, bent (PMP: *bekuk)

Balinese (260 / 1680)

beŋkuk-beŋkukwalk in a very bent attitude (PMP: *bekuk)

berberflutter, flap (PMP: *berber₁)

bersih, bresihclean, pure (LOAN)

berudscratch, graze, peeling of skin (ROOT)

besahwash with the hands (PMP: *besaq)

besah-anlaundry; manner of washing (PMP: *besaq)

besaranspecies of mulberry tree, sycamine tree (NOISE)

besehswell (parts of the body); swollenness. (NOISE)

besiiron (LOAN)

biasausual, ordinary; usually (LOAN)

biasah-aŋget accustomed to (LOAN)

bibihlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibihedge, border, margin (PMP: *birbir₁)

bibih-aŋ, bibih-inbe left as a margin (PMP: *birbir₁)

bibitseed, seedling; germ, bacteria (LOAN)

bibit-anseed, seedlings ready for transplanting; fresh vaccine (LOAN)

bibit cukitvaccine (smallpox) (LOAN)

bidaŋpage of a book, sheet of paper; classifier for flat, thin things (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidaŋ-anpage; a copy of a book (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bihiŋred (fowl) (PMP: *biRiŋ₁)

Balinese (280 / 1680)

bikakaŋbe straddled (PWMP: *bikaŋkaŋ)

bikasbehavior, manner, fashion, action; behave, act (PWMP: *bikas)

biketscar, mark of a wound (NEAR)

bilabhil tree: a species of mango (PMP: *bila₁)

bilaŋevery, each; to count, reckon (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilukswing about, turn (PMP: *biluk)

binihseed rice; rice-seedling; plant (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

binih-anseed for sowing (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bintaŋstar (LOAN)

bintenutree sp. (PWMP: *bintenu)

biŋkihgasp, pant, sigh (ROOT)

biŋuŋenraged, distracted, perplexed, confused, mad (LOAN)

biŋuŋenraged, distracted, perplexed, confused, mad (NOISE)

birahilove (LOAN)

biri-birisheep (LOAN)

birudark blue (LOAN)

bisabe able because one has knowledge or skill (LOAN)

bisikto whisper (PWMP: *bisik₃)

bisudumb, stupid (LOAN)

bisululcer, have an ulcer (PMP: *bisul)

Balinese (300 / 1680)

bocorleak, be leaky; have diuresis (LOAN)

bodomad, insane (LOAN)

bok-bok-anfalse hair (PWMP: *buhek buhek-an) *bukeS

bok-ingrow hair, become hairy (PWMP: *buhek-en) *bukeS

bokormetal dish on feet, small tray (LOAN)

bolaball (LOAN)

boŋkahopen, be opened (PWMP: *bukaq)

boŋkakproud (LOAN)

boŋoldeaf; deafness (PWMP: *buŋul)

boŋol-boŋol-ansomewhat deaf (PWMP: *buŋul)

boroŋmake a contract, contract for (LOAN)

boroŋ-ancontract, legal arrangement (LOAN)

bosokrotted, mouldy, rotten (PMP: *busuk)

buahfruit, product; esp. betel-nut (PMP: *buaq)

buah-buah-anfruit (PMP: *buaq)

buah caturset of chess-men (PMP: *buaq)

buatthing, matter, subject; necessary, needed; bet, wager (PMP: *buhat₂)

buatcarry, bear, have a loan (PMP: *buhat₃)

buat-anbe wagered (money) (PMP: *buhat₂)

buat-anload, burden (PMP: *buhat-an₁) *buhat₃

Balinese (320 / 1680)

buat-aŋregard as important, pay attention to, emphasize, regard as necessary (PMP: *buhat-an₂) *buhat₂

buat-inbe bet, be wagered (money) (PMP: *buhat₂)

buat-inbe loaded (PMP: *buhat₃)

buat-né(its matter) concerning, about, for (PMP: *buhat₂)

bubufish trap woven of bamboo (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubudput in a hole, plant seedlings (PWMP: *bubud)

bubud-inbe planted (PWMP: *bubud)

bubuhgruel, pap, porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bubukweevil, grub (in wood); powder, dust from sawn wood or bamboo; the pith of bamboo (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bubululcer, callus on hand or foot (PWMP: *bubul)

bubul-aŋulcerated (PWMP: *bubul)

bubuŋbare mountain-top (not forested); a clearing in a wood; rock, cliff, long ridge (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bucekspoilt, bad (PWMP: *bucek)

budbudput in a hole, plant seedlings (PMP: *budbud)

budidesire, wish, hope (LOAN)

buduhmad, foolish, senseless; madman; besotted over, madlyfond of buduh-an fiance'e; foolishness, madness buduh-buduh-an confused In mind; madhouse (LOAN)

bugiskind of sweetmeat (LOAN)

buhuchase, drive away, hunt (NOISE)

buhukworn out, drab, bald, in a tumbledown state (PAN: *buRuk)

buhuk-anworn-out clothes (PAN: *buRuk)

Balinese (340 / 1680)

buhuk-aŋbe worn continuously (PAN: *buRuk)

buhusslip away, get away (PWMP: *burus₁)

buhusslip away, get away (ROOT)

buiprison (LOAN)

buinagain, still, further, more (NOISE)

buin manieven tomorrow (NOISE)

buin pidanlater, afterwards (NOISE)

bukaopening, beginning; be opened (PMP: *buka)

bukbukto batter, pound (PMP: *bukbuk₂)

bukbukheap, pile (NOISE)

buketthick coconut cream (PMP: *buket)

buktifood, enjoyment, advantage, profit, increase, right of ownership, condition, honor; eat; to prove (LOAN)

bukusection of bamboo between two joints; joint of a finger or toe; a part; a word in a sentence (PMP: *buku)

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulan-anperiod of months, pregnancy (PWMP: *bulan-an) *bulaN

bulan ka-paŋaneclipse (lit. 'the moon is eaten') (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaŋput a tie round something; put a girdle round the waist-cloth (women); thread used to tie the steel spurs to a cock's foot (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bulaŋ-aŋbe girded (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bulihrice-seedling; rice-stalk; catkin (PMP: *buliR)

buluhair (man, animal), feather (bird) (PMP: *bulu₁)

Balinese (360 / 1680)

buluhreed, a thin pliable bamboo; barrel of a gun; the glass chimney of a lamp (PAN: *buluq₂)

bulu-nthe feathers of (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

bulu-n-inbe provided with hairs (PWMP: *bulu-en) *bulu₁

bulu-n mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

bulu-n merakpeacock feather (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

bunbun-anthe front of the skull (PWMP: *bunbun-an₁) *buNbuN

bunciŋbride, bridegroom, bridal pair (LOAN)

bunciŋbride, bridegroom, bridal pair (NOISE)

bunciŋ-aŋbe brought together in marriage by the parents (LOAN)

bunciŋ-aŋbe brought together in marriage by the parents (NOISE)

buncisbeans (LOAN)

bunispecies of small sour fruit, growing in clusters; the tree on which this fruit grows (PWMP: *buRnay)

buntasdisperse (a gathering) (PWMP: *butas₁)

buntas-aŋbe made to disperse (PWMP: *butas₁)

buntehto circle, go round; round cage or basket for a cock (PMP: *bunteR)

buntilknot; wrap in something; pack; involve in (PWMP: *buntil)

buntil-ana package of cakes or meat (PWMP: *buntil)

buntuttail (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

bunutthe wild fig tree (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buŋaflower; interest, rent (PMP: *buŋa)

Balinese (380 / 1680)

buŋa-buŋah-anmany kinds of flowers (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋah-aŋbe adorned with flowers, have a flower behind one's ear (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa-n asepflowers of smoke = incense (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa-n kahaŋsea-weed (PMP: *buŋa na batu) *buŋa

buŋbuŋa length of bamboo from below one knot to just below the next, used as a container; quiver for arrows (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

buŋbuŋ-ancontainer, money-box (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

buŋbuŋ-inbe put in a bamboo cylinder (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

buŋkahopen turn upside-down, expose, uncover (PWMP: *bukaq)

buŋkalturn over, open (PWMP: *buŋkal)

buŋkembe firmly closed (lips); keep silence (PWMP: *buŋkem)

buŋkemfirmly closed (lips) (Also Sundanese buŋkem 'blindfold, bind the mouth') (ROOT)

buŋkukbend over with age or illness; be bent by a heavy burden (PMP: *buŋkuk)

buŋkulknob, ball; classifier, esp. for big things (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋkul-anround thing, pellet, particle (PWMP: *buŋkul-an) *buŋkul

buŋkuŋring, finger-ring; ring on a staff or handle (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

buŋkusbundle, pack wrapped in cloth; an egg in which the chick has died (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋkus-anbale, parcel, package (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋkutbent over, bowed down with age, or by a weight; the man in the moon (PMP: *bukut)

buŋutmouth, beak, snout (PWMP: *buŋut)

burburscatter, throw down in confusion (NOISE)

Balinese (400 / 1680)

burbur-anconfusion, dispersion (NOISE)

buriback, backside (NOISE)

burikmottled, speckled, pocked (PWMP: *burik)

buritbackside, behind, back (PMP: *burit₁)

burit-anstern (ship) (PMP: *burit₁)

buruto hunt, to chase (LOAN)

busbusstream out in crowds; take away, slip away (PMP: *busbus)

busuŋdropsy, swollen belly; enlarged, pregnant (PWMP: *busuŋ)

butablind; blindness (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butaevil spirit, esp. those haunting burial places (LOAN)

buta kalademon (LOAN)

butbut, bubutpull out, pluck, extract (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

butuhtesticle; scrotum (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

buyutgreat-great grandfather and great-great grandchild (the sixth stage in genealogy, up and down) (LOAN)

bwayacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

cakepenclose, shut in tightly (ROOT)

cakep-ana Balinese book, written on palm leaves and enclosed between two boards (PWMP: *cakep)

cakep-aŋto cause to be enclosed, be shut in by someone (PWMP: *cakep)

campuhmix, mingle (NEAR)

campurmix; have sexual or other intercourse; unclean, ceremoniallyimpure, not be able to enter a temple (usually because of menstruation) (NEAR)

Balinese (420 / 1680)

cegukto make the sound ‘guk’ (PWMP: *ceguk)

cegutbite, gnaw (ROOT)

cekcekgecko, lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

celebdip in water, baptize (PMP: *celeb)

celebdip in water, baptize (ROOT)

celukbay, bight (PWMP: *celuk)

cemerceremonially unclean (LOAN)

ceŋikmake a mournful sound: ŋik (ROOT)

ceŋkaŋspan (tip of the first finger to thumb) (ROOT)

cikupenclose, hold together (ROOT)

cukcukpick up with the beak; poke repeatedly, peck at (PMP: *cukcuk)

cukupto close (umbrella, book) (PWMP: *cu(ŋ)kup)

cuŋkubone of the places where offerings are made, worship offered (PWMP: *cuŋkub)

cupitnarrow (space) (PWMP: *cupit)

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS High

da-dalua flying white ant (PMP: *dalu₁)

dahamaid, virgin; virginal, not having borne fruit (PMP: *daRa₂)

dahatdry land, shore (PMP: *daRat)

daha twaold maid (PMP: *daRa₂)

dakep-abe arrested (PAN: *dakep)

Balinese (440 / 1680)

dakep-dakeptry several times to catch a fly (PAN: *dakep)

dakidust, dregs, dirt, mud; dirty, muddy (PMP: *daki)

daki-n limaexhaustion (PMP: *daki)

dakitput very close (PMP: *dakit)

dalemdeep, as the sea; the deep (sea); respect, regard; king (PMP: *dalem)

dalem-aŋbe made deep (PMP: *dalem)

dalitglue, paste, plaster, caulking (PMP: *dalit₁)

damuhdew (PWMP: *dahemuR)

daŋananhilt of a kris (PWMP: *daŋanan)

daŋdaŋcopper pot, kettle (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

daŋseknear, be in a crowd (PWMP: *da(ŋ)sek)

ḍapḍapa species of shade tree (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dataflat, level; all (PAN: *dataR)

datah-aŋbe made completely level; be treated all alike (PAN: *dataR)

dateŋ-anguest (PWMP: *dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

ḍatuking, chief (an archaic form of ratu) (PMP: *datu)

ḍekḍek(of rice), grind very fine (PMP: *dekdek)

dekemhold firmly, hold fast to (ROOT)

deketunite, stick to, be close to; close (a wound) (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

deket-aŋbe brought together, be united (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

Balinese (460 / 1680)

deket-inbe stuck to by something (PWMP: *deket-en) *dekeC

dekuklower a horse's head (PMP: *dekuk)

demdemjet black, shining (black hair) (PAN: *demdem₂)

deŋdeŋ ~ deŋdeŋdry in the sun (LOAN)

depafathom (measure = distance from fingertip to fingertip of both outstretched arms) (PAN: *depa)

depa-hinto be measured with the outstretched arms (PWMP: *depa-en) *depa

derephelp with the rice-harvest in return for a share of the crop (PWMP: *deRep)

dewa-saksihave a god as witness, swear an oath in a temple (LOAN)

dipreposition: in, on, at (PAN: *di)

didihto froth, foam, bubble; scum, froth, rice water, skin floating on oil (PMP: *diqdiq)

dihiself, person (said to be 'the true Balinese form of the commoner diri', the latter borrowed from Javanese) (LOAN)

dilahflame, blaze (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilapto spread, of flames; to lick (of the tongue or of flames) (PWMP: *dilap₂)

diŋdiŋpartition-wall, screen of woven bamboo (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

diŋdíŋ-anbe partitioned (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

diŋehhear (PMP: *diŋeR)

diŋincold, very cold (PMP: *diŋin)

diŋin-diŋina climbing plant which flowers during the cool season (PMP: *diŋin)

diŋkelcrooked, bent over (Also Old Javanese riŋkel 'curled up (falling, lying)') (ROOT)

dolsale (< Javanese) (LOAN)

Balinese (480 / 1680)

donleaf (PMP: *dahun)

don-an ~ dahun-anleaves used as plates (PMP: *dahun)

dondonfoliage (PMP: *dahun)

don-donfoliage (PMP: *dahun-dahun) *dahun

don-donn-anleaves of many kinds, gathered to be eaten as vegetables (PMP: *dahun)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

d-uluuphill from (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

d<um>ahabe still a virgin (PWMP: *d<um>aRa) *daRa₂

d<um>ilahto flame, flare up (PMP: *d<um>ilaq) *dilaq₁

duŋkaŋstep, stride, step over, take a big step (ROOT)

ḍuyuŋa species of sea fish (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

dwa-ŋ-dasatwenty (PMP: *ŋa)

ebedwrapped up, wrapped about (PWMP: *embej)

ebukdust, powder (PMP: *ebuk)

ebukdust, powder (PMP: *rebuk)

ebukdust, powder (ROOT)

ebutpull up (weeds), draw out (PMP: *hebut) *SebuC

edaparticle marking a negative imperative: do not (PMP: *edaʔ)

edaparticle marking a negative imperative: do not (PWMP: *ejaʔ)

eḍemrest, be at rest, sleep (PWMP: *qendem)

Balinese (500 / 1680)

ehesshrunken, dwindled, made lower; fallen in (burnt roof) (PMP: *eRes)

ejanladder (PMP: *haRezan)

elarwing of a bird (PMP: *qelad₂)

eledswallow down (PWMP: *qeled)

eleshard inner wood of trees (NOISE)

elethire, rent (PMP: *elet₁)

eliŋweep, wail; crying, weeping (PMP: *eliŋ)

elukcurve, bend; bend in a kris blade (PWMP: *qeluk)

(e)lukcurve, bend; wave in a kris-blade (ROOT)

emasgold (LOAN)

embahtake, be taken (PWMP: *embaq)

embancarry a child; rear, bring up (a child) (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

embedband or ring which firmly closes something (PWMP: *embej)

embedband or ring which firmly encloses something (ROOT)

embékbleat like a calf or lamb (LOAN)

emegstill wet, damp (as greens just picked) (PWMP: *emeg)

emisdirty, covered with dirt, untidy (house, compound) (LOAN)

empakbreak, break off of itself (e.g. a branch) (PWMP: *epak)

empakbreak, break off of itself (as a branch) (PWMP: *hepak)

empakbreak, break off of itself (e.g. a branch) (ROOT)

Balinese (520 / 1680)

empanbait; to bait, feed (PAN: *paen)

empan-inbe fed, be baited (PAN: *paen)

empatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

empat-anfourth, quarter (PWMP: *epat-an) *Sepat

empeldam a stream, make a fishpond (ROOT)

empeŋmake confused sounds, be noisy, have a humming or roaring in the ears (PMP: *epeŋ)

empespress, apply pressure (NOISE)

empetclose off, pinch, stuff full, obstruct, shut, lock (ROOT)

empupandit, scholar, craftsman; carpenter (PMP: *empu)

emuhave the mouth full without swallowing (PMP: *emuR)

énakbe pleasant (taste, smell), enjoyable (LOAN)

enapcease, fall (wind), leave off (NOISE)

encika call to a male Chinese (LOAN)

encitdiarrhoea (ROOT)

endaŋstopping of the rain (PWMP: *endaŋ)

endaŋ-endaŋ-edry season (PWMP: *endaŋ endaŋ) *endaŋ

enebroof, top of a house (PMP: *qeneb₁) *qeNeb₁

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

eneŋsilent, at rest, still (PMP: *qeneŋ)

enjektread on (ROOT)

Balinese (540 / 1680)

enjektread on, stand on, stamp on (NOISE)

entalpalm-tree (NOISE)

entebcut off, prune, top (trees), poll (PWMP: *eteb)

entebcut off, prune, to top (trees), poll (ROOT)

entelthick, close, dense, solid (PMP: *etel)

entel-incrammed, stuffed (PMP: *etel)

entipcrust of rice stuck on the bottom of a pan (PWMP: *etip)

entutfart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

eŋkablift up, open something by lifting a lid (PWMP: *e(ŋ)kab)

eŋkahbreathe out through the mouth (PWMP: *eŋkaq)

eŋkak-eŋkaklament continually (PWMP: *eŋkak-eŋkak) *e(ŋ)kak

eŋkebhide, keep secret (PMP: *e(ŋ)keb)

eŋketbird-lime, sticky stuff, sap of trees (PWMP: *eket)

eŋketbird-lime, sticky stuff, the sap of trees (ROOT)

eŋkiksound sad (PMP: *e(ŋ)kik)

eŋkiksound sad (PWMP: *re(ŋ)kik)

eŋkiksound sad (ROOT)

eŋkik eŋkirspecies of bird which has a mournful cry (PMP: *e(ŋ)kik)

eŋkik eŋkirsp. of bird which has a mournful cry (PWMP: *re(ŋ)kik)

eŋkik eŋkirsp. of bird which has a mournful cry (ROOT)

Balinese (560 / 1680)

éŋkolrest the hand on the body with bent arm; an arm thus bent; form a corner, an angle (PWMP: *iŋkul)

eŋkukthe rise and fall of the voice of the dove (PMP: *ekuk)

éraŋashamed, blush; be angry (PWMP: *iraŋ₁)

eremat rest, lie down (PWMP: *qerem)

eṭikknock, tap, rap (ROOT)

gaḍaŋgreen (with assimilation of the last vowel?) (LOAN)

gaḍuŋthorn apple (a kind of tuber); the root intoxicates when eaten (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

gagakcrow (bird) (PWMP: *gakgak)

gahukscrape, scratch with the fingers (PMP: *gaRuk)

gambirthe name of a species of bushy plant (LOAN)

gaŋsiŋtop (toy) (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gasgasitch, itching; to scratch (cat, etc.) (PWMP: *gasgas)

gatahgum (used in medicine) (PWMP: *gateq)

gatah kayuresin, gum from trees (PWMP: *gateq)

gatelhave an itch; also used of sexual desire (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gelapdark (PWMP: *gelap₂)

gəmgəmsqueeze between two things (PAN: *gemgem)

genepeven (number), full, complete (PWMP: *genep)

gerahfever (PWMP: *geraq)

gereŋhum (of a crowd), roar (NEAR)

Balinese (580 / 1680)

geritscour, scrub (PAN: *geriC)

getikmake a knocking sound (t for expected ) (ROOT)

gilarevulsion, horror; repelled by something (PMP: *gila)

gilahorror, revulsion (PMP: *gila)

gilapshine, beam, gleam; a shine, a coat of varnish (PMP: *gilap)

gilgiltremble with cold (PMP: *gigil)

gilgil-gilgiltremble with old age; tremble over the whole body (PMP: *gigil)

gintilpimple, lump on the skin (PMP: *gintil)

gisgisscratch with the nails (PAN: *gisgis₁)

gulemcloud (ROOT)

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

guwama disease of the mouth in children; quinsy (PMP: *guham) *guSam

habutpull out, pull up, raise anchor (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

ha-depaone fathom (PAN: *depa)

ha-dolto sell (intr.) (LOAN)

ha-kikita little (PMP: *kikit)

hakityoke, pair (oxen); be paired (PMP: *Rakit)

hakit-hakit-anbe paired off, be married off (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

halaŋto thwart, prevent, hinder (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

halaŋ-anobstacle, hindrance; across, athwart (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

Balinese (600 / 1680)

halaŋ-inbe prevented (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

hambuncloud (PMP: *Rabun)

hambun-ana cloud of smoke; smoke (PMP: *Rabun)

hambun-aŋbe lifted into the clouds (PMP: *Rabun)

hañithe warp in the loom (PAN: *qaNi)

ha-pasaŋone pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

hapusto deceive, cheat; deceit, cunning, cheating (PMP: *Rapus)

harepbe in front, put in front; prefer; to face (PMP: *qadep)

harep-anbefore, in front of; before, in the presence of (PMP: *qadep)

ha-sikione; classifier (general) (NOISE)

hastaarm, hand, forearm; cubit, ell (LOAN)

hasta ginahandiwork (LOAN)

hasuk-inbe made to go in, be put in (PWMP: *hasuk)

hatushundred (occurs only in compounds, as telu-ŋ-hatus ‘300’) (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

hayabig, large, extremely large (PAN: *Raya)

hayunto rock, swing (PWMP: *ayun)

hayun-ana swinging cot for a baby, cradle; a swing (PWMP: *ayun)

hayun-hayunsit on a swing, swing for pleasure (PWMP: *ayun)

henekbe silent (PWMP: *Renek)

humahhouse, the complex containing the usual group of buildings (stone house, open platform with thatched roof for daily activity, rice-store, kitchen, pig-sty and house shrine) (PAN: *Rumaq)

Balinese (620 / 1680)

humah-inbe housed, dwell (PAN: *Rumaq)

huŋkurbehind, afterwards, later (LOAN)

huriplife; live (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

husukthe sharp edge or protruding point of something (PAN: *Rusuk)

husuk-husuk-anthe protruding ends of the beams of a roof (PAN: *Rusuk)

hyaŋdeity; also used of priests, hermits, scholars (who are identified with various deities) (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

ia particle which makes nouns refer to definite persons (PAN: *i₃)

ia3sg. and pl. (PAN: *ia₁)

i anuSo-and-So, an unknown and unnamed person (PWMP: *i-anu, si-anu) *-nu

ibabody, self (PWMP: *iba₁)

iba-ibaalone (PWMP: *iba₁)

ibumother (LOAN)

ibus, ibus-anleaf of the palm tree (PWMP: *ibus)

idahe, she, they; this is the pronoun for ksatriyas and brahmanas (PMP: *ida)

iḍamhave odd wishes in the way of food (pregnant women) (PWMP: *qidam)

ida-nof him, of her (PMP: *ida)

iḍemclose the eyes (PWMP: *qidem)

iḍemclose the eyes (PWMP: *qi(n)dem)

ijinpermission (LOAN)

ikettie, bind; kind of expensive cloth in which the threads of the warp or the weft are tied off at various places, so that they can be dyed in different colors (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

Balinese (640 / 1680)

ikiklaugh loudly (not so loudly as akak) (PWMP: *hikhik)

ikiklaugh loudly (not so loudly as akak) (PWMP: *qi(ŋ)kik)

ikuhtail (PAN: *ikuR)

iliŋsee, look (PWMP: *hiliŋ)

iliŋsee, look (PWMP: *iliŋ₂)

iluttwist, turn (ROOT)

imbaŋcompare (PMP: *imbaŋ)

imbuhadd, increase, be heaped up (PWMP: *imbuq)

impi, ipia dream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

impunsp. of small sea fish (PMP: *hipun₁)

inamother (animals) (PMP: *ina)

ina limathumb (PMP: *ina ni lima) *ina

indikaction, behavior; matter, thing, topic (of speech) (NOISE)

ineblock, shut up, keep closed (PAN: *qiNeb)

inemto drink (High Balinese; = inum in Low Balinese) (PWMP: *inem)

inepstay overnight (PAN: *qinep)

injektread, tread on (ROOT)

intewatch over, chaperone, spy on (PWMP: *hintay)

intendiamond (LOAN)

intipwatch unobtrusively; peep over a wall (LOAN)

Balinese (660 / 1680)

intukstamp, grind, pulverize (ROOT)

intukstamp, grind, pulverize (ROOT)

iŋehmake a monotonous sound, sound always the same (PWMP: *qiŋeR)

iŋetremember, think about, come to one's self, awaken (PWMP: *iŋet)

iŋet-anmemory, remembrance; memorial (PWMP: *iŋat-an) *iŋat

iŋet-iŋetunawares (PWMP: *iŋat-iŋat) *iŋat

iŋsahwash rice, put through water (NOISE)

ipahWB, HB, WZ, HBW (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

iriŋaccompany, follow a superior (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

iriscut, carve, make incisions; tap the sap of trees (PMP: *qiris)

iruŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

isepsuck, drink in (PMP: *qisep)

isep-ansugarcane (PWMP: *qisep-an) *qisep

isicontain, be contained in, be filled with; contents, filling, kernel (nut), produce (of a field or garden); flesh (as opposed to fat and bone) (PAN: *isi₅)

isobelly, entrails (of animals) (PWMP: *isaw)

itemblack (PMP: *qitem)

iuŋbe in commotion (country), be unrestful; (PWMP: *iuŋ)

iusexhalation (PWMP: *hius)

jahatbad, immoral, nasty (conduct) (PMP: *zaqat)

jahitsew, do needlework, stitch (PMP: *zaqit)

Balinese (680 / 1680)

jahumsewing needle (PAN: *zaRum)

jahum panabokanan awl (PAN: *zaRum)

jakan-awas cooked, was prepared as food (PMP: *zakan)

jalango, walk, travel, proceed; path, road, street, way (PMP: *zalan)

jaŋkutembrace, take in one's arms (PAN: *za(ŋ)kuC)

japitpinch (PWMP: *zapit)

jariŋnet; fishing net; net for birds (PMP: *zariŋ)

jariŋ burona net for wild animals (PMP: *zariŋ)

jariŋ-jariŋspider web (PMP: *zariŋ)

jawamillet (PAN: *zawa₂)

jemakpick up, take, seize, stretch out a hand for something, grasp (PMP: *zemak)

jeŋatput on a sour face; speak sternly, bitingly (ROOT)

jeŋkuknee, kneel (<*-ku) (ROOT)

jileŋsquint, be cross-eyed (PWMP: *zeliŋ)

jukuŋcanoe, dugout (LOAN)

junjuŋcarry on the head (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

juŋjuŋto praise highly, flatter (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

kato; go to; at (PAN: *ka₃)

ka-alahdestroy, defeat (PWMP: *ka-alaq) *alaq₂

ka-asihsaid of newly-married persons (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

Balinese (700 / 1680)

kabihbe supported (PWMP: *kabiR)

kakawaspider (PWMP: *kakawa₁)

kakawa hembuŋgiant spider (PWMP: *kakawa₁)

kakeblie forward, slope forward, fall forward (ROOT)

ka-kulsnail, slug (for Ca- reduplication in animal names cf. ka-kupu next to Malay kupu-kupu ‘butterfly’, la-lintah next to Malay lintah ‘leech’, la-lépan ‘millipede’ next to Malay lipan ‘centipede’, etc.) (PWMP: *kuhul)

kalaan ogre, demon, believed to be abroad at noon (LOAN)

kaliriver (in some place names) (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

kali-kukuna tree: Schoutenia ovata (PMP: *kukun)

ka-lodto the sea; north/south (PWMP: *ka-lahud) *lahud

kambiŋgoat (also sheep, but these are rare in Bali) (LOAN)

kampilpurse, bag (PWMP: *kampil)

ka-nawanright (hand) (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kanciŋfastening; button, toggle; bolt, lock, key (LOAN)

kapukthe fibers of the seeds of the kutuh, called by us ‘kapok’ (PWMP: *kapuk)

kapuk-inbe stuffed with kapok (PWMP: *kapuk)

kaputfastened shut, of a chest; buttoned, of a jacket; closed, of the mouth, eyes (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput

kaput-ansomething wrapped up; parcel, package (PWMP: *kaput-an) *kaput

karatrust (refined speech) (PWMP: *karat₁)

k-asihlove, friendship, peace (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

k-asih-asihbe favored by someone, be treated with kindness (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

Balinese (720 / 1680)

katamplane (tool)) (LOAN)

katilbedstead, couch (LOAN)

kawahhell, where souls are punished for sins before being reborn (PWMP: *kawaq)

kayarich (PWMP: *kaya)

kayuwood, tree; bolt of cloth, roll of silk (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kediklittle (PWMP: *kedik)

kejet-kejetbe convulsed; death agony (PWMP: *kezet)

kejutalarm, consternation (PMP: *kezut₁) *kezuC

ke-kawaspider (PWMP: *kawa)

kekebcover, covering; a storey of a house (PMP: *kebkeb)

kekepto embrace, enfold, hide (PWMP: *kepkép₁)

kelaslay bare, peel, skin (PMP: *kelas)

kelawuash-gray; fallow (LOAN)

kembartwins, two things of the same sort (LOAN)

kembar-anone’s like, match (LOAN)

kembuŋswelling, blister (PMP: *kembuŋ)

kemukeep water in the mouth (PMP: *kemuR)

kemuhwash out the mouth (PMP: *kemuR)

kenato reach, hit, touch; meet with; find; grasp, understand; befall, be a victim of, catch (PMP: *kena₁)

kena-haŋbe got, be obtained (PMP: *kena₁)

Balinese (740 / 1680)

kena-hinbe hit by, be befallen by; be obtained (a definite thing) (PMP: *kena₁)

k-énakhealthy, recovered from illness (LOAN)

kenduŋspecies of tree having very hard wood (PWMP: *kenduŋ)

kentelsolidify, become stiff, coagulate; no longer liquid, thick, coagulated (LOAN)

kentel-aŋbe thickened, stuffed full, crammed (LOAN)

kentel-inbe thickened, condensed (LOAN)

kenuscuttlefish, ink-fish (PWMP: *kanuqus)

kepelfist; to grasp in the closed hand (PWMP: *kepel)

kepukbreak off, break the point off something (PMP: *kepuk)

kepuŋto hunt, chase, pursue (PWMP: *kepuŋ)

keriskris, ceremonial dagger (LOAN)

ketegheartbeat, pulse (PWMP: *keteg)

keṭékthe sound of snapping finger and thumb (PWMP: *ketik)

keṭék-keṭékto snap one’s fingers often (PWMP: *ketik)

ketikstrike fire, make a spark ( < *ketik 'make a noise'?) (ROOT)

ketimuncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

ketua pointed cap worn by padandas (Brahmin priests) at special rites (LOAN)

kidemshut the eyes tightly (PWMP: *kizem)

kiduŋsong, melody, poem, popular tale; singing; to sing (PWMP: *kiduŋ)

kihkihrasp, grate, file (PAN: *kiRkiR)

Balinese (760 / 1680)

kijap-kijepblink the eyes (PWMP: *ki(n)zep)

kikitlittle (PMP: *kikit)

kikit-ansmaller, less (PMP: *kikit)

kilapflash of lightning; ball of fire; meteor (PMP: *kilap)

kimagiant clam (PMP: *kima)

kirathought (LOAN)

kira-kiraapproximately (LOAN)

kirimcarry the ashes of a dead person to the sea (LOAN)

kirim-ana package sent by the hand of an intermediary (said to be from Malay) (LOAN)

kitayou; also ‘I’ (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kiwaleft, sinister (LOAN)

kiyad-kiyudsquirm slowly, writhe, wriggle (PMP: *kiud)

kiyudstretch after sleeping (PMP: *kiud)

koŋkoŋ-abe barked at (by a dog) (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

kubufree-standing hut, almost always the hut built on his rice fields by the owner (PMP: *kubu)

kudahow much/many? which (hour)? (PMP: *kuja)

kuḍuŋhead-covering of women, veil; cap (PWMP: *kuduŋ)

kukuhbe strong, grow strong; be firm, be stiff, be headstrong (PMP: *kukuq)

kukuhbe strong, grow strong; be firm, be stiff; be headstrong (LOAN)

kukulto be bent tightly (arm or leg) (PWMP: *kulkul)

Balinese (780 / 1680)

kukussteam, vapor, smoke (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kulambumosquito net (LOAN)

kulemnight, dark (PWMP: *kulem)

kulemnight, dark (ROOT)

kumisbeard, moustach (PMP: *kumis)

kumpulto gather together, collect (intr.); a gathering, collection, heap (PWMP: *kumpul)

kupiŋear (PWMP: *kupiŋ)

kupu ~ kupu-kupubutterfly (LOAN)

kupu manukgiant butterfly (PMP: *manuk)

kuraŋdeficiency, lack, shortcoming (LOAN)

kurapa disease of fowls; a white rash on human skin (PAN: *kurap)

kurenhousehold; family (PAN: *kuden)

kuren-anspouse (lit. ‘one cooking pot’, a more refined word than somah (‘one house’) (PAN: *kuden)

kuruweak, unable to stand (because of illness), exhausted (PWMP: *kuru₂)

kuskusto cook rice in steam (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kuskus-ana basket woven of bamboo, cone-shaped, in which rice is steamed till it is cooked (PWMP: *kuskus-an₂) *kuskus₁

kuskus-ana basket for steaming rice (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kusumake fire by rubbing two sticks together (PMP: *kusu₁)

kutatown, fortress (LOAN)

kutulouse (head, body) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Balinese (800 / 1680)

laba-anwages, gain, interest; what is given by a higher person (LOAN)

labuhto fall, fall off, fall down; anchor; to beach a boat (PWMP: *labuq₁)

lakimale; man; husband (PMP: *laki₁)

lalahtartness, piquancy; spicy, tart (PMP: *lajaq)

la-lalaha strong-tasting relish with one’s rice (PMP: *lajaq)

lalatuspark, speck (PWMP: *lalatu₂)

la-leŋendoorpost, gatepost (PMP: *leŋen)

la-limafive (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

laluto succeed, be successful; extremely, very (PWMP: *lalu₁)

lamalong (time) (PAN: *lama₂)

lamasthin, slimy membrane; mucus on fruit or fish (PWMP: *lamas)

lamasthin slimy membrane, mucus on fruit or fish (NEAR)

lambarleaf, sheet (of paper) (LOAN)

lambuŋside of the body (rarely used of persons) (LOAN)

landakporcupine (PWMP: *landak)

lanjakkick backwards (PWMP: *lanzak)

lanjakkick backwards (ROOT)

laŋito swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

laŋitsky, heavens, air (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋit-laŋitpalate, roof of the mouth; the ceiling or roof-ridge of a house or bale (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

Balinese (820 / 1680)

laŋkaha stride, pace; to stride; go beyond, overstep (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

laŋuheavy-headed, giddy (PAN: *laŋu)

lataillness, mental illness (NOISE)

lateŋstinging nettle (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

latuspark, speck (PWMP: *lalatu₂)

lawaŋgate, entrance (PWMP: *lawaŋ₂)

layahsail of a boat; to sail in a boat (PAN: *layaR)

layaŋwing, pinion; what hovers (PWMP: *layaŋ₁)

layaŋ-layaŋkite (PWMP: *layaŋ₁)

layufade, wither (PAN: *layu)

lebahdecline (ground), slope downwards; valley, hollow (PWMP: *le(m)baq)

lebihplus (PWMP: *lebiq)

lebih-anmore, being more (PWMP: *lebiq)

leblebbe forfeited (a pledge) (PWMP: *le(b)leb)

leblebdive, go under water (PWMP: *lebleb₂)

lebudust, ashes (LOAN)

lekasbegin, be going to do; beginning (ROOT)

lekesroll something up; a rolled up object (PMP: *lekes)

leketadhere to, be sticky (PWMP: *leket)

leket manahwhat is stuck in the mind; an unforgettable thing, something printed on the memory (PWMP: *leket)

Balinese (840 / 1680)

lekuŋconcave (PMP: *leŋkuŋ)

lelebbe forfeited (a pledge) (PWMP: *leleb)

lembua bovine, a white bull or cow (LOAN)

lembutfine, soft to the feel, floury, smooth (skin) (PWMP: *lembut)

lemehslack, lazy at work, taking it easy, idle (PWMP: *lemeq)

lemekfertile, good (soil) (PMP: *lemek₂)

lempagstrike, hit with something (PWMP: *le(m)pag)

lempagstrike, hit with something (ROOT)

leŋasesame (PMP: *leŋa)

leŋenarm, forearm (PMP: *leŋen)

leŋkuŋbe bowed, bent, spherical; a bow, bend, semicircle (PMP: *leŋkuŋ)

lépaplaster, plaster-work (LOAN)

lepasloose, escape, vanish from sight; not reach, fail to hit, fail to hurt, be separated, dismissed (PWMP: *lepas)

lepit-anfold, pleat (in a garment); inner leaf of a book (PMP: *lepit₂)

lesutire, exhaust, wear out (PWMP: *lesu₃)

lesuŋthe hollowed-out wooden block in which rice is stamped by women to free it of husks, done with the luh (pestle) (PMP: *lesuŋ)

lilitto coil, like a snake; wind round; to climb like a creeper (PAN: *litlit)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limasa leaf folded into the shape of a boat (PMP: *limas)

limolemon (PWMP: *limaw)

Balinese (860 / 1680)

limpaliver, pancreas (LOAN)

linduŋelver, young eel (NEAR)

linuhearthquake, shaking (PAN: *linuR)

lipet-lipetwalk to and fro, turn round and walk back (PAN: *lipet)

liputfulfill (PPH: *liput₁)

liube many; crowd; many, much (PMP: *liu₁)

liwatpass by, pass over, go beyond, cross (a border); exceedingly, very (PWMP: *qaliwat)

liwer-ana motley crowd; move, flee, run away in a confused mass (PWMP: *liwed)

lodsea (PAN: *lahud)

luahvomit; emit water; bubble over (a boiling pot) (PMP: *luaq)

luhtears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luh-anupstream, uphill (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

lukislump of rice-porridge wrapped in a leaf (for a journey) (ROOT)

luludknee (PMP: *luluj)

lumahweak, tender, enfeebled by illness (PWMP: *lumaq) High

lumbaŋbroad, wide (ROOT)

lumbarbe loose, free, untied, not tied up (as domestic animals) (PMP: *lumbar)

lumbuŋlarge rice granary on posts (PMP: *lumbuŋ₂)

lumpuhlame, paralyzed (PWMP: *lumpuq)

lumutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

Balinese (880 / 1680)

lutuŋmonkey; a young monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

luwaroutside (PMP: *luqar)

ma-buluhave hair (PWMP: *ma-bulu) *bulu₁

madu ~ madhuhoney (LOAN)

mah-apibe fiery, be on fire (PWMP: *maR-hapuy) *Sapuy

mahet -ang, -incut with a chisel, hew (PMP: *paqet)

m-ahihither, here; the idea of movement is not expressed, hence mahi = ‘come here’ (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

m-ahi-yaŋBring it here! Come here! (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

maka-pat-patall four, four each (PWMP: *maka-epat) *Sepat

maka-talu-na period of three days (PWMP: *maka-telu) *telu

makuto nail, fasten by nailing (LOAN)

ma-lebube cremated (LOAN)

maleslazy (PMP: *males)

maliŋsteal (LOAN)

ma-luabboil; bubble up, boil over (PMP: *luab)

ma-maliŋto be a thief, to steal (LOAN)

m-anakgive birth; be born (not usually of human beings) (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

m-anak-anproduce young, give birth (usually of animals) (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

m-anak-aŋyield interest (money) (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

maṇikjewel (LOAN)

Balinese (900 / 1680)

manukcock, fowl; bird (PMP: *manuk)

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋanto eat (PMP: *paŋan)

maŋkuhold on the lap, sit on the lap (PWMP: *paŋku)

masakripe; cooked (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

m-asemsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

m-asihto caress, soothe (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m-atahunripe, raw, uncooked; be green, young (leaves, fruit) (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mata hideŋopening in the top end of a kris sheath (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kayua knot in wood (PMP: *mata nu kahiw) *maCa

mata n-ahisun (PAN: *waRi₁)

mata putihthe white of the eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m-atidie, be quenched (fire); dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mati kena pedaŋdie by being struck with a sword (PMP: *kena₁)

mebeŋto close, not let through (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

medbedto tie, bandage, wrap a cloth round (PWMP: *maŋ-bejbej) *bejbej

meḍilshoot with a firearm (LOAN)

melahto break, split, crack (PAN: *belaq)

memen matuamother-in-law (WM, HM) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

Balinese (920 / 1680)

menehact rightly, righteously, justly; must, ought (PMP: *bener)

mespespress with the thumb, squeeze a wound (PMP: *pespes)

mikakaŋstand with feet wide apart (PWMP: *bikaŋkaŋ)

milaŋto count, reckon (PWMP: *maŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

milihto choose, have a choice, make a distinction; if, in case (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

mipitbe close, be joined closely (PAN: *pitpit₂)

mirahruby (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

miyaksplit, break open (tr.) (PWMP: *pihak)

miyakto split, break open (PWMP: *piqak)

moani, mwanimale (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

molpolto plaster with clay or mud, plaster a wall, stop a hole in an earthen wall (PWMP: *pulpul₂)

mubuto fish with a wickerwork basket trap (PWMP: *maŋ-bubu) *bubu₂

mubudput in a hole, plant seedlings (PWMP: *maŋ-bubud) *bubud

mubuhmake gruel, pap or porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

mubutto pull out, pluck, extract (PWMP: *maŋ-butbut) *buCbuC

mudah ~ murahcheap; be a bargain (LOAN)

mulaoriginal, not an imitation (LOAN)

mulaŋtie the steel spurs to a cock's foot (PWMP: *maŋ-bulaŋ) *bulaŋ

m-ulihreturn home (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

muŋato flower (PWMP: *maŋ-búŋa) *buŋa

Balinese (940 / 1680)

muŋbuŋto put in a bamboo cylinder (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

mupuproduce a crop; to harvest, pluck, reap, get gain (PMP: *pupu₁)

mutusto break off, break (PWMP: *putus₂)

m-uwabyawning, gaping wide (PMP: *ma-huab₁) *Suab

nabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner (PWMP: *ma-naban) *tabaN

nabasto chop, cleave, hack (wood), chop til level (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

nabuhto strike (gong, drum, etc.) (NOISE)

nakepgrab something with the flat hand (e.g. a fly); seize, arrest (PAN: *dakep)

nambelto patch, put a patch on (PWMP: *ma-nambel) *tambel

nanahpus, matter (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nana matuafather-in-law (WF, HF) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

naŋguŋcarry something on a pole on the shoulders of two men (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

naŋisto cry, to weep (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

naŋkabreadfruit tree, breadfruit (LOAN)

naŋkisto ward off, parry (blows) (PWMP: *taŋkis)

napito winnow grain (PMP: *tapi)

nasakto ripen (fruit) (PMP: *tasak)

nasisteamed cooked rice (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

nasi diŋincold cooked rice (PMP: *diŋin)

nastascut loose, cut off, break in pieces (PWMP: *ma-nastas) *tastas

Balinese (960 / 1680)

natahthe complex surrounded by a wall, within which are the buildings constituting the family home; also the yard among the buildings (PMP: *natad) *NataD

nebihbreak s.t. into pieces; the natural divisions of a betel nut; section, quarter, piece, slice (PMP: *tebiq) *Cebiq

nekepto cover, shut, close, cover with a hand (PAN: *tekep)

nektekto chop into small pieces (PWMP: *ma-nektek) *tektek₁

nempuhtouch something; sway about (in the wind); be struck (by illness); stroke along something; be responsible (LOAN)

nenunto weave (PAN: *tenun)

nenuŋpractice magic, cast spells, prophesy (LOAN)

neŋneŋgaze, stare at (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

netesgraze, cut oneself, be wounded (PWMP: *testes)

nimbaŋto weigh; consider (PWMP: *ma-nimbaŋ) *timbaŋ

niŋkaŋstand with the feet wide apart (PWMP: *tikaŋ)

niŋkebspill (PWMP: *tiŋkeb)

nubato stun fish with tuba (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

nuduhto command, set a task, give instructions (PMP: *tuzuq₂) *Cuzuq

nuladto copy a model, make a copy of a writing; imitate (PWMP: *tulad)

numbukhit something hard, hit with a beam of wood, batter with a ram (PMP: *tumbuk)

numpukto heap up, pile on each other; write the same consonant twice (PWMP: *tumpuk)

nuntunto lead, guide, induce to go (PWMP: *tuntun)

nunuroast on a fire, bake on glowing coals; cremate (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

nusaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

Balinese (980 / 1680)

nusantarafrom another island, foreign (PMP: *nusa₁)

nusukpierce with a point; bore the ears (PMP: *tusuk)

nutsutto wipe clean (PWMP: *sutsut₂)

ñabotto pull up plants, pluck out (hair, feathers) (PMP: *cabut)

ñabukto wear a sabuk (LOAN)

ñakanto cook rice, cook food, be busy in the kitchen (PMP: *zakan)

ñakepto enclose, shut in tightly (PWMP: *cakep)

ñakitto hurt, damage, torture (PWMP: *ma-ñakit) *sakit

ñaksito bear witness (LOAN)

ñalahdo wrong, commit a fault, be guilty; sin (PWMP: *ma-ñalaq) *salaq₁

ñariŋto catch with a net (PMP: *zariŋ)

ñawasoul (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ñeksekto pack something in tightly, leaving no room; shut something in (PWMP: *ma-ñeksek) *seksek₁

ñemer-into defile, make ritually unclean (LOAN)

ñepitpick up with tongs or pincers (PWMP: *sempit)

ñəpuhto purify gold, refine or harden iron, make steel; gild; provide with a metal lining (LOAN)

ñikatto brush (PWMP: *sikat)

ñiñiktiny mosquitoes that fly in swarms (PMP: *ñikñik)

ñuhcoconut (generic) (PMP: *niuR)

ñulamto embroider, decorate; join together (PMP: *sulam)

Balinese (1000 / 1680)

ñuliŋto play the flute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

ñumbaŋcommit incest, do something indecent or wrong (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

ñumpah-into swear an oath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

ñundulbe assembled close together, be arrayed (soldiers) (PWMP: *sundul)

ñurudto decrease, subside, grow less, be left over; take away offerings when they have been presented and the gods have consumed their spiritual essence (LOAN)

ñusunto put in layers; to arrange (PMP: *susun) *susuN

ŋ-abaŋmake a gutter or channel (PWMP: *ŋ-abaŋ) *abaŋ₂

ŋabirito castrate (LOAN)

ŋadanto name, give a name to (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋadan-into call by name; regard someone as being; accuse someone of (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋ-adekto smell (something) (PWMP: *meŋ-hajek) *Sajek

ŋa-dolto sell (tr.) (LOAN)

ŋ-aduto fight (PWMP: *maŋ-adu) *adu

ŋ-akuclaim as one's own, say 'mine'; acknowledge (a child) (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ŋ-alahdestroy, defeat, abandon (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₂) *alaq₂

ŋa-laŋimake something swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

ŋa-limaslook like a boat (PWMP: *maŋa-limas) *limas

ŋa-lukatconduct a purification ceremony for someone who is ritually unclean (PWMP: *lukat₁)

ŋ-alurhave a strong current (river) (PWMP: *maŋ-qaluR) *qaluR

ŋ-ambaŋ-into hinder, interfere with (PWMP: *maŋ-abaŋ) *abaŋ₁

Balinese (1020 / 1680)

ŋ-aŋkatset off, march to war, depart (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

ŋ-apitplace between two things, shut in on both sides (PWMP: *maŋ-hapit) *Sapit

ŋaputwind round, wrap round (PWMP: *ma-ŋaput) *kaput

ŋ-asemmake something sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

ŋe-lebih-into exceed, be more (PWMP: *lebiq)

ŋe-lepasto die (High Balinese) (PWMP: *lepas)

ŋ-entutto fart (PWMP: *maŋ-qetut) *qetut

ŋ-entut-infart at someone (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

ŋ-garaŋto attack with many others, scramble (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

ŋ-genepto complete, fill, finish (PWMP: *genep)

ŋ-gigiteat the opium that remains stuck to the pipe (PWMP: *gitgit)

ŋ-giliŋto turn or roll (PWMP: *maŋ-giliŋ) *giliŋ

ŋ-guntiŋto shave; cut the hair (LOAN)

ŋ-gutgutto bite (men and animals); snap, nibble, gnaw (PMP: *gutgut)

ŋ-ikettie, bind (PWMP: *maŋ-hiket) *Siket

ŋilufeeble, dead; on edge (teeth) (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋiskisto weed with a hoe (PAN: *kiskis)

ŋ-lipetto return, turn back, turn round; reflect; echo (PAN: *lipet)

ŋ-luwar-ito exile, drive out (PMP: *luqar)

ŋoŋkoŋto bark, bark at (dogs) (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

Balinese (1040 / 1680)

ŋudayoung, youthful, undeveloped, fresh (PMP: *ŋuda)

ŋuda-hanyounger, too young; premature (of a birth) (PMP: *ŋuda)

ŋuruŋto cover over, put a basket over, put under a basket (esp. a game cock); to shut someone in (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

ŋuskusto cook rice in steam (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

ŋ-utahto vomit (PWMP: *maŋ-utaq) *utaq

ogahshake, move to and fro, be loose (a tooth) (PWMP: *ugaq)

ohoŋtoadstool, mould, mildew, fungus (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

ohophelp, stand by, support (PWMP: *uRup)

olihget, acquire, attain to (PWMP: *uliq₂)

pa-bwatfor, because of, instead of (PMP: *buhat₂)

pacekpeg, nail; stick into, make a hole; plant (seedlings, etc.) (PAN: *pacek)

paḍalike, similar, all-in-all, all, together (often used with no more meaning than to indicate plurality) (PWMP: *pada)

padaŋgrass, plant, herb (PWMP: *padaŋ)

padaŋ silathe name of a rock-field (sila = ‘stone’) (PWMP: *padaŋ)

paḍa-paḍaas much; equally (long, high, etc.) (PWMP: *pada pada) *pada

padirice, corn, grain; a grain (weight); rice in the husk (PAN: *pajay)

pagabier (NOISE)

pagehstrong, firm, steady, reliable, sure, unchanging, faithful (PWMP: *pageq)

pagehbe fenced (PMP: *pager) Low

pageh-ana hedge, fence, wall, fortification (PMP: *pager) Low

Balinese (1060 / 1680)

pagerfence, wall, hadge, fortification (PMP: *pager) High

pahathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

pahetchisel (PMP: *paqet)

pahia species of shark (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pahitkind of tree with small round fruit used as medicine (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pakanthe warp (in weaving) (PMP: *pakan)

pakufern, bracken (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pakua peg, dowel, a wooden pin; a nail, a spike (LOAN)

paku besian iron spike or nail (LOAN)

paku kayua wooden peg (LOAN)

palanutmeg (LOAN)

p-alaŋcross-beam (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

palaŋ, pa-palaŋcross-beam (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

paluhammer, mallet, knocker; to knock, hammer, cut (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

paluŋtrough, oblong basin, cooler (PWMP: *paluŋ₁)

paluŋ-antrough, oblong basin, cooler (PWMP: *paluŋ-an) *paluŋ₁

panaharrow (PAN: *panaq)

panah-panah-ana children’s game with bows and arrows (PAN: *panaq)

p-anakbirth; a thing born, a child; used alone it refers to a young animal; interest on money (PWMP: *paR-anak) *aNak

panasheat; hot (PMP: *panas₁)

Balinese (1080 / 1680)

paṇḍanpandanus (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

pandesgrind down, file (NOISE)

panelarge vessel of earthenware or wood (PMP: *panay)

paneshot, troubled; heat (PWMP: *panes)

panjithe name of a wanderer, hero of stories, famous for his chivalry; the inventor of the kris (LOAN)

panteghit, beat, smack, bang (ROOT)

pantesright, fitting, proper; handsome, polite, pleasant (LOAN)

pantes-anrightness, fittingness (LOAN)

paŋ-nominal prefix often forming words that denote agents (PWMP: *paŋ-)

pa-ŋanfood, things to eat (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

pa-ŋan-anfood, things to eat (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen-an) *kaen

paŋan-anfood, things to eat (PWMP: *paŋan-an) *paŋan

paŋgaŋroast over a fire (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgaŋspecies of wild fig tree (NOISE)

paŋguŋtower, cupola, dome (PWMP: *paŋguŋ)

paŋguŋ-ana high place for seeing from, a look-out (PWMP: *paŋguŋ-an) *paŋguŋ

paŋitree sp. (PWMP: *paŋi)

paŋkatrank, status (LOAN)

papahthe young or green leaf of a coconut or palm tree; the sheath of a leaf (PMP: *paqpaq₂)

papanboard, plank (PMP: *papan)

Balinese (1100 / 1680)

papan caturchessboard (PMP: *papan)

pa-pituseven (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

paruda rasp, file (PMP: *parud)

parud-anfilings, what has been rasped or filed (PMP: *parud)

parusstream out strongly; (of water), stream out when a dam is opened, babble (ROOT)

pasaŋpair (of inanimate objects); a distich, a couplet in verse (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasaŋ-ana couple, pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasarmarket (LOAN) High

pasihthe sea (PWMP: *pasiR)

pasih-pasih-ana small pool, pond (PWMP: *pasiR-an) *pasiR

pat-aŋfour (in 40, and in counting units of time or distance) (PWMP: *pat-aŋ) *Sepat

patideath (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pat-patfour (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

payahextremely lean, thin (PWMP: *payaq)

payufind a buyer, be able to sell (PWMP: *payu)

payuŋsunshade, umbrella (made of leaves of trees) (PWMP: *payuŋ)

pecahto break, break in pieces (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

pecuta long whip (PWMP: *pecut)

pəḍaŋsword, sabre, a long knife (LOAN)

pegeŋhold one's breath, sit quite still, not move a muscle; be deep in thought (PWMP: *pegeŋ)

Balinese (1120 / 1680)

pelaŋka-nbench to rest on; table (LOAN)

penékgo up, rise, ascend (PMP: *panahik)

penpenput into, fill with (PWMP: *penpen₁)

penuhbe full of (PMP: *penuq)

peñuturtle, tortoise (PMP: *peñu)

péŋkohcurve inwards, bend inwards (a foot); one who has a bent-in foot (PAN: *pikuq₁)

péok, pioksunken (of eyes, cheeks) (PAN: *piuk)

pepekall together, complete (PWMP: *pekpek₂)

pepetto prevent, block (PWMP: *petpet₂)

pérak ~ piraksilver (LOAN)

perihpainful (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

peteŋdarkness, night (PWMP: *peteŋ)

peteŋ bulanthe dark half of the month (PWMP: *peteŋ)

peṭikpick fruit or flowers, break off with the finger (PAN: *peCik)

peṭukknock, beat out; pulse (PWMP: *petuk)

p-idanwhen? what time? whenever (PMP: *p-ijan) *ijan

pijerborax, solder (LOAN)

pikaŋthe groin (PMP: *pikaŋ)

pikatlure, decoy, snare (for birds) (PWMP: *pikat)

pikula dry measure (137 pounds); to carry on one’s neck (LOAN)

Balinese (1140 / 1680)

pilihchoice (PAN: *piliq)

pilih-anchosen one, elected one (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

pilis ~ pa-pilisointment put on the eyelids and below the brows (PWMP: *pilis)

pindahmove house (said to be from Malay) (PWMP: *pindaq)

pindaŋfish cooked in salt water (PWMP: *pindaŋ)

piŋgandeep bowl, cauldron (LOAN)

pipithe cheeks (PMP: *pihpih) *piSpiS

pipisgrind, stir with a stick (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

pipisto grind; stir with a stick (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

piratoo, very, too much (PAN: *pijax)

pisinterjection to call carts (PWMP: *pis)

pisaŋplantain, banana (LOAN)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

piyakbecome separate, split, break open (intr.) (PWMP: *pihak)

piyakbecome separate, split, break open (PWMP: *piqak)

polpol-ana wall made of nothing but clay (PWMP: *pulpul₂)

ponḍoktent, hut, temporary or poor dwelling; this is the word one uses for one’s own house in polite speech (LOAN)

pucuktip, point, top (PAN: *qapucuk)

pucuktip, point, top (PWMP: *pucuk)

puhpuhfragment, break pieces off (NOISE)

Balinese (1160 / 1680)

puhpuhfragment, break pieces off (NOISE)

puhuh, puhquail (bird) (PAN: *puRuq)

puhuntree; classifier for trees (PMP: *puqun)

pujiworship, glory, honor, reverence, praise; compliment (LOAN)

pukaŋleg of animal or bird (PWMP: *pukaŋ)

pukpukto smack with the open hand (PAN: *pukpuk)

pulihto get back into its former shape, look as it once did (PWMP: *puliq)

pulittwine around (PMP: *pulit)

puloisland (LOAN)

puluŋroll into a ball with the hands (PAN: *puluŋ)

pumpun ~ punpunto gather, collect, provide (as wood for fuel) (PWMP: *punpun)

pungpuŋ-ana piece, a leftover, a remnant, a stump, a candle-end (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₁)

puntulblunt, dull (PMP: *putul) *putun

puntulblunt, dull (NOISE)

puntul-puntul-anbe very blunt (PMP: *putul) *putun

puñan bunuta tree: Cynometra ramiflora (PWMP: *bunut₂)

puŋgalbreak off, snap (PWMP: *puŋgal)

puŋgulto top (a tree that will be felled); broken off (of the horns of a cow) (PMP: *puŋgul)

puŋgutbite, bite off, put one's teeth into (ROOT)

puŋkurback (said to be < pa-huŋkur); have one’s back to (LOAN)

Balinese (1180 / 1680)

puŋsednavel (PMP: *pusej) Low

pupo-ninbe harvested, be reaped (PMP: *pupu₁)

pupu-haŋbe reaped, be harvested; take the landlord’s share of the crop (PMP: *pupu₁)

pupurcosmetics, face-powder, face-cream (PWMP: *purpur)

pusernavel (PMP: *pusej) High

pusuhbud, flower bud, flower of a plantain (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusuŋtie up hair in a coil (PWMP: *pusuŋ₁)

putihwhite (PMP: *putiq)

putih-putihwhitish (PWMP: *ma-putiq-putiq) *putiq

putusbe finished, have finished learning, highly experienced (PWMP: *putus₂)

putus-anone who is sent; ambassador, apostle (PWMP: *putus₂)

putus-iŋan expert in (PWMP: *putus₂)

puyuhquail (bird) (PWMP: *puyuq)

raŋsukenter, put on (clothes) (PWMP: *ra(ŋ)suk)

rékétadhere, stick (PWMP: *ri(ŋ)kit)

remekcrush, break, perish (PMP: *remek)

reŋatcrack, split, burst (PWMP: *reŋat)

reŋetangry (PMP: *reŋet) *reŋeC

reŋkegkeep quiet because of sickness (PWMP: *reŋkeg)

ricik(falling water) make a sound (less water than with rocok) (PWMP: *ricik)

Balinese (1200 / 1680)

rimbitdifficult, slow (PWMP: *rimbit)

riŋkeswrap up, tie together, roll up (in cloth) (ROOT)

ririsrain gently, drizzle (PWMP: *risris)

rupitsmall (PWMP: *rupit)

sabakind of banana (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sabitcarry something under the arm against the body (PMP: *saqebit)

sabitto carry something under the arm against the body (PWMP: *sabit)

sabukbelt, girdle, sash (LOAN)

sadahlean, lean against, rest (a tall thing) against (PWMP: *sandaR)

sadah-into have something leaned against it (e.g. a tree and a ladder) (PWMP: *sandaR)

sagaplant that has a fruit with bright red pits: Abrus precatorius L. (PWMP: *saga)

sagsagbreak, crack (PWMP: *sagsag₁)

sagusago, starch (PMP: *sagu₁)

sahuptake hold of with both hands, scoop up water with both hands; put both arms round, embrace, lift (PMP: *saRup₁)

sahutanswer (LOAN)

sahutanswer (PMP: *saRut) Low

sahut-inbe answered (LOAN)

sakapost, pillar, column (LOAN)

sakitillness, pain, damage, hurt, annoyance (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-aŋbe ill, be in pain, be hurt; be made ill (PWMP: *sakit-an) *sakit

Balinese (1220 / 1680)

sakit guwamto have quinsy (PMP: *guham) *guSam

sakit-inbe hurt by, be caused pain by someone (PWMP: *sakit-en) *sakit

sakit-sakitsick persons (PMP: *sakit)

saksiwitness (person) (LOAN)

saksi-na witness of (LOAN)

salahfault, guilt, wrong-doing, misdeed (the wrong is not moral, but is an offense to normal standards, hence salah pati ‘do wrong in dying’ = ‘die in an abnormal way, as by being executed (PMP: *salaq₁)

salah paticondemned to death; so much, very (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

salakasilver; silver coin (LOAN)

salinto change, alter; change clothes; pour from one vessel into another (PWMP: *salin)

saliŋ taŋis-into weep over one another (PWMP: *taŋis-en) *Caŋis

saludscoop up water with a vessel, draw water (PWMP: *saluD)

sambala very frequently used sauce (green pepper, fish-paste, and lemon juice) (LOAN)

sambehscatter, broadcast (seed), strew, lie scattered (PWMP: *sa(m)beR)

sambutseize, grab (like a beast of prey) (ROOT)

samircurtain (PWMP: *samir)

samoŋ kena belantika tiger was caught by a trap (PMP: *kena₁)

sampetblock up (a hole), stop the flow of water (ROOT)

sampiŋside, edge, border, margin (PWMP: *sampiŋ)

sampiŋ-aŋbe edged or provided with an edge, hem, border (PWMP: *sampiŋ)

sampiŋ-inbe avoided by going to one side (PWMP: *sampiŋ)

Balinese (1240 / 1680)

sandato pawn, pledge; a pledge (PWMP: *sanda)

sandapawn, pledge (LOAN)

sanda-haŋbe caused to pawn (LOAN)

sandaŋcarry on the shoulders or the back (PWMP: *sandaŋ)

saŋaryell, scream (ROOT)

saŋetheavy, grave, serious, hard, bad, worse, very (PWMP: *saŋet)

saŋət-anmore grievous, harder, graver (PWMP: *saŋet)

saŋkalcarpenter’s plane, the wooden part of a plane (LOAN)

saŋkopscoop up water with a hand (ROOT)

sapsapto wipe off, sweep off; sweep together (PWMP: *sapsap₁)

sapsap-aŋbe wiped off for someone (PWMP: *sapsap-an) *sapsap₁

saputo sweep (floors) (PMP: *sapu)

sapu jagadhair or dress that trails on the ground (PMP: *sapu)

saputcover completely; a man’s loincloth; a cloth worn over other clothes, blanket, cloth cover (PMP: *saput₁)

saput-inbe covered by something (PMP: *saput₁)

saraŋedible bird’s nest (LOAN)

saruŋa sarong (PWMP: *saruŋ)

saruŋ-inbe provided with a sarong (PWMP: *saruŋ)

sawanconvulsion; a child’s convulsions, fits; to have fits, be convulsive (PWMP: *sawan)

sawan baŋkeepilepsy (PWMP: *sawan)

Balinese (1260 / 1680)

sawaŋbe in sight, be visible, be seen (PWMP: *sawaŋ₂)

sa-wenaŋ-wenaŋat one's will, as one wishes (LOAN)

sayaŋlove, affection; beloved; have love for (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

sayaŋ-aŋbe loved (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

sedeŋenough, right; the right moment; just when, at just the moment when (LOAN)

seḍeŋmoderation, what is fitting; suitable, proper, fitting, moderate; to fit, suit well (clothes) (LOAN)

sedepgood (PWMP: *sedep₂)

segerhealthy, hale and hearty (PMP: *se(ŋ)ger)

segerhealthy, hale and hearty (PMP: *se(ŋ)ger)

segutbite, snap, nibble (men and animals) (ROOT)

sekebcover, cover up; store (fruit, eggs) by covering with ashes or the water-glass; keep secret, hide (PWMP: *se(ŋ)keb)

sekedcut something (as bamboo) clean to its base (PWMP: *seked)

sekepkeep secret, hide, cover up (PMP: *sekep)

sekepkeep secret, hide, cover up (ROOT)

seksektightly packed, leave no room; be shut in; be embarrassed; a stopper; a patch closing a hole (in a wall) (PAN: *seksek₁)

selaŋkaŋstand astride of (ROOT)

selaŋkupsnare for catching jungle-fowl (ROOT)

selemblack, dark gray (PWMP: *selem₂)

selem matathe pupil of the eye (PWMP: *selem₂)

selselbe crammed into any space (clothes, etc.) (PAN: *selsel₁)

Balinese (1280 / 1680)

selselto regret, be sorry about; be annoyed over; be rebuked; be reminded of a mistake (PWMP: *selsel₂)

s<el>uksukforce a way in, thrust something in (PWMP: *s<al>uksuk) *suksuk

selutornamental ring around something, especially just below the top of the hilt of a kris; put an ornamental ring around something (PWMP: *sel(e)qut)

selutornamental ring around something, especially just below the top of the hilt of a kris; put an ornamental ring around something (PWMP: *selut)

semaya ~ sumayaagreement, alliance, promise, covenant (LOAN)

sembahthe bow with palms together of an inferior to a superior; to greet a superior (LOAN)

sənəŋto like, love, prefer (LOAN)

sənəŋ-inbe loved, be preferred (LOAN)

sentula tree from whose leaves a much-used medicine is made (LOAN)

seŋaŋa startled, surprised look (also: a wild look caused by anger) (PWMP: *seŋaŋ)

seŋaŋstartled, surprised look (ROOT)

seŋetto sting (PAN: *seŋet₂)

séŋkokhave a stiff arm (PMP: *si(ŋ)kuk)

seŋseŋcork, stopper (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

seŋseŋ-into be stoppered, corked (PWMP: *seŋseŋ-en) *seŋseŋ

sepaha chewed betel quid (PWMP: *sepaq)

sepah-anthe remains of a betel-package when spat out; sugarcane (PWMP: *sepaq-an) *sepaq

sepakbranch (PWMP: *sepak)

sépakto kick (of man or horse) (LOAN)

sepak-in(the end of a branch) be broken off for a stick (PWMP: *sepak)

Balinese (1300 / 1680)

sepegchop violently at, hew (ROOT)

səpətunripe, raw, tart, not easily eaten; fig., be angered (PWMP: *sapelet)

səpət-anfury at biting words (PWMP: *sapelet)

səpət-inbe infuriated by words (PWMP: *sapelet)

səpət-səpətspecies of plant whose fruit is ground up and used in the ointment boreh (kind of face powder) (PWMP: *sapelet)

sepibe quiet, be calm, be uninhabited, be empty of people; be absent from where one is expected to be, not be found (PWMP: *sepi)

sepittongs, pincers (PWMP: *sempit)

sepukdust (ROOT)

siparticle used before women’s names instead of ni and hi (PAN: *si₁)

siah-ana parting in the hair (PWMP: *siaq)

sidakepfolding the arms on the chest (ROOT)

sidemsmall black ants, usually found on trees (PWMP: *sijem)

sidikind of sieve; put through a sieve (PMP: *siji)

siduspoon, ladle, scoop (PAN: *sidu)

sihamsprinkle with water (LOAN)

sikatbrush, scrubber, polisher (PWMP: *sikat)

sikepa hawk, kite (PWMP: *sikep₁)

sikepweapon; be armed (NOISE)

sikep palalyanhawk for hunting (PWMP: *sikep₁)

sikione (NOISE)

Balinese (1320 / 1680)

siki-yanunit, unity (NOISE)

siki-yaŋbe united, unified (NOISE)

siksikto look at something very closely, seek something closely (e.g. lice) (PWMP: *siksik₁)

siksikscales (of fish), scurf (in hair) (PMP: *siksik₂)

siksik-anthe hairy pubis (PWMP: *siksik-an) *siksik₂

siksik-inbe scaly (PMP: *siksik₂)

sikuelbow, cubit, ell (PAN: *sikux)

siku-sikua set square (used by carpenters) (PWMP: *siku-siku) *sikux

sikutelbow (PMP: *sikut₁)

silasit like an ascetic; sit properly, with good manners; sit in the proper position before a superior (LOAN)

sila napeksit in the usual way, with each foot under the opposite thigh (LOAN)

sila sisihsit with the left foot against the right knee (LOAN)

silatto fence, fencing (as a sport) (PWMP: *silat)

silemdive, go under water, sink; disappear (of the moon at the end of the month) (PWMP: *silem)

sileŋlook away from; (Middle Balinese) squint (PMP: *sileŋ)

silibsecret, kept hidden; be unnoticed, sly (PWMP: *silib)

silukwind in and out, have many curves (PWMP: *siluk)

simbuhpowder or liquid blown from the mouth by a healer as medicine; to blow out in this way; spit poison (some snakes) (PMP: *simbuR)

simpaŋstop on a walk, hence: enter a house; to wrong, deviate (PMP: *simpaŋ)

simpənstore, preserve, put away, keep (LOAN)

Balinese (1340 / 1680)

simpiredge, margin, rim (PWMP: *simpir)

simsim ~ siŋsimfinger ring (LOAN)

sinahsee clearly, be clear (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sinarradiance, shining (PWMP: *sinar)

sindukspoon; use a spoon (PMP: *si(n)duk)

s<in>uratbe written (LOAN)

siŋetsting, bite (insects) (PWMP: *siŋ(e)het)

sipitslant-eyed (PAN: *sipit)

siramsprinkle with water; wash (LOAN)

siriŋborder, edge (PWMP: *sidiŋ)

sirsirto blow (breeze); hiss (ROOT)

sisigtooth-pick; pick the teeth, clean the teeth with tobacco; blacken, dye the teeth (PWMP: *sisig)

sisih-anside, edge (PWMP: *sisiq₁) *sisiq

sisipfault, departure from right, misdeed; to sin, be guilty (NOISE)

sitsittear, break; tear to pieces (PWMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₂

siyapfowl, usually cock (PAN: *siap)

siyokthe sound of rain (PMP: *siuk)

sokoŋsupport, prop up (LOAN)

srabukpowder, dust (ROOT)

sripitnarrow (road) (ROOT)

Balinese (1360 / 1680)

subeŋearring; a rolled-up palm leaf worn in the ear by girls (PWMP: *subeŋ)

sudapointed sticks stuck in the ground with the point upwards to deter intruders (PMP: *suja)

sugiwash one’s face with one’s hands (PWMP: *sugi)

suhuncarry on the head (a sign of great respect); fig., obey an order (PAN: *suquN)

sujitoothbrush; a pointed thing; embroidery (LOAN)

sukakcough, clear the throat, cough up something stuck in the throat (PWMP: *sukak)

sukakcough, clear the throat, cough up something stuck in the throat (ROOT)

sukehdifficulty; difficult, troubled in mind (PWMP: *suker)

suksukbe pressed together, be close together (sit, sleep, etc.) (PAN: *suksuk)

sukunthe breadfruit tree and its fruit (PMP: *sukun)

sulaskewer, spit, pointed stick (PWMP: *sulah)

sulahbald-headed (LOAN)

sulamembroider (PMP: *sulam)

suligia mace or club of wood or iron, having a sharp point (LOAN)

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

suliŋ-suliŋa piece of bamboo with holes between its nodes to channel water (PWMP: *suliŋ)

sulithard to split (of wood) (PWMP: *sulit₁)

sulsulbe crowded together, be pressed together (PWMP: *sulsul₂)

sulsul-aŋto surrender, give in with little pressure (PWMP: *sulsul₂)

suluhlight, lamp, torch, illumination; the eye (PMP: *suluq)

Balinese (1380 / 1680)

suluh-inbe lit with a lamp, be illuminated; be found out about (PMP: *suluq)

sulurto climb in a spiral (creeper) (LOAN)

sumbaŋincest (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

sumpaha curse (especially on a piece of land); an oath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpelstopper, cork (PWMP: *sumpel)

sumpetstopper, cork (ROOT)

sumpiŋan ear ornament (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

suŋkabuncover, reveal, remove a cover (PMP: *su(ŋ)kab)

suŋsuŋgo to meet; respect deeply; revere (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

suŋua conch shell trumpet; used to announce the beginning of the observance of manyepi [an annual ceremony] (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

supitpinch, squeeze; thing to squeeze with, tweezers (PWMP: *supit)

suraka shout, war-cry (LOAN)

suramby-averanda, the front part of a house (PWMP: *surambi)

suratwriting, letter, drawing, bill, written account; to write (LOAN)

suremobscure, dim (ROOT)

surudebb-tide (LOAN)

suruŋ ~ ñuruŋto push, push away, force away; take away by the hand; encourage to flee (PWMP: *suruŋ)

surupgo inside, be thrust in; disappear; set (sun); die (PMP: *surup₁)

susubreast; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

susuhfreshwater snail (PMP: *susuq)

Balinese (1400 / 1680)

susulfollow someone who has gone ahead (PMP: *sulsul₁)

susunsection, layer, hollow (PMP: *susun) *susuN

susun-ansystem, program, arrangement (PMP: *susun) *susuN

sutsut-into be wiped clean (PWMP: *sutsut₂)

taan emphasizing particle (PWMP: *ta₂)

tabahinsipid, tasteless, watery (of food); unfeeling; insensitive (PWMP: *tabaR)

tabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tabénexcuse, leave, greeting (LOAN)

tabeŋstopper, cork (PWMP: *ta(m)beŋ)

tabeŋstopper, cork (ROOT)

tabiŋloose cover over the ridge of a roof; a partition (PWMP: *tabiŋ)

tabuhhammer (gong, etc.) (NOISE)

tabuwanhornet; several different kinds are distinguished (PMP: *tabuqan)

tagihask for, demand; admonish, exhort; threated; be addicted to (drugs, drink) (LOAN)

tahahthe blade of a kind of machete, chopper (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tahanendure, put up with (LOAN)

tahenbear with, endure, persist (LOAN)

tahidirt; rust; scale (metal); dung (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tahuknow, perceive (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

tahumindigo plant (PMP: *taRum)

Balinese (1420 / 1680)

tajegstand erect; be directly overhead (sun) (PWMP: *ta(n)zeg)

tajithe steel spur fastened to a game cock’s foot (LOAN)

taji-ninbe fitted with steel spurs (LOAN)

tajukstick into something; stick something in the ground; bury; plant dry rice (PWMP: *tazuk)

takeldoubled, folded (ROOT)

takepbe folded over, closed (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kep₁)

takera measure of volume (LOAN)

taktakstrike with a sword (PAN: *taktak₂)

takutfear; to fear, be afraid of (PAN: *takut)

talama tray; the leaf on which food is presented to a guest (LOAN)

talaŋ-talaŋa sea fish (PWMP: *talaŋ-talaŋ)

talistring, cord, rope; one thousand (primarily a cord with 1000 képéŋs strung on it, but used in Low Balinese for 1000) (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali puŋsedumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

taltalhit repeatedly (PWMP: *taltal₁)

taludefeated, beaten (PMP: *talu₂)

talukikind of batik (PMP: *taluki)

tamabe ready, be on hand, never be tongue-tied, be bold (PMP: *tama₂)

tambakdam, dyke; a pool formed from a dammed stream; fishpond; to block, obstruct, dam (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambankind of small sea fish (PWMP: *tamban)

tambel-inbe patched by someone (PWMP: *tambel)

Balinese (1440 / 1680)

tambeŋobstruct, block; be obstinate (PWMP: *ta(m)beŋ)

tambeŋto obstruct, block; be obstinate (PWMP: *tambeŋ)

tambunto heap up, pack together (things and people) (PMP: *tabun₂)

tampekstrike with the hand (PMP: *tampek)

tampelto cover up, plaster (a wound), patch (a hole), plaster something and make it watertight; plaster, a covering (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

tampihfold, fold up, put in layers (< *-piq) (ROOT)

tampukthe calyx of a fruit (PWMP: *tampuk₃)

tamuturmeric; dye (PWMP: *tamu₂)

tanahground, land, earth, soil (mainly as agricultural object, but also as building material, and as a political unit) (PMP: *taneq)

tanah hampoha sort of clay eaten by pregnant women (PMP: *taneq)

tanah putihchalk (‘white earth’) (PMP: *taneq)

tanḍiŋset opposite to each other; compare; cause to correspond; adversary; match (PWMP: *tandiŋ)

tandukhorn, horns of a bull or cow (LOAN)

tanembury in the ground (seeds, plants, a corpse); grave (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanjuŋcape, promontory, protruding point (LOAN)

tan simpaŋdo as is fitting, not deviate, be right (PMP: *simpaŋ)

taŋgaptake into the hand, accept, receive (PWMP: *taŋgap)

taŋgulbuild a dyke, a dam (PWMP: *taŋgul)

taŋisweeping (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋis-inbe wept over (PWMP: *taŋis-en) *Caŋis

Balinese (1460 / 1680)

taŋkebcover up (with a basket, etc.) (PWMP: *ta(ŋ)keb) *ta(ŋ)keb₁

taŋkeparrest, seize, hold (police, etc.) (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kep₂)

taŋkiswarding off, parrying (PWMP: *taŋkis)

tapea sort of fermenting agent, yeast; fermented cassava (PWMP: *tapay)

tape bahasfermented rice (PWMP: *tapay)

tapihan underskirt worn by women (PWMP: *tapiq₂)

tapi-ninto be winnowed by someone (PMP: *tapi)

tapukthe stalk of a fruit (PWMP: *tampuk₃)

tasiksalt; sea, ocean (in court and literary language) (PMP: *tasik)

tasik-into be made salty (PMP: *tasik)

tastascut loose, cut off, break in pieces (PWMP: *tastas)

ta-taban-anan animal so retained (PWMP: *ma-naban) *tabaN

ta-telutriad, three (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

ta-telu-ta-teluin threes, three at a time (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

tawahmake an offer to someone, haggle over a price (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawaŋsky, heaven (PWMP: *tawaŋ)

tawaŋ (tahu-aŋ)to see, perceive, know (PMP: *taqu-an) *Caqu

tebekstab, make a hole in something, make a hole in the ground for planting seedlings; a hole in the ground for a seedling (PAN: *tebek)

tebihbreak in pieces; the natural divisions of a betel nut, section, quarter, piece, slice (PMP: *tebiq) *Cebiq

tebtebcut off short, prune, cut to a point (PWMP: *tebteb)

Balinese (1480 / 1680)

tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh (PMP: *tebuk₂) *Cebuk

tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh (PWMP: *tebuk₁) *tebuk

tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh (ROOT)

teduŋumbrella or sunshade (of paper or silk) (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

tegeŋstrong (NOISE)

tehepspecies of tree which produces fruit like coffee beans, which are fried without oil (PWMP: *teRep)

tekato come, arrive (PMP: *teka₁)

teka-haŋbe caused to come, be brought (PMP: *teka₁)

teka-hinbe come to, be visited (PMP: *teka₁)

teka-ncoming, arrival (PMP: *teka₁)

tekenstaff, stick (PMP: *teken)

tekepflat lid; a cork (in a bottle) (PAN: *tekep)

tekep-inbe covered; act as a cover (PAN: *tekep)

tekesfasten, fix in place (esp. the hair, with a band of linen or a ribbon), done by men (PWMP: *tekes)

tékolbent, broken, but not separated (of living wood) (PWMP: *tikul)

tékolbent; broken, but not separated (of living wood) (ROOT)

tektekchop into small pieces (PAN: *tektek₁)

tekukbent, crumpled (PMP: *tekuk)

tekukbent, crumpled (ROOT)

telagapond, pool, fish pond (LOAN)

Balinese (1500 / 1680)

telivulva (PMP: *teli)

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

telusukbore a hole in the nose of a draught animal (ROOT)

tembiŋthe edge of a hole; the rim of a cliff-top; the brim of a ravine (LOAN)

temuto meet, come across, find (PWMP: *temu₂)

tenunweave (PAN: *tenun)

teŋahmiddle, center; in the middle (PMP: *teŋaq)

teŋah hahimid-day (PMP: *teŋaq)

teŋah lemeŋmidnight (PMP: *teŋaq)

teŋenright hand, right side (LOAN)

tepakthe flat of the hand or the flank; to hit with the flat of the hand (e.g. a drum) (PMP: *tepak₁)

tepekslap with the flat hand (ROOT)

tepessqueeze, press, pinch (PWMP: *tepes)

tepettake care of, take care about; exactly (PWMP: *tepet)

tepettake care of, take care about; hence: exactly (LOAN)

tepiborder, edge, limit, coast (LOAN)

tepiborder, edge, limit, coast (LOAN)

teposbreak off, interrupt, end in (PMP: *te(m)pus)

terimareceiving, thanks; to receive, accept, take over, find pleasure in; buy wholesale (LOAN)

terumpahshoe (LOAN)

Balinese (1520 / 1680)

terusgo through a place without stopping; through; through as far as (PWMP: *terus)

tetepbe sure, firm, certain, in order (LOAN)

tigtigbeat, strike (with a stick), hit, scourge (PWMP: *tigtig)

tihtihcut into very small pieces; smooth with a machete (PWMP: *tiRtiR₁)

tikimitation of a sound, ‘tick’ (PMP: *tik₁) *tik

tikelcrack (a stick) and bend it double without separating the parts; bend something double (a rope); multiply (PAN: *tikel)

tilammattress, bed (LOAN)

tilemlast day of the moon, new moon (PWMP: *tilem₁)

tilemlast day of the moon; new moon (ROOT)

timahlead, tin, zinc (PWMP: *timeRaq)

timbaŋbe compared with; weight, weighing (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timbunheap up, crowd together (PWMP: *timbun)

timpuhto sit (like women) on the ground with the legs bent at the side (PWMP: *timpuhuq)

timuncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

tiŋkaŋstand with the feet wide apart (PWMP: *ti(ŋ)kaŋ)

tiŋkaŋ-inbe straddled, have someone stand astride over something (PWMP: *tikaŋ)

tiŋkebspill; fall face downwards (Also Iban tiŋkap 'prostrate, prone; fall face down') (ROOT)

tiŋkeb-aŋbe spilt, be laid face downwards (PWMP: *tiŋkeb)

tipisthin, fine (linen, paper) (PMP: *tipis)

tipisthin, fine (linen, paper) (LOAN)

Balinese (1540 / 1680)

tiruto mimic, imitate, copy; a model, copy (for imitation) (LOAN)

tirusthe sharp end, the point; the smallest of a series, rank (PWMP: *tirus)

tisekthronged, pushed close together (ROOT)

titia bridge. a wooden plank across a ditch (PMP: *taytay)

titi-n-inbe bridged by someone (PMP: *taytay)

tiwasbe poor, be needy; poverty, need (NOISE)

tobusto redeem, ransom (PMP: *tebus)

tokthe sound of a thing being hit hard (PMP: *tuk)

tuaold, aged; full-grown, adult (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tubaa plant having intoxicating sap which is used to make animals unconscious; put into still water it stuns fish (PAN: *tuba)

tuba-hinto be poisoned with tuba (PWMP: *tuba-en) *tuba

tubuha young coconut palm which is about to fruit (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tubuha young coconut palm which is about to fruit (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tudiŋthe index finger (PAN: *tudiŋ)

tuduhbe leaky (PAN: *tuduq)

tuduh-anleak, a leaking spot (PAN: *tuduq-an) *tuduq

tuduŋcover, veil (PMP: *tuduŋ)

tuhedbase, root (PAN: *tuqed)

tuhed kayubase of a tree (PAN: *tuqed)

tuhusure, certain, true; truly, really (PMP: *tuqu₂)

Balinese (1560 / 1680)

tuhundescend, come down; descent, getting down (as fowls from the trees where they have spent the night) (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tuhun-andownwards, further down (PWMP: *tuRun-an) *tuRun₁

tuhun-aŋbe let down (on a rope); be taken down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tuhutfollow, obey, observe (a rule) (PWMP: *tuRut)

tuhut-aŋbe followed; according to (PWMP: *tuRut)

tujupoint to, aim at, point out (PMP: *tuzu)

tuju-aŋbe shown; be indicated (PWMP: *tuzuq-an) *tuzuq₁

tujuhindex finger, forefinger; to point to, indicate, show (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tujuh-inbe shown by someone to someone (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁

tukaŋcraftsman, expert, practitioner; one who is commissioned to work in some way (LOAN)

tuktukbeak of a bird (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

tuktuktop, tip, extremity (PAN: *tuktuk₂)

tukubcover, covering; storey of a house (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kub)

tukuŋamputate, create a stump (PWMP: *tukuŋ)

tuladmodel, copy (to be copied), original (PWMP: *tulad)

tulad-anmodel, example (PWMP: *tulad-an) *tulad

tulaŋbone, skeleton (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tulithen, a little later (NOISE)

tuluspermanent, remaining always the same; used as adverb indicates that something will take place, be done (PMP: *tulus)

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

Balinese (1580 / 1680)

tumbaklance, a long spear; perform a dance with spears (PMP: *tumbak)

tumbak-inbe speared several times (PMP: *tumbak)

tumbuhthe first shoot of a plant; to grow, sprout, come up, emerge (of teeth); be born (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tumpuk-anpile, heap together (e.g. rice sheaves) (PWMP: *tumpuk)

t<um>ulithen (NOISE)

tunuroast on a fire, bake on glowing coals; cremate (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tuŋgalunity, union; be one (LOAN)

tuŋkadstick, staff (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kad)

tuŋkaŋstride, straddle (ROOT)

tuŋkədstick, staff (PAN: *tuked)

tuŋkəd-aŋbe used as a stick (PAN: *tuked)

tuŋkəd-inbe provided with a stick (PWMP: *tuked-en) *tuked

tuŋkəd-tuŋkədwalk with a stick because of old age (PAN: *tuked)

tuŋkulbow the head, be subject to (PAN: *Cukul)

tuŋkulbow the head, be subject to (ROOT)

tuŋtuŋpeak, top (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

turo-n-in pabe slept with by someone (PAN: *tuduR)

turusleep (PAN: *tuduR)

tustusbreak off, pluck (ROOT)

tusuk duibe pricked by a thorn (PMP: *tusuk)

Balinese (1600 / 1680)

tut buribe followed by someone (NOISE)

tutubthe cloth covering the end of a pillow (PMP: *tutub)

uauncle, aunt (PMP: *uaʔ)

uauncle, aunt (PMP: *ua₂)

uabyawn, gape (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

ualfeeling of fatigue and pain in the tendons of the hands and feet (NEAR)

uatsinew; muscle; vein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ubadmedicine, remedy (LOAN)

ubangrey hair; have grey hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ubia species of potato (PMP: *qubi)

ucapsay, speak, tell, report, announce (LOAN)

udayoung, fresh (PMP: *qubi)

udaŋshrimp (esp. in rivers) (PAN: *qudaŋ)

uhutmassage (muscles); rub with pressure (PMP: *quRut)

ujanrain, shower (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ujan batuhail (PMP: *quzan batu₂) *quzaN

ujitest, inspect, examine (PWMP: *uzi)

ujurstretched out, rectilinear (PMP: *qunzur)

ukircarve, engrave, decorate with carving (wood, stone or metal) (PMP: *ukir)

ukir-ancarved work; carving-tool (PWMP: *ukir-an) *ukir

Balinese (1620 / 1680)

ukurmeasure, measure off, survey (land); estimate, guess (LOAN)

ukuthang over (ears of rice), walk bent over with age; be bent (PMP: *quŋkut) *qukut

ulakwind, wind up (yarn) (PWMP: *ulak)

ulak-anreel, spool (of thread, yarn) (PWMP: *ulak-an) *ulak

ulamflesh, meat, fish (PWMP: *qulam)

uledworm, grub, caterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

uled-uledworms, caterpillars (PMP: *qulej qulej) *qulej

uleswrapper, cushion-cover, mattress-cover, glove, skin (animal); outward appearance, color (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

ulihreturn, coming back, homecoming; through, because of (PMP: *uliq₁)

uluhead; top, chief; leader; upstream, uphill, above (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulun aŋensolar plexus, pit of the stomach (LOAN)

umafield, arable land (PMP: *quma) *qumah

uman tyaŋé limaŋ anun i rakathe field of me (is) five (times) that of I Raka (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

umbakwave, surf (PWMP: *humbak)

umbituber, root, tuberous vegetable (PMP: *qubi)

umbi-umbi-anyam (PMP: *qubi)

umbulfountain, spring; bubble up, well up (water) (PWMP: *umbul)

undurretreat, yield (PWMP: *undur)

unebcarved wooden panel put over a doorway as an ornament; lock, shut up (ROOT)

uni, uñisound, make a sound (PMP: *huni) *Suni

Balinese (1640 / 1680)

unjanincrease, add to; rise, as a price (Panitia 1978) (PWMP: *unzan)

untutooth, tusk (PMP: *quntu)

uṇṭukmake a deep bow, hang the head (PWMP: *hutuk)

uŋkabto open, lift the lid of a box, untie a bandage (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

uŋkab-inbe opened (PWMP: *hukab-en) *hu(ŋ)kab

uŋkuhwalk in a bent posture (PWMP: *hukuq)

uŋkuhwalk in a bent posture, walk bowed down (PWMP: *ukuq)

uŋkuswrap in a cloth (ROOT)

upahwages, pay, hire (PMP: *upaq)

upah-angbe paid for for someone (PWMP: *upaq-an) *upaq

upah-upah-anhireling, one who is paid (PWMP: *upaq-an) *upaq

upaspoison (snake, etc.) (PMP: *upas)

upihthe calyx of a banana-flower; the sheath surrounding the spring of leaves of the palm (used as a container) (PMP: *hupiq) *Supiq

uremunclear, misty, cloudy (sky), half-dark, twilight (PAN: *qudem)

uriback; come after, be behind, walk behind (PMP: *udehi)

usikannoy, vex (PMP: *usik)

utahvomit (PAN: *utaq)

utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utaŋ-inbe in debt to someone (PWMP: *qutaŋ-en) *qutaŋ

utekbrain (PMP: *hutek)

Balinese (1660 / 1680)

utussend (a person) (PWMP: *utus₂)

uyahsalt (LOAN)

uyaŋturn from side to side on a bed; be unable to sleep (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

uyuŋdizzy, staggering (PWMP: *Ruyuŋ)

wahujust, just now (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

waŋkédead body, corpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

warakrhinoceros (LOAN)

warisheir, joint heirs (LOAN)

waris-anestate, inheritance (LOAN)

wataŋcorpse (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

wataŋ-ancorpse; corpus delicti; an eye-witness (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

wewater (High Balinese) (PMP: *wahiR)

wedakointment (LOAN)

welassuffix used to form numerals from 11-19 (but not 18) (LOAN)

welasmercy, pity, favor (NOISE)

wenaŋdominate, permit, have power, be the authority (LOAN)

weŋievening, night, darkness; become dark (PMP: *beRŋi)

weteŋbelly, abdomen (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

wikulearned, wise; learned man, doctor, priest (LOAN)

yaan emphasizing particle, it is also used for yes (PAN: *qia)

Balinese (1680 / 1680)

yuŋdamaged, destroyed, upset, in confusion; swing (PWMP: *iuŋ)

yuŋ-yuŋ-aŋbe made to swing, be given a swing (of a child) (PWMP: *iuŋ)

yuyucrab, lobster (PMP: *qayuyu)

za-ŋa-vulukuten (PMP: *ŋa)

Balinese (High) (6) WMP

asihlove, like, favor (PMP: *qasiq) High

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS High

lumahweak, tender, enfeebled by illness (PWMP: *lumaq) High

pagerfence, wall, hadge, fortification (PMP: *pager) High

pasarmarket (LOAN) High

pusernavel (PMP: *pusej) High

Balinese (Low) (4) WMP

pagehbe fenced (PMP: *pager) Low

pageh-ana hedge, fence, wall, fortification (PMP: *pager) Low

puŋsednavel (PMP: *pusej) Low

sahutanswer (PMP: *saRut) Low

Balingian (10) WMP. see: Melanau (Balingian)

57. Baluan (14) OC (Blust n.d. 1975) [blq] (Baluan-Pam) Papua New Guinea

kanaicanarium almond (PMP: *kanari)

kapu-nstomach of an animal (POC: *kabuŋ) *kampuŋ

kawkava: Piper methysticum (LOAN)

kumwest wind (NEAR)

kupʷenkind of long rectangular fishing net (POC: *kupwena)

lakto go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

latcoral limestone (POC: *laje)

mwaneyunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

paŋto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

paŋto feed (PMP: *paŋan)

para-n pameareca palm (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

para-n pwaŋthigh (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

silbamboo on sail (POC: *jila)

suysoup (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

58. Banggai (318) WMP (Bergh 1953) [bgz] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

a-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

abincarry in the arms (PMP: *qabin)

abukfireplace, hearth (PMP: *qabuk)

ademandible, chin (PMP: *qazay)

aifoot, leg (PAN: *qaqay)

ajalanhorse (LOAN)

akaltrick, ruse, deceit, fraud, artifice (LOAN)

akatroot (PMP: *wakat)

alatake away, fetch (PAN: *alaq₁)

alostough creepers or tendrils; rope (PMP: *waRej)

alueight (PAN: *walu)

ampitwhat is folded (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

ampunforgiveness, pardon (PMP: *ampun)

-ansuffix forming adjectives. The suffix -an is actually local, and in the second instance temporal, and it thus gives the place and time at which or in which the meaning of the stem word is realized... Examples of adjectives with the suffix -an are: buluŋ-an 'loud, of sound' (from buluŋ 'throat', boo-an 'evil-smelling' (from boo 'stench'), buku-an 'strong' (from buku 'bone'), mon-doso-an 'be taboo' (from doso 'a taboo')...The collective function of -an which is found in some other languages is seen in osoa-an 'to marry' (from soa 'spouse') ... In other cases the meaning of the stem word is not available in Banggai, and hence the precise meaning of the suffix -an cannot be determined (PAN: *-an)

anuwhatchamacallit (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ataslave (PMP: *qaRta)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-andeep (PMP: *qatay-an) *qaCay

baakbreak off, broken off (PMP: *baqak₁)

Banggai (20 / 318)

bababring (PMP: *baba₁)

babamouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

ba-babufamily member (LOAN)

babakbeat a drum (PAN: *bakbak₂)

babohigh-rising forest (PAN: *babaw₃)

ba-bukuexert oneself, make an effort (PMP: *buku)

ba-buŋato bloom (PMP: *buŋa)

babuypig (PAN: *babuy₃)

ba-kita-anlook at oneself in the mirror (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

balaniblack magic (PMP: *baRani)

balikfade, of colors (PMP: *balik₂)

baluk-onsold (PMP: *baluk₂)

banaaŋthread, yarn (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

bansukhousepost (ROOT)

bansuŋlarge basket (PWMP: *basuŋ)

baŋunrise, stand up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

barani(Loan) brave, courageous, daring; war leader; dare to do something (PMP: *baRani)

baratheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

ba-salul-anwater conduit, water pipe of bamboo (PWMP: *saluR)

ba-sumpitgo hunting with a blowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

Banggai (40 / 318)

ba-susupto smoke (tobacco) (PAN: *supsup)

ba-tanomdig oneself in (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

bataŋtrunk, stalk, stem (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

ba-tilaluplay a bamboo flute (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

batustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

batu-onstony, full of stones (as soil) (PWMP: *batu-en) *batux

baʔa-k-atecommit suicide (PMP: *atay) *aCay

be-belaywide, broad (PMP: *bekelaj)

beegive (PMP: *beRay)

belay-anbreadth, width (PWMP: *bekelaj-an) *bekelaj

bibillip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibiledge (PMP: *birbir₁)

bilatwith open eyes; seeing; clear; fire (PMP: *bilat₁)

bilatwith the eyes open (ROOT)

bilitanews (LOAN)

bindana upaspoisonous snake (PMP: *upas)

biŋgislanting, oblique, at an angle (NOISE)

bisasupernaturally powerful (LOAN)

bisarato speak; speech; language (LOAN)

bitiscalf of the leg (PMP: *bities)

Banggai (60 / 318)

bituonmoon; month (PAN: *bituqen)

bituon paunostar (PAN: *bituqen)

bo-boŋolhard of hearing (PMP: *beŋel)

bo-bosulsatisfied from having eaten enough, satiated (PAN: *besuR)

boboytie, bind (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bodoʔstupid (LOAN)

bokolwave, billow (ROOT)

bonuahouse, dwelling (PMP: *banua)

boŋoldeaf (PMP: *beŋel)

booodor, stench (PMP: *bahu)

boo-anevil-smelling, reeking (PWMP: *bahu-an) *bahu

bosepaddle; to paddle, travel over sea (PMP: *beRsay)

bose-anvoyage (PWMP: *beRsay-an) *beRsay

botikdecoration; color; carving (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

botokforearm (PWMP: *beteken)

buaŋhole, pit; it leaks! (PAN: *buhaŋ)

buaŋ-anhaving a hole (PAN: *buhaŋ)

bubuŋa well (PMP: *bubuŋ₂)

bueacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

bukato open (PMP: *buka)

Banggai (80 / 318)

bukalto boil (intr.) (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukubone (PMP: *buku)

buku-anstrong (PMP: *buku-an) *buku

bulitrear end, seat, buttocks (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

bulitbuttocks, rear end (PMP: *burit₁)

buluŋweed (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bunduextremity, far end (PMP: *budu)

bunomcloud (ROOT)

buŋaflower, blossom (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋkulknobby, bumpy, lumpy; hump (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋkul-anhump, lump (PWMP: *buŋkul-an) *buŋkul

buŋkutneck (PMP: *bukut)

butamud, mire; earth, soil (PMP: *buRtaq)

buukhead hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

daŋkaŋwide apart (PWMP: *zaŋkaŋ)

dapitpinch, squeeze, press (PWMP: *zapit)

deŋkuŋcurly, of the hair (PMP: *zeŋkuŋ)

dilepglitter, sparkle, shine (PMP: *dilep)

-gu1sg possessive pronoun after bases that end with ŋ (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

igeneric prefix of location (PAN: *i₂)

Banggai (100 / 318)

ipersonal article (PAN: *i₃)

i-aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

idak, indaktrample down (PMP: *inzak)

idutremove clothes (ROOT)

i-kami1pl. excl. independent pronoun, we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

i-kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

i-komuyu2pl. independent pronoun, you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

inumto drink (PMP: *inum)

iŋatthink about; remember (PMP: *iŋat)

ioyes (PMP: *qio)

ka-formative of abstract nouns from adjectival bases: ka-lanak ‘greasiness’ (cp. ma-lanak ‘greasy’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

kabusall gone, finished, consumed, used up (PMP: *kabus₁)

kabusgone, finished (ROOT)

kalamatalarge basket (PWMP: *kalamata)

kalitatakbutterfly (PAN: *kali-)

kamalipalace, residence of the prince (PMP: *kamaliR)

-kami1pl. excl. accusative pronoun, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kandalrailing, place to lean (ROOT)

ka-nipithinness (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ka-patusend (PAN: *pa-kaCu) *kaCu

Banggai (120 / 318)

kasorafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kayapto beckon, wave the hand (PWMP: *kayab)

kayu-ŋtree, living wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kiduŋa men’s dance with singing (PWMP: *kiduŋ)

kilaplightning (PMP: *kilap)

k<in>aanwas eaten by someone; food (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

ko-koon-onfood, meal (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ko-lima-nofifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

komboŋbelly; stomach (PWMP: *kempuŋ) *kempeŋ

-komuyu2pl. accusative, you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

ko-onaswarmth (PMP: *panas₁)

ko tolu-nothe third (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

kukusrising of smoke (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kumbalstem of the sago leaf (PMP: *kumbal)

ku-mosiklarge black forest ant (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

laalhunger (PMP: *lapaR₁)

lakatroot (PWMP: *lakat₁)

laŋkoheight, altitude, elevation (PMP: *laŋkaw)

lasopenis; young boy (PMP: *laseR)

lasopenis; boy (PMP: *lasuq₂)

Banggai (140 / 318)

leeŋcave, grotto, cavern, den (PMP: *liaŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

loaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

loonleaf (PMP: *dahun)

luatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

lukutbrood, sit on the nest (PWMP: *dukut₁)

lusukside of the body (PAN: *Rusuk)

lusukside of the body (PAN: *Rusuk)

maashame (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

ma-anusdrift on a current (PMP: *ma-qañud) *qañud

ma-baŋunto stand something upright (PWMP: *ma-baŋun) *baŋuN

ma-bayarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

maiCome! (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-katolscabies, mange (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

ma-katol-onsuffer from scabies (PWMP: *gatel-en) *gaCel

ma-laalhungry (PMP: *lapaR₁)

malaneman; male (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

ma-laŋudrunk (PAN: *ma-laŋu) *laŋu

ma-maashy, ashamed (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

ma-mate-konkill (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

Banggai (160 / 318)

mamissweet (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

ma-nipithin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

man-tabasto hack, cut; murder (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

man-talunto weed (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

man-tanomto bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

man-tapaplace something on a (drying) rack (PWMP: *man-tapa) *Capa

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

manu-manuklarger kinds of birds (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

maŋ-abincarry in the arms (PWMP: *meŋ-qabin) *qabin

maŋa-kabusto spend, squander (PMP: *kabus₁)

maŋa-k-atekill (PMP: *atay) *aCay

maŋ-alatake away, fetch (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₁) *alaq₁

maŋ-ampil-konbring close to oneself (PMP: *hampil)

maŋ-ampitto fold (PWMP: *maŋ-hapit) *Sapit

maŋ-anasmake something warm (PMP: *panas₁)

maŋ-anusset something adrift (PAN: *qañud)

maŋ-asuhunt with dogs (PWMP: *maŋ-asu) *asu₁

maŋ-ata-ipossess or obtain slaves (PMP: *qaRta)

maŋa-takutto frighten (PAN: *takut)

maŋ-kaanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

Banggai (180 / 318)

maŋ-ka-nipimake something thin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

maŋka-sakitmake someone sick, cause someone pain (PMP: *sakit)

maŋkoʔcup (LOAN)

ma-sakitsick, painful; cause pain (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-salacommit adultery (PWMP: *ma-salaq) *salaq₁

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-takutafraid, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

matedie (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate-andeath (PMP: *m-atay-an) *aCay

mbambadoor (PMP: *baqbaq)

mbambadoor (NOISE)

mbefmbefgoat (LOAN)

mo-bilitainform, give news (LOAN)

mo-bisara-konto discuss, talk over (LOAN)

mo-bosepaddle a canoe (PMP: *beRsay)

mo-bose-itravel to (PMP: *beRsay)

mo-bose-kongo to, travel with (PMP: *beRsay)

mo-bubus-onstream out, be strewn about (PMP: *busbus)

mo-buka-konto open for someone (PMP: *buka)

mo-loŋolto hear (PWMP: *ma-deŋeR) *deŋeR

Banggai (200 / 318)

mo-loŋol-i-konlisten to something (PMP: *deŋeR)

mo-lulunroll something up (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

mo-lusukthin, skinny (showing the ribs), emaciated (PWMP: *ma-Rusuk) *Rusuk

mo-minakfat (of dead matter) (PMP: *miñak)

mom-popotto close off, plug a hole so that nothing can get through (PWMP: *petpet₂)

mon-doŋol-ilisten to (PMP: *deŋeR)

mon-sintakto pull, snare something (PWMP: *sintak)

mon-sususuck at the breast (PWMP: *ma-ñusu) *susu₁

mon-susukto price or pierce (PAN: *suksuk)

mon-tian-aŋ-gonpregnant with (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

mon-tolun-ito weed, of multiple objects (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

mon-tulun-igo below toward (something) (PMP: *tuRun₁)

moŋ-idakto trample down (PWMP: *maŋ-inzak) *inzak

moŋ-inumto drink (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

moŋ-iŋatthink about, remember (PWMP: *maŋ-iŋat) *iŋat

moŋ-kitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

moŋ-kita-anmirror (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

moŋ-kita-konto show, display (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

moŋ-obin-itake in the arms (PWMP: *meŋ-qabin) *qabin

moŋ-ompun-ito pardon (PWMP: *maŋ-ampun-i) *ampun

Banggai (220 / 318)

moŋ-oyok-ito kiss (PWMP: *meŋ-hajek) *Sajek

moŋ-uaŋto call, cry, shout (PWMP: *maŋ-quaŋ) *quaŋ₂

moŋ-uaŋ-goncall to, shout after (PWMP: *maŋ-quaŋ) *quaŋ₂

moŋ-ululpay out rope (PWMP: *maŋ-huluR) *SuluR

mo-onaswarm (PMP: *panas₁)

mo-onofull (PMP: *ma-penuq) *penuq

mo-ono ko tobuiflood (PMP: *ma-penuq) *penuq

mo-sosopto suck (PAN: *sepsep)

mo-susunput in layers, stack up (PMP: *susun) *susuN

nukaframboesia (PWMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

nukaframboesia (PMP: *nuka) *Nuka

nuka-onhave framboesia (PWMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

nuka-onhave framboesia (PWMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

-ŋgu1sg possessive pronoun after vowels (suffixed to the possessum for directly possessed nouns such as body parts, but to the determiner ko for indirectly possessed nouns): ko mata-ŋgu ‘my eye’, but ko-ŋgu bonua ‘my house’ (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

obusfinished, done (PWMP: *ebus)

oloyoday (PMP: *qalejaw)

oloyoday, sun; daylight (PMP: *qalejaw)

oloyo mata-nosun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

o-otiebb (PMP: *qeti₁)

pa-bayarmeans of payment; payment (PMP: *bayaD)

Banggai (240 / 318)

paisu mata-nospring, source of water (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

pantalflat, level (PMP: *pa(n)tar₁)

pan-talunweeding implement (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

pantanforbidden (LOAN)

paŋabranch (PAN: *paŋa₁)

pa-saŋkopdoor, lid (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kep)

pa-saŋkopdoor (PWMP: *cakep)

peliŋkind of bamboo (PMP: *periŋ)

pinsil mata-nopoint of a pencil (PMP: *mata) *maCa

piotyoungest child (PMP: *piut)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

po-alamarry (PAN: *alaq₁)

po-kabus-ontil it is all gone, totally (PMP: *kabus₁)

po-luluninstrument used to roll things up (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

pon-tinahen (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

pooa-k-atekill each other, fight to the death, duel, go to war (PMP: *atay) *aCay

poo-bitikick one another's calves (a boys' game) (PMP: *bintiq)

poo-kaanto eat together (PAN: *kaen)

poo-kitasee one another (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

poo-sa-saladifferent, various (PMP: *salaq₁)

Banggai (260 / 318)

pupupluck (PMP: *pupu₁)

sagusago, edible palm pith (PMP: *sagu₁)

sakitsickness (PMP: *sakit)

salawrong; mistake, error, fault (PMP: *salaq₁)

salulwater conduit of bamboo (PWMP: *saluD)

saŋkopclose (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kep)

saŋkopto close (PWMP: *cakep)

sa-pikulone shouder load (of things carried) (LOAN)

sintakto pull, jerk, snare (PWMP: *sintak)

siŋgo-tolu-konthree by three, three each (PAN: *telu)

sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

so-bonua-none night (PMP: *banua)

sokuto cover (ROOT)

solokstream, current (PWMP: *seleg)

so-ŋ-uloten (PMP: *ŋa)

sumpit-anblowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

susubreast, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

susu leelomilk (PAN: *susu₁)

susunlayer, stack (PMP: *susun) *susuN

susupcigarette; straw (for sipping) (PAN: *supsup)

Banggai (280 / 318)

susup-ancigarette paper or leaf (PAN: *supsup)

ta-we (incl.) (PAN: *-ta)

takutfear (PAN: *takut)

tamafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tamistest, taste, sample (PMP: *tamis)

tanoearth, ground; world (PMP: *taneq)

tapa-anrack on which something is dried (PWMP: *tapa-an) *Capa

tarimato receive (LOAN)

ta-talunknife for cutting weeds (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tiauterus, womb; belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tian-anpregnant (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

tilalubamboo flute (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

timus-onsalt (PAN: *timus)

tinaM (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tindakstamp with the foot (PWMP: *ti(n)zak)

tobokprick, pierce, stick (with a weapon) (PAN: *tebek)

to-bulus-oncarried away by water (PWMP: *bulus)

toluthree (PAN: *telu)

tudaŋto sit, of birds; roost (PMP: *tu(n)daŋ)

tugal, tuŋgalplant rice (PWMP: *tugal)

Banggai (300 / 318)

tukalladder, steps (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tulunto sink (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tumbuncovered with (PWMP: *tumbun)

tutuknod the head (ROOT)

tu-tuu ~ tuu-tuureally true, really right; really, truly (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuutrue, real (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuuldry (of wood, grass) (PMP: *tuquR)

-u ~ -oŋgu1sg possessive pronoun after consonants other than ŋ construction ko-X-ŋgu): my (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

udanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

udan-onget caught in the rain (PAN: *quzan-en) *quzaN

ukifemale pudendum; young girl (PWMP: *uki)

uléreturn, go back (PMP: *uliq₁)

uloyworm, earthworm, maggot, caterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

uloy-onhave worms (PMP: *qulej-en) *qulej

uluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ululfish with line let out from the hand (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

usokenter, go in (PMP: *u(n)sek)

wuliliwhirlpool (NOISE)

Banggi (27) WMP. see: Bonggi

59. Banjarese (110) WMP (Hapip 1977) [bjn] (Banjar) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

a-anak-andoll (PWMP: *a-anak-an) *aNak

aduhexclamation of pain, surprise, etc. (PMP: *aduq)

ambundew (PWMP: *ambun)

ambuttear off coconut husk (PMP: *abut)

ambutpull off the husk of a coconut (PMP: *hebut) *SebuC

ampikclap (PWMP: *ampik)

ampunpardon (PMP: *ampun)

anakchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak-anfingerlings of fish (PWMP: *anak-an) *aNak

anakan habuminute young of the murrel (Ophiocephalus striatus) (PWMP: *qabu qabu)

anaywhite ant, termite (PAN: *aNay)

antahremnant of rice husk that remains attached to grain after the pounding (PWMP: *ataq)

antiŋearring (LOAN)

aŋak aŋak(person) in a state of complete exhaustion (PWMP: *haŋak)

asahwhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asakhole made with a dibble stick for planting rice (PMP: *hasek₁)

asapsmoke (PWMP: *asep)

asiobedient, devoted to (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi

ataŋfence around a graveyard; place for the hearth, made of heaped-up earth (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

ataŋfence enclosing a graveyard (NOISE)

Banjarese (20 / 110)

atarconduct, escort, convey (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

atawaor (LOAN)

aturarrange (LOAN)

ba-atar-anconvey an engagement gift (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

ba-aturput in stacks (LOAN)

ba-atur-anto order, arrange (LOAN)

babalstupid (PWMP: *balbal₂)

babattripe (LOAN)

ba-isihave, exist (PAN: *isi₅)

ba-isihave, possess; exist (PWMP: *maR-isiʔ) *isi₅

ba-jualto sell (LOAN)

balisahrestless (LOAN)

bambaŋ-ankind of marine fish (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₅)

bar-anakgive birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

bar-anak-anhave a child (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

barasakcrammed full (ROOT)

baʔahflood (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

biruaŋthe Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus (PWMP: *biRuaŋ)

halambefore, last night, yesterday (PMP: *halem)

halimatakleech (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

Banjarese (40 / 110)

halimatakjungle leech (PAN: *qali-)

hambartasteless, insipid (PMP: *qambaR)

hampaempty (PMP: *qapah)

hampalasa plant, Tetracera assa; the leaves are used as sandpaper (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

hampaŋfish weir (PMP: *qempeŋ)

hamparspread out a mat (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

hamukfurious attack, charge (PMP: *hamuk)

hanawa palm: Arena spp. (PMP: *qanahaw)

hangkutto move (as house), transport (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

hantabrackish, as water; unpleasant (of the taste of food) (PWMP: *qanta)

hantasshortcut; take a shortcut (PWMP: *qantas)

haŋatwarm, hot (NOISE)

haŋitburn up, become charcoal (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

haruana murrel (PWMP: *haruqan)

haruscurrent (PMP: *qaRus)

hasilrent, tax (LOAN)

hataproof; thatch for roofing (PMP: *qatep)

haurkind of bamboo (PMP: *qauR)

hausthirsty (LOAN)

hayucome on! lets go! (LOAN)

Banjarese (60 / 110)

hiapcry out, shout (NOISE)

hiaucall to someone (PAN: *qiaw)

hibumother (LOAN)

(h)iŋga-nboundary, border; as far as (PMP: *qiŋga)

hirienvious (PWMP: *qiRih)

hiriŋslant, incline (PWMP: *qiriŋ₂)

hirisslice, carve (PMP: *qiris)

hisobject to children doing something (PMP: *qis)

hisapsuck (PMP: *qisep)

humbutedible pith; palm cabbage (PMP: *qubud)

huŋakgasp for breath (ROOT)

huŋkillevering up (PWMP: *quŋkil)

huruŋsurround, crowd in upon (PMP: *quruŋ)

imbaŋweigh, balance; compare (PMP: *imbaŋ)

impawatch out for, beware (PMP: *hipaʔ)

indikshort (NOISE)

indu-ŋmother (PWMP: *indu-ŋ) *indu

injamborrow (PWMP: *hinzam)

isicontents (PAN: *isi₅)

itilclitoris (PWMP: *itil)

Banjarese (80 / 110)

jualsell (LOAN)

kam-anak-annephew, niece (PWMP: *kam-anak-en) *aNak

kam-anak-ansibling’s child, cousin’s child (< *anak ‘child’) (PWMP: *kam- -an)

kipitnarrow (PAN: *kipit)

licakmuddy (Also Malay lécak 'moist and slippery, as ground after rain') (ROOT)

luaiworm (PWMP: *ulay)

luaiworm (NOISE)

luaŋhole (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

luhukbay (PWMP: *luquk)

ma-napakto slap (PMP: *tepak₁)

man-jualto sell (LOAN)

ma-uarredden something with uar (PMP: *huaR)

ruhakwiden, enlarge (PWMP: *ruqag)

sahaŋpepper (NOISE)

susahpoor (LOAN)

tapakslap, blow with the open hand (PMP: *tepak₁)

ta-tiupbellows (PMP: *tiup)

tiŋadahto look upward (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

tiupto blow (PMP: *tiup)

tuhaold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

Banjarese (100 / 110)

uarkind of plant the bark of which is used to tan skins or to steep clothes (PMP: *huaR)

ukaŋto bite (with the mouth wide) (PWMP: *u(ŋ)kaŋ)

ulam-anfood which refreshes or cleans the mouth (PWMP: *qulam-an) *qulam

untuknod the head (ROOT)

uŋapopen (of the mouth) (PMP: *uŋap)

uŋapopen (of the mouth) (ROOT)

uŋkapto open (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

uŋutmeditate on (PWMP: *uŋut)

uŋut-uŋutwrapped up in one's thoughts (PWMP: *uŋut)

utakbrain (PMP: *hutek)

60. Banoni (10) OC [bcm] (Bannoni) Papua New Guinea

atuŋtuna fish (POC: *qatun)

garaurain (POC: *kadapuR)

kamisuto spit (POC: *kamisu)

kirered Eclectus parrot (POC: *kiRak)

matedie (POC: *mate) *aCay

taghisisea, saltwater, more a place than a liquid; gutsini more a liquid (PMP: *tasik)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

to-atsifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

va-matekill (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

vasaŋaname (PMP: *ajan)

Bantaeng Makasarese (2) WMP. see: Makasarese (Bantaeng)

61. Bantik (15) WMP (Sneddon 1984) [bnq] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

duhi nu husuʔrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

husuʔthin (of person) (PAN: *Rusuk)

(i)amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

kanehabaʔyesterday (PAN: *ka-₁)

ka-nehab-aʔyesterday (PMP: *neRab)

kiniŋeyebrow (PWMP: *kiniŋ)

nípisiʔthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

sáhihiʔfloor (PMP: *saleR)

sákeleɁto kick (with toes) (PMP: *sakil)

siownine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sulúŋto shelter (from sun, rain) (PMP: *suluŋ₁)

tabasaʔto hack down (e.g. scrub to make gardens) (PWMP: *tebas₂)

tuhaŋrelative of the same generation (PMP: *tuRaŋ)

tulito call on, visit (PMP: *tuluy₂)

tulito call on, visit (PWMP: *tuli₂) *tuli

62. Bantuqanon (1) WMP (Zorc 1977)

nagenitive case marker for plural personal names (PAN: *na₃)

63. Bare'e (953) WMP (Adriani 1928) [pmf] (Pamona) Indonesia (Sulawesi) (dialects: Lalau 1, Luwu 1)

-apolite form of -ña 'pronominal suffix of the 3rd person (PMP: *-a₂)

aaan exclamation which expresses a variety of emotions, above all uncertainty, amazement or annoyance (PMP: *a₃)

ajasubstitute term for 'dog' (asu) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ajechin, jaw (PMP: *qazay)

akiraft (PMP: *Rakit)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

a-limafive (independent form) (PAN: *lima)

alintajungle leech that moves like an inchworm (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

alipacentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

alipoposmall flying insect, possibly firefly by daylight (PMP: *qali-petpet)

ambawavery large mango variety with a strong turpentine odor which grows primarily on the shore: Mangifera odorata (PWMP: *qambawaŋ)

am-pulidust or dirt in the eye (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

ampúnitree fern. The pith is fed to pigs, the wood is burned as a mosquito repellant, the roots (a pretty black) are chopped into bits and used 1. as beads, and 2. as a magical charm (PMP: *apuni)

am-punitree fern, Alsophila sp. The pith is fed to pigs, the wood is burned to repel mosquitos, the shiny black roots are chopped up and used to make beads and as a ritual substance in ceremonies to assist the rice, because the plant is very tenacious (PMP: *puni₁) *puni

ámpuŋ-iforgiveness, pardon (PMP: *ampun)

anachild, young one (always as a qualifier of another noun); sometimes also used of a part of some larger thing (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana iluorphan (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana manuchick (PMP: *anak i manuk) *aNak

ana matapupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

ana ndaratastepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

Bare'e (20 / 953)

ana ndoroneonate (lit. 'red child') (PMP: *anak a ma-iRaq) *aNak

ana ntausomeone else's child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana n-tausomeone else's child (PMP: *anak i tau) *aNak

ana ŋkadoeillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana piobaby chicks, baby birds (PMP: *piqek)

ana piochick, baby bird (PMP: *piek)

ana uyu-efirstborn child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

ana uyu-efirst-born child (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

anaʔ iluorphan (PWMP: *ilu)

ancoforce one's way through grass and bushes; wander in the wilderness (PWMP: *ansaw)

anetermite, white ant (PAN: *aNay)

anituname for the spirits that reside in the village temple (lobo) or in the smithy; a small snake that often stays in the temple ... is the personification of an anitu (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

a-nuindefinite pronoun, word used to indicate something for which one will not or cannot use the proper name (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

aŋkubent forward, as someone carrying a heavy load (ROOT)

a-opofour (independent numeral) (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

apaa word (sometimes in the a), that is used more or less enclitically to make the meaning of a free morpheme more general, often translated with 'or so', 'or something similar', etc. (PMP: *apa₁)

apaempty, without contents, of rice husks without grains (PMP: *qapah)

apa teʔiwhat is this? (fixed expression in a game) (PMP: *apa₁)

apitree sp. (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

apiuopium (LOAN)

Bare'e (40 / 953)

apojugall, gall bladder (an object of examination in animals used for divination) (PAN: *qapejux)

apufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asawhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asáratime of the third daily prayer of Moslims, around 3:30 P.M. (LOAN)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asu burik-oa striped dog (PWMP: *burik)

asu ma-wuyua furry dog (PWMP: *ma-bulu) *bulu₁

ataroof; thatch (sago, nipa, rattan) (PMP: *qatep)

atabring or escort someone to his destination (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

atuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

awabody; waist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awafirewood (NOISE)

awaashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

awisarong in which a child is carried (PWMP: *qawis)

awuclear the ground of weeds and bushes (PMP: *abut)

awuash, dust (PMP: *qabu)

ayafetch, get, take; use; believe, trust; care for; reckon with (PAN: *alaq₁)

ayotree which yields wood that is used for charcoal; the coals made of this wood and used in blacksmithing (PMP: *qajeŋ)

banegative (PMP: *bak₂)

baperhaps (makes the following word indefinite) (PMP: *ba₁)

Bare'e (60 / 953)

bano, not (NOISE)

babarivermouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

bago ma-wotasplit ground (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

bakecorpse (said to be from Buginese) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

balasplit, in pieces (PWMP: *balaq)

balasplit, in pieces (ROOT)

baladoshort, pointed, double-edged dagger (PWMP: *baladaw)

balasuwhite cotton, of mediocre quality (LOAN)

balireverse side, opposite part (PMP: *baliw₁)

balirepetition; different, changed (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

baliapriest, priestess in shamanistic ceremonies (PWMP: *balian)

baliuadze (an imported tool) (PWMP: *baliuŋ)

baluwidow(er) who is still in mourning (PMP: *balu₄)

balumbabillow, large wave (NEAR)

ba-milia fastidious person (PAN: *piliq)

banaformerly the term for all colored cotton, through which all old-fashioned textiles that still are used in religious ceremonies are called bana (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

bancubasket hastily woven of sago sheaths; it is placed in a wooden holder and used to transport sago and salt (PWMP: *basuŋ)

banitree with very hard wood used in house construction (NOISE)

banuahouse (PMP: *banua)

ba-otuone who habitually farts (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

Bare'e (80 / 953)

baraparticle of indefiniteness; perhaps, sometimes; also disjunctive: or, evasive (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baraŋaa small, aromatic citrus fruit the juice of which is used in food preparation and as a shampoo: Citrus acida (PWMP: *baraŋan₂)

bawatogether, in one troupe, herd or flock (PMP: *baban)

bayashallow indentation or other division of a terrain; groove between the two halves of the back, breasts, buttocks (PWMP: *balaq)

bayuyasubcutaneous fat of pigs (PWMP: *balulaŋ)

be da ku-po-ma-busu mam-pe-pate sikoI won't get an inflated abdomen if I kill you! (PWMP: *busuŋ)

bekasplit (PMP: *beka)

belantetree sp, (NOISE)

bémbégoat (LOAN)

benufibrous husk of coconuts and betel nuts (PMP: *benut₁) *benut

biagive way, go to the side, turn onto a side path (PWMP: *bias)

biasausual, customary; accustomed to; habit, custom, practice (LOAN)

bibionomatopoetic for the sound of water bubbling up (PWMP: *bikbik)

bidadárilegendary female figures which appear in stories (LOAN)

biisloping, slanting, leaning, askew (as the walls of a collapsing house, the neck of someone who is always looking somewhat to the side) (PAN: *biqiR)

bikudrink no palm wine (LOAN)

bilacount, calculate, reckon (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bila-bilasticks, chips of wood, sirih fruits, etc. used as aids in calculation (PWMP: *bilaŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

bilalaperson whose task it is to announce the five daily Moslem prayer times (LOAN)

bilohaving fuzzy vision, myopic; cross-eyed (PMP: *bileR)

Bare'e (100 / 953)

binata, binataŋireplacement term for pig (LOAN)

biŋalarge shell commonly used to crush Spanish pepper; from this shell the white armbands called yoku are made (said to be a loan from SAMAB) (PMP: *biŋaq)

biŋkabasket made of Donax cannaeformis, bamboo, or silar palm leaves, with a mouth that is larger than the base (LOAN)

biŋkolu, biŋkoluŋ-icurled up, as a smoked fish with the tail in the mouth (PWMP: *biŋkeluŋ)

bisaclever; very wealthy; possess secret power (LOAN)

bisaraconversation; subject of discussion (LOAN)

bisuabscess, sore (PMP: *bisul)

bisupimple, pustule, esp. a boil; swelling (PMP: *bisul)

boahole, gap, opening; bored through (PWMP: *bawaŋ)

bobapeeling, hard outer skin; peeled, bald, hairless (PWMP: *bebak₁)

bobostupid (PMP: *belbel₁)

bobodumb, speechless (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

boiit must not happen that, do not let it happen that (PMP: *beliq₂)

bokasplit, open up because the binding has come loose (as the seam of a shirt) (PAN: *bekas₁)

bokaopen by loosening the binding (ROOT)

boliliturn around (ROOT)

bombaMaranta dichotoma, a plant whose smooth, upright stems are proverbial; split bomba is used to make baskets, tie fences and fix roofing thatch in place (PWMP: *benban)

bombaMaranta dichotoma, a plant whose smooth, upright stems are proverbial; split bomba is used to make baskets, tie fences and fix roofing thatch in place (PWMP: *benben₂)

boncitear open, split (as a sack of rice falling to the ground); cut open (as a doctor in operating on someone) (PMP: *besiq)

boŋawide open; wide, of an opening (PMP: *beŋaq)

Bare'e (120 / 953)

boŋawide open; wide, of an opening (PMP: *beŋat₁) *beŋat

boŋodeaf, without injury to the ear (PMP: *beŋel)

borisplit, crack, burst (of skin or peeling) (PAN: *beriq)

borisplit, tear (in the skin, or the rind of fruits) (PWMP: *berit₂)

botepop corn in a pot (PWMP: *beRtiq)

buat-icargo of a vessel, unloaded cargo (PMP: *buhat₃)

bubia tree which yields bast that is chewed with the sirih: Artocarpus dasyphylla (NOISE)

bubupour out (as water from a capsized boat) (PMP: *buqbuq)

bugakind of arum with large leaves and edible tuber: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PWMP: *buga)

bugis-iscaly skin disease, ichthyosis (PWMP: *bugis)

bulaluthe colorful shell with which headcloths are smoothed (from Parigi) (NOISE)

bumbularge bamboo container ranging from two or three to up to seven to ten sections, used to store water or palm wine (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bumbuswollen up, gathered into a mass (as puffy eyes, the chest of a man who inhales deeply, the waters of a stream buffeted by wind) (PMP: *buŋbuŋ₄)

bundea scoop net half a fathom in length used in fishing (LOAN)

bundublunt, not having a sharp point (PWMP: *budul)

bundu, wundu, wuntublunt, with blunt point, with truncated or broken point (NOISE)

bunetree with edible fruit: Antidesma bunius (PWMP: *buRnay)

buntia medical condition of young girls in which the menstruation fails to materialize, and the abdomen becomes bloated (LOAN)

buntuunable to go further; leave behind (as a travelling companion), (NOISE)

buŋkubump, hump (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

Bare'e (140 / 953)

buŋku ntanasmall irregularity in the surface of the ground (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

burik-ostriped, streaked, having lighter stripes on a darker background (PWMP: *burik)

buri manu(lit. 'chicken speckles') white spots on the skin, esp. on the hands and feet (PWMP: *burik)

burosperm; also used as a term of abuse (NOISE)

buruhard areca nut (PMP: *burun)

burukubent, not upright in walking (ROOT)

butablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta-mo raya-kuI'm at my wit's end (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buti-tiwart, such as small children often get on the face; it is thought that they result from rice grains that stick to the face when eating (PMP: *buteliR)

butitia fish that inflates when touched (PWMP: *butiti)

butoswollen, of the belly (as of a dead dog) (PMP: *bunter)

buupopping sounds (as of a fart) (PAN: *buuŋ)

buwuthe roof covering, including the thatch over the whole roof plus a narrow cap that covers the ridgepole (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

buwu ŋkaratethe peak of an elevation (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

buya(priestly language) sarong, in particular that used by the priestess during ceremonial functions (PWMP: *buyaŋ)

buya wawowhitecap, wave with foaming crest (PMP: *budaq₃)

buyumountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

daablood (PAN: *daRaq)

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

datuthe title of the princes of Luwu’, who until 1906 were the overseers of the Toraja people (from Buginese) (PMP: *datu)

Bare'e (160 / 953)

dilionom. for a tap or stroke on a drum, or against metal (ROOT)

dintopound rice (ROOT)

dolosubmerge, sink (PMP: *delep)

dolosubmerge, go under water (ROOT)

eashame, shyness (PMP: *heyaq) *Seyaq

ejasteps, ladder, generally made of a notched log (PMP: *haRezan)

endoreminiscing upon what is gone (ROOT)

eosun, day, daylight (PAN: *qajaw)

galiŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn. (PWMP: *galiŋgaŋ)

gancispinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gaŋgograsp with the hand, a when seeking fish in the mud (ROOT)

gilaangry; behaving strangely (PMP: *gila)

gilito stream, flow down (ROOT)

gillto wind, twist around (ROOT)

gimbadrum (PWMP: *gimbal)

gogoimprint something, as the meat of a shellfish with the finger (PWMP: *gerger₂)

gumpinear together, as the legs of a standing person (PWMP: *gu(m)pit)

gunjiscissors (LOAN)

hondarack or railing on which something is supported or leans (ROOT)

iparticle used before names of places and times (PAN: *i₂)

Bare'e (180 / 953)

igenitive marker (before personal names) (PMP: *qi₂)

iaplace of residence (PAN: *ian₂)

iaan exclamation of impatience used to spur on someone who is dawdling (PAN: *qia)

ijastep, tread, trample on (PMP: *inzak)

ikutail (PAN: *ikuR)

iku asu('dog's tail') an herb the scrapings of which are applied to abscesses to draw out the pus (PMP: *ikuR ikuR ni asu) *ikuR

ilawild; shy (PMP: *ilah)

ilabirthmark (sometimes viewed as ominous) (PMP: *qila)

ilito stream, flow; go downstream (PWMP: *qiliR)

iludesire, arouse a desire for something (PMP: *iluR₁)

iluorphaned (PWMP: *ilu)

imbuwater spirit which appears in many forms (PMP: *imbuk)

impiwalk along the edge (so as to make room for someone passing) (PMP: *ipit)

impigive way to, yield so as to make room (for someone coming) (NOISE)

impoa tree: Antiaris toxicaria (Malay ipoh); poison from this tree, smeared on blowgun darts (PWMP: *qipuq)

impucollect, gather (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

inasleep, lie down (PAN: *qinep)

indadebt (PWMP: *hinzam)

indaŋ-idebt; money that is lent (PWMP: *hinzam)

indomother (animal); big (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

Bare'e (200 / 953)

ineM, MZ, FZ (PMP: *ina)

inisweat (PWMP: *qinit)

intaforward! come on! let's go! (PWMP: *itaq)

intaforward! come on! let's go! (PWMP: *ita₂)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

iŋathink about, take care of , watch out for (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋa-iŋathink about (PWMP: *iŋat-iŋat) *iŋat

ipacompanion, comrade (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipacompanion, comrade (NOISE)

ipia dream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

ipunarrow, hemmed in (PMP: *iput)

irito hunt, chase off or away (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

isaone (PAN: *isa₁)

i si-ko2sg. (emphatic) (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

isurub; scrub or scour gently (PWMP: *isut₂)

itoyuegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR Lalau

iwucover; cover over an opening in the ground; keep secret (PMP: *hibun)

jaŋaspan (PMP: *zaŋan₁)

japasound of loud chewing or smacking of the lips (ROOT)

jauneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

Bare'e (220 / 953)

jayapath, way, road; means to achieve something; means of transport (PMP: *zalan)

jaya ŋkadagroove between nose and upper lip (PMP: *zalan)

jekasplit open by itself, as a ripe fruit (ROOT)

jilatongue and anything resembling it (PMP: *dilaq₁)

jila leticlitoris (lit. ‘tongue of the vagina’) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

jipaclack the tongue as a sign of recalcitrance or reluctance (ROOT)

jolenative maize: Coix agrestis (PMP: *zelay)

jole goaMakasar maize: Zea mays (PMP: *zelay)

juyu wanihoney (PMP: *wani)

kaalong protracted sound of calling, singing or weeping (PMP: *kaŋ)

ka-asi-asipoor, in need of help (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

kabainvulnerable (PWMP: *kabal₂)

ka-bosugratification, satisfaction, satiation (PMP: *ka-besuR) *besuR

ka-busuŋ-ato have gotten an inflated abdomen as a result of violating customary law (PWMP: *busuŋ)

ka-eashame, shyness (PWMP: *ka-heyaq) *Seyaq

kaiileft, left side (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kajastep with the flat of the foot and a sideways movement of the leg (ROOT)

kajutree, shrub, wood, plant (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kakawith interstices, with lacunae (PMP: *kakaq)

ka-kajuwild, of animals (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

Bare'e (240 / 953)

ka-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

kala-bambabutterfly (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₂)

kala-pinikind of swallow that nests on protected rock ledges (PWMP: *kala-pini) *pini

kalikipapaya (PWMP: *kalikiq)

kali-mumurinse the mouth (PWMP: *kali-muRmuR) *muRmuR

kalustiff, of something that has been bent for some time (as a limb); bent (as fingers that have cramped) (PWMP: *kaluŋ)

kamascratch with the nails, as an itchy spot (PWMP: *kamas)

ka-matetime, place, or manner of death (PWMP: *ka-m-atay) *aCay

kambusprinkle with pounded rice, as the coffin of one who has no surviving siblings (PMP: *kambuR₁)

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kami sa-anawe with our children (PWMP: *sa-anak) *aNak

kanaright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

ka-nipithinness, flatness, fineness (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ka-ŋiluthe pain of rheumatism, yaws, or teeth being on edge (PWMP: *ka-ŋilu) *ŋilu

kaŋkaŋ-istiff, rigid; stiffened (PMP: *kaŋkaŋ₃)

ka-pa-pituseventh (also an endearing name for girls) (PMP: *ka-pitu) *pitu

ka-patetime, place, or manner of death (PWMP: *ka-p-atay) *aCay

ka-pio-piocheeping together (PMP: *piek)

ka-puto-putoto keep turning around (as in looking for something lost) (PWMP: *puteR)

karandaround carrying basket made of rattan (PWMP: *karanzaŋ)

Bare'e (260 / 953)

ka-ruasecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

kasorafter, usually of bamboo, to which the thatch panels of the roof are bound with rattan (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kataitch, itching place or wound; scabies (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katawood plane (LOAN)

ka-tajasharpness (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

katuconsignment, what is sent; a gift that is sent (PAN: *kaCu)

ka-waaredness, brown color (PMP: *baRah)

kayu ma-wukafallen tree that has been uprooted (PMP: *buŋkaR)

kayumpaŋ ~ kalumpaŋa tree: Sterculia foetida (PMP: *kalumpaŋ)

ke-anedamaged by termites (PAN: *aNay)

ke-buyumountainous (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

kekesound of laughter (PMP: *ke(k)kek)

ke-liosofull of nits (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

kemuteem, swarm (PWMP: *kemut)

kerisound of scratching (PMP: *keriqik)

ke-watustony (PMP: *batu) *batux

ke-wuriblack, of charcoal (PWMP: *budiŋ)

kikiloud laughter (PMP: *kikik)

kinderaising of the eyebrows, tightening of the eyebrows in frowning (PWMP: *kiday)

kireeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray)

Bare'e (280 / 953)

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kodismall (PAN: *kedi)

kodi rayaoffended, aggrieved (PMP: *dalem)

kodoto stretch out (PMP: *kedeŋ)

kokoshrink, grow narrow (PWMP: *kekes)

kokoshrink, grow narrow (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₃)

komaliworkshop of a blacksmith; forge (PMP: *kamaliR)

kompobelly, lower part of the trunk (PWMP: *kempuŋ) *kempeŋ

kopoflutter, flap the wings, of birds rising in flight, etc. (PWMP: *kepek)

koruwrinkled (PWMP: *kerut)

kujawhat kind of person? (PMP: *kuja)

kukulockjaw (PWMP: *kukuŋ)

kukubird, the cry of which is heard at night (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

kukua bird that is heard at night (PAN: *kukuŋ₁)

kulasathe fatty hump on the withers of a buffalo (PWMP: *kulasa)

kulibark or bast of a tree that has been removed by peeling (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kurapot of fired clay in which rice and other food is cooked; bark vessel in which salt is boiled out of strong brine (PAN: *kuden)

kuratoo little; less (LOAN)

kura labuiron cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kuricry of a certain bird (PWMP: *kuriqik)

Bare'e (300 / 953)

kurusound of grating or scraping (PWMP: *kurud)

kutanaask, inquire, inform (PMP: *kutaña)

kutumake a clicking or cracking sound, as the finger joints when they are pressed between crossed hands and forced to pop (PWMP: *kutuk₂)

kuyudull, blunt (of tools, weapons) (PWMP: *ku(n)dul)

labiasago flour, pith of the sago palm (PMP: *Rambia)

laithe long tail feathers of birds, especially of fowls (PMP: *lawi₁)

lalogo past, go beyond (PWMP: *lalaw)

lamalie sticking to or smeared over something else (example sentence: there is water on the plank; don't sit there) (PMP: *lama₁)

lambago past, go beyond, go through (PWMP: *la(m)baŋ)

lambawide, spacious; hang down limply (NOISE)

la-motired tree ant with venomous bite (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

lanaoil, especially coconut oil (PMP: *laña)

laŋkayman, male of animals, masculine (PWMP: *laŋkay)

lariplank-shaped roots of large trees (PMP: *dalij)

lasunaonion (LOAN)

laudirectional term indicating a place that lies at a lower elevation than the speaker, or at least not clearly at a higher elevation (PAN: *lahud)

lauk-alow, as the sun in the sky or the level of water (PAN: *lahud)

lee buwukind of sword grass with narrow leaves (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

lelatured ant that has a painful bite (PWMP: *lalatu₁)

leʔeneck, external throat (PAN: *liqeR)

Bare'e (320 / 953)

leʔiaginger (PMP: *laqia)

limafive, in combination forms (PAN: *lima)

liŋainattentive (PWMP: *liŋa₁)

liosonit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lipuvillage (originally ‘fortified place’); formerly provided with a palisade and temple, and situated on a hilltop (PMP: *lipuq)

lokaopen, undo fastenings, uncover (PAN: *lekab)

lomidimple in cheek or chin (considered a mark of beauty in girls) (PWMP: *lemiq₁)

loŋkoashamed (NOISE)

lowujoin, mix (ROOT)

lupifold, pleat, crease (PWMP: *lu(m)pi)

lupifold, pleat, crease (PWMP: *lupiq)

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-atatake or escort to a destination (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD

ma-ata mania-ñaof a woman, to accompany her parents-in-law a distance as they return home after the wedding feast at which they have taken their son to the home of the bride (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD

ma-awuextremely numerous, as grains of dust (PWMP: *ma-qabu) *qabu

ma-awut-ia piece of weeded ground (PMP: *abut)

ma-bias-i jayachange course (PWMP: *bias)

ma-boŋat-imake an opening in something (PMP: *beŋat₁) *beŋat

ma-boribe split, split open (PWMP: *berit₂)

ma-bosusatisfied from having eaten enough, satiated (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

Bare'e (340 / 953)

ma-buat-iunload cargo from a vessel (PMP: *buhat₃)

ma-bubu tanoanapour out life-force or soul-stuff, of the crown of the head of someone who is ill (PMP: *buqbuq)

ma-burik-osiadorn with stripes (PWMP: *burik)

ma-busuhave an inflated abdomen (PWMP: *busuŋ)

ma-butubroken or smnapped off, as a rope, line or branch (PMP: *butus)

ma-butus-ibreak something off, snap a line (PMP: *butus)

ma-butus-i asurelease the hunting dogs in pursuit of game (PMP: *butus)

ma-buyawhite, light-colored; used figuratively in many favorable senses (PMP: *budaq₃)

ma-buyawhite; light in color (PMP: *bulan₂)

ma-buya-siwhiten, whitewash (PMP: *budaq₃)

ma-daato bleed, to menstruate (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

ma-eaashamed, shy (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

ma-eosunny, hot (PAN: *ma-qajaw) *qajaw

ma-gila nawoangry, mentally disturbed (PWMP: *ma-gila) *gila

ma-ilawild, skittish (as a horse) (PWMP: *ma-ilah₁) *ilah

ma-ilawild, skittish (as a horse) (PWMP: *ma-ilah₂) *ma-ilah

ma-inuto drink (trans.) (PWMP: *ma-inúm) *inum

ma-inuto drink (PWMP: *maR-inum) *inum

ma-jaʔabad, wrong, spoiled, useless, ugly, difficult, unpleasant (PMP: *ma-zaqat) *zaqat

majaʔa rayaangry (PMP: *dalem)

Bare'e (360 / 953)

maka-kataitchy, prickling (PWMP: *maka-gatel) *gaCel

ma-kataAlocasia celebica, itching taro (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

ma-kujahow? why? (PAN: *ma-kuja) *kuja

makumpu ompugreat grandchild (PMP: *empu)

mamato chew (PMP: *mamaq)

mam-botato split (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

mam-boyubend, sag (PMP: *beluk)

ma-miwifind oneself at the side of something, go along the edge of something (PMP: *birbir₁)

mampa-ka-jaʔato make something bad, to spoil (PMP: *zaqat)

mampa-kajudetermine or make certain (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

mampa-pa-kitato show, display (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

mam-pa-pa-taŋito make someone cry, bring someone to tears (PMP: *pa-taŋis) *Caŋis

mampariŋ-kajulay a corpse in a coffin (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

mam-pasaʔacarry on the shoulder (PMP: *pasaqan) *pasaqaN

mam-pili ~ mom-pilito choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

mampo-anabring forth, bear, give birth (PWMP: *mampaR-anak aken) *aNak

mampo-butohave a swollen belly as supernatural punishment for improper attitudes or behavior (PMP: *bunter)

mam-puto-sirub something between the hands (as leaves to soften them) (PWMP: *puteR)

mam-puʔupregnant, of animals (PMP: *puqun)

manainheritance, heritage (PWMP: *mana₁)

Bare'e (380 / 953)

manainheritance, heritage (PWMP: *maña)

man-cawuto strew, sow seed (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

man-cawuto sow, scatter seed (PMP: *sabuR)

man-cususuck at the breast (PWMP: *ma-ñusu) *susu₁

man-cuyastick upwards; put sugar palm fibers on the point of a stake to discourage thieves (PMP: *suja)

ma-nipithin, flat, fine (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-nisisearch for lice with the fingers (PWMP: *ma-ñiksik) *siksik₁

man-ta-liku-siturn the back on someone (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

man-tanadig in the ground (PMP: *taneq)

man-taŋis-ito mourn, weep for someone (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

man-tarimato receive, as a penalty, an amount in money (used in legal contexts, and said to be from Malay) (LOAN)

man-taʔato hew, shape, give form to, make the general design of something (as a coffin from a log) (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq₁

man-taʔa wuwuto set a fish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

man-towoto cut down, fell trees, clear land for planting (PWMP: *ma-nebeŋ) *tebeŋ

man-turulet up in intensity (of wind or heat) (PAN: *tuduR)

man-tutu ladapound Spanish pepper together with salt, onions, etc. in a bamboo container (PAN: *tutuh)

maŋ-akuadmit, confess; undertake something (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

maŋ-aŋkat-akalift, raise up high (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

maŋ-asawhet, sharpen (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

ma(ŋa)-woŋkubend around, bend inward (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

Bare'e (400 / 953)

ma(ŋa)-wunito hide (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

maŋ-ayado one thing or another to someone; damage something (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₁) *alaq₁

maŋiba(ni)shark (NEAR)

ma-ŋilupainful, of pain in the joints,as produced by rheumatism and yaws; on edge, of the teeth, as when eating something sour (PAN: *ma-ŋilu) *ŋilu

maŋ-inuto drink (tr. and intr.) (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

maŋ-ipito dream (PWMP: *maŋ-hipi) *Sipi

maŋka-bosu-kain addition; become satiated (PWMP: *maka-besuR) *besuR

maŋka-bubu-sipour over something (PMP: *buqbuq)

maŋ-kaju-nisupport, prop up (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

maŋ-kitasee something, have something in view (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

ma-ŋurayoung, not yet old; soft to the touch; of colors, light (PMP: *ŋuda)

ma-ontaeat immoderately, be a glutton (PAN: *ma-qetaq) *qetaq

Mapanename of a river that has warm water in its lower course (PWMP: *panes)

ma-paʔibitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-ruithorny, spiky (PWMP: *ma-duRi) *duRi

ma-sakisick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-salaguilty; be in the wrong (PWMP: *ma-salaq) *salaq₁

masapi nda-tapasmoked eel (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

m-asi-asi raya-ŋkuI have compassion (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

masoso po-ana-ñashe had her children in rapid succession (PWMP: *paR-anak) *aNak

Bare'e (420 / 953)

ma-suliexpensive (PWMP: *sulit₁)

masusa rayabeset with thoughts, worried, concerened (PMP: *dalem)

mataraw, unripe, still green, uncooked, living (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata eothe disc of the sun, used when eo by itself is not clear enough (PAN: *qajaw)

ma-tajasharp, as a knife (PWMP: *ma-tazem) *Cazem

mata ma-buyalight-colored eyes (PMP: *budaq₃)

mata ma-buyalight-colored eyes (PMP: *bulan₂)

mata mpanaarrow (PAN: *panaq)

mata ncopublowpipe dart (PWMP: *seput)

matedie; dead; also used of something that has stopped moving or working; go out (fire, torch); stop spinning (top); stop moving (hands of a clock, the wind) (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate mpoanadie in childbirth (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate uaparalyzed (PWMP: *m-atay uRat) *aCay

mate wulainsane, psychotic (PMP: *bulan matay) *bulaN

ma-wausmelly, stinking (PMP: *ma-bahu) *bahu

ma-wilucurved, bent, curled up, as the edge of a flat piece of metal, for example the blade of a knife (PMP: *biluk)

mawoŋko rayahappy (PMP: *dalem)

ma-wunuthrow, throw at (as a spear at a deer) (PWMP: *maR-bunuq) *buNuq₂

ma-wunu tabaropierce the core of a sago tree with a lance to make out who is the owner (PWMP: *maR-bunuq) *buNuq₂

ma-wuriblack (PWMP: *budiŋ)

Bare'e (440 / 953)

ma-wuyuhairy, having thick hair or fur (PWMP: *ma-bulu) *bulu₁

m-ayait is taken, caught, succeeded, it can be, may be, it is possible (PWMP: *ma-alaq) *alaq₁

ma-yaŋudizzy, intoxicated (PAN: *laŋu)

ma-yaŋu ntasiseasick (PAN: *laŋu)

mbajupound rice (PAN: *bayu)

mbawu, wawupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

mbo-tasito smell or taste like seawater (PMP: *tasik)

me-aŋkastand up, rise up (PWMP: *aŋkat)

me-asi-asipitiful, unfortunate (PMP: *qasiq)

me-borito split, as the skin of a banana) (PWMP: *berit₂)

me-botepop, burst open (PWMP: *beRtiq)

me-buntolook for dead fish after a flash flood, or after fish poison has been spread in the water (PMP: *bunter)

me-jilato lick (PMP: *dilaq₁)

me-kaibe hooked, remain sitting tight (PAN: *kawit)

me-kajuto fetch wood (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

mem-buabear much fruit (PWMP: *maŋ-buaq) *buaq

mem-buiblow hard, be windy (PWMP: *bui₁)

mem-patedie in throngs (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

me-nanato fester, suppurate (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

men-cusupress in, creep into (PWMP: *ma-ñuksuk) *suksuk

Bare'e (460 / 953)

men-tanaof animals, hide in the mud, crawl into the ground (PMP: *taneq)

me-ŋaŋagape, open the mouth wide (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

meŋ-apubegin to cook with a new fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

me-sam-bunito hide oneself (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

me-sipit-Isqueeze oneself into something, as a sarong for sleeping (PAN: *sipit)

me-tamitaste, try (PMP: *tamis)

me-tujuto point out with the finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

me-uyudescend, as something that is lowered from above (PWMP: *ma-huluR) *SuluR

me-weweto wind, twine around (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

me-wuito blow (wind) (PWMP: *bui₁)

me-wusus-icome loose, come apart, of things which are tightly attached (PMP: *busbus)

mo-aluto flow, stream (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

mo-anabear, give birth, have children (also said of a man) (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mo-aŋkalift up, as something that has been lying flat but which the heat of the sun has caused to curl (PWMP: *maR-aŋkat) *aŋkat

mo-asuhunt with dogs (PAN: *asu₁)

mo-atahave a roof, be under a roof (PWMP: *maR-qatep) *qatep

mo-atu, mo-atu-atuby the hundreds (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

mo-bagidivide, share out (PMP: *baqagi)

mo-bisarato talk, speak (LOAN)

mo-buta-butaclose the eyes (PWMP: *buta buta₁) *buCa

Bare'e (480 / 953)

mo-buyuform a mountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

mo-gancito spin tops (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

mo-gilito wind, turn, spin, revolve (PMP: *giliŋ)

mo-gunjicut something with scissors (LOAN)

mo-ikuhave a tail (PWMP: *maR-ikuR) *ikuR

mo-jayatake a path; make headway (PWMP: *ma-zalan) *zalan

mo-kajuto form a trunk or stem (of a tree); stand firm, be certain (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

mo-kujawhat are you doing? what are you busy with? (PAN: *ma-kuja) *kuja

mom-bilubend around, suddenly turn, as a horse that all at once turns onto a side path (PMP: *biluk)

mom-bunukill or wound someone with a lance or something else; also used of the cut inflicted by one of the four executioners on one who was accused of witchcraft (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

mo-mimito spew the juice extracted from chewed food into the mouth, as mothers do for infants if they do not have enough breast milk (PMP: *mismis₂)

mo-miocrying out of a deer (PMP: *piek)

mom-paluto hammer, forge, pound iron (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

mom-pili-sito choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

mo-naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

mon-dodobeat, as bark in making barkcloth; rice stalk (PMP: *dekdek)

mon-jauto sew (PAN: *zaRum)

mo-nowothe annual clearing of fallow land to secure land for planting (PWMP: *ma-nebeŋ) *tebeŋ

mon-talulet a field go to weeds, let land go fallow (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

mon-tambuthrow something onto something else, as earth onto something (PMP: *tabuR₁)

Bare'e (500 / 953)

mon-tapahang up to smoke, of meat, salt, etc. so as to prevent it from spoiling (PWMP: *man-tapa) *Capa

mon-tututo pound rice (PAN: *tutuh)

mo-nuwato stun fish with tuwa (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

mo-ñopu ~ mon-copushoot with a blowpipe (PWMP: *ma-ñeput) *seput

moŋ-kaihook onto something (PWMP: *ma-ŋawit) *kawit

moŋ-kodoto stretch oneself out (PMP: *kedeŋ)

moŋ-kokot-ito gnaw, nibble (PMP: *getget₁)

mo-otuto break wind (PWMP: *maR-qetut) *qetut

mo-panause a bow (PAN: *panaq)

mo-panito have wings (PMP: *panid) *paNid

mo-pusuto bloom, of the banana plant, produce fruit, of maize (PMP: *pusuq₁)

mo-ranoform a puddle (as rainwater) (PAN: *danaw)

mo-rindihave a wall, be walled (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

mo-sakuextract the pith of the sugar palm by pounding (PMP: *saku₁)

mo-sikuform a right angle (PAN: *sikux)

mo-tianalook after a child (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

motolo-kikito laugh loudly, burst out laughing (PMP: *kikik)

mo-to-taʔito defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

mo-toyuhave testicles; lay and egg (PWMP: *maŋ-qateluR) *qateluR

mo-t<um>aŋito weep, to cry (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

Bare'e (520 / 953)

mo-tunda sawusit helter-skelter, not in a row (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

mo-tunda sawuto sit helter-skelter, not lined up in a row (PMP: *sabuR)

mo-turulie down (to sleep) (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

mo-wintikick in the calf (PMP: *bintiq)

mo-witihave legs (PMP: *bities)

mo-wuabear fruit (PMP: *ma-buaq) *buaq

mo-wulihang down in clusters (PMP: *buliR)

mo-ʔakimake or use a raft (PMP: *Rakit)

mo-ʔukiengrave, carve, draw (PMP: *ukir)

mpate(-ña)the dead branches on trees (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

mudoovercast, clouded over (ROOT)

mulato plant (PAN: *mula)

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nantoto float, to raft (ROOT)

nda-paʔat-ichiseled, chiseled out (PMP: *paqet)

nipathe nipa palm, Nipa fruticans, very common in the coastal swamps of central Sulawesi; on the coast the leaves are used as roof thatch (PMP: *nipaq)

nopukind of fish (PMP: *nepuq)

n-taniother, different (PWMP: *taniq)

ntesa-boŋiby night (PMP: *beRŋi)

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

Bare'e (540 / 953)

nusaland, district (PMP: *nusa₁)

ñawasoul, invisible personality; sometimes also breath as the life-force (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ŋaŋamouth cavity; voice (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋayakind, type, sort (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋirotoothless (also of things, as a saw that has lost ‘teeth’) (PAN: *ŋidaw)

odubend the knees and then straigten up, as in certain dances (NOISE)

okaopen, broken open (as the ground, a dam, a wall) (PWMP: *e(ŋ)kab)

omoto swallow (PAN: *qemqem)

ompoobstruction, dam, barrier (PMP: *empeŋ)

oncosqueeze between others when there is not enough room (PMP: *esek)

ondarack or railing on which something is supported or leans (ROOT)

onosix (PAN: *enem)

ontaeat immoderately, be a glutton (PAN: *qetaq)

ontostop, stay still, remain (NOISE)

oŋkasquat (PWMP: *eŋkaŋ)

oŋkocrooked, leaning over, bent (as a coconut tree about to fall, or someone stalking birds) (PMP: *eŋkel)

oŋofoul-smelling bug that preys on rice (NEAR)

opabait (for hook, trap, etc.) (PAN: *paen)

opofour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

oputitle of nobility (PMP: *empu) Luwu

Bare'e (560 / 953)

oru n-tasibottom of the sea (PMP: *tasik)

osoclose together, crowded, with little room between (PMP: *esek)

otachaff (of rice) (PMP: *qeta) *qeCah

otiebb, as the tide; dry up, as a pool (PMP: *qeti₁)

otufart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

oyospace between two things (fingers or toes, floor laths, days, etc.) (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

oʔosound that one makes to apologize or to show agreement (PMP: *heqe)

pastill, yet (PAN: *pa₁)

padaplain, field; also used for the plants that grow there (PWMP: *padaŋ)

paerice in the field, unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay)

pae sa-m-bulian ear of rice, rice head (PMP: *sa buliR) *buliR

pakeornament; beautiful costume (LOAN)

pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pala-palabench for resting or sleeping (PWMP: *pala pala₁)

palehand, forepaw, arm (PMP: *palaj₁)

palisubject oneself to taboos by refraining from the use of or contact with things, the pronunciation of words or the visiting of places (PAN: *paliSi)

paluhammer, in particular the smith’s hammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

pæ me-burukurice which bends over before the ear is full (ROOT)

pampastand at right angles to one another, as pieces of wood that are tied into a cross; stand out straight, as buffalo horns that do not curve (NOISE)

panabow, formerly a weapon of the Toraja people and in more recent times still hung up in the blacksmith’s workshop as an example of the weapons and tools made there (PAN: *panaq)

Bare'e (580 / 953)

pan-cawutime, place or manner of sowing (PMP: *sabuR)

panewarm drink: coffee or tea (PWMP: *panes)

paniwing (PAN: *panij)

paniwing of a bird, bat, or insect (PMP: *panid) *paNid

paŋabifurcation; forked branch, fork in a road (PAN: *paŋa₁)

paŋia tree with seeds and leaves that are edible after proper preparation: Pangium edule (PWMP: *paŋi)

paŋ-inua drink, beverage; drinking vessel; time, place or manner of drinking (PMP: *paŋ-inum) *inum

paŋ-ipia dream (PWMP: *paŋ-hipi) *Sipi

paokind of small mango found on the coast (PMP: *pahuq₁)

papafather, father’s brother, mother’s brother (PMP: *papa₂) *papa

pa-pituseven (like pitu, also used in combination forms, with stress on the amount) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

pa-salaa magical formula that the bearer protects in order to keep evil away (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

pasigireef, shoal, sandbank (PWMP: *pasiR)

pasigi malulusea grass (PWMP: *pasiR)

pat-afour (in 40, 400, 4,000, counting units of time) (PWMP: *pat-aŋ) *Sepat

patukind of large bamboo: Dendrocalamus flagellifer (PWMP: *patuŋ)

pa-tujuadmonition, lesson to be learned, punishment (PAN: *pa-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

pau-nda-wunisecret, something that one keeps hidden (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

paʔathigh, upper leg (PAN: *paqa₁)

paʔat-ia chisel (PMP: *paqet)

Bare'e (600 / 953)

piawhen? (PMP: *p-ijan) *ijan

pijasun-dried meat (PWMP: *pindaŋ)

pilichoose (PAN: *piliq)

piloto flicker, of a fire (ROOT)

pinditake between thumb and finger (PWMP: *pi(n)zit)

pin-duado again, repeat (PMP: *pin-duha) *duSa

pioa high-pitched sound (PMP: *piek)

pituseven (only in combination forms) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-atu700 (PMP: *pitu ŋa Ratus) *pitu

pitu-m-paliseven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-m-puyuseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-pituseven in playing cards (said to be from Buginese) (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

podisour, acid; tamarind (PMP: *hapejis)

po-gilia key (PMP: *giliŋ)

poismarting (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

pokasplit, torn, rent (PWMP: *pekaq)

po-naŋuswimming place, manner of swimming (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

poneclimb (not up mountains), climb a ladder into a house, a coconut tree, etc. (PMP: *panahik)

poŋkabeginning, introduction (ROOT)

po-sikuhave bends or curves (as a river) (PMP: *pa-siku) *sikux

Bare'e (620 / 953)

posobroken, of hard, brittle things; hatched, of eggs (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

po-turu-asleeping place (PWMP: *pa-tuduR-an) *tuduR

po-ujarainy season (PAN: *pa-quzaN) *quzaN

po-wintitime, place, manner of kicking the calves (PMP: *bintiq)

po-witifoot-end (as of a tree) (PMP: *bities)

po-wuatime, place or manner of bearing fruit (PMP: *buaq)

puësir, lady; grandfather, grandmother, grandchild (vocative) (PWMP: *pueq)

pujucover, wrapper (PWMP: *puyuŋ)

pukanet (PMP: *puket₁)

puleknot, hair bun; wear the hair in a bun (PMP: *pules)

puncutop, peak (of a mountain or other lofty place (PAN: *qapucuk)

puncu buyumountain peak (PAN: *qapucuk)

punea green dove, Treron sp., that makes a melancholy sound heard from afar (PAN: *punay)

puntikind of banana (PAN: *punti₁)

punti-anakind of small bat that is fond of bananas (PAN: *punti₁)

pupupluck (PMP: *pupu₁)

pupupluck (PMP: *puqpuq₁)

pusenavel (PMP: *pusej)

puse ntanamid-point of the land (PMP: *pusej)

puse ntasimid-point of the sea (PMP: *pusej)

Bare'e (640 / 953)

puse n-tasithe middle point of the sea, where [in native conception] the inflowing and outflowing water causes it to ebb and flow (lit. ‘navel of the sea’) (PMP: *tasik)

pusu lokaheart of banana, banana blossom (PMP: *pusuq₁)

putewhite fighting cock (PMP: *putiq)

puʔutrunk of a tree, especially the lower part; foundation; origin, beginning from which something arises (PMP: *puqun)

puʔu buyufoot of a mountain, piedmont (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

puʔu buyufoot of a mountain (PMP: *puqun)

puʔu ejafoot of a ladder (PMP: *puqun)

puʔu ŋkajutree trunk (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

puʔu-ŋ-kajubase of a tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

raja ma-buyasympathetically inclined (PMP: *budaq₃)

ranolake, for example the large lake from which the Poso (river) arises (PAN: *danaw)

raŋkabranch broken from a tree, withered branch (PWMP: *raŋkaŋ)

raŋkiwhat one puts next to, or takes together with something else (ROOT)

rapuhearth, cooking place (PMP: *dapuR)

rayainternal part, interior (PMP: *dalem)

raya banuathe interior of a house (PMP: *dalem)

raya ntaua person’s inner self; mind, heart, thinking, opinion, emotions (PMP: *dalem)

raʔua tall tree with little durable wood and edible fruits: Dracontomelon mangiferum (PAN: *daqu₁)

rilocative preposition: at, in, on, to; can be used with pronouns, as in ku-keni ri siko (1sg-bring ri 2sg) ‘I bring it to you’ (PAN: *di)

rindiwall (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

Bare'e (660 / 953)

ri oyoin between (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

ri rayain, within (PMP: *dalem)

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ruithorn, spike; kind of rattan (nanga) with sharp thorns, the leaves of which are used as roof thatch (PMP: *duRi)

runcupush or crowd into (PMP: *dusuk)

rupugrit, crumbs, dust (ROOT)

rutusound of pounding or knocking (ROOT)

sa-atuone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

sagufluid from a corpse (PWMP: *sagu₂)

sakisickness (PMP: *sakit)

sakodrawstring of a carrying basket (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kep)

salamistake, error, fault (PMP: *salaq₁)

sala-pajust, only (PMP: *salaq₁)

sam-balione side (PMP: *baliw₁)

sam-bota linuyasplit piece of areca nut (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

sam-buaone (piece, example) (PMP: *sa-buaq) *buaq

sam-bukuone lump, one seed, one kernel (PMP: *buku)

sam-bukuone internode in length (PWMP: *sa-ŋa-buku) *buku

sa-m-buyaone month long (PWMP: *sa-ŋa-bulan) *bulaN

sampibecome thin or narrow (ROOT)

Bare'e (680 / 953)

sa-m-puyuten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sam-puʔua model or example, with reference to objects that are counted by puʔu, as trees or plants (PMP: *puqun)

san-cikuan ell, from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow (PAN: *sikux)

sandaa pawn, someone who, to pay off a debt or fine temporarily becomes a slave to another person (PWMP: *sanda)

san-jayaa traveling party (lit. ‘one way’) (PMP: *zalan)

saŋkoe mpusefull brothers and sisters (PMP: *pusej)

saŋ-kujahow much/how many? (PWMP: *saŋ-kuja) *kuja

sawapython (PMP: *sawa)

sayugutter or pipe (bamboo or split log) used to direct a stream of water that makes an artificial waterfall for people to bathe (PWMP: *saluR)

seŋkaspread wide, of the legs (ROOT)

seŋkocurved, bent (PAN: *sekel)

seŋkobent, bowed (ROOT)

si-balimerged or fused with (PMP: *baliw₁)

si-ko2sg., used with equals and inferiors (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

siko2sg., you (PWMP: *s-ikaw) *kaSu

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

silacleave, split lengthwise (PAN: *silaq)

silacleave, split, cut lengthwise (PWMP: *sila₂)

simpiedge, border, margin (PWMP: *simpir)

sinduspoon, ladle (PMP: *si(n)duk)

Bare'e (700 / 953)

sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sira3rd person singular and plural pronoun, used for genealogically elder families, by slaves of their masters, by children-in-law of their parents-in-law, etc. (PMP: *si ida) *ida

sisisearch for lice with the fingers (PWMP: *siksik₁)

sisisuck, slurp (PAN: *sipsip)

siuinterjection used to drive away fowls (PWMP: *siuq)

sokoseize, catch, take hold of (PMP: *cekep)

soloflow (PWMP: *seleg)

sopinarrow; pinched or pressed in; costive, constipated (PWMP: *sempit)

sopublowpipe (PWMP: *seput)

sosofeel remorse or regret about something that one or another person has done, as with a financially disadvantageous purchase or sale (PWMP: *selsel₂)

sukakind of tree: Gnetum gnemon L. (PMP: *suka₁)

sulitaro: Colocasia antiquorum (in the Tojo area used as a medicine against headache and stomach pain) (PMP: *suli₁)

sulicostly, expensive; scarce, hard to obtain; also difficult, troublesome (PWMP: *sulit₁)

sumaŋaghost, spirit of the dead, above all those who have long been dead (rare in everyday speech; mostly used in oral literature (PMP: *sumaŋed)

sumbistrip around a field (PWMP: *su(m)bir)

sumpi ~ wulu ncumpimoustache (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₁)

suŋito smile (PWMP: *suŋit₁)

suŋkothe slanting poles that support the raised floor between the houseposts; also the slanting poles used to protect a tilting house from collapsing (PAN: *suked)

supaspit or blow chewed medicinal herbs on (a patient) (PMP: *supaq)

suramake an incision on the trunk of a sugar palm so that the sap doesn’t flow down the trunk, but instead follows the conduit into a bamboo case; book; piece of writing; letter (< Buginese) (LOAN)

Bare'e (720 / 953)

susubreast, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

susuto follow, take turns after another, to replace (PMP: *sulsul₁)

susucrowd against one another, push so that each becomes pressed against the other (PWMP: *sulsul₂)

suyuspoon made of wood or horn (PMP: *sudu)

suyuto enter; go down, set, of the sun (PMP: *surup₁)

taprefixed and suffixed form of the 1pl. incl. pronoun (PAN: *-ta)

tabakotobacco (LOAN)

tabusplash, plop; forcefully insert hands or feet (ROOT)

tadaplace the foot on something higher, e.g. in order to take a big step or a leap, or to reach a higher place (PWMP: *tanzak)

takastick, adhere, cling fast to something, attach oneself to (PWMP: *ta(ŋ)ket)

taliheadcloth, headband (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

ta-likuback (anat.), back side of something (as a person, sword) (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

tali-wanimagical means to bestow courage on someone (PMP: *baRani)

taluabandoned piece of ground, cultivated field which has gone to weeds (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tamanasterile, barren, childless, mainly of people, but also said of animals (PWMP: *tamanaŋ)

tambaincrease, add to (said to be a Buginese or Makasarese loan) (PWMP: *tambaq)

tambaa patch (PMP: *tambal)

tambua pointed bucket made of leaf sheaths of the sago palm, used to scoop up water for the washing out of sago flour (PMP: *tabuq)

tambuakind of wasp (PMP: *tabuqan)

tanaground, earth, soil, land (PMP: *taneq)

Bare'e (740 / 953)

tana buyaneutral territory (PMP: *budaq₃)

tana ma-buyaneutral territory (PMP: *bulan₂)

tana ma-puyuclay (‘sticky earth’) (PMP: *taneq)

tana Morithe land of the Mori (PMP: *taneq)

taniindependent, not connected with others (PWMP: *taniq)

t<an>ondoremembrance, melancholy recollection (PWMP: *tendem)

tan-taʔibuttocks, bottom, base of something (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

t<an>ujuindex finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tanujuindex finger (PMP: *t<an>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

tara-manucockspur (PMP: *tada)

taruwax (PWMP: *tadu)

tasisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

tasi rayainner sea, small, partly enclosed gulf or bay (PMP: *dalem)

tasi rayainland sea, bay with narrow entrance (PMP: *tasik)

tauperson, human being (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tau ma-ŋurayoung person, a youth (PMP: *ŋuda)

tau po-wania renowned person (PMP: *baRani)

tau puʔuthe first wife of a man (PMP: *puqun)

tau sa-anaboth parents, or either on, with their children (PWMP: *sa-anak) *aNak

tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats and isn’t favored for building houses (PMP: *tawan)

Bare'e (760 / 953)

tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats, and is not in great demand for house construction (PWMP: *tawa₂) *tawa

taʔasnare used to catch wild pigs; it is stretched between two trees and the pig walks into it headfirst and it pulls him in (PMP: *taqen)

taʔithe waste produced by something; feces; dregs, sediment; also belly, stomach (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

teŋkobent, twisted (ROOT)

tianapregnant (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

tileclitoris (PWMP: *tilay)

tilomake a diving movement in water or air, of people, fish or birds (PWMP: *tilem₂)

timbalasago leaf sheath from which carrying baskets are made (PWMP: *timbalaŋ)

tinafemale, of bird or animal (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tinafemale, only of animals (PMP: *tina) *taina

t<in>urulying down (without sleeping) (PMP: *t<in>uduR) *tuduR

tiŋkoluti9koyu/ curl up, as a snake; curved part of something (hoop, strand, loop) (ROOT)

tobopointed, sharp, as a beak or the point of a knife (PAN: *tebek)

to bugi, to bugisithe Buginese people (LOAN)

tokapresent, on hand, available because it has been brought (to a place) (PMP: *teka₁)

to-kaihooked firmly (PAN: *kawit)

tokostick, staff; measure word for some objects (PMP: *teken)

tomateLycopersicum esculentum, tomato (still a novelty to the interior peoples, but generally planted today) (LOAN)

tom-batamushroom (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

tondorecall, melancholic recollection (PWMP: *te(n)dem)

Bare'e (780 / 953)

tondoto lock, shut out, as a fence in front of stairs to make sure that children don’t fall down the steps (PWMP: *tendek₂)

tónom-ito plant a crop because the seeds or pits are too large to broadcast (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

to paŋ-inudrinking companion (PMP: *paŋ-inum) *inum

topubrittle, easily broken off (PWMP: *tepuq)

to-tokaone who has come, guest, visitor, foreigner (PMP: *teka₁)

touthree (PAN: *telu)

to wono rapuwoman (‘person under the hearth’); spouse (PMP: *dapuR)

towusugarcane, planted as a sweet snack (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

toyuegg; testicle (PMP: *qateluR)

toyuegg; testicle (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

toyu manuchicken egg (PMP: *qiteluR ni manuk) *qiCeluR

tuapierce and string on a line or pole (PMP: *tuRa)

tujuto point out, show, instruct, indicate (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tu-kakaolder brother or sister, older cousin (PMP: *kaka₂)

tuka nu ejarung of a ladder (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tukuhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tunasprout, offshoot (PWMP: *tunas)

tundasit (PMP: *tu(n)daŋ)

tutubow or lower the head (as when passing under something) (PMP: *tutuk₁) *tutuk

Bare'e (800 / 953)

tutulid, cover (PMP: *tutup₁)

tutu mataeyelid (PMP: *tutup₁)

tuumessage, errand, order, instruction; something that one sends to another person through an intermediary (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

tuwaa creeper: Derris elliptica; sap from its roots is used to stun fish (PAN: *tuba)

tuyalimouth flute (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

uagray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

uagrandfather, grandmother (PMP: *uaʔ)

uamuscle; tendon; sinew; vein, vessel (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uagrandfather, grandmother (PMP: *ua₂)

uaegape, yawn (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

ubagunpowder (LOAN)

udo-udocovered with clouds, cloudy (sky) (PAN: *qudem)

uduleaves that are smoked (PWMP: *qudud)

uicry commonly given in answer when one is called from a distance (PMP: *huy)

ujarain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uja ka-rinti-rintidrizzle (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uja mbamba eosunshower ( = "rain which bears false witness to the sun") (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uja mbatuvery heavy rain (PMP: *quzan batu₂) *quzaN

ujubunch, bundle (PWMP: *uyun)

ulicorrect a mistake, restore to a previous condition (PMP: *uliq₁)

Bare'e (820 / 953)

uliget, obtain, take possession of (PWMP: *uliq₂)

umbarise to the surface of water, appear on the surface (PWMP: *ubal)

um-otito ebb (PMP: *qeti₁)

um-otuto break wind (PAN: *q<um>etut) *qetut

unepith, seed, heart or core of something (PMP: *qunej)

untashield (priestly language) (NOISE)

untas-iburst open so that the contents spill out (PWMP: *qutas)

untuthe highest point or extremity of something; the beginning of a river (PWMP: *utuŋ)

uŋkub-icover of a pot or pan, made of coconut shell or earthware (PWMP: *ukub)

uŋkub-ilid of a pot or pan (ROOT)

upipress, clip, pinch, squeeze, carry under the arm (PWMP: *upit)

urashrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

urego upstream, follow the river in an upstream direction (PWMP: *udahik)

urutaboo sign or charm used to protect fruit trees, temporary shelters, etc. from thieves (PMP: *uduq₂)

uusound of the wood-pigeon (PMP: *uu)

uwituber, yam (PMP: *qubi)

uwuheart of palm, palm cabbage (PMP: *qubud)

uyubeginning, first (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

uyulower something (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

uʔusuck out, applied to anything from which the solid residue is discarded (as juice from sugarcane) (PMP: *ququs)

Bare'e (840 / 953)

waaglowing coals (PMP: *baRah)

wakaplace where something used to be; the trace of something gone (PMP: *bekas₃)

wakatree in the family Lauraceae: Litsea sp.; there are two types, one with small, the other with large leaves (PWMP: *bakan)

walihappen, occur (PWMP: *bali₁)

walidaweaver's lath (used to beat in the woof) (PMP: *balija) *baRija

wali-egi(priestly language) soul, ghost (NOISE)

wali-layowali-wata/ ghost (NOISE)

walilicircle, circuit (PWMP: *baliliŋ)

walirikind of herb (PMP: *baliji)

walirikind of herb (PMP: *balizi)

walisarestless (LOAN)

waluwind around (ROOT)

wanigive praise; boast (PMP: *baRani)

wanihoneybee (PMP: *wani)

waniagamerchant, foreigner (LOAN)

wanuaden of an animal (PMP: *banua)

waŋkubent over, inclined, of someone who does not walk erect; leaning over, as a house or tree (PMP: *ba(ŋ)kuq)

waŋustand up from a lying or sitting position (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

waseaxe (PWMP: *wasay)

watatree that has fallen or been felled (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

Bare'e (860 / 953)

wata ncakimain part of the litany of the shamaness that must be recited (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

wata (ŋkoro)body (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

watustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

watu mpaŋasa ndapaŋasaka labuwhetstone used to sharpen a bush knife (PWMP: *paŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

watu oti, bone otithe stones and sandy stretches that are exposed at low water (PMP: *qeti₁)

wauodor, smell (PMP: *bahu)

wawoupper surface, upper part; the outside of something (PAN: *babaw₃)

wawo n-tasisurface of the sea (PMP: *tasik)

wawu banuadomesticated pig (PMP: *babuy banua) *babuy₃

wayafence, enclosure (PMP: *bala₂)

wayamulti-colored (PWMP: *balaŋ₃)

wayaacreeper, vine, liana, rope, cord (PWMP: *balaRen)

wayaavine (NOISE)

wayaa mpuseumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

wayatubamboo or long pole in which the stumps of the branches remain, used as a ladder in climbing trees (PWMP: *balatuk)

wayo wuyuthe slenderest type of bamboo in central Sulawesi: Bambusa longinodis (PAN: *buluq₂)

wayu, walueight (PAN: *walu)

wewater (PMP: *wahiR)

weahusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

webusprinkle (ROOT)

Bare'e (880 / 953)

wenuatall tree with soft wood that decays quickly: Octomeles Moluccana (PWMP: *benuaŋ)

wewebandage, wrapper, thin copper wire, as that used in fishing tackle (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

wigucrooked, as the neck (PMP: *biŋkuk)

wiloshining of a light or fire (ROOT)

winaŋariver mouth, lower course of a river (PMP: *binaŋa)

wine, wua mbinethe areca nut, beads, comb and other objects which lie in the biŋka mpobine, the basket used to distribute the seed-rice to the women who plant it in the dibble-holes (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

w-in-otidecorated, adorned (PMP: *b<in>etik) *beCik

winuaa tall tree (PWMP: *binuaŋ)

wiŋkeshore, bank, edge (of sea, lake, river, ravine) (PWMP: *biŋkay)

wiŋke n-danoshore of a lake (PWMP: *biŋkay)

wiŋkuadze, made from an axe by forging the blade in the middle so that the cutting edge is horizontal (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

wisua forward-shooting movement; shoot out (water, a bird flying suddenly from cover) (ROOT)

witileg, foot, hind leg (of animals) (PMP: *bities)

wiubent around, as the edge of a piece of metal (PWMP: *biquŋ)

wiua palm with deeply indented leaves that resembles rattan: Licuala Rumphii. Rice is cooked in the leaves to produce winalu (leaf packets of rice that are cooked in bamboo and served at feasts) (PMP: *biRu)

wiwilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

wiwiside, edge, border (PMP: *birbir₁)

wiwi ndanoshore of a lake (PMP: *birbir₁)

wiwi ndanolake shore, edge of a lake (PAN: *danaw)

wiwi njayaside of the road (PMP: *birbir₁)

Bare'e (900 / 953)

wiwi n-tasiseashore, beach (PMP: *tasik)

wiʔupurplish beetle that causes the death of a person if it obtains one of his hairs (NOISE)

woŋkuthe bent part of something (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

woŋku mpekathe curve of a fishhook (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

woseoar (PMP: *beRsay)

wotiburn with a brand, decorate something with burn marks (as a lime gourd for betel) (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

woyubent, sagging (PMP: *beluk)

woʔualso, still, again; new (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

wuafruit; also used of kidneys because of their shape (PMP: *buaq)

wuajafrequently used exclamation of surprise or astonishment; used by small children as an interjection of anger (PMP: *buqaya)

wua-kiwhat is hung on something as decoration: beads, metal strips, tassels (PMP: *buaq)

wua m-binethe areca nut, beads, comb and other objects that lie in the biŋka mpobine, the basket from which the seed rice is distributed to the women who will sow it in dibble holes during the planting (PMP: *buaq)

wua-ŋ kajufruit of a tree (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

wua wayalarge type of areca nut (PMP: *buaq)

wukapulled up, lifted up, roots and all (PMP: *buŋkaR)

wukoa small owl whose nocturnal call signals a death; by daylight its call is also adverse, and one who hears it must bite the blade of a bush knife (PWMP: *bukaw)

wukubone, pit, seed (PMP: *buku)

wuku lopishoulder blade (PMP: *buku)

wuku lopi (< *alepiʔipʔ)scapula (PWMP: *qali-peqip)

wuku mboyonode, joint of bamboo (PMP: *buku)

Bare'e (920 / 953)

wuku usurib (PMP: *buku)

(wuku) usurib (bone) (PAN: *Rusuk)

wuku yaliankle bone (PMP: *buku lali) *buku

wuku yaliankle bone (PMP: *lali)

wuliear of grain; cluster, bunch (of areca nuts, bananas, lansat) (PMP: *buliR)

wulia tree whose roots, bark and wood chips are used to make palm wine bitter, and to prevent souring: Bridelia minutiflora (NOISE)

wuliashamaness, female shaman (PWMP: *balian)

wuluslipped off, pushed off (ROOT)

wundaobscure, indeterminate, of colors or the like; unclear (NOISE)

wundublunt, truncated (PWMP: *budul)

wunto kompobelly-ache (PMP: *bunter)

wunua tree with bast fibers used to make twine (PWMP: *bunut₂)

wuŋaa labiata, Ocimum sanctum, which serves as a magical plant on all kinds of occasions because it has a tenacious capacity to survive; because of its fragrance of balsamine is often used as headpiece (PMP: *buŋa)

wuricharcoal (PWMP: *budiŋ)

wuuhowling of the wind; dull sound of a loud voice; the brrrrr with which mothers pacify their infants (PAN: *buuŋ)

wuwufish trap woven of rattan, a much-used fishing implement; quadrangular rattan basket on four feet especially used by the women of the To Lage for the transport of light burdens (PAN: *bubu₂)

wuwuskull, cranium, crown of the head (PMP: *bubu₄)

wuwuscattered, dispersed (as spilled rice grains) (PMP: *budbud)

wuwu-athe fontanelle in the head of a child (PMP: *bubu₄)

wuyamoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

Bare'e (940 / 953)

wuyawagold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

wuyufeather, body hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

wuyu manuchicken feathers (PMP: *bulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

wuyu mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

wuyu ŋurathe small downy hairs that grow on the forehead at the edge of the head hair proper (PMP: *bulu₁)

wuyu pasanest feathers of birds (PMP: *bulu₁)

wuyu-wuyua vegetable (PMP: *bulu bulu) *bulu₁

wuʔube checked in its course, as something which sticks in the throat, or a river when fallen trees block its flow (PWMP: *buqul)

yabiremainder, surplus, what is left over, more (PAN: *labiq)

yalea fly (PMP: *lalej)

yandatread, step (ROOT)

yoku burik-owhite shell armband with black stripes (PWMP: *burik)

yopo ŋurayoung vegetation that sprouts up in cleared land (PMP: *ŋuda)

Bare'e (Lalau) (1) WMP

itoyuegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR Lalau

Bare'e (Luwu) (1) WMP

oputitle of nobility (PMP: *empu) Luwu

64. Bariai (3) OC

sasalmidrib (POC: *sasaRi)

tamadfood for a journey (POC: *tamaji)

tuekind of freshwater clam (POC: *tue) *tuay

Bario Kelabit (720) WMP. see: Kelabit

65. Basai (32) Form. (Tsuchida, Yamada, and Moriguchi 1991) [byq] (Basay) Taiwan [aka: Basay, Ketagalan]

anemliver (PAN: *ajem)

baigrandmother (PAN: *baqi)

basiŋto sneeze (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

cimafive (PAN: *lima)

kaand (PAN: *ka₁)

k<um>anto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

lo-ŋaŋaopen the mouth (PAN: *ŋaŋa₂)

lotoŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

lusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

manuk(ə)bird (PAN: *manuk)

mata u ziansun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

naalready (PAN: *Na₂)

nananname (PAN: *ŋajan)

nanomwater (PAN: *daNum)

nanuyto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

panayriceplant, rice in the field (PAN: *pajay)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

punanavel (PAN: *puja)

putibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

ranumwater (PAN: *daNum)

Basai (20 / 32)

siligoat (PAN: *Sidi)

suŋa-suŋalto breathe (PAN: *Seŋad)

taŋato open (PAN: *taŋa₂) *taŋa₁

tenayanbamboo, bamboo fence (PAN: *tanayan)

toktokto hit (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tsakidirt (PAN: *daki)

tsalablood (PAN: *daRaq)

tsatsanpath, road (PAN: *zalan)

tsuthree (PAN: *telu)

uranrain (PAN: *quzaN)

vatsiwind (PAN: *bali₃)

vutsanmoon (PAN: *bulaN)

66. Basap (48) WMP (Smith 2017)

abuash (PMP: *qabu)

arəmpangolin (PAN: *qaRem)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

babaʔmouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

babuyboar (PAN: *babuy₃)

banahusband (PMP: *banah) *baNaS

barashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

barunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bauʔsmell, odor (PMP: *bahuq)

bətiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

bineʔseed rice (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

buayacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

buaʔfruit (PMP: *buaq)

buloʔbamboo (PAN: *buluq₂)

buluhair (in general) (PMP: *bulu₁)

daraʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

datarflat (of surfaces) (PAN: *dataR)

dəpafathom (PAN: *depa)

jaʔatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

kəloŋbent (PWMP: *keluŋ₁)

Basap (20 / 48)

kilaplightning (PMP: *kilap)

ləŋənarm (PMP: *leŋen)

liaginger (PMP: *laqia)

liaŋcave (PMP: *liaŋ)

metəmblack (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

niurcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

nunukbanyan tree (PMP: *nunuk)

nutuŋto burn (PMP: *tutuŋ)

ŋadanname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋən-tañato ask (PMP: *kutaña)

olənworm (PMP: *qulej)

oratvein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

otəkbrain (PMP: *hutek)

paitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

panashot (PMP: *panas₁)

piagood, goodness (PMP: *pia₂)

posənnavel (PMP: *pusej)

pulutsap (PMP: *pulut)

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

səputanblowpipe (PWMP: *seput-an) *seput

Basap (40 / 48)

takutafraid (PAN: *takut)

taunyear (PMP: *taqun)

təduŋsnake (PWMP: *teduŋ₂)

tuaold (of people) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tulaŋbone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

tutuŋ-anaflame (PMP: *tutuŋ-an) *tutuŋ

wakatroot (PMP: *wakat)

wañihoneybee (PMP: *wani)

Basay (32) Form.. see: Basai

Batad Ifugaw (329) WMP. see: Ifugaw (Batad)

Batak (10) WMP. see: Angkola-Mandailing Batak

Batu Belah Berawan (17) WMP. see: Berawan (Batu Belah)

67. Batu Merah (45) CMP (Wallace 1869 (1962)) [lcq] (Luhu) Indonesia (Maluku)

aitree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ai hua-nafruit (PMP: *buaq)

ai-vafoot (PAN: *qaqay)

allayrice (PAN: *pajay)

aowfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-pusubow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

at-afour (PAN: *pat-a) *Sepat

hahupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

hakaboat (PMP: *baŋkaq)

hulanimoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

hulanirain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

hulu-nifeather (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

ianifish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ina-omother (PCEMP: *ina)

isi-vaflesh (PAN: *isi₅)

itu-aseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

kukufingernail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

lala-iblood (PAN: *daRaq)

lalaniroad (PMP: *zalan)

Batu Merah (20 / 45)

lilipost (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-wahand (PAN: *qalima)

luatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

luli-vabone (PMP: *duRi)

lumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

ma-hinaywife (PAN: *ma-b<in>ahi) *bahi

manofowl (PMP: *manuk)

mata hulaneshellfish sp. (PMP: *bulan₁)

mata-vaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

meteniblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

namu-namu huanukind of bean: Cynometra spp. (PMP: *namut-namut)

nenasix (PAN: *enem)

niwelicoconut (PMP: *niuR)

nusaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

o-maito come (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

tasisalt (PMP: *tasik)

telina-waear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

telu-athree (PAN: *telu)

Batu Merah (40 / 45)

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

walu-aeight (PAN: *walu)

w-asaone (PAN: *asa₁) *asa

w-asaone (PCEMP: *asa₂) *esa

weylwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

68. Bauro (54) OC (Fox 1970) [bxa] (Bauro ) Solomon Islands

abirafood bowl (POC: *tabiRa)

ahulime (PAN: *qapuR)

amasito eat two things together, use a relish, betel pepper (POC: *tamaji)

aoruegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

apunadon’t! (POC: *tabuna)

apu-nadon’t (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

arotaro (POC: *talos) *tales

a-sigoHalcyon spp. (PMP: *sikek)

gagawaa fish, blenny sp. (POC: *kakawa₂)

ganawewhite, of birds only (POC: *kanawe) *kanaway

gupenaa large net (POC: *kupwena)

hagupandanus (POC: *pakuŋ) *bakuŋ₂

ha-hareshed (POC: *pale) *balay

haihenewoman (POC: *pai-p<in>ai) *bahi

hanagosteal (POC: *panako) *Cakaw

haraa boil (POC: *paRaq₁) *paRaq

harecanoe house, men's house (POC: *pale) *balay

higustar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

hira-iato lighten, to flash, of lightning (POC: *bila₂)

hugoa large net, seine net (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

Bauro (20 / 54)

hunu-iput out a light; rub out (POC: *punuq-i) *buNuq₂

huto-huto, hau huto-hutopumice (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

i-arithis (PMP: *a-di) *-di

igo2sg., you (POC: *iko) *kaSu

kukuto cling, of bats (PMP: *kukuq)

ma-hana-hanahot (POC: *ma-panas-panas) *panas₁

manu-rahievening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

m-āsisharp (POC: *tasim) *tazim

m-āsisharp (PMP: *tasim)

ma-toruto hiccup (PAN: *sedu)

maurusleep, droop, wilt (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

meatongue (POC: *maya)

monakicuttlefish (POC: *monaki)

monostay in another village (POC: *mono)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nunuimage, reflection; principle soul (POC: *qanunu)

ogato sit (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

opwa-opwaa bay, harbor (POC: *tobwa) *tobwa₁

raributtress root (POC: *ralic) *dalij

rata-iscrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

Bauro (40 / 54)

ratecoral (POC: *laje)

rawaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

rioneck (POC: *liqoR) *liqeR

rua-ruahigh tide (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

saeheart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sigibreak wind (POC: *siki)

siviscarlet parrot sp. (POC: *sipi)

taraospecies of nettle (POC: *salatoŋ) *zalateŋ

tehago past, beyond (PCEMP: *sepat)

tou-toua bird, the Golden Whistler (POC: *sau)

upua boil (POC: *tubu₁)

usur-iahanded on, passed on (as a tale) (POC: *usuri)

waihusband or wife (POC: *wati₂)

wate-wategenerous, liberal (POC: *wa(n)se wa(n)se) *wa(n)se

Bayninan Ifugaw (1) WMP. see: Ifugaw (Bayninan)

69. Bebeli (14) OC

into drink (PMP: *inum)

kelto dig (POC: *kali ~ keli) *kalih

kɛnto eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

kuniskin (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kuvuksmoke (POC: *kupuk)

loŋoto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lutwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ma-mawato yawn (POC: *mawap) *Suab

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

to come (POC: *maRi) *aRi

mɔtɔsnake (POC: *mwata)

pɛlilgrass (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

talaŋaear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tututo pound, beat (PAN: *tutuh)

70. Bekatan (4) WMP (Freeman n.d.) [aka: Bakatan]

apoyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

danumwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dugwotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

raraŋ (reduplication of **raŋ < *deRaŋ)red (PWMP: *deRaŋ)

71. Belait (34) WMP [beg] Brunei

adinname (PMP: *ajan)

adinname (PMP: *ajan)

asawdog (PAN: *asu₁)

atayliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

banehhusband (PMP: *banah) *baNaS

barehshoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

bateowstone (PMP: *batu) *batux

batoʔneck (PWMP: *batuk₂)

bəriəwnew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bəritheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

biəʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

buleowfeather (PMP: *bulu₁)

buliənmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buyôbetel pepper (PWMP: *buyuq)

dubehtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

jaufar (PMP: *zauq)

kajeowwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kuteowlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

laimale, man (PMP: *laki₁)

mataheye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Belait (20 / 34)

mulahto plant (PAN: *mula)

n-adaʔto sniff, smell (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

ndoŋnose (PWMP: *e(ŋ)juŋ)

nipantooth (PAN: *nipen)

ŋanhand (PMP: *taŋan)

rəjehbig (PAN: *Raya)

sabahwife (PAN: *qasawa)

sapawthatch, roof (PAN: *sapaw)

siwanine (Ray 1913) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

talayrope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tamahfather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tanaʔearth (PMP: *taneq)

təjinbelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

titayfemale breast (PMP: *titiq)

Berawan (Batu Belah) (17) WMP [zbc] (Berawan, Central) Malaysia (Sarawak)

ampangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem) Batu Belah

bitokneck (PWMP: *batuk₂) Batu Belah

gənəŋdwell (PWMP: *geneŋ) Batu Belah

kə-tuʔohright side (PWMP: *tuqu₁) Batu Belah

ləjaŋwooden house-shaped coffin raised on pillars (PMP: *liaŋ) Batu Belah

lukotmoss (PAN: *lukuC) Batu Belah

nikuŋpalms of the genus Oncosperma (PMP: *qanibuŋ) Batu Belah

ŋe-liŋahear (PWMP: *liŋa₂) Batu Belah

paginfence (PMP: *pager) Batu Belah

se-libetturn (PWMP: *libet) Batu Belah

sumitmoustache (PWMP: *sumit) Batu Belah

t-amahfather (ref.) (PMP: *t-amax) *amax Batu Belah

təkəpkind of latex-bearing tree with small fruit (PWMP: *teRep) Batu Belah

tepamat (PWMP: *tepa) Batu Belah

tijenbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN Batu Belah

tuhthis (PWMP: *-tu) *-Cu Batu Belah

tuminheel (PWMP: *tumid) Batu Belah

Berawan (Long Jegan) (17) WMP [zbe] (Berawan) Malaysia (Sarawak)

acewdog (PAN: *asu₁) Long Jegan

akempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem) Long Jegan

araythere (PMP: *a-di) *-di Long Jegan

atawhere (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu Long Jegan

ce gikkəwone thousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Jegan

dəkkəyhouse post (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi Long Jegan

kaʔaw2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Jegan

kem-æna-nMZ, FZ (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina Long Jegan

ketawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁ Long Jegan

kijəybig (PAN: *Raya) Long Jegan

kuβitlong (PWMP: *abuat) Long Jegan

m-uamto yawn (PMP: *ma-huab₁) *Suab Long Jegan

naythat (PAN: *-ni) Long Jegan

raythere (PMP: *-di) Long Jegan

tawthis (PWMP: *-tu) *-Cu Long Jegan

toməñheel (PWMP: *tumid) Long Jegan

tucuhand (PAN: *tuzuq₁) Long Jegan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (132) WMP (Blust n.d. (1971)) [zbw] (Berawan) Malaysia (Sarawak)

acih gikkuhone thousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Terawan

acohdog (PAN: *asu₁) Long Terawan

akanknowledge, intelligence (LOAN) Long Terawan

akkoh1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku) Long Terawan

akkuhashes (PMP: *qabu) Long Terawan

alunboat, canoe (PWMP: *alud) Long Terawan

anaytermite, white ant (PAN: *aNay) Long Terawan

anaʔchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak Long Terawan

añiːmto weave (PMP: *añam) Long Terawan

aŋaʔwide open, of the mouth (PMP: *qaŋap) Long Terawan

appiwtall (PWMP: *embaw) Long Terawan

asinsalty, sweet (PAN: *qasiN) Long Terawan

atapaddy with husk that remains after pounding (PWMP: *ataq) Long Terawan

atayliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay Long Terawan

atonarrange (LOAN) Long Terawan

baluythe friends or relatives of a slain man who take revenge on his slayer -- these are the baluy of the slayer (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂ Long Terawan

becuʔlarge yellowish-brown monkey (LOAN) Long Terawan

bekehhusked rice (PMP: *beRas) Long Terawan

bekeiʔheavy (PMP: *beReqat) Long Terawan

belihbuy (PMP: *beli) Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (20 / 132)

beŋeceʔrace, ethnic group (LOAN) Long Terawan

bə-taŋehbe prone to crying, cry a lot (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Long Terawan

betawsister (PMP: *betaw) Long Terawan

betEʔdesign, tattoo (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik Long Terawan

betoŋkind of large bamboo (PAN: *betuŋ₁) Long Terawan

bijihcrocodile (PMP: *buqaya) Long Terawan

bikihshoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁) Long Terawan

bikoŋadze (PMP: *biŋkuŋ) Long Terawan

bitaŋfallen tree, log (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Long Terawan

bitoʔneck (PWMP: *batuk₂) Long Terawan

biʔohsmell, odor (PMP: *bahu) Long Terawan

bukkohknuckle, node, joint (PMP: *buku) Long Terawan

bukkuhconical bamboo fish trap (PAN: *bubu₂) Long Terawan

bulaŋcockfight; metal cockspur (PWMP: *bulaŋ) Long Terawan

bulinmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN Long Terawan

bulubamboo (PAN: *buluq₂) Long Terawan

buluhbody hair, feathers (PMP: *bulu₁) Long Terawan

bunoenemy (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂ Long Terawan

buŋehareca nut (PMP: *buŋa) Long Terawan

bupunheap, pile (PMP: *bunbun) Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (40 / 132)

bupunrice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁) Long Terawan

buttancoconut (PWMP: *buntan) Long Terawan

cemsour (PWMP: *esem) Long Terawan

dəkkIhhouse post (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi Long Terawan

diciŋpartition between rooms in a longhouse (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁) Long Terawan

dilənhousefly (PWMP: *dalej) Long Terawan

dilənhousefly (PMP: *lalej) Long Terawan

dimməhfive (PAN: *lima) Long Terawan

diofar (PMP: *zauq) Long Terawan

dionleaf (PMP: *dahun) Long Terawan

dukkihthorn (PMP: *duRi) Long Terawan

gikkuhthousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Terawan

gitohhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus Long Terawan

iciwday (PMP: *qalejaw) Long Terawan

jəlitongue (PWMP: *zelaq) Long Terawan

jingood (NOISE) Long Terawan

julluto flow (ROOT) Long Terawan

kajuhwood; tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw Long Terawan

kam2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu Long Terawan

kammeh1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (60 / 132)

kapanthick (PWMP: *kapal) Long Terawan

kebeiʔlong (PWMP: *abuat) Long Terawan

kebiŋthe Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus (PWMP: *baRuaŋ) Long Terawan

kecofull after eating, satiated (PAN: *besuR) Long Terawan

kəjindurian (PWMP: *duRi-an) Long Terawan

kə-lawaʔspider (PMP: *ka-lawaq) *lawaq₂ Long Terawan

keuʔto pull, as weeds (PMP: *hebut) *SebuC Long Terawan

kijihbig (PAN: *Raya) Long Terawan

kilanhold in the hand (PWMP: *kilan) Long Terawan

kittəhwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁ Long Terawan

lakawto walk (PMP: *lakaw) Long Terawan

lakkehman, male (PMP: *laki₁) Long Terawan

ləbbehtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Long Terawan

ləjəhginger (PMP: *laqia) Long Terawan

lem-alemevening (PMP: *halem) Long Terawan

lettéthunder (PWMP: *letiq) Long Terawan

ma-caʔcooked, ripe (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak Long Terawan

m-aməŋmute (NEAR) Long Terawan

manoʔbird (PMP: *manuk) Long Terawan

manoʔ wəkowl (LOAN) Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (80 / 132)

m-areʔto sniff, kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek Long Terawan

m-ənəmto close, as a door (PMP: *qeneb₁) *qeNeb₁ Long Terawan

mulehto plant (PAN: *mula) Long Terawan

munif (PWMP: *emun) Long Terawan

munoŋlip (PWMP: *munuŋ) Long Terawan

muñihto hide something (PWMP: *maŋ-buni) *buNi Long Terawan

naŋehto cry, to weep (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis Long Terawan

nihthat (sp) (PAN: *-ni) Long Terawan

niuŋpalms of the genus Oncosperma (PMP: *qanibuŋ) Long Terawan

numsix (PAN: *enem) Long Terawan

(ŋ)aranname (PMP: *ŋajan) Long Terawan

ŋə-likamto open (PWMP: *likab) Long Terawan

ŋe-nipéhto dream (PMP: *h<in>ipi) *Sipi Long Terawan

pa-caʔto cook (PAN: *qesak) Long Terawan

pakkihstorage shelf above the hearth (PAN: *paRa₁) Long Terawan

pakkohfern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku Long Terawan

pecistinging, smarting (as a wound in contact with salt) (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq Long Terawan

pənofull (PMP: *penuq) Long Terawan

piwater (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq Long Terawan

pukhead hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (100 / 132)

pukkehvulva, vagina (PAN: *puki) Long Terawan

puloten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq Long Terawan

pusənnavel (PMP: *pusej) Long Terawan

putewhite (PMP: *putiq) Long Terawan

salaiʔlightning (PWMP: *sal(e)qit) Long Terawan

səlaŋboundary (PWMP: *selaŋ₁) Long Terawan

seŋamucus from the nose or throat (PWMP: *seŋa₁) Long Terawan

silohthey, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida Long Terawan

sitoto fall, of fruit (ROOT) Long Terawan

suloncomb (PWMP: *sulud₁) Long Terawan

tabehto laugh (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa Long Terawan

tallehrope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS Long Terawan

tamehfather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax Long Terawan

taŋehcrying, weeping (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Long Terawan

taunyear (PMP: *taqun) Long Terawan

tekebinstar (PAN: *bituqen) Long Terawan

təlohthree (PAN: *telu) Long Terawan

təppuhsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS Long Terawan

tijanbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN Long Terawan

timoncucumber (PMP: *qatimun) Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Terawan) (120 / 132)

tukkehlarge intestine (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka Long Terawan

tukkihfish poison, Derris elliptica (PAN: *tuba) Long Terawan

tukonprop, support (PAN: *tukud) Long Terawan

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ) Long Terawan

turawto sit (PWMP: *tujaw) Long Terawan

turoto sleep (PAN: *tuduR) Long Terawan

uguŋhorn of an animal (PAN: *uReŋ) Long Terawan

ujuhfreshwater crab (PMP: *qayuyu) Long Terawan

ukamegg that is ready to hatch (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab) Long Terawan

ulo lemknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₂) *quluh Long Terawan

un-anpillow (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂ Long Terawan

urohgrass (PAN: *udu) Long Terawan

utaʔshield (NOISE) Long Terawan

Berawan (Long Teru) (4) WMP [zbc] ()

ligətturn (PWMP: *liget) Long Teru

lijeŋsingle-use post or pillar tomb (PMP: *liaŋ) Long Teru

nulaŋrites of secondary treatment of the dead, consisting of the collection and reinterment of the bones (Metcalf 1982:20) (PWMP: *ma-nuqelaŋ) *tuqelaŋ Long Teru

tumeŋheel (PWMP: *tumid) Long Teru

72. Beta (2) WMP [dyk] (Dayak, Land) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

ambokmat (PWMP: *a(m)bek)

kaŋaopen (PMP: *kaŋeqa)

Biak (176) SHWNG. see: Numfor

Bidayuh (59) WMP. see: Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)

73. Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) (59) WMP (Nais 1988) [sdo] (Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong) Malaysia (Sarawak) [aka: Bidayuh, Sadong]

abaexpression of warning to stop an action (PWMP: *abá)

abiorifice of wound (NOISE)

abitplaited rattan carrying strap (PMP: *habit) *Sabit

aborjellyfish (NOISE)

abuŋswish of horsefly, gnat; buzz of flies, mosquitos or bees (NOISE)

abUtsecuring devices: pin, band, tie, string, belt (PWMP: *ambet)

amaŋfather (PMP: *amá-ŋ) *amax

ambokmat (NOISE)

ambundew (in small drops) (PWMP: *ambun)

amburdust, broken bits (PWMP: *abuR)

ampalacking contents, empty (as grains) (PMP: *qapah)

añitanimal skin with the hairs on it, pelt (of small animal) (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

apamatter, what is said or written (PMP: *apa₁)

apidadditional, extra (PMP: *apij)

apusright through, throughout (PMP: *qa(m)pus)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asakripe; cooked (PMP: *hasak) *Sasak

asaŋdomestic pigeon (PWMP: *acaŋ)

asuhsmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

asumacid fruit, sour fruit (PWMP: *qalesem)

Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) (20 / 59)

atawe (PAN: *ata₁)

atauncooked, unripe (PWMP: *hataq)

atapeople in general (PMP: *qaRta)

atagobstinate, stubborn (PWMP: *atag)

atamto hurt, bully (NOISE)

ataptree sp. (NOISE)

atasas long as, provided that (NOISE)

atipa clip, a pin (PMP: *qatip₂)

atognoise of knocking (LOAN)

atognoise of knocking (NOISE)

aturcommand (LOAN)

aurbamboo (PMP: *qauR)

ayabconfused, muddled up, wandering of the mind (NOISE)

ayagsieve, strainer (PWMP: *qayag)

ayamplay with a toy; accompany a friend (PWMP: *qayam₃)

aya-ŋmother (Lebar 1975:195) (PMP: *aya₂)

babukGF (NOISE)

bataŋa stretch of longhouse; tree trunk; a block or row of houses (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

buarfeeling of vomiting (as that caused by windy stomach, etc.) (NEAR)

kaŋcroaking sound of a bullfrog (PWMP: *ekaŋ)

Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) (40 / 59)

puunbase; main part; beginning, origin (PMP: *puqun)

puun kayuhbase of a tree trunk (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

tai-nstomach; womb; belly; lower part of human body that contains the stomach and bowels (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takifeces, excrement; relieve oneself; wax in the ear; scum from the preparation of coconut oil (PMP: *taki) *Caki

tap-anwinnowing basket (also used as a sieve) (PMP: *tahep-an) *tapeS

taruna place inland, etc., a wood; dwelling site, place (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tawuhlaughter, a laugh; to laugh, scoff at (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

ti-barunrolled-up (as dried cuttlefish when being heated over a fire) (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

tibuŋtop; a peak; a high vantage point (of hill, etc.) (ROOT)

tikgive a tick; sound made by a clock or watch (PMP: *tik₁) *tik

tikasswift-running (as of water in a narrowed portion of a stream) (PMP: *ti(ŋ)kas)

tuhasopen (PWMP: *tukas)

tumuhflea (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tutoga knock (as on a door) (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

udipalive, living; fresh (as plants, milk) (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

upakan outer skin (as of human being, animal, plant, etc.); sheath; rind; bark (PWMP: *upak₁)

upisthe husk at the lower end of a palm branch (PWMP: *upis)

urama relish, vegetable condiment (PWMP: *qulam)

ututfart (PMP: *qutut)

74. Biga (25) SHWNG (Grace n.d.) [bhc] Indonesia (Papua)

aistick, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

bunto kill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

enefto sleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

fanto shoot (PAN: *panaq)

fatfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

inimto drink (PMP: *inum)

kalofrat (PCEMP: *kazupay)

lifo-tooth (PAN: *lipen)

lotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

matto die; dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

minibird (PMP: *manuk)

mlefto laugh (PCEMP: *malip)

mtatto fear (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

-oboto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

-sato climb (PMP: *sakay₄)

susfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tinisto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tolthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

toloegg (PMP: *qateluR)

tutto pound, beat (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

Biga (20 / 25)

veiwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wa-binwoman (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

wa-manman (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

(w)umhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

wutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

75. Bikol (2588) WMP (Mintz and Britanico 1985) [bik] Philippines (dialects: East Miraya 2, Miraya dialects 2, Naga 2, Camarines Sur 7)

-aalternant command suffix for verbs taking -on in the infinitive (PAN: *-a₁)

abágashoulder; side of a mountain (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

ábakaabaca, Manila hemp: Musa textilis (PPh: *abaká)

abáŋ-abáŋa hindrance (referring to a person who is always in the way) (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ábayaccompany one another; participate in something together; best man, brides maid (PWMP: *abay)

abóash, cinder (PMP: *qabu)

aboh-óngray; a grayish colored chicken (PWMP: *qabu-en) *qabu

abótarrive, come, reach (PPh: *qabut)

abot-ónbe reached (PPh: *qabut-en) *qabut

agakákclucking sound; to cluck (ROOT)

agáw-onbe snatched (PPh: *qaRaw-en) *qaRaw

agdáinvite, ask to come (NEAR)

agúhotree possessing pine-like needles: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *aRuhu)

ákákto quack (PMP: *akak)

akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

akʔákto quack (PMP: *qekqek)

aldáwday (PMP: *qalejaw)

aldaw-ándaily (PPh: *qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

alimpupúro (< R)hair whorl (PAN: *qali-puju)

alin-tatáwcenter of the eye containing the iris and the pupil (PMP: *tau tau) *Cau

Bikol (20 / 2588)

alipúroswhirlwind (PAN: *qali-)

aliwuswóssquall; whirlwind (PPH: *weswés)

alókinvite, ask to come (PWMP: *e(n)zuk)

álonwave, surf (PMP: *qalun)

aluhípancentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

amása measure of gold, equivalent to one sixteenth of a tahil (LOAN)

amáʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

am-balátokwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

ambódto wrap; to band, bandage (PWMP: *qa(m)bej)

ambóndew; fog, mist, haze (PWMP: *ambun)

ambóndew; fog, mist, haze (PWMP: *qembun)

amíhannortheast wind, trade wind (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

amihán-andirection of the northeast wind (PPh: *qamihan-an) *qamiS

ámoboss, master (LOAN)

ampátstop, put a stop to, quell, suppress (PWMP: *ampet)

ampáwpuffed rice (PMP: *ampaw)

-an1. verbal affix, locative series, infinitive-command form: dumán 'there, yonder' : duman-án 'come or go to', 2. verbal affix, reflexive action series, infinitive-command form: hugák 'lazy' : hugak-án 'to feel lazy', 3. verbal affix, regular series, infinitive-command form: imbitár 'invite' : imbitar-án 'to invite', 4. alternant command suffix for verbs taking i- in the infinitive: i-abót mo an asín or abot-án an asín 'pass the salt', 5. nominal affix, locative: eskuéla 'student' : eskuelah-án 'school' (PAN: *-an)

anáhawfan palm, possessing fronds which may be used for hats and thatching for houses: Livistona chinensis (PMP: *qanahaw)

an h-in-unithe call or song of a bird (PMP: *huni) *Suni

ániharvest, crop (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

Bikol (40 / 2588)

aníh-anto harvest, reap (PWMP: *qanih-an) *qaniS

ani-niŋalecho (PMP: *niŋal)

aniniŋálecho (PAN: *qaNi-)

anínoshadow; reflection (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

ánitanimal skin, hide, pelt; leather (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

anít-anto flay or skin an animal (PWMP: *qanit-an) *qaNiC

anítoancestral spirits once represented by carved wooden statues (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

anito-anmake a sacrifice to or hold a festival for a particular aníto (PPh: *qanitu-an) *qaNiCu

an m<in>anaan heirloom (PWMP: *mana₁)

an m<in>anaan heirloom (PWMP: *maña)

a-nówhat (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

ánodbob on the surface of the water (PAN: *qañud)

anómsix (PAN: *enem)

ánoytermite (PAN: *aNay)

anóy-onbe eaten by termites (PWMP: *anay-en) *aNay

antábayaccompany, escort, stay with; stay tuned to a particular radio station or television channel (PPh: *antábay)

antatarólarge caterpillar species (PWMP: *qantatadu)

antataró-onbe eaten by such a caterpillar (PWMP: *qantatadu)

antáʔjuice of fruits of the citrus family (NOISE)

an t<in>ábasremnants of cloth (PWMP: *tabas₂)

Bikol (60 / 2588)

antíŋamulet, charm, fetish, talisman (LOAN)

antíŋ-antíŋamulet, charm, fetish, talisman (LOAN)

anuliŋtree with yellowish leaves, used as spinach (PMP: *anuliŋ)

áŋatto challenge (PWMP: *aŋat)

aŋhítreferring to the odor of a goat (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

aŋsódunderarm odor (PWMP: *qaŋesej)

aŋtódreferring to the smell of something burning, usually skin, leather or hair (PPh: *qaŋetej)

apárice husk, chaff (PWMP: *qepah)

apátfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

apát-ápatonly four (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

apát-apátsend four at a time (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

apdóbile, gall; gall bladder (PAN: *qapejux)

apóglime (mineral) (PAN: *qapuR)

apósbutt (cigarette), stump (candle); coals (PMP: *epus)

apóscigarette butt (PMP: *qa(m)pus)

ápo-ʔgrandparent; sire; respectful title for old men or women; imp; a small human-like creature living in little earth mounds and possessing magical powers capable of turning people into animals such as toads, snakes (PPh: *apu-ʔ) *apu

apó-ʔ-ongrandparents; ancestors, forefathers (PPh: *apu-en) *apu

apóʔ-on sa túhodgreat grandparent (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

apyánopium (LOAN)

árakwhiskey, liquor, booze; wine (LOAN)

Bikol (80 / 2588)

árakwhiskey, liquor, booze; wine (LOAN)

ar-aníh-anharvest time (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

ásahope for or hope that (LOAN)

asa-hánhope for the success of (LOAN)

ásidescribing someone who is a show off (PWMP: *asi₂)

asínslt (PAN: *qasiN)

asin-ánsalt shaker (PWMP: *qasin-an) *qasiN

asin-ónto salt (PWMP: *qasin-en) *qasiN

asósmoke, fumes (PMP: *qasu₃)

asódhelp someone in pounding (rice, iron in a forge) (PPh: *asúd)

asod-ánhelp someone in pounding (PPh: *asud-án) *asúd

asógan effeminate priest who speaks and attires himself like a woman, wears trinkets, and executes funny movements and provocative contortions during rituals offered to Aswang (witches) -- Bikol mythology (PWMP: *asug)

aswáŋdevil or witch said to eat human flesh (LOAN)

atárice bran (PMP: *qeta) *qeCah

átaŋa sacrifice offered to the gugúraŋ (household spirits carried around on the person) as a sign of thanksgiving consisting of one tenth of the harvest, later eaten by participants in the ritual (Bikol mythology); gift, sacrifice (PPh: *átaŋ₄) *átaŋ

atílow or ebb tide (PMP: *qeti₁)

atibáŋawhorsefly, botfly; a large blue fly known for its annoying buzzing (PAN: *qaCi-)

ati-báŋawhorsefly, botfly; a large blue fly known for its annoying buzzing (PAN: *baŋaw)

atipulokind of breadfruit: Artocarpus treculianus Elm. (Madulid 2001) (PPH: *qatipulu)

átissugar apple: Anona squamosa (LOAN)

Bikol (100 / 2588)

átissugar apple: Annona squamosa (LOAN)

atobtrap to catch rats or wild pigs (Tsuchida 1976:167) (PAN: *qaCeb)

atóproof; thatch (PMP: *qatep)

atop-ánto roof, to thatch (PWMP: *qatep-an) *qatep

atótfart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

atubáŋ-anfront (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

ayah (exclamation) (PAN: *ai₂)

áyamdog; canine (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ayáwdivorce one another (PPh: *ayaw₁)

ayún-anto join (become a member of, associate with) (PPH: *áyun)

bábadsoak (PPh: *bábad)

bábawshallow, superficial (PWMP: *babaw₂)

bábawplace something over or put something on top (PAN: *babaw₃)

ba-báyi ~ ba-bahigirl, woman, lady; female (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

babáʔshort in height, squat, low (PMP: *babaq₁)

báboywild boar (PAN: *babuy₃)

badátfull and unable to eat any more (ROOT)

badbáddisentangle, loosen (as a knot, a rope); unwind, uncoil (PWMP: *bajbaj)

badílgun (LOAN)

bágaembers (PMP: *baRah)

Bikol (120 / 2588)

bagáshusked or milled rice, referring to the uncooked rice one generally buys, and then later cooks (PMP: *beRas)

bágayfitting, proper, suitable (as clothes that match) (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bágayfitting, proper, suitable (LOAN)

bagáʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bagbágshipwrecked (PWMP: *baRbaR)

bágobefore (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bagóʔedema, dropsy (PWMP: *baguq)

bagtástraverse; cut across in walking (as across a field) (PMP: *be(R)tas)

bagyótyphoon, hurricane, gale, storm, tempest (PAN: *baRiuS)

bahágloincloth, G-string (PMP: *bahaR)

báhawcold, referring only to food once served hot (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

baháʔflood (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

bákaŋconfused, disoriented (PPH: *bakaŋ₂)

bakáw-anmangrove tree, having stilt-like roots and stems forming dense thickets along tidal shores: Rhizophora (PWMP: *bakehaw)

bákaʔmaybe, perchance, perhaps, possibly; might (PPH: *bakáq)

bakbáka large scab, ready to fall off; to peel (as sunburned skin) (PMP: *bakbak₁)

bakbak-ánpeel something off (PWMP: *bakbak-an) *bakbak₁

bákolsmall basket, woven from bamboo, with four corners at the bottom and circular opening at the top (PWMP: *bakul)

baktótcarry on the back, carry piggyback (PWMP: *beketut)

baládbe exposed to the sun; sunbathe, bask in the sun; dry in the sun, expose to the sun (PPh: *belaj)

Bikol (140 / 2588)

balagbágcrosswise (PPh: *bala(R)baR)

balakbákwide strips of the abaca or banana stalk used for tying (NOISE)

balánakfish sp. found in rivers (PWMP: *balanak)

bálatshellfish which breeds along the beaches (PPh: *balát)

balátoŋlong beans (PWMP: *balatuŋ)

baláwsmall shrimp (PPh: *balaw₁)

baláyhouse, hut (PMP: *balay)

baláyiin-laws (PPh: *balaqih)

bálijoin, become a member of ; affiliate with, associate with; engage in, partake of, participate in (PPh: *báli)

balíequals (mathematics); all-in-all; adaptable (LOAN)

balíkback to front, inside out (of shoes on the wrong feet, gloves on the wrong hands); return; revert (PMP: *balik₂)

baliktádinverted, overturned, upside down; the opposite, reverse (PPh: *baliketád)

baliŋbíŋstarfruit: Averrhoa carambola (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

balisóŋfan-knife (LOAN)

balítaŋa tripod consisting of three stakes driven into the ground and serving as a holder for a pot (used for cooking when in the fields, on the trail, etc.) (PWMP: *bali(n)taŋ)

balítiʔbanyan (plays a prominent part in legends and mythology, calling forth associations of the dark and evil) (PPh: *balítiq)

balnáwto rinse, rinse off (as soap, dirt) (PPh: *balñaw)

balnáwrinse (ROOT)

balówidow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

balódring dove (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

Bikol (160 / 2588)

balóstake revenge on, get even with, retaliate against (PAN: *bales₁)

balós-balósreciprocate (PAN: *bales₁)

balyán, balyán-apriestess (Bikol mythology) (PWMP: *balian)

balyógo across, go over to the other side (PMP: *baliw₁)

bambánwild grass used in making baskets (PWMP: *banban)

bambánwild grass species (used in making baskets) (PWMP: *benben₂)

banabátimber-producing deciduous tree with light purple flowers (PPh: *banabá)

bánatto hit (PWMP: *banat)

banáʔagbeam of light; moonlight, firelight (PMP: *banaqaR)

banhíʔrice seedling (PWMP: *benehiq)

bania tree: Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr., Fabaceae (Madulid 2001) (PPH: *bani₂)

banógbash, hit hard, strike (PPh: *baneR)

bantóg-andistinguished, famous, eminent, great, illustrious, notable, renowned, well-known; a celebrity (PPH: *bantug)

banwítfish hook (PPh: *banuit)

baŋgíevening, night (PMP: *beRŋi)

baŋkáythe body of a dead person, corpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

báŋonget up, arise, rise; get out of bed; name someone after (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baŋón-onhelp someone up (PWMP: *baŋun-en) *baŋuN

báraŋbewitch, cast a spell on someone using techniques similar to voodoo (NOISE)

baráŋaydivision of a municipality, hamlet; medium-size boat (PWMP: *baraŋay)

Bikol (180 / 2588)

báratbolt (as for a door) (PAN: *barat₁)

barétaʔnews, tidings (LOAN)

b-ar-isbísto flow or run, referring only to rain water which runs from the roof b-ar-isbis-an eaves (ROOT)

basáʔwet, damp, soggy (PMP: *baseq)

basáʔ-básaʔsoaking wet, sodden (PWMP: *ma-base-baseq) *baseq

basaʔ-onto wet, dampen, drench, baste (PWMP: *basaq-en) *baseq

basbáswhip (PAN: *basbas₁)

básbásto whip (beat, hit) (PAN: *basbas₁)

basbása rite performed by the balyána in which the body of the dead is washed with the water-softened leaves of the lukbán (pomelo) as part of a ritual purification; to exorcise someone (PWMP: *basbas₄) *basbas₂

basbásclear a path, usually through tall grass (PWMP: *basbas₃)

básijuice from the sugarcane (recorded in the 18th century) (PPH: *bási)

basógfull, replete; describing someone who is unable to eat any more (PAN: *besuR)

basóg-básogvery full (PAN: *besuR)

basog-ónfill oneself up (PWMP: *besuR-en) *besuR

básolblame, censure, reprove; blame someone for (PPh: *besqel)

básolblame, censure, reprove; blame someone (PPH: *básul)

bataŋ-antransverse beams tied to the posts of a house serving as a base for the floor (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

batbátiron, wrought iron (PWMP: *batbat)

batóweight used in determining the weight and value of gold (PMP: *batu) *batux

batókidney (PMP: *batu₂)

Bikol (200 / 2588)

batókto bark (PMP: *batuk₁)

batók-batók-ondescribing a dog that is always barking (PWMP: *batuk batuk) *batuk₁

báyadfee, gratuity, payment, rate, toll, wage (PMP: *bayaD)

bayád-anto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

báyaʔstop doing something, abandon, disregard, dispense with, forego, leave off, relinquish, renounce; concede (as defeat) (NOISE)

baybáysand (PPh: *baybáy)

baybay-onbeach, coast, seashore, shore (PPh: *baybáy)

báʔakcrevice, fissure, rift (PMP: *baqak₁)

baʔgaŋmolar (PMP: *bageqaŋ)

baʔgóbefore (in time); new (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

baʔŋógthe smell of dung or excrement; the smell of mud containing rotten wood, leaves (NOISE)

baʔógbarren, infertile, sterile, describing someone who is unable to produce offspring (PPH: *baqug)

baʔóʔoturtle found in rivers and lakes (PPH: *baququ)

biaya, biyáyagrace, blessing; generous; show generosity toward (LOAN)

bibísmall freshwater clam sp. (PMP: *bibi₁) *bibi

bi-bíŋkacassava cake, traditionally cooked in an oven with fire on top and bottom (LOAN)

bi-bitáy-angallows (PPh: *bítay)

bídastar, referring to the leading role in a play, movie (LOAN)

bígaʔcoarse plant with large leaves and thick trunk, producing edible stems and bulbs: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bigláʔabruptly, suddenly, unexpectedly; spontaneously; all-at-once (PPh: *bigláq)

Bikol (220 / 2588)

bigláʔ-anwithout advance warning (PPh: *bigláq)

bíhagcaptive, hostage; to capture (as during a war or raid); take hostage (PWMP: *bihaR)

bihag-oncapture (as during a war or raid); take hostage (PPh: *bihaR-en) *bihaR

bikaŋkáŋhaving the legs spread apart; spread the legs apart (PWMP: *bikaŋkaŋ)

bikaʔkáʔhaving the legs spread apart (ROOT)

bílaŋcount, enumerate, tally, total up (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biláŋgoʔofficer of the peace, constable, sheriff (LOAN)

bilaŋ-onto count, enumerate, tally, total up (PWMP: *bilaŋ-en) *bilaŋ

bilásreferring to the husband of one’s sister-in-law, or the wife of one’s brother-in-law (PPH: *bilas)

bilógcircle, disk, ring, sphere; circular, globular, round, rotund, spherical; complete, entire, full (as the moon) (LOAN)

biŋbíŋpull someone's ears in punishment or fun (PWMP: *biŋbiŋ₂)

biŋgálasparkler, fireworks (LOAN)

biŋkóŋconcave; shipwright's adze (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

bíraviolent stroke (PWMP: *bida)

biríbidgnarled, twisted (PWMP: *bidíbid)

bírikback to front (NOISE)

biró bigláʔ-andescribing someone who suddenly shows up from nowehere (PPh: *bigláq)

bítayhang oneself to death; be hanged (PPh: *bítay)

bitay-onhang someone (PPh: *bitay-en) *bítay

bitáʔogtree producing a wood used for the ribs of boats: Calophyllum (PMP: *bitaquR)

Bikol (240 / 2588)

bitáʔosWrightia pubescens R. (Madulid 2000) (PWMP: *bitaqus)

bitbítcarry in the hand, tote (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bitbít-oncarry in the hand, tote (PWMP: *bitbit-en) *bitbit

bitíkspring trap consisting of a noose which is tightened and pulled when sprung, causing what is caught to hang until freed (PMP: *bitik₁)

bitik-ónto trap with a spring trap (PMP: *bitik₁)

bitínsuspend or hang someone up; fiesta game (the aim of which is to reach gifts hanging from a horizontal pole) (PPh: *bítin)

bitín-bítinswing back and forth, as by the hands (PPh: *bítin-bítin) *bítin

bitín sawáŋsnake, kind of boa constrictor (PPh: *bítin)

bitísfoot (PMP: *bities)

bitúkabowels, intestines, gut (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

bitúʔonstar in the sky) (PAN: *bituqen)

biʔásinternode of cane-like structures such as sugarcane, bamboo; bone length between two joints (PWMP: *biqás)

biʔásinternode of cane-like structures such as sugarcane, bamboo; bone length between two joints (LOAN)

bóboclown, buffoon, jester (LOAN)

bodégawarehouse; storage room; shed; hold of a ship (LOAN)

bólaball (LOAN)

bómbabomb; sexy movies (LOAN)

bómbapump (LOAN)

bosína, busínahorn (of cars and other vehicles) (LOAN)

bótovote; vote for (LOAN)

Bikol (260 / 2588)

botónesbutton (LOAN)

bóyabuoy (LOAN)

boʔotmountain rat (Tsuchida 1976:136) (PAN: *buhet)

búbofish trap, four to five feet long and six to eight inches in diameter, made of rattan, used in rivers (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubónwell (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

bubóŋmetal strip covering the seam at the peak and edges of the roof; kind of grass used for roof thatching (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bu-bulán-onloony; also describing someone affected by periods of strange and unaccountable actions (PWMP: *bulan bulan-en) *bulaN

bubuŋ-ánroof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

budbódscatter, sprinkle (as seeds); to sow (PMP: *budbud)

buga-n-ána place to spit, particularly with reference to betel chewers (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

búgawdrive something away, usually referring to annoying animals or fowl; bodyguard; pimp (PAN: *buRaw)

bugáw-ondrive something away, usually referring to annoying animals or fowl (PPh: *buRaw-en) *buRaw

bugkóstie a knot in; tie something to something else; lash; tie up, bind, swathe; unite, unify, bring together (PMP: *beRkes)

bugnáyfruit sp. (PWMP: *buRnay)

bugókrotten, referring only to eggs (PAN: *buRuk)

bugóngoiter (NOISE)

bugrísdiarrhoea, loose bowels (PPh: *bugris)

bugris-óndescribing someone who often has diarrhoea (PPh: *bugris)

bugsóksteep (PMP: *buRsuk)

bugtákstrike or hit (PPh: *beRták)

Bikol (280 / 2588)

buhístax, duty, levy; pay a tax on or for; to sacrifice (as one's life for someone) (PWMP: *buhís)

buhókhair, referring only to that on the head (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buhók maʔíscorn silk (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buhuk-ónhave a lot of hair on the head (PWMP: *buhek-en) *bukeS

bukáto open, unlock, turn on, switch on (as radio, light) (PMP: *buka)

bukálspring, natural flow of water (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukaŋkáŋopen (forced) at one end (PWMP: *bukaŋkaŋ)

bukásopen, ajar; on (as a radio, a light) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

bukbókbeat, hit, strike (PMP: *bukbuk₂)

bukbóksmall brown insects which bore into wood or infest rice; wood borer, wood tick, weevil (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bukbok-ánfight (PMP: *bukbuk₂)

bukbók-oninfested with small brown insects which bore into wood or infest rice (PWMP: *bukbuk-en) *bukbuk₃

búkidhill, mountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukíd-búkidknoll, small hill (PAN: *bukij)

bukládto spread out (as a mat); turn pages (as in a book); unroll, unfold, unfurl (PPh: *buklad)

bukónode (as in bamboo); knot (in wood) (PMP: *buku)

buko-bukójoints (of the body), ankle (PMP: *buku buku) *buku

búkolbump, lump (referring only to that on the body or head) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bukól-bukól-anlarge bump or lump (PWMP: *buŋkul-en) *buŋkul

buktóthunchback; hunchbacked, slouched (PPh: *buktút)

Bikol (300 / 2588)

bulák-bugákgurgle, gush out (ROOT)

bulalákawmeteor, shooting star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

búlanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulán-anmonthly (PWMP: *bulan-an) *bulaN

bulán-búlanevery month, monthly (PMP: *bulan-bulan₂) *bulaN

bulán-onloony; also describing someone affected by periods of strange and unaccountable actions (PWMP: *bulan-en) *bulaN

búlaŋspur of a fighting cock; cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

buláŋ-ancockfight arena (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

buláteroundworm, ascaris (PMP: *bulati)

bulatí-ondescribing someone with roundworms; get or suffer from roundworms (PMP: *bulati)

buláwsandy colored, gold colored; blond; albino (PAN: *bulaw)

buláw-angold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bulaw-óndescribing something that is sandy colored or gold colored (PAN: *bulaw)

bulbólpubic hair (PPh: *bulbúl)

buldíŋdescribing someone blind in one eye (PPh: *buldíŋ)

búlighelp someone carry something (PPh: *maR-búlig) *bulig

búlighelp someone carry something (PWMP: *bulig)

búligthe fruiting stem of the banana, filled with bunches of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

bulig-anhelp someone carry something (PPh: *bulig-an) *bulig

bulíʔvagina (PMP: *buliq₂)

Bikol (320 / 2588)

bulnáwrinse, rinse off (as soap, dirt) (ROOT)

bulódhill (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

bulóŋmedicine (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

búlosto flow, to run (water) (PWMP: *bulus)

bulyáwshout out something in anger (LOAN)

bumbón, bunbónscrub, wood or bamboo which block or obstruct rivers (PMP: *bunbun)

bunótcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

bunoʔ-ánabattoir, slaughterhouse (PWMP: *bunuq-an₁) *buNuq₂

bunoʔ-ónto butcher; to stab (PWMP: *bunuq-en) *buNuq₂

buntólirresolute, slow in making up one's mind (PWMP: *butul)

buntótrear part of a chicken from where the tail feathers grow (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

bunyágbaptism, christening (PPh: *buniag)

búŋafruit; areca palm and nut; betel nut: Areca catechu (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋáŋaʔcrater, orifice; opening of a bottle, jar; mouth (of a jar); blurt something out (PPh: *buŋáŋaq)

buŋáwunconscious, knocked out (PWMP: *buŋaw₁)

búŋawscrotum, said in anger; penis (vulgar) (PPh: *buŋaw₂)

búŋaw moa curse (PPh: *buŋaw₂)

buŋkálturn over the soil, break ground; dig something out of the ground; uproot (NOISE)

búŋothair; the long ends of a moustache (PWMP: *buŋut)

buŋóʔskeleton, skull (PPH: *buŋuq)

Bikol (340 / 2588)

buŋóʔskeleton, skull (NOISE)

buŋuránsweet green banana species (LOAN)

búrakflower, blossom (PWMP: *bujak)

burítalipot palm, sp. of tree having a spreading crown of fanlike leaves: Corypha umbraculifera (PMP: *buri)

buríkatdilated, wide open (the eyes) (NOISE)

burík-butíkspot, dot, fleck (PWMP: *burik)

burík-butíkspot, dot, fleck (PPh: *butik)

burik-butik-ónspotted, dotted, mottled (PWMP: *burik)

burik-butik-ónspotted, dotted, mottled (PPh: *butik)

buríŋcarbon, soot, or mud used by revelers to mark themselves during the three carnival days preceding Lent; any animal with grayish stripes (PWMP: *budiŋ)

buríŋanimal (sp.) with gray stripes (PWMP: *buriŋ)

buró-buʔáyalarge green ground lizard with a yellow stripe (PMP: *buqaya)

b-ur-usóg-antug-of-war (PAN: *busuR₁)

busbósfall from or run out of (as rice from a ripped sack); referring to the spilling out of contents when something is cut open (PMP: *busbus)

busbós na sákoa leaking sack (PMP: *busbus)

busbus-ónripped open, slashed, slit (PWMP: *busbus-en) *busbus

búsiyogoiter (NOISE)

busíʔto slit, tear, rip (PPh: *busiq)

busógbow (for shooting arrows) (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

busónmailbox, postbox (LOAN)

Bikol (360 / 2588)

bútablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butákarocking chair (LOAN)

butandíŋwhale sp. (PPh: *butandiŋ)

butá-onto blind (PMP: *buta-en mata) *buCa

butbótlook through carefully for something, go through (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

butbóthoot, sound of an owl (PWMP: *butbut₁) *butbut

butbot-onlook through carefully for something (PPh: *butbut-en) *buCbuC

butikíʔhouse lizard, gecko (PPh: *butikíq)

butítitadpole; species of large-bellied fish: Tetradon lunaris; large-bellied (PWMP: *butiti)

bútodreferring usually to fish, dead and bloated, found floating in the water; may be applicable to other animals found in a similar condition; foul smell of rotten fish; putrid (PWMP: *buntuD)

butógswollen, puffy, bulging; bladder, balloon (PWMP: *buntuR)

butóŋspecies of small bamboo (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

bútoŋmedium-sized tree with white flowers, large leaves and a large oval fruit from which a fish poison is extracted: Barringtonia asiatica (PWMP: *butuŋ)

bútoʔprick, cock, penis (vulgar) (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

búyoʔvine sp. whose leaf is used as part of the mixture of betel nut and lime called mamáʔ (PWMP: *buyuq)

buʔáyacrocodile; describing someone who lacks team spirit, someone who is always hogging the ball (PMP: *buqaya)

buʔbóʔto douse, pour water on (PMP: *buqbuq)

buʔníringworm, herpes (PMP: *buqeni)

buʔólheel (PPh: *buqel)

da-datŋ-ónan epileptic (PMP: *dateŋ)

Bikol (380 / 2588)

dagámistraw (PMP: *zaRami)

dágatocean, sea (PMP: *daRat)

dagáʔearth, land, soil (PAN: *daReq)

dágomneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

dáhonleaf, foliage; page (PMP: *dahun)

dáhon nin tubówhip snake (small, green and poisonous) (PMP: *dahun)

dakít-anto move to a different house (PPH: *dákit)

dakólmany, much, plenty, a lot; abundant, bountiful (PPH: *dakél)

daláganto run, dash, scamper, scurry; gallop, jog, lope, trot (PPH: *dalágan)

dálanpath, track, trail; road, thoroughfare, way (PMP: *zalan)

dálan-dálanpath, trail (PAN: *zalan-zalan) *zalan

dánawlake; lagoon (PAN: *danaw)

daŋdáŋgo near a fire to warm up, dry off (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

daŋdaŋ-ónbe reheated, be placed near a fire to warm up (PWMP: *daŋdaŋ-en) *daŋdaŋ

daŋógreputation (PMP: *deŋeR)

daŋóg-dáŋogclearly audible (PMP: *deŋeR)

daŋóg-daŋóghearsay, innuendo (PMP: *deŋeR)

daŋog-ónto listen to (PPH: *deŋeR-en) *deŋeR

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

dapáʔstack of rice in the field (NOISE)

Bikol (400 / 2588)

dapdáptree with red, pea-shaped flowers growing in dense clusters, possessing long pods, smooth, gray bark, and young branches with prickles; wood used in fencing and for boundary posts: the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dapít-onto escort the dead (priests) (PWMP: *dapit)

dapóghearth, a place for cooking; kitchen (PMP: *dapuR)

da-rágayoung, unmarried woman; maiden, damsel, lass (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

datóŋto arrive; epilepsy (PMP: *dateŋ)

datoŋ-ánthe main entrance to a town (PWMP: *dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

dáto-ʔ(archaic) headman, chief; also referring to the rich and influential members of pre-Hispanic Bikol society (PMP: *datu)

dáʔanold, referring only to things; stale (as bread) (PAN: *daqaN)

dáʔanold, referring only to things; stale (as bread) (PPH: *daqan₂)

daʔíno, not (verbal sentences) (PAN: *qazi)

daʔí in-anóintact, untouched (PWMP: *in-anu) *-nu

daʔi ma-bílaŋcountless, incalculable, innumerable, myriad (PPh: *ma-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

daʔi ma-káyaincapable or unable to do something (PWMP: *kaya)

daʔí-ŋ púsoʔheartless, callous, cold, hardhearted (PMP: *pusuq₁)

dáʔoa tree: Dracontomelum dao (PAN: *daqu₁)

dikítlittle, few, a drop, some, scant, meager, etc. (PAN: *dikit)

dikít dikítlittle-by-little, bit-by-bit, gradual(ly) (PWMP: *dikit dikit) *dikit

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dítaʔplant sp. possessing a milky sap commonly used as a poison placed on tips of arrows (PPH: *ditaq₂)

du-duwáonly two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Bikol (420 / 2588)

dúgifish bone, spine of a fish (PMP: *duRi)

dugóʔblood (PMP: *zuRuq)

dukdókpound or crush, usually with a pestle (PMP: *dekdek)

dukótto glue, paste, or stick something (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dukóʔbend over, stoop (PWMP: *dukuq)

dukóʔbend over, stoop (ROOT)

dulósguitar string (PAN: *deles)

duŋánconcurrent, coinciding, simultaneous, together (PMP: *deŋan)

dúŋontree producing timber for pilings, foundations, etc., and bearing a boat-shaped acidic fruit: Heritiera littoralis (PWMP: *duŋun)

dupáan arm’s length (PAN: *depa)

dupa-onto measure with the arm (PWMP: *depa-en) *depa

dúronlocust (PPh: *dúdun)

duron-onbe eaten or destroyed by locusts (PPh: *dúdun)

dusókcompact, compressed, condensed, packed (ROOT)

duwátwo; both (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duwá dúwaonly two (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

dúyancradle, hammock (PPH: *dúyan)

gabókrotten (wood) (PMP: *Rabuk)

gabótpull up or out (as weeds, gray hairs) (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

gadótcompact, compressed (ROOT)

Bikol (440 / 2588)

gakud-ánto tie something to (PPH: *Rakéd)

gamótroot (PMP: *Ramut)

gapós-onto manacle; to tie the hands or feet (PWMP: *Rapus-en) *Rapus

garáŋ-gasáŋjagged (PMP: *garaŋ-gasaŋ) *garaŋ₂

gásagauze; the bag-like wick of pressure lanterns (LOAN)

gatáksplit, cracked (PWMP: *gatak)

gatáksplit, cracked (PWMP: *getak)

gatákto split (as a glass, dry land) (PWMP: *Retak)

gatáksplit, cracked (ROOT)

gatólan itch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gatóshundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gáwaypoisonous tentacles of the jellyfish (PMP: *gaway)

gibónsmall mound of earth in which seeds are placed (PWMP: *Ri(m)bun)

gibónsmall mound of soil in which seeds are planted (ROOT)

gíboŋ-sikáta feat (PPH: *sikát)

gilíŋ-angrinding stone, mill (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

gilíŋ-onto grind or mill grains (PWMP: *giliŋ-en) *giliŋ

gimbállarge drum native to the Philippines (PWMP: *gimbal)

gi-nháwabreath, respiration (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gi-rumdum-ónto reminisce about, to call to mind (PAN: *demdem₁)

Bikol (460 / 2588)

gisgisrub (as against a wall, tree) to relieve an itch (PAN: *gisgis₁)

gisíʔa tear (as in a shirt); torn (PMP: *Risiq)

gugónspear grass; cogon; a species of erect grass 30-80 cm. high with solid slender stems and long linear leaves used for roofing: Imperata cylindrica (PMP: *guRun)

gukónhot pad; wooden or bamboo shield placed beneath a pot to keep it from burning or dirtying the table (PAN: *Reken)

gumólwrestle with one another (PWMP: *gumul)

guntíŋscissors; A-beam (carpentry) (LOAN)

guráŋold (humans, animals); aged, old (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gusókrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

gutíɁpopped rice or corn (PWMP: *Retiq)

guyáʔguyáʔshake something (PWMP: *guyaq)

guyoŋto shake (as a house, a tree to bring the fruit down, etc.) (PWMP: *Ruyuŋ)

ha-adjectival affix prefixed to adjectives denoting height, length, and depth (PMP: *ha-₁) *ha-

ha-affix prefixed to adjectives denoting height, length and depth (PMP: *ha-₂) *Sa-

habágatsouth wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

habáncarry something cradled in cloth high on the back near the shoulders (as one might carry a small child) (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

habl-ónbe woven; woven cloth (PWMP: *habel-en) *habél

habólthe weave of cloth (PWMP: *habél)

haból-anloom (PPh: *habel-an) *habél

hadámborrow (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

hadam-onto borrow (PPh: *hedam-en) *Sezam

Bikol (480 / 2588)

hadóka kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

hadók-anto kiss (PPh: *hajek-an) *Sajek

hagdánstair, step (PMP: *haRezan)

hagkósbelt; strap (PPH: *hagkes)

hagúŋ-húŋto hum (something), to buzz (PMP: *haRuŋ) *SaRuŋ

hákotto transport, usually by carrying (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

hakót-hakótspecies of wasp nesting in wood (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

halátwait, wait for (LOAN)

haláwdrive away (as annoying animals, people) (PWMP: *halaw)

hálonto swallow (ROOT)

hamákmat (PWMP: *hamak)

hamak-ánspread a mat on (PWMP: *hamak)

(h)ambódto wrap, to band; bandage (PWMP: *hambej)

hambógboastful, conceited (PPh: *hambúg)

hamíssweet (PMP: *hemis)

hampákto lash, whip, flagellate (PPh: *hampak)

hamtáklong bean species (PWMP: *hametak)

hanáwwash the hands or feet (PMP: *heñaw) *Señaw

ha-ntíklarge black ant which may sting when disturbed (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

haŋálstupid, idiotic (LOAN)

Bikol (500 / 2588)

háŋosinhale or exhale; breathe, sigh (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

haŋós-haŋóspant, be out of breath, be winded (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

háŋotthe smell of green wood; the smell of certain unidentifiable odors in the air; the taste of certain vegetables like celery, carrots (PWMP: *haŋut)

haŋóteat something tough by pulling at it with the teeth (PPh: *haŋút)

haŋús-ontake in a breath of air (PWMP: *haŋus-en) *haŋus₁

hápagpursue, chase (NOISE)

hapág-onbe chased, pursued (PPH: *hapáR-en) *hápaR

hapdíʔsmarting or burning of the eyes (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

hapdóspain (PMP: *hapejes)

hapgósrub something off (PPh: *hapRus)

hápinlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer; (fig.) eat or drink something to line the stomach before drinking liquor (PMP: *hapin)

hápinlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer; to line (as shelves, boxes) (NOISE)

hapín-anto line (as shelves, boxes); to pad, insulate (PPH: *hapin-an) *hapin

háponafternoon (PPh: *hápun)

ha-ráromdeep, profound (PMP: *dalem)

ha-ráromdeep, profound (PAN: *ma-dalem) *dalem

harígipost, pillar, column (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

haruʔánfreshwater fish sp., (PWMP: *haruqan)

hasókplant rice or corn seeds by placing them in a hole made by a pole; referring only to upland field cultivation carried out at present primarily by minority groups (PMP: *hasek₁)

hasókplant rice or corn seeds by placing them in a hole made by a pole (PAN: *hesek)

Bikol (520 / 2588)

hasok-ánhask-ánupland rice or corn fields (PPh: *hesek-án) *hesek

hatódto escort, conduct; to convoy; convey or deliver; bring or accompany to a particular place (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

hatsiŋsneeze (NOISE)

háwakbody, torso, physique; stalk of plants; shaft of an arrow (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

háyopanimal; beast, creature (PPh: *hayep)

hayópblow something away (PWMP: *hayup)

hayópblow something away; blow on something (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

hayop-anplace of blowing (PMP: *heyup-an) *Seyup

hayop-ónblow something away, blow on (PWMP: *heyup-en) *Seyup

haʔgóktake deep breaths, as one tired or ill with asthma; to gasp (PMP: *heqeguk)

háʔlupounding stick for rice; pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

hidámto borrow (PWMP: *hinzam)

higdáʔlie down, repose (PPh: *hideRáq)

hígopto siphon, sip (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

hígop-onbe siphoned, sipped by (PWMP: *hiRup-en) *SiRup

higóttaut, tight; tense (PPh: *hiRét)

higót-antighten a part of something (PPh: *hiRet-an) *hiRét

higpítstrict, tight (as regulations); drastic, harsh, rigid, stringent (PPh: *higpít)

higpít-onbe enforced (as regulations), be tightened (as restrictions) (PPh: *higpit-en) *higpít

híkotnet, now primarily used for fishing, but in the past used for hunting as well (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

Bikol (540 / 2588)

hikót-onbe made into a net from (PWMP: *hiket-en) *Siket

hílaa work song sung when pulling or hauling (PWMP: *hilah)

hílawork song sung when pulling or hauling (NOISE)

hiláwraw, half-cooked (meat, vegetables); immature (fruits, vegetables) (PPh: *hiláw)

hilíŋa look; look at, look over, admire (PWMP: *hiliŋ)

hilíŋa look; look at, look over, admire (PWMP: *iliŋ₂)

hílopoison (PWMP: *hilu)

hílomin secret; clandestine, covert, furtive, surreptitious (PWMP: *lihem)

himsáʔto hatch (ROOT)

hin-prefix which conveys the meaning of removing something (PMP: *hin-) *Sin-

h-in-úmaythe dish prepared in this way} (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

hiŋ-kuku-hónto clean the nails (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

hiŋ-tuli-ónto clean wax from the ears (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

hípag, ípagsister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

hípaʔwait for in hiding; ambush, waylay, spring upon, set upon; to lurk, skulk, slink, sneak (PMP: *hipaʔ)

hísoʔrub dirt off the body with a stone while bathing (PMP: *hisuq)

hítaʔgroin (PPh: *hitaq)

hítoʔfreshwater catfish sp. (PMP: *hituq)

híwaʔto slice meat (PPh: *híwaq)

hiwáʔ-anslice meat (PPh: *hiwáq-an) *híwaq

Bikol (560 / 2588)

hiwáʔ-onbe sliced, of meat (PPh: *hiwáq-en) *híwaq

hoyhey; an exclamation of warning or a call for attention; a response when one is called (PMP: *huy)

hubádundo a knot; untie, unfasten; disentangle, untangle (PPh: *hubád)

hubád-onbe loosened (PPh: *hubád-en) *hubád

húgasto wash (as dishes, a car; not applicable to the face, hands or clothes) (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

hugás-onbe washed off (PWMP: *huRas-en) *SuRas

hugótremove something with the fingers (as lice from the hair, grains of rice from the stalk) (PAN: *SuRut)

hugút-onremove with the fingers (PAN: *SuRut-en) *SuRut

hukáydig something up (PWMP: *hukay)

hukáy-andig into (PWMP: *hukay-an) *hukay

hukómjudge (LOAN)

hukrágoŋsnore (ROOT)

hulbótpull out, unsheathe, extract (Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hulavut 'draw a dagger') (ROOT)

húlidlie someone down to sleep (as a child); lie down beside (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

húlogdrop something; fall (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

hulog-áninstallment (PWMP: *huluR-an) *SuluR

húmayprepare a dish eaten on festive occasions in which seasoned meat or fish and rice are cooked in a segment of bamboo (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

hunátstretch something; straighten something out (PPh: *huñat)

húnicall, sing (birds); twitter, warble (PMP: *huni) *Suni

húnodto sink (ROOT)

Bikol (580 / 2588)

hurílast; late, overdue, retarded, tardy (PMP: *udehi)

hurih-ánthe hindmost part, posterior (PWMP: *udehi-an) *udehi

hurósslip or slide down (of something that has been tied or fastened) (PWMP: *hurus)

hútokbrain (PMP: *hutek)

húʔomto soak something (PWMP: *huqem)

-ialternant command suffix for verbs taking -an in the infinitive: taʔw-an mo siya or taʔw-i siya 'give him some' (PAN: *-i₁)

i-verbal affix, instrumental, infinitive-command form (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

i-abótto pass something (as to pass the salt) (PPh: *i-qabut) *qabut

íakcry out or shout (PMP: *iak)

iánthat, those (nearer than itó) (PWMP: *ian₃)

i-ánodget carried away by the current; drift, be adrift (PPh: *i-qañud) *qañud

ibádifferent, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different; include, incorporate, enclose; join, belong to; associate with; accompany, go or come along with (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibábewitched (PPh: *iba₂)

ibádifferent, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different, be distinct from (PPH: *iba)

i-bábawon top, on the surface (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

i-babáʔdownstairs, below (PMP: *babaq₁)

idásterm for spouses when two brother have married two sisters (PAN: *idas₁)

i-dukótto glue, paste or stick something; to put up (as posters) (PPH: *i-deket) *dekeC

i-dúyanto rock a cradle or hammock (PPH: *dúyan)

igáŋreferring to dried salt (ROOT)

Bikol (600 / 2588)

íhiʔurine (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

íhiʔ-anurinal (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

íhoshark (PAN: *qiSu)

i-húlogto drop (something) (PPh: *i-huluR) *SuluR

ika-anómsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

ika-duwásecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

ika-pitóseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

ika-tulóthird (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

i-ka-walóeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

íkíkthe squeak of a mouse (PWMP: *qi(ŋ)kik)

íkogtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ikʔíkeek! the squeak of a mouse; a shriek or shrill cry of pain or fright (PWMP: *qikqik)

i-lakáwto take for a walk (as a dog) (PMP: *lakaw)

ílawlight, lamp; headlight; flare (PMP: *qilaw)

i-ligtásto save or rescue; to recover, retrieve (PPH: *ligtas)

ílobe orphaned (PWMP: *ilu)

ílomdescribing someone with dark brown skin (ROOT)

ílo-ŋ lubósan orphan (PWMP: *ilu)

i-luwásto take out, to put out (PMP: *luas₁)

imátbe alert to, be on the watch for (LOAN)

Bikol (620 / 2588)

imónenvious, covetous, jealous (PPh: *imún)

imónenvious, covetous, jealous (PPh: *qimún)

ímotselfish, stingy, miserly, niggardly; a tightwad (PPh: *ímut)

ináM (PMP: *ina)

iná-ymom (informal) (PMP: *iná-i) *ina

iná-ʔM (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

iníthis, these (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

ínitheat; warmth; argumentative, impatient (PWMP: *qinit)

init-onbe heated by (PPh: *qinit-en) *qinit

inómto drink (PMP: *inum)

inom-óna drink, beverage (PWMP: *inum-en) *inum

intsíkChinese (LOAN)

i-ŋáŋato open the mouth in order to show something inside (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

i-ŋáranto name someone after (PWMP: *i-ŋajan(-an)) *ŋajan

iŋástree with leaves that cause itching when they come into contact with the body (PWMP: *iŋas)

íŋatcareful; be careful; to look out or be on the lookout; take care in doing something (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋat-anbe careful with; take care of (PWMP: *iŋat-an) *iŋat

iŋós-iŋósto whimper (PMP: *iŋus)

ioyes (verbal sentences); an emphatic marker (PMP: *qio)

i-padpádto be driven by the wind (a boat); to be blown away by the wind (PPH: *padpád)

Bikol (640 / 2588)

i-pagpágshake out, as rug (PPH: *i-pagpág) *pagpág

i-pa-hidámto lend (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

ipa-mánato bequeath (PWMP: *mana₁)

ipa-mánato bequeath (PWMP: *maña)

ipa-útaŋgive a loan of a particular amount of money (PPh: *ipa-qútaŋ) *qutaŋ

i-pigáto lay eggs, of a fish (PMP: *piRah) *piRaS

ípiltall tree producing high quality timber used for posts and beams: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

ipíl-ípilsmall tree used as a border for plots of land, its seeds woven into bags and necklaces: Leucaena glauca (PPh: *ipil ipil)

ipítsquash, pinch, fasten with a pin; to pin, to clip (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

ípo-ípowhirlwind (LOAN)

i-ráromunderneath, under, below, beneath; on the bottom, underlying (PMP: *i dalem) *dalem

i-ráyaupstream, inland (PAN: *daya)

isáone (PAN: *isa₁)

i-sábogto sow by scattering seeds (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

i-sabwágto scatter or broadcast seeds (PPH: *sabuag)

i-ságoto ooze (as blood from the nose or mouth of the dead, brine from a jar of salted preserves) (PWMP: *sagu₂)

i-sakníbto place one thing on top of another (referring only to thin things such as mats, linen, paper) (PPH: *sak(e)níb)

i-saksákto plug something in; to insert something (PPH: *i-seksek) *seksek₁

i-saksákto plug something in; to insert something (PPH: *i-saksák) *saksak₃

i-sandígto lean something (as a ladder on a wall) (PMP: *sandiR)

Bikol (660 / 2588)

i-saŋálto insert something into the mouth or a mouthlike opening; to insert something through any slit or opening (PWMP: *saŋal)

i-sawsáwto dip (as food into a sauce) (PPH: *sawsáw)

i-saʔbítto hang something up (as on a wall); place something on a hook (PPH: *i-saqebít) *saqebit

i-sídokto take something with a spoon (PMP: *si(n)duk)

i-síŋitto insert something (PPH: *i-síŋit) *síŋit

ísipmind, opinion, judgment; think about, mull over (PPh: *ísip)

isípselfish; an egoist or egotist (PPh: *ísip)

ísip-onthink about, mull over, ponder (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

ísogmove nearer or farther (PMP: *isuR)

i- súboɁto stuff a lot of food into the mouth at one time (PPH: *i-súbuq) *súbuq

i-sunódto place after; to collocate; place in consecutive order, place in a series; to sequence; to rank (PPH: