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Updated: 9/22/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

(About the Languages index...)

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C

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Caaàc
Canala
Cape Cumberland
Carolinian
Casiguran Dumagat
Cebuano

Cebuano (dialectal)
Cebuano (SE Bohol)
Cèmuhî
Central Amis
Central Cagayan Agta
Central Dusun

Central Maewo
Central Palawan
Central Sama
Central Santo
Central Tagbanwa
Cham

Cham (Eastern)
Chamorro
Cheke Holo
Chihpen Puyuma
Chuukese
Cʔuliʔ Atayal

121. Caaàc (2) OC

bwa-head (POC: *pwau)

pwīripa parrot: Trichoglossus haematodus (POC: *pwirip)

122. Canala (2) OC (Grace 1975) [ane] (Xârâcùù) New Caledonia

mε̃and, with (in the company of) (PMP: *mai)

naI, me (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

123. Cape Cumberland (20) OC (Tryon 1976) [aka: Tasmate, Hukua, Tasiriki, Valpei, Piamatsina]

alueight (PAN: *walu)

asechin (POC: *qase) *qazay

hanito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

hautree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

hutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kalo-neck (POC: *kalo)

kalo-neck (POC: *kalo)

laniwind (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

ma-etoblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

mbatu-head (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

natu-child (PEMP: *natu)

paheoshark (POC: *pakewak)

pati-tooth (POC: *bati)

pwatu-head (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

pwito-navel (POC: *bito)

sa-na-wuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

tia-belly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

toβusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tu-tuaright hand (PMP: *taqu₁) *taqu

ʔani-ʔanito eat (POC: *kani kani) *kaen

124. Carolinian (18) OC (Jackson and Marck 1991) [cal] Northern Mariana Islands

aalpath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

falato chop, split, cut wood or other relatively large objects, with a machete, axe, or hand; to split coconuts to get at the juice (POC: *pwalaq)

gháyi- ~ ghayú-penis (men’s talk) (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

goor ~ ghoorpubic hair (POC: *koRo)

lemelem ~ nemenembe in authority, be responsible, have power or control (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

lóómw ~ nóómwmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

maaseye, face; blade, as of a knife, machete, or axe (PMP: *mata) *maCa

málifi-lifthin, flimsy, flexible (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

mefrom, at (POC: *mai) *ai₃

menoun phrase conjunction: and, or, with (PMP: *mai)

mesa-n túútnipple of the breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

oschalarge species of parrotfish (POC: *kosa)

roŋhear, listen (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ruwa-the number two as a combining form (POC: *rua) *duSa

sá-tipcounting clssifier for pieces, chunks (POC: *siba)

tiippiece, slice, chunk (POC: *siba)

tipa-l mááya piece of breadfruit (POC: *siba)

toolmountain peak (POC: *solos)

125. Casiguran Dumagat (999) WMP (Headland and Headland 1974) [dgc] (Agta, Casiguran Dumagat) Philippines

a-anáktoy doll (PWMP: *a-anak-an) *aNak

abágatsouthwest monsoon winds (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

abaystay parallel with (as for two people to walk side by side, or for workers harvesting in a field to stay together in a row, rather than one getting ahead of the others) (PWMP: *abay)

abəkmat (PWMP: *a(m)bek)

abəkwoven mat; make a mat (NOISE)

abeŋcanoe, small boat (with outriggers); to travel by boat (PAN: *qabaŋ₁)

abinfold (of the part of the g-string which is wrapped around the waist, and which men use to carry money, betel chew, etc.) (PWMP: *hambin)

abúfireplace, ashes, stove (PMP: *qabu)

abútcome together, reach, meet, overtake or catch up with someone on the trail (PPh: *qabut)

abut-əncatch up with (PPh: *qabut-en) *qabut

adëyofar, distant; to withdraw, go far away (PPH: *adayuq)

ádua great amount; crowd; to increase, become many; many, a lot, much (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

agdénladder; make a makeshift ladder so you can climb a tree (PMP: *haRezan)

agewgrab, snatch, steal, run off with someone's spouse for a long time or indefinite period (PAN: *qaRaw)

agimaocean crab (PWMP: *qaRama)

agimaocean crab; to look for crabs (LOAN)

ágmaŋtype of ocean fish (Headland and Headland (1974)), kind of marine eel (Reid (1971:186)) (PMP: *haRemaŋ)

ágtaa Negrito person; what the Dumagat people refer to themselves as; term for any dark-skinned person with kinky hair; to speak in the Dumagat language (PMP: *qaRta)

agútype of tree, Casuarina equisetifolia (found growing along the sea shores in the Casiguran area; it looks like a type of pine, but is not (PMP: *aRuhu)

agwaskind of ocean fish (PMP: *qaRuas)

Casiguran Dumagat (20 / 999)

ahutayskin from the wild banana plant, used to make string; to make string from the wild banana plant (PPH: *qaRutay)

ákaolder sibling (reference) (PWMP: *aka)

akáŋto cautiously take a step (as a hunter in stalking game, or a small child just learning to walk) (PWMP: *akaŋ)

akoppick up (as to pick up rice, salt, sand by cupping it in your hands, or to pick up a pile of clothing or trash in your arms (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

akottransport something from one place to another (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

alákwine (LOAN)

alakwine (LOAN)

alápto get, catch, trap (PAN: *alap)

aldewday, daytime (PMP: *qalejaw)

alik-abukdust (as the dust thrown up by a passing truck) (PPh: *alik-qabuk) *qabuk

alilato take care of (as to take care of someone’s domestic animal for him, or to take care of a sick person) (PPH: *alilaq)

alipətpətlightning bug (PMP: *qali-petpet)

álopestle (for pounding rice); use a pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

ámafather (reference) (PAN: *amax)

amáyuncle (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

ambúnthin, overcast, hazy (sky) (PWMP: *ambun)

amə-ŋfather (vocative) (PMP: *amá-ŋ) *amax

amiyannortheast wind, northeast monsoon; rainy season (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

ámotame, domesticated, docile, submissive (referring to animals) (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

amosuperior, head, leader, chief, master (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (40 / 999)

ámo-ámoto speak softly and gently to someone with a reluctant attitude in order to win him over to your side; to act apologetically to someone with whom you have had a misunderstanding; to persuade, to induce, to win over to one’s side (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

anákbaby, child, son, daughter, offspring (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ánakchildren (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anáwpalm of the genus Livistona (the leaves are used for roofing houses, and for raincapes; the outer bark is stripped and used for flooring, bows and arrow shafts) (PMP: *qanahaw)

ándepspecies of plant (shines in the dark) (PWMP: *andap)

anɛtermite (PAN: *aNay)

aninɔshadow; to reflect (off the surface of still water) (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

anítotype of spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

anódfloat away, be swept away (by water or wind) (PAN: *qañud)

anópfor a man to hunt alone with dogs (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

aŋëto come, to go, to go get something (PAN: *aŋay)

aŋsósmell of urine (PPh: *qaŋesu)

apatto lie in wait in ambush (what hunters do during a game drive as they wait for the game to be driven towards them) (PPH: *apat)

apdəssting, smart (as of alcohol when put on a cut) (PMP: *hapejes)

ápdubile, bile duct, gall (PAN: *qapejux)

apógrandparent, grandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apógslaked lime (part of the betel nut mixture) (PAN: *qapuR)

aponlate afternoon, evening (PPh: *hápun)

apon-anroosting place for chickens; to land (of a bird, bug or fly) (PPH: *hapun-an) *hápun

apóyfire, firewood (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

Casiguran Dumagat (60 / 999)

ásato hope, depend on (LOAN)

asáwaspouse: husband, wife (PAN: *qasawa)

asəkput something inside of something else (PMP: *hasek₂)

asensalt; salty (PAN: *qasiN)

asódog; use dogs to track down a wounded pig or deer (PAN: *asu₁)

asóksmoke; for smoke to drift up from a fire (PMP: *asuk)

átaunripe, green; uncooked (PWMP: *hataq)

átaunripe, green; uncooked (PAN: *qataq)

átaŋmake a sacrifice or special offering to the spirits (a table is set up with food and gifts: rice, a chicken cooked without salt, cigarettes, sugar, etc.) (PPh: *átaŋ₄) *átaŋ

átaŋ-átaŋspecies of poisonous river crab (PPh: *átaŋ átaŋ)

atɛdie; dead; death (PMP: *atay) *aCay

ateŋhear the sound of wild game while hunting (PPh: *ántiŋ)

atəproof; make a roof (PMP: *qatep)

áwanclear (of underbrush, e.g. a cleared trail) (PWMP: *hawan)

ayódhammock (PWMP: *ayud)

ayúnto agree to, to favor, to conform to, to be in accord with (PPH: *áyun)

ayúnagree to, to favor, conform to, be in accord with (LOAN)

baáyspecies of uncultivated, edible root plant (PMP: *bahay) *baSay

bábahumble, low in rank, cheap; low in intelligence (PMP: *babaq₁)

bábacarry a person "piggyback"; cloth sling used for carrying a baby (PMP: *baba₁)

Casiguran Dumagat (80 / 999)

bábuydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

badbadunravel, untwist (of rope which becomes unravelled at the end) (PWMP: *bajbaj)

bágalive coals (PMP: *baRah)

bagbagoverturn, come apart in rough sea (of a boat at sea) (PWMP: *baRbaR)

bageswollen, inflamed (body part) (PAN: *baReq)

bágubefore, earlier than, in advance (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bagútto pull something out which has its end stuck into something else (as to remove a bolo from its sheath, to pull a fencepost out of the ground, to uproot a tree) (PPH: *bagut)

bágyotyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS)

baháwto finish up something left over or not done (e.g. food or work) (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

bakbakfrog (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bakəsold woman (also used as a vocative in addressing old women) (PPH: *bakes₂)

balagbágbe crosswise, as to carry something sideways on your back, for the wind to be against the side of a boat, or for game to stand sideways to the hunter (PPh: *bala(R)baR)

balaláŋa bird: the sandpiper (PPh: *balalaŋ₂)

balbálspank, hit with a stick (PAN: *balbal₁)

balésthe custom whereby a Negrito works for a lowland person for a few days, and then the lowland person works for the Negrito for the same number of days (PAN: *bales₁)

balikatár-anreversible (as of a jacket that can be worn inside-out) (PPh: *baliketád)

balilítspecies of edible marine triton shell, genus Cymatium (PPh: *balilit)

balnáwrinse off in fresh water (after having been in the ocean, to get the salt off one's body); rinse soap out of clothes, or off dishes (PPh: *balñaw)

balúdpink-bellied imperial pigeon: Ducula poliocephala (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

balútwrap something up in leaves, cloth or paper (PWMP: *balut₂)

Casiguran Dumagat (100 / 999)

balʔóŋshallow well or hole (made in a riverbed to get clean water); to make a well (PWMP: *baqeluŋ)

banáagrays (of the rising sun) (PMP: *banaqaR)

bántathreaten; intend, plan (as to kill someone) (PWMP: *bantaq)

baŋkáycorpse, dead body, body; to have a wake (the custom of everyone staying up all night in the house where the body is laid out) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

báraŋtype of black magic (NOISE)

basbasbless, pray over someone (either with your hands on him, or waving your hands over him, or sprinkling him with water and incense) (PWMP: *basbas₄) *basbas₂

basbasa stage in the transplanting of rice (NOISE)

bátakstrained, pulled tight (as string) (PWMP: *batak)

bataŋ-anfloor girders of a house (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

báyadpayment for service rendered; far on a vehicle or boat; to pay (PMP: *bayaD)

baybaysand, beach, seashore (PPh: *baybáy)

bə-befemale; lady, woman, girl (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bedbédto wrap around several times with a string or rope (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bɛgG-string, loincloth; put on a G-string (PMP: *bahaR)

begéshusked rice, hulled grains of rice (PMP: *beRas)

begis-anpour rice into a kettle (PAN: *beRas-an) *beRas

begis-ento husk rice (PWMP: *beRas-en) *beRas

begnethave a relapse, suffer a relapse (of sickness) (PPh: *beRnát)

békawspecies of uncultivated mangrove tree, genus Rhizophora (PWMP: *bakehaw)

békbékbang hard against something several times (as for a wounded pig to band the side of its head against the ground several times as it dies); beat something or someone with a club (PWMP: *bikbik)

Casiguran Dumagat (120 / 999)

bekladto spread out (as to lay out or unroll a piece of cloth, or to lay out a mat on the floor) (PMP: *bekelaj)

belEbe drowsy; fall asleep sitting up; feel lazy; just want to sit around; ache in the joints (PPh: *belay)

benwaŋtree sp. (the leaves are used as medicine for chest pain) (PWMP: *benuaŋ)

beŋáwchasm, abyss, ravine, cliff; open break between trees; opening in a wall, crack; spaces between (as spaces between puddles of water) (PPh: *beŋqáw)

besógfull (from eating) (PAN: *besuR)

besug-enfeed someone until he is full (PWMP: *besuR-en) *besuR

betekhead band (PPh: *betek₁)

bíbiduck (LOAN)

bi-bíŋkasweet potatoes fried with sugar; to fry sweet potatoes in sugar (LOAN)

bídastory; tell a story (LOAN)

bíglasudden, suddenly; do something suddenly (PPh: *bigláq)

bigöa coarse grass the stems of which are used for making arrow shafts: Miscanthus sinensis (PAN: *biRaSu)

bíhaan uncultivated aroid, Alocasia macrorrhiza, with very large leaves (leaves are used for a sort of umbrella, and for the roofing on temporary shelters; it is never eaten; the sap will cause a stinging itch on the skin; the leaf is sometimes placed on the head as a medicine for sores (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bihásaexpert, skilled; become accustomed to, be skilled at doing something (LOAN)

bilágsun; sunny, hot (PMP: *bilaj)

biláŋto count (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilaŋ-ento count (PWMP: *bilaŋ-en) *bilaŋ

bílaotype of woven tray or wide shallow basket (used for winnowing rice) (LOAN)

bílaotype of woven tray or wide shallow basket (used for winnowing rice) (NOISE)

bilatektype of trap (for spearing deer and wild pig; consists of a bamboo spring which shoots a bamboo spear into the side of the animal) (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

Casiguran Dumagat (140 / 999)

bilínadvise, order instruct, request (something to someone on the occasion of your departing from him, or he departing from you) (PWMP: *bilin)

bilísfast, swift; speedily (LOAN)

bilowidow, widower; for the kinsmen of a widow or widower to give mandatory gifts to the kinship group of the decesased spouse (in order to placate their anger at them, and so that they will not continue to hold them responsible for the death; failure to do this can and has resulted in reprisal killings) (PMP: *balu₄)

bilónrations; food carried along on a trip to be eaten later (PWMP: *balun₂)

bilonrations; food carried along on a trip to be eaten later (PWMP: *balun₂)

bilúground (LOAN)

binbinbe stranded and not able to get home (as when the river you must cross is flooded, or the bay you must cross is too windy to be safe) (LOAN)

bínhiseeds for planting (especially rice seeds); set aside rice grains for seed for planting in the following planting season (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bíntultype of fishnet (used in Casiguran Bay; this net is stretched over two crossed bamboo poles and lowered into the sea by an eighteen foot line; used to catch crabs (PWMP: *bintul)

bíraytype of wide boat without outriggers (LOAN)

bisawet (PMP: *biseq)

bitén-biténdangle from a string or rope, hang by a line (PPh: *bítin-bítin) *bítin

bitostone, rock, pebble (PMP: *batu) *batux

bitónstar; for the stars to come out after a rain shower (PAN: *bituqen)

bitukáintestines; clean a fish or bird by removing the intestines; to gut (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

biyasbamboo container (for water, or for carrying rice seeds as one walks along planting mountain rice) (PWMP: *biqás)

biyásbamboo container for water or for carrying rice seeds as one walks about planting mountain rice (LOAN)

biyáyagrace, blessing, mercy, favor (God is always the source of this concept; refers mainly to God's supplying of food), (LOAN)

biyopound rice (in mortar with pestle) (PAN: *bayu)

bɔ'boygrandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) (PAN: *bubu₆)

Casiguran Dumagat (160 / 999)

bonoŋto divide up things among a group of people (PPH: *bunuŋ)

bötbötpull in a line (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

buag-buagbubbling up (of water when it is boiling or being churned up by the propeller of a motor boat) (PWMP: *buag)

buayacrocodile: Crocodylus porosus (PMP: *buqaya)

bubúŋcrown on a roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

budEkgeneric for the flowers on uncultivated forest trees; for bees to collect nectar (PWMP: *bujak)

bugáa betel nut chew which has one or more medicinal plants mixed with it, which is smeared on the belly area of one with a stomach ache; to smear the bugá mastication on the stomach (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

buga-anbe spat upon (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

buga-an ek mo tu tiansmear the bugá mastication on my stomach (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

bugáwshoo away birds or animals (PAN: *buRaw)

bugaw-an mo di dignésa to pahayshoo those munia birds out of the rice field (PWMP: *buRaw-an) *buRaw

buhEthe buri palm, Corypha elata (the largest and most stately palm in the Philippines; the leaves are used for mats and baskets (PMP: *buri)

bukálspring of water, spring-fed pool (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukál-bukálbubbling water (PWMP: *bukal bukal) *bukal

bukásto open (door, box, jar, etc.) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

bukbúkweevil, wood-borer, wood tick; to decay (of wood or teeth) (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bukelseed; for the breasts of a young girl to begin to develop and stick out (PWMP: *bukel)

buknólbump, swelling (on the body; a generic term) (PPh: *buknul)

bukójoint, knuckle, node (as where bones join together, or nodes on cane plants and bamboo) (PMP: *buku)

búkulslight swelling on the skin (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

Casiguran Dumagat (180 / 999)

buladórkite (LOAN)

bulánmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulan-bulantarpon fish: Megalops cyprinoides (PMP: *bulan-bulan₁) *bulan-bulan

bulan-bulanspecies of edible sea shell; Polinices mamilia, a snail (PMP: *bulan₁)

bulátiroundworm, intestinal worm (PMP: *bulati)

bulérectum, anus; buttocks (of mammals); bottom, end, back (of bottle, box, truck, can, bolo, etc.); put the rear towards (PMP: *buliq₂)

bulégstalk of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

buléglégan eye ailment (an acute, highly contagious conjunctivitis), pink eye; to get pink eye (LOAN)

bulelákawterm for a coconut that has no meat inside because it has been eaten by insects (PPh: *bulalákaw₁)

buli-bulito lie, tell a lie (PWMP: *buqeli)

bulínawanchovy, Stolephorus sp. (PPh: *bulínaw)

bulospecies of bamboo, of the genus Schizostachyum (PAN: *buluq₂)

búlsapocket (LOAN)

búlusdiarrhoea; to have diarrhoea (PWMP: *bulus)

búlusdiarrhoea (ROOT)

búlʔocalf, colt (of carabao, horse, cow) (LOAN)

b-um-ilágfor the sun to come out (on a cloudy day) (PMP: *bilaj)

b<um>itófor one’s stomach to become hard like a rock (of a person with a stomach ache) (PWMP: *b<um>atu) *batux

b-um-ulánleave home before daylight and travel by the light of the moon until dawn (PWMP: *b<um>ulan) *bulaN

búnakspecies of freshwater fish (NOISE)

Casiguran Dumagat (200 / 999)

búnbuncloth head covering; cover the head with a cloth (as protection against the sun) (PMP: *bunbun)

bunókill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunotpeel the fibrous husk off coconut shells (by bashing the coconuts down on an iron point of a plow blade) (PMP: *bunut₁)

búntokhead; top of the head (ROOT)

búnutpull up young rice seedlings (for transplanting) (LOAN)

buŋáfruit, vegetable, seed (that which a plant or tree bears); bear fruit (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋísharelip; for a carabao to tear his nose by pulling away from his tether which is tied through the cartilege of his nose (NOISE)

buŋötesticles, scrotum (PPh: *buŋaw₂)

buŋóskull, skeleton (NOISE)

buŋuránspecies of banana plant and its fruit, Musa sapientum (LOAN)

búrupickled iponfish (pickled in salt brine); to pickle fish (LOAN)

busóghunting bow; carry a bow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

busoŋbe disrespectful, impolite, ungrateful; do something against; not show respect to one's elders (as when slapping an older sibling) (PWMP: *busuŋ)

butakállarge wild boar; get a wild boar (while hunting) (PPh: *butakál)

butándiŋspecies of ocean fish (PPh: *butandiŋ)

butáwurge people or animals to fight (esp. in cockfighting, to get two cocks to fight) (LOAN)

butéyaws (an infectious contagious tropical disease caused by a spirochete, and marked by ulcerating lesions (PPh: *butí)

bútilgrain, seed, kernel (of rice, corn); a lead BB in a shotgun shell (PWMP: *butil)

bútilgrain, seed, kernel (of rice, corn); a lead BB in a shotgun shell (PWMP: *butir)

butitespecies of small poisonous ocean fish which sometimes swells up like a balloon: Tetradon sp. (PWMP: *butiti)

Casiguran Dumagat (220 / 999)

butóycalf of the leg (PPh: *butúy)

butúnisbutton; to button closed (as shirt, pants, etc.) (LOAN)

buukhair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buyókrotten, rotten smell (PPh: *buyúk)

búyutricked, deceived, induced (as to go to someone's house to see him, and arrive to find him gone) (LOAN)

búʔuwhole, total, complete (NEAR)

dálawto visit (PPH: *dálaw)

daŋáwtype of insect (they eat the rice plants when the fruit is beginning to develop) (PWMP: *zaŋaw)

daŋkálunit of measurement from tip of thumb to tip of outstretched middle finger (PWMP: *zaŋkal)

dapilrun into someone, bump into someone while walking (PWMP: *da(m)pil)

dasektamp down (as dirt in a hole), shake down (as a container to settle the contents) (PWMP: *da(ŋ)sek)

dəkdəkpestle (tool used to pound up the pulp of the caryota palm); to mash the pulp of the caryota palm (a process in the making of caryota starch) (PMP: *dekdek)

dənətto press, to make an impression on, to push against (with the finger or hand); to sign a paper by making a thumb print; to brand a carabao (PPH: *denet)

dəppafathom (a length measurement, about five feet; the length from one fingertip to the fingertip of the other outstretched arm) (PAN: *depa)

désogthud (of something hitting the ground when it fell) (PWMP: *desuR)

dí-dyaupriver (PWMP: *di-daya) *daya

digeblood (PAN: *daRaq)

digetocean, sea, sea water; go to the beach (PMP: *daRat)

digumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

digusbathe, take a bath (PAN: *diRus)

Casiguran Dumagat (240 / 999)

dikəpto catch, grab, snatch (PAN: *dakep)

diklémraincloud; dark, blurry, cloudy (PPH: *dik(e)lém)

dikləmraincloud; dark, blurry, cloudy (ROOT)

di-ko2sg. oblique (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

dilátongue; to keep talking, gossip, talk in a bad way (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilanpath, trail, way; to walk on a trail (PMP: *zalan)

dinomwater, river, stream (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dinum-anto pour water into; wet, watery (PAN: *danum-an) *daNum

diŋdíŋwall of a house; to make a wall (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

diŋehto put something up to your ear to listen (as a watch to see if it is ticking) (PMP: *deŋeR)

dipdipa tree: Erythrina variegata L. (Madulid 2001) (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dítaa tree (Tophopetalum toxicum, Antiaris toxicaria, or both), with sap made into a deadly poison used on arrows for raiding or defense, but never for hunting; to put dita sap on arrows (PPH: *ditaq₂)

diyandon't (PMP: *dian)

dɔnleaf (PMP: *dahun)

dutopic, attributive and oblique of common nouns that are absent (PWMP: *du)

dudúngrasshopper (PPh: *dúdun)

dúŋosnose (ROOT)

dúyoŋa species of ocean fish (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

ebEsfor water to go down again after a flood (PPh: *hebás)

ebunswarm, gather (as ants on sugar, bees swarming on a person, birds gathering around drying rice to eat it) (PMP: *ebun)

Casiguran Dumagat (260 / 999)

edEmborrow (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

edépgo out (of a light); extinguish, put out, blow out (a fire, lamp, candle, etc.) (PWMP: *qezep)

edim-ento borrow (PPh: *hedam-en) *Sezam

(ə)-duwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

egikto thresh grain (PAN: *Riqek)

eládfeather; to fletch an arrow (PMP: *qelad₂)

eledsink, submerge in water (PWMP: *qeled)

elémguard, keep watch (against raiders while one's companions sleep) (PWMP: *elem₂)

emótto suffocate (as for a person under a blanket to not be able to breathe) (PMP: *hemut) *Semut

enébfor the wind to stop (NOISE)

enémsix (PAN: *enem)

epátfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

epésretract, shrink (a balloon when the air is let out, a boil when it begins to heal, a woman's stomach after giving birth) (PPh: *qepés)

ésbuurine; to urinate (PAN: *sibu)

ə-təluthree (PAN: *telu)

etútexpel gas from the bowels (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

gabúkdecayed, rotten (of wood) (PMP: *Rabuk)

ga-digumterm for a stage in the growth of rice plants (when they are about three inches high) (PAN: *zaRum)

gamáto catch shrimp with the hands (feeling for them in the grass and leaves in shallow water) (PWMP: *gamaʔ)

gánəbdoor; close a door (ROOT)

Casiguran Dumagat (280 / 999)

gaweda vine, the ikmo, or betel pepper, Piper betel (this leaf is used extensively for chewing with the betel nut; it is also believed to have medicinal value) (PWMP: *Rawed)

gawə́da vine, the ikmo, or betel pepper, Piper betle; this leaf is used extensively for chewing with the betel nut; it is also believed to have medicinal value (the leaf is placed over painful areas, such as headaches, stomach aches, boils, etc.) (PPH: *gawed)

gayáŋspear, lance; throw a spear (referring esp. to an Ilongot spear; the Dumagats themselves do not use spears) (PAN: *gayaŋ)

gáyatto slice (leafy vegetables or squash) (PPH: *gáyat)

getgetmarks on shoulder of a man (caused by the shoulder straps of a heavy pack) (PPH: *getget₂)

gidgídto scrub one’s skin with a stone (when bathing) (PPH: *gidgíd)

gíliŋto grind (as to grind coffee or corn) (PMP: *giliŋ)

gilíŋ-ancorn grinder (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

gimótroots (of a tree or plant); to sprout, of a root; to grow out of a coconut shell (PMP: *Ramut)

giposto detain someone; to control, to prevent, to stop, to delay (either by word or physical force) (PMP: *Rapus)

gitəlitchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

giyákthe barking of a dog on a hunt (PWMP: *giak)

giyak-anto bark at an animal, of a dog on a hunt (PWMP: *giak)

gúnawput in water and swish around (ROOT)

gusgusscratch (an itch) (PWMP: *gusgus)

gusókterm for the part of a person’s body just below the heart area (PAN: *Rusuk)

halagaprice, value (LOAN)

hamákacarry a sick person in a hammock hung from a pole (LOAN)

haŋádreason, purpose, ambition, wish, goal, aim; intend, try to aspire to/for (LOAN)

haŋálstupid, idiotic; a loud person (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (300 / 999)

hútukbend a limb; be bent over (of a tree limb) (PWMP: *hutuk)

huyóg-hugógsway back and forth (as a house during an earthquake, or a drunk person staggering along) (PWMP: *huyug)

iánstay, live, reside (PAN: *ian₂)

íbaanother, other, different, distinct, new (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

íbaanother, other, different, distinct, new; to be different (PPH: *iba)

i-búlsaput something in a pocket (LOAN)

idásspouse of sibling-in-law; spouse's sibling-in-law (PAN: *idas₁)

igúpsip a hot drink (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

ika-enémsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

ika-epatfourth (PPh: *ika-epat) *Sepat

ikánfish; go on a fishing trip (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ika-pituseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

ika-sá-pulutenth (PMP: *ika-puluq) *puluq

i-ka-walúeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

ikehcough (PWMP: *ikej)

iláweat raw food (e.g. fish, vegetables); eat green fruit (PPh: *hiláw)

ilósorcerer, witch; bewitch, make someone sick through witchcraft; to poison, be poison (PWMP: *hilu)

ilóŋcovered, sheltered (of cultivated crops) (ROOT)

imónsuspicious, jealous (of one's spouse, that he or she has been unfaithful (PPh: *imún)

imónbe suspicious, be jealous (of one's spouse, that he or she has been unfaithful) (PPh: *qimún)

Casiguran Dumagat (320 / 999)

ínaM (ref) (PMP: *ina)

inathat, there (2p) (PMP: *i-na) *-na

iníthot (water); feverish (PWMP: *qinit)

inómtake a drink (of water or liquor) (PMP: *inum)

ínsika Chinese person or Chinese language (LOAN)

íŋatbe careful, take care (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋélanger, be angry (PPh: *íŋel₂)

shark (PAN: *qiSu)

ipelspecies of poisonous snake, small and greenish (NEAR)

ipelpoisonous snake (small and greenish) (NOISE)

ípescockroach; be swarming with cockroaches (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

ipítclip, clasp, hairpin, pincers, tongs; to pinch, to clip (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

ípostail (of animals, fish, birds, snakes) (PPh: *ipus)

ípu-ípuwhirlwind (LOAN)

i-səksəkto put something into a small hole or crevice (PPH: *i-seksek) *seksek₁

ísipthought, understanding, judgement, sense, opinion, think, think deeply, plan (PPh: *ísip)

i-slaŋfor a hunter to save the jawbones of the wild pigs he has shot (inserting them in rows in the roof of his house; a way of showing off the number of pigs he has gotten) (PPH: *selaŋ₂)

islapblinding reflection (from something shiny) (ROOT)

isóltake a step backwards; step back (PPh: *isul)

i-súmpato curse someone (PPH: *i-sumpaq) *sumpaq

Casiguran Dumagat (340 / 999)

itágo ahead (on a path), imperative (probably a shortening of kitá) (PWMP: *itaq)

itágo ahead (on a path), imperative (probably a shortening of kitá) (PWMP: *ita₂)

i-talonwild chicken, Gallus gallus; scrutinize an area of forest (to see if it is suitable for making a swidden) (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

i-talónwild chicken: Gallus gallus (PPH: *talun₂) *CaluN

iwásavoid, evade (as to avoid meeting someone on the trail by turning aside, or to avoid going to a village where there are drunks being rowdy) (PPh: *iwas)

iye-ldəpto dip something under water (PAN: *ledep)

i-yenakbe born (PWMP: *i-anak) *aNak

kabanwooden chest (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabancavan, a dry measure of 125 liters, or fifty gantas (note: in other areas of the Philippines, a cavan is equivalent to twenty-five gantas) (LOAN)

kabaŋterm for a spotted domestic pig (PPH: *kabaŋ)

kabáoŋcasket, coffin (LOAN)

kabásesmall-mouthed threadfin fish: Polynemus microstoma (PWMP: *kabasi)

kabatítivariety of uncultivated plant (leaves are boiled with fish as a vegetable) (PPH: *kabatíti)

ka-bekaw-anmangrove swamp (PPH: *ka-bakaw-an) *bakehaw

ka-betw-anriverbed (PWMP: *ka-batu-an) *batux

kábigto draw or pull something towards oneself (as to hug a person, to scoop up the money in gambling, to scrape dirt into a pile with a shovel; to paddle a canoe drawing the paddle towards you so that the boat will turn) (PWMP: *kabiR)

ka-bilug-enfull moon (LOAN)

kabítto lead someone by the hand; to walk hand in hand (PPH: *kabít)

ka-bulu-anbamboo grove (PAN: *buluq₂)

kágitalk, speech, language; to say, to speak; to decide; to think (PAN: *kaRi₁)

Casiguran Dumagat (360 / 999)

kágitalk, speech, language; to say, to speak, to decide, to think (PAN: *kaRi₁)

kágkagto dry in the sun (of rice, meat, clothes, etc.) (PPH: *kagkag)

kágkagto dry in the sun (of rice, meat, clothes, etc.) (PWMP: *kaRkaR)

kahesbark of the sugarcane stalk; to shave the bark off a stalk of sugarcane with a bolo (PMP: *karis₁) *karis

ka-ka-buly-ana lie; liar (PWMP: *buqeli)

kalabehoneycomb (PPH: *kalába)

kalasagshield (used in warfare by the Ilonggot people, never by Dumagats); to shield oneself behind a shield (PWMP: *kalasag)

kalbíttrigger of a gun; to pull a trigger (PPH: *kal(e)bit)

kaleto dig up roots (using a bolo to dig with) (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kali-dúwasoul, spirit (of a living person); after death this becomes bəlet (PMP: *duha) *duSa

kaliduwasoul, spirit of a living person (PAN: *kali-)

kalubanbolo sheath; to sheathe a bolo (PPH: *kaluban)

kam2pl. topic pronoun, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kamáliggranary (house for storing rice until it can be threshed, put in sacks, and transferred to a house or storehouse) (PMP: *kamaliR)

kamándagpoison (of a centipede, poisonous snakes, the atang-atang crab, the hahong fish, etc.) (PPH: *kamandag)

kamánsispecies of seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi (NOISE)

kamátistomato plant and its fruit (LOAN)

kame1pl. excl. topic pronoun, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kaməthand, arm (exclusive of the fingers) (PMP: *kamet)

k-amiyan-annortheast (PPh: *qamihan-an) *qamiS

Casiguran Dumagat (380 / 999)

kamkamto appropriate the land of a neighbor (illegally) (PWMP: *kamkam)

kámpito take the side of someone in a conflict; to be partial to someone; to take sides, favor (PPH: *kampi)

kámpi-kámpito stay with one’s own kind (as for girls to stay with girls, and boys with boys); to be loyal to one’s own kind (e.g. relatives); to stick together (PPH: *kampi)

kanit was said or heard; so he said, so they say; according to some source (may or may not express doubt, depending on its position in the clause) (PWMP: *ken)

kan-ənto eat something; food, cooked rice (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

kani-kániya a bileone’s own house (PPH: *kaniá)

kániyaown (PPH: *kaniá)

ka-niyóg-encoconut grove (PMP: *niuR)

kanóssquid, cuttlefish, Sepia sp. (PWMP: *kanuqus)

kapa-kapáto grope about (unable to see); to feel about (in the dark) (PPH: *kapaq-kapaq)

kapkápto grope with the hands (as in the dark, or for snails in a muddy river) (PAN: *kapkap)

kapótto touch, to feel, to handle with both hands (as in putting one’s hand on a person’s forehead to feel his fever) (PPH: *kapút)

kapúyto be weak, to be exhausted (due to extreme hunger); to be famished (PPH: *kápuy)

káraspecies of sea turtle (the eggs are gathered for food, but the meat is not edible) (NOISE)

kasawthe cross bamboo sticks on a roof that the nipa shingles are laced to (PMP: *kasaw₁)

katámcarpenter’s plane; to plane wood (LOAN)

kateto set the balaybay snare (type of snare with several rattan loops set around a tame rooster, used to catch a wild rooster in the jungle) (PPH: *kátiq)

kateto set the balaybay snare (type of snare with several rattan loops set around a tame rooster, used to catch a wild rooster in the jungle) (PPH: *káti)

ka-tidug-ensleeping place (PMP: *tiduR)

káwadthin wire; to put wire on a guitar (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (400 / 999)

kawayanterm for bamboos of the genus Bambusa (PAN: *kawayan)

kawetto hand up, to hook, to snag (PAN: *kawit)

káyaable, can do, capable, ability; to be able (PWMP: *kaya)

káykayto scratch (of the scratching of a chicken) (PPH: *kaykáy)

kayótree, wood, stick (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kəbilto touch, to take, to carry, to bring, to hold (PPH: *kebil)

kəbil-ənto bring, to carry, to take (PPH: *kebil)

kəbittouch someone with a finger so as to get their attention (PMP: *kebit)

kəbkəbto hug, to cling to (as to cling to a person, or to cling to a tree branch so as not to fall) (PMP: *kebkeb)

kəduhthunder; to thunder (LOAN)

kədutto pinch someone; to tear a small piece of tobacco off a tobacco leaf for a betel nut chew (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

kelepnight, night-time (PWMP: *kelap₁)

kelepnight, night-time (PWMP: *kelep)

kəlkəlto cuddle (a child or a pet animal) (PPH: *kelkel)

kəməlto squeeze with the hand (as to reach out and squeeze someone’s arm to signal them to be quiet, or to squeeze a handful of cooked rice into a ball (PMP: *kemel)

kénamto taste, to sample by tasting (PWMP: *kiñam)

kepay-kepayflap, wave (of the flapping of a bird's wings, or the waving back and forth of a fish's pectoral fins) (PWMP: *kepay kepay)

kepay-kipayto flap the fins, of fish (PWMP: *kipay)

kəpkəpshort, smooth (of hair or grass) (PPH: *kepkép₂)

kərethe gutteral sound of a monkey (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (420 / 999)

kidatto lift the eyebrows (a signal of affirmation to another person) (PWMP: *kindat)

kidepforehead (PWMP: *ki(n)zep)

kíkikto squeak (of a small mouse) (PMP: *kikik)

kilálato be acquainted with (said to be from Tagalog) (PAN: *kilala)

kilátlightning; for lightning to strike (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kilítto clamp under the arm (as in carrying a bag of betel nuts) (PPH: *kilít)

kimot-kimotmove continually in and out (as to keep moving the lips in and out in a nervous fashion, or of the wriggling of maggots in meat) (PWMP: *kimut kimut)

kisáw-kisáwto swish, to ruffle (water with the hands or feet) (PPH: *kisaw)

kisay-kisayto break, to tear (leaves or cloth into strips) (PPH: *kisay)

kitawe (dual incl.), topic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kita-mwe (plural incl.), topic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

-kofirst person singular attributive (= genitive) pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kosmadto have many lice in one’s hair (LOAN)

koykóya tiny reg bug, similar to a chigger (which burrows into the skin and causes intense itching); to pick the bug out of the skin (PPH: *kuykúy₁)

kubalana species of ocean fish (PPH: *kubalan)

kubət-kubətwrinkled (of skin, as that of an old person, or from having the hands in the water for a long time) (PPH: *kubet-kubet)

kúblito take shelter behind, to hide behind (as for a boat to take shelter on the lee side of an island or peninsula, or for a person to hide behind a tree) (PPH: *kub(e)li)

kugitáoctopus; to hunt for octopuses (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kuguncogon grass, Imperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata (used for roofing houses) (PMP: *guRun)

kuhetto make marks or lines on something (prime meaning is in reference to marks made on the face with lime, or garlic juice and salt, or mud; done for healing purposes or to keep away the spirits) (PPH: *kurit)

Casiguran Dumagat (440 / 999)

kukófingernail, toenail, hoof; to clip off the fingernails (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kúlaŋlacking; to be lacking something (in number or supply) (LOAN)

kulaŋotdried nasal mucus; to pick the nose (PPH: *kulaŋut)

kúlaŋ tu isiplack of common sense (LOAN)

kulasisismall parrot: Loriculus philippensis (PPH: *kulasísi)

kulátabutt (of a rifle); to bash someone with the butt of a rifle (LOAN)

kuletskin (of person, animal), bark of tree, peeling of fruit; to skin a deer, to peel skin off fruit; to peel bark off a tree (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kulit-anto peel, remove the peeling (PWMP: *kulit-an) *kuliC

kuluŋto surround, to enclose in a trap, to fence in (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

k<um>agetbig enough to bite (subject must be non-human) (PMP: *k<um>aRat) *kaRaC

k<um>uyogto accompany, to go with (PPH: *kuyug)

kundímansolid red cloth (a favorite cloth for G-strings) (LOAN)

kundula large, green, melon-shaped vegetable, the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida (PWMP: *kundul)

kunegspecies of cultivated root used for making yellow dye (PMP: *kunij)

kunəmwhite clouds; cloudy (PWMP: *kunem)

kusutwrinkled (of cloth which is wrinkled, unfolded or not ironed) (PWMP: *kusut)

kutolouse, lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kúto-kútowater strider (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu-anto pick lice out of the hair (PWMP: *kutu-an) *kuCux

labágagainst, contrary; to break a law, rule or custom (PPH: *labag)

Casiguran Dumagat (460 / 999)

lábanwar, battle; to fight (in a war) (PMP: *laban₂)

lábisexcessive, more than enough (as a pole that is longer than it needs to be); excess (PPH: *labas)

lábisexcessive, more than enough, excess (as a pole that is longer than it needs to be) (PPH: *lábis)

ládahot, peppery, pungent, stinging, biting (of the taste of something) (LOAN)

ladeto weave (as mats) (PWMP: *laja)

ládladto roll out, to flatten (as to roll out a mat or bolt of cloth, or a long fishnet to dry in the sun) (PPH: *ladlad)

lagárisaw (carpenter’s); to saw (LOAN)

lagúhealthy (of crops) (PPH: *lagúq)

lákadto walk, to travel, to go (as the walking of a person, the moving of a boat or truck) (PMP: *lakaj)

lakatanspecies of banana plant and its fruit: Musa sapientum (PPH: *lakatan)

lakáyold man (also used as a vocative in addressing old men); to become old, of male humans; husband (PWMP: *lakay)

lálomore, moreso, greater; to get worse (as sickness) (PWMP: *lalu₁)

lamánwild pig; wild pig meat (PPH: *lamán)

lambanugnipa wine (after it has been refined after being run through a still) (LOAN)

lambáyuŋtail (of the long feathers of a rooster’s tail) (PWMP: *lambayuŋ)

lamígcold (of an object which feels cold); to become cold (PPH: *lamíg)

lamongrass, weeds; to cut grass, to pull out weeds (PMP: *lamun₁)

lampásexcessive; reaching beyond; to penetrate beyond; to pass ahead of (PPH: *lampás)

lampendiaper (also any clothing an infant is wrapped in) (PWMP: *lampín)

lanəswilted, dead, dried up (of plants and trees) (PPH: *lanes)

Casiguran Dumagat (480 / 999)

lanotvine (PPH: *lánut)

lánsamotorboat, launch (LOAN)

laŋetsky, heaven (thought of as a huge, round, blue dome which is cupped over the earth) (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋodrunk, intoxicated (PAN: *laŋu)

laŋöa fly; many flies (PMP: *laŋaw)

láŋsesmell of sea fish (PMP: *laŋ(e)si)

lápesthin, of paper or cloth, or a pigskin without fat on it (PWMP: *lapis)

lápispencil (LOAN)

lásatasty (of the good taste of viand) (LOAN)

lasemsour (PWMP: *lasem)

lasémsour (PWMP: *qalesem)

laslasto rip accidentally, of clothing (PWMP: *laslas)

lásunpoison; to take poison (LOAN)

látatin can (LOAN)

latágto spread open, to lay out (as to unroll a mat, or to spread out a blanket on the floor) (PPH: *latag)

lawawide, loose, big (PAN: *lawa₁)

lawawide, loose, big (PWMP: *lawaq₃)

lawaŋto make a wide hole in the ground (PWMP: *lawaŋ₁)

láwayspit, spittle; to drool (PPH: *láway)

layáginger, Zingiber officinale (a spice used to flavor viands) (PMP: *laqia)

Casiguran Dumagat (500 / 999)

layágsail; sailboat; to sail, to travel by sailboat (PAN: *layaR)

layásto desert a place, to go away and not return (especially if you are angry with the people there) (PPH: *layas)

lebakravine (PWMP: *lebak₂)

ləbəŋgrave; to bury a dead person or animal (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

lədəpto swim under water (PAN: *ledep)

ledep, l-om-depswim under water (PAN: *lezep)

lə́dlədto scratch or rub the eye (PAN: *ledled)

ləgedirty (LOAN)

ləgəbto sink, to be swamped (of a boat) (LOAN)

lekepfor a hen to cover its baby chicks with her wings (PWMP: *lekep₁)

lekofor an animal to lie down curled up (PMP: *leku)

ləkofor an animal to lie down curled up (PWMP: *lekuq₂)

ləkopfor the fingernail or toenail to come off (because of an infection under it from a burn) (PWMP: *lekup)

lémawtide pool at low tide (NEAR)

lənlənpushed up into wrinkles (such as pant legs when crossing a river) (PPH: *lenlen)

lésaeggs (of lice) (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lesleswhen butchering an animal to pull the intestines through the hands to force out the fecal matter (PMP: *lesles₂)

ləsóŋmortar (for pounding rice) (PMP: *lesuŋ)

ləwátears; to shed tears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

libákfor a shaman to be killed or made sick by a spirit which he has previously exorcised from some sick person (said to be the spirit’s revenge on what the shaman did) (PPH: *libák)

Casiguran Dumagat (520 / 999)

lígasrubber (especially of the rubber sling used in spear fishing) (LOAN)

ligisget hit or run into by something rolling (as for a rolling log to hit you and smash your foot, or to get run over by a truck) (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

lígtasto free, to save, to rescue (PPH: *ligtas)

likóbend in a path (PMP: *likuq)

liku-likócrooked path; to turn and walk in a different direction (PWMP: *liku-likuq) *likuq

lilénbee's wax; honeycomb with honey in it (PMP: *lilin)

lílipsmall hem in cloth, small fold (PPH: *lílip)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

limásto bail or scoop water out of a boat (PMP: *limas)

lindulearthquake; to shake (of ground during an earthquake) (PWMP: *lindur)

línisclean; to clean, to clean up clutter, to clear land (PPH: *línis)

l<in>úgawrice porridge, rice broth (PPH: *l<in>ugaw) *lúgaw

liŋatto look quickly back over one’s shoulder (PPH: *liŋat)

liŋegturn one's head to the side (PWMP: *liŋeR)

lípasgone, past, obsolete, out of fashion, out of season, lapsed (PAN: *lipas)

lítidblood veins (PPH: *lítid)

líwanoutside (PPH: *líwan)

liwánagto explain, to clarify, to reveal; to make clearr (LOAN)

l<om>dəpto swim under water (PAN: *l<um>edep) *ledep

lopésrice chaff; rice grains with no kernel inside (PPH: *lupes)

Casiguran Dumagat (540 / 999)

lubídstring, twine; to twist abaca fiber by rolling it over one’s thigh (PPH: *lúbid)

lúgawrice porridge, rice broth (PPH: *lúgaw)

lugmúkto fall suddenly to the ground (from a standing position on the ground) (PPH: *lugmúk)

lukágto be awake (PPH: *lukag)

lúksuto jump, to bounce (PPH: *luksúh)

lumótmoss (in a river); mossy (PMP: *lumut)

lúmpuparalytic (of a person permanently unable to walk) (PWMP: *lumpuq)

lúmuoverripe, of fruit (PMP: *lumu₂)

l<um>uhudto kneel (as in prayer) (PPH: *l<um>uhúd) *luhúd

l<um>uwásto go outside (singular subject) (PMP: *luas₁)

lupáypayworn out, exhausted, tired, drooping limbs, disappointed (PPH: *lupaypáy)

lupihem, pleats (of a dress); to make a hem or pleats on a dress (PWMP: *lupiq)

lútaground, dirt, earth; caked with dirt (PPH: *lutáq)

lútaground, dirt, earth (ROOT)

luukbay (PWMP: *luquk)

luwasoutside (of a house or of the jungle) (PMP: *luas₁)

mag-digeto bleed, to menstruate (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq

mag-inómto get drunk, to drink a lot of liquor (PWMP: *maR-inum) *inum

mag-kawetcatch with a hook (as in dragging crabs from their holes by using a hooked wire) (PWMP: *maR-kawit) *kawit

mag-lukágto wake up someone (PPH: *lukag)

Casiguran Dumagat (560 / 999)

mag-pa- táwadto lower the price of something you are trying to sell (PWMP: *tawaD)

mag-pileto choose, select (PWMP: *maR-piliq) *piliq

mag-udEnto rain (PWMP: *maR-quzan) *quzaN

ma-kanedible (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

maka-tidugable to sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

ma-lukágto wake up (intr.) (PPH: *lukag)

ma-munógo on a killing raid, murder (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

mánaheir, inheritance; to will, leave, give property to someone (PWMP: *mana₁)

mánaheir, inheritance; to will, leave, give property to someone (PWMP: *maña)

ma-naləŋto gather almaciga sap (PAN: *saleŋ)

manekbeads (commercial seed beads highly valued by the Dumagats for making necklaces and arm bands); to wear a bead necklace (LOAN)

manókbird; domestic chicken (PMP: *manuk)

manok-ənomen, for a bird to fly through one’s house (a sign that raiders are coming to attack) (PPh: *manuk-en) *manuk

maŋ-asÉnto salt food (PWMP: *maŋ-qasin) *qasiN

ma-paladlucky, fortunate (PMP: *palaj₁)

mataeyes; face (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-anspecies of ocean fish (probably a mackerel of the genus Rastrelliger) (PPH: *mata-an) *maCa

mataanspecies of ocean fish (probably a mackerel of the genus Rastrelliger) (PPH: *mataqan)

ma-tidugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR

mébe-bu-bukhairy; for a pig to regrow hair in the fall (after having shed it the previous spring) (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

Casiguran Dumagat (580 / 999)

me-diklémblurry, of eyesight (PPH: *ma-diklém) *dik(e)lém

meg-apogput lime in one's mouth (to add to the betel nut chew) (PPh: *maR-qapuR) *qapuR

meg-apoyto collect firewood (PWMP: *maR-hapuy) *Sapuy

meg-asÉnmake salt by boiling ocean water (PAN: *qasiN)

meg-bilágbe out in the hot sun (PMP: *bilaj)

meg-bu-buayaa children's game (a type of tag played in the water) (PMP: *buqaya)

meg-buyókto rot (subject must be plural) (PPh: *buyúk)

meg-enakgive birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

məg-kagetto bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

məg-kanto eat casually (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen

məg-ka-tidugto lie down (PMP: *tiduR)

məg-limato do something or be somewhere for five hours, days, months, etc. (PWMP: *maR-lima) *lima

məg-luwásto go outside (plural subject) (PMP: *luas₁)

məg-pa-suwayto have a heated, lengthy argument (PPH: *suay)

məg-pa-túnayto certify, to prove, to affirm, to offer testimony (PWMP: *tunay₂)

məg-sagəbto fetch several cans of water (PPH: *saR(e)qeb)

məg-suloto walk at night using a lit torch to see by (PMP: *suluq)

məg-sulúŋfor the tide to rise (PWMP: *suruŋ)

məg-tamato get a good yield from a rice harvest (PAN: *tama₁)

məg-tubugto be in a carabao wallow (of a carabao); to wallow (PPH: *tubug)

Casiguran Dumagat (600 / 999)

məg-tulaŋfor a shot arrow to imbed itself in the bone of the animal shot (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

məg-tulósto proceed, to continue, to go straight ahead; to continue to do what was started to be done, or with one’s present activity (PMP: *tulus)

mekmekbreak into small particles, crush into powder (as an aspirin tablet so a child can swallow it) (PMP: *mekmek)

me-lamigcold (of an object which feels cold); to become cold (PAN: *ramig)

me-mulanto hunt by moonlight (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

mə-nuloto fish at night with a torch or flashlight or lantern (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

mə-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

meŋ-apogmake lime out of shells (PWMP: *maŋ-qapuR) *qapuR

mésméswipe sleep from the eyes with the finger (PWMP: *mismis₁)

mumócrumbs (esp. rice particles scattered around while eating) (PPH: *muhmuh)

m-úrayoung coconut (PPH: *muhmuh)

m-úraunripe, of any fruit (in neighboring dialects) (PPH: *muhmuh)

m-úrayoung coconut; unripe, of any fruit (in neighboring dialects) (PMP: *muda)

mutásand (in the eyes) (PWMP: *muteq)

-na3sg. agent and possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

nag-luhudto slip and trip and fall to the knees (PPH: *luhúd)

namawcoral reef (PMP: *namaw)

namókmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

naŋaspecies of rattan Calamus usitatus (leaves are used for roofing) (PMP: *naŋa₂)

naŋóyto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

Casiguran Dumagat (620 / 999)

natóegg yolk (PMP: *natuq)

nátospecies of uncultivated tree (hunters lie in ambush near this tree to shoot pigs that come to eat its fallen fruit) (PMP: *ñatuq)

neŋneŋto stare (of the staring of an infant at what is before it) (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

niattributive marker for singular personal nouns (PAN: *ni)

nikethoney (archaic) (PMP: *ña(ŋ)ket)

niwaŋskinny, thin (of animate objects) (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

niyógcoconut palm and its fruit (PMP: *niuR)

ŋahenname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋahin-anto name, give the name of something or someone (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan

ŋaniindeed, precisely, really, truly, actually (used as an interjection expressing the certainty or truthfulness of a statement) (PPH: *ŋani)

ŋátŋatto chew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) (PWMP: *ŋatŋat)

ŋékŋékto cry, to yelp (of the cry of pain or fear of a dog) (PMP: *ŋikŋik)

ŋétŋetto chew (of the chewing of food, betel nut, or chewing gum) (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC)

ŋətŋətto chew (of the chewing of food, betel nut, or chewing gum) (PAN: *ŋetŋet)

ŋipəntooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

obúsbe gone, used up, become exhausted, be all out of something (PMP: *qubus)

ógsadeer (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

óntayfishline (PWMP: *quntay₁)

óoŋgeneric term for several species of edible mushrooms (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

osbite into sugarcane (in order to peel off the outer bark) (PMP: *ququs)

Casiguran Dumagat (640 / 999)

ótavomit; to vomit (PAN: *utaq)

oyexclamation of surprise, exclamation made when calling to get someone's attention, answering someone's call, disagreeing with a statement made (PMP: *huy)

paparticle: first, still (PAN: *pa₁)

pa-amo-énto tame, to domesticate, to break (a horse) (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

pádpadfor a boat to be driven by a storm (PPH: *padpád)

pag-asa-énlet someone down after building up his hopes (LOAN)

pagátpatuncultivated tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia acida (wood used for house posts) (PWMP: *paRatpat)

pag-bubúŋput a crown on a roof with cogon grass (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

pagísting ray, genus Dasyatis (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

págpagto brush dust or trash off cloth or a mat; to dust off by shaking (PPH: *pagpág)

páisto cook (a method of cooking small fish or shrimp, wrapping them in a banana leaf and cooking them in water, or laying them directly on the coals) (PWMP: *paqis)

pákawhandle (of a pail, pot, bucket); to put a wire handle onto a tin can (PWMP: *pakaw)

pa-kilálago-between, intervener (in the case of an elopement; the term for the man who goes to the angry father of the girl, at the request of the boy’s family, to bring about a reconciliation); to act as go-between (PMP: *pa-kilala) *kilala

pakóan edible wild fern, sometimes called “wild asparagus”: Athyrium esculentum (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pákocarpenter’s nail; to nail, to pound in a nail (LOAN)

pakpákwing (of birds, airplanes, angels, etc.) (PAN: *pakpak₁)

paládpalm of the hand, sole of the foot (PMP: *palaj₁)

palákpakclap the hands (PPH: *p<al>akpak) *pakpak₁

palápaupper part of a palm tree (where the leaves are); palm leaf (PMP: *palaqpaq)

palapátipigeon (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (660 / 999)

palásanspecies of rattan used for tying fences because it lasts longer than other types of rattan exposed to wind and dampness (PPH: *parásan)

palásanspecies of rattan used for tying fences (LOAN)

palítchange, exchange, switch (PPh: *palit)

páloto beat with a stick (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

palpálto drive a stake into something (PPH: *palpál₂)

paltíkpoles running out from a boat onto which outriggers are tied (PWMP: *paletik)

páluŋchicken’s comb; to cut off the comb of a fighting cock (so it can see better) (PPH: *páluŋ)

paluŋpunstack up rice stalks after harvesting (ROOT)

panáarrow (of which there are several types); shoot an arrow (PAN: *panaq)

panáwhave white patches on the skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

pándakshort-legged (of animate objects) (PMP: *pandak)

pándayblacksmith; to make a bolo or arrowhead by heating and pounding the metal (LOAN)

paŋánayfirst born child in a family (PPH: *paŋánay)

pa-ŋatethe tame rooster which is staked to the ground inside the snare (the bait that attracts wild chickens into the trap) (PPH: *pa-ŋátiq) *kátiq

papaslightly sloping, of a roof that does not have a steep enough slope, so that it leaks when it rains (NOISE)

pápagshelf, high table (in a house for keeping things on); high table (outside, for drying meat on, or for the offering of the atang sacrifice) (PPH: *papag)

paraŋmeadow, open field, usually covered with cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) (PWMP: *padaŋ)

parawlarge sailing vessel (PMP: *paraqu)

p-asawamarried couple (PMP: *pa-qasawa) *qasawa

paspasto work energetically (PPH: *paspás₄)

Casiguran Dumagat (680 / 999)

pátaglevel, not hilly, of ground (PWMP: *pataR₂)

pa-tama-ento make right, to correct (PAN: *tama₁)

patialso, too; even (PPH: *pati₂)

pa-tidug-ənto put to sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

pawednipa shingles (LOAN)

pawikanlarge sea turtle; to hunt for sea turtles by going along the beach at night with torches, looking for the females which come ashore to lay their eggs (PPH: *pawikan)

pawir-anthe bamboo sticks upon which nipa leaves are woven; to weave nipa shingles (LOAN)

payapáyto beckon with the hand for someone to come to you (PPH: *payapay)

páyoto advise, to counsel; to calm down an angry person (PWMP: *payu)

páyoŋumbrella; to use or carry an umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

paypáyto fan, as to fan oneself on a hot day, or to fan a fire (PPH: *paypáy)

pəg-ləbŋ-anburial place (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

pegséksplash, spatter (of the leap or flight of small particles, as for rice to jump out of a pestle as it is being pounded) (PWMP: *peRcik)

pə-kan-ənto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen-en) *kaen

pekelto wring out wet cloth (PPH: *pekel)

pəlpəlpacked tight, crammed; to cram into, to stop up (a bottle with a wad of cloth); press against one another in a crowd; to be stuck into (as for a nail to be stuck into a piece of wood, or for a child’s head to get stuck between two slats of a fence) (PWMP: *pelpel)

pənpənto cup the hand over a part of the body (nose, mouth, genitals) (PWMP: *penpen₂)

pensancousin (PWMP: *pisan)

peŋ-asawaan engaged person (PPh: *paŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

péŋgantin plate; to take plates along (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (700 / 999)

pəsəkbe poked in the eye with a sharp-pointed instrument (ROOT)

pəspəsfor a woman to milk her breast (PMP: *pespes)

pigajuice (from a fruit, usually citrus); to squeeze fruit (to get out the juice) (PPH: *piRaq₁) *piRaq

pilakto split (as in splitting open a coconut or other fruit) (PWMP: *pilak₁) *pilak

pílaksilver metal; coin (LOAN)

pílatscar (completely healed); to heal (of a sore) (PWMP: *pilat)

pileto choose, to select; to pick out (PAN: *piliq)

pilëlame, crippled; to become lame; to injure, sprain or break one’s arm or leg; a cripple (PAN: *piNay)

pintasto be critical, to be fault-finding, to criticize someone about his faults (PPH: *pintas)

písupeso (LOAN)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pónponto save up, to hoard, to keep something in safekeeping (esp. of money or food) (PWMP: *punpun)

p-otáŋloan; to loan (PWMP: *pa-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

potpotto pluck out weeds by the roots (PAN: *putput₁)

potpotto pluck out weeds by the roots (NOISE)

pudútin eating, to pick up the rice with the fingers (PWMP: *pundut)

pugádnest (of the okong bird, made in the sand) (PPH: *pugad)

pugad-anchicken nest (PPH: *pugad-an) *pugad

púkpukto pound with a stick or hammer (PAN: *pukpuk)

pulóthoney (PMP: *pulut)

Casiguran Dumagat (720 / 999)

p<um>ílitto strive, to try hard, to insist on doing something (PPH: *pílit)

punasto wet down; to sponge bathe; to wipe the hands or body with cloth (as in drying off) (PMP: *punas)

puŋánto rest the head against something (PPH: *puŋan)

puŋan-anpillow (PPH: *puŋan)

pusədnavel; to cut the umbilical cord (of a newborn child) (PMP: *pusej)

pusitmyopsid squid: Loligo sp. (PPH: *pusít)

pusóheart (of people and animals); blossom of the banana plant; ear (of corn); new stalk of the coconut, of which the coconuts grow; to blossom, to bud, to sprout (PMP: *pusuq₁)

putatshrub or small tree, with trunks valued as fence posts, since they grow when stuck in the ground: Barringtonia racemosa (PMP: *putat)

pútikmud; muddy; become muddy (PPH: *putik₃)

putólto behead (PMP: *putul) *putun

púyatsleeplessness, lack of sleep; tired or exhausted for want of sleep; to stay up late at night (PPH: *púyat)

puyohair colic (sic! = cowlick) (PWMP: *puyu₂)

púyudto wear the hair in a bun (PPH: *puyud)

sabaspecies of banana plant and its fruit (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sabawbroth, soup, gravy (the water in which any type of viand has been cooked) (PWMP: *sa(m)baw)

sabédtrip and fall over something (PWMP: *sabeD)

sabeŋarea of beach which is within the vicinity of the mouth of a river or a mangrove swamp (PMP: *sabaŋ₁)

sabítfor a fishhook to get caught, snagged on something (either in the water, or up in a tree); to stick something between the leaves in the roof of a house (PMP: *saqebit)

sabitfor a fishhook to get caught, snagged on something (either in the water, or up in a tree) (PWMP: *sabit)

sabləkto crave, to hunger for (of foods) (PPH: *sab(e)lek)

Casiguran Dumagat (740 / 999)

sabútpubic hair (PWMP: *sabut)

sadetbe touching, be against, close together (as trees growing close together, people standing or sleeping close together, etc.) (PWMP: *sa(n)det)

sa-dpaone fathom, one span; to take a measurement by fathoms (PAN: *depa)

sagəpto catch fish and shrimp by damming up a stream (PPH: *sáRep)

sagútto answer for, to blame; to assume responsibility for (PMP: *saRut)

sagútto answer for, to blame, to assume responsibility for (PPH: *sagút)

sakáŋto hold a baby with its legs straddling your side (PMP: *sakaŋ)

sakəbto lie face down (as a person, or for a canoe to be floating upside down in the water) (PPH: *sakeb)

sakəblie face down (ROOT)

saketsuffering, sickness, pain, illness, ailment, infirmity, disease; to be hurt by, to get hurt, to become ill; painful (PMP: *sakit)

sáksito bear witness, to witness (as to testify before the police that you saw so-and-so commit the crime) (LOAN)

salapaŋtype of fish spear or arrow (the head consists of three or four wires sharpened to a point; it may be shot with a bamboo bow, or a rubber sling) (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

salátangentle south wind (always comes with good weather) (PWMP: *salatan)

saləŋthe almaciga tree and its sap, Agathis philippinensis (a pine tree used locally for incense burning, torches, starting fires, caulking boats, and especially as lamps in the houses) (PAN: *saleŋ)

salogsogto get a sliver in the hand or foot; to stub the foot in such a way that it bleeds (PPH: *salugsúg)

sambatto meet up with (as to meet someone on the trail who is coming from the opposite direction (PWMP: *sabat)

samɛltalk with the mouth full of food (NEAR)

sampuputo carry something with the arms out in front of the body (PPH: *sapupu)

samsamto grab, to take, to get, to confiscate; to seize something by force (as to hold up a bus and take the people’s money by gun point, or to enter a house, kill the occupants, and take the things of value (PPH: *samsám)

saŋábranch (of a tree or bush); to branch out (PMP: *saŋa₁)

Casiguran Dumagat (760 / 999)

saŋalto carry something gripped between the teeth, as a mother dog to carry her puppies, or an ant carrying a grain of rice in its pincers (PWMP: *saŋal)

saŋétto cry, to wail, to weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

saŋgato stop something that is rolling (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

sáŋgato stop something that is rolling (PPH: *saŋga₂)

saŋlagto dry rice grain over a fire (so that it will become dry enough to pound; a necessary task when one cannot dry the grain in the sun because of poor weather (PMP: *saŋelaR)

sapapond; stagnant water (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapamedal, insignia (on the front of a uniform of a soldier or policeman) (LOAN)

sapadhand of bananas; to cut the hands of bananas off of the stalk (buleg) (PPH: *sápad)

sapatsufficient, enough, adequate (PPH: *sapat₂)

sapínunderlayer, covering, protective underlayer (as a blanket under a horse’s saddle, or a cloth on one’s shoulder to cushion a heavy pole he is carrying); to put a cushion between something; to saddle a horse (PPH: *sapín)

sapoto butcher an animal (PPH: *sapuq)

sapótcloth used to wrap up a dead body (PMP: *saput₁)

sapukto slap with the open palm (PWMP: *sa(m)puk)

sapulto begin; since; starting place or time (PPH: *sapul)

sá-puluten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

sári-sárivarious, variety, diverse (LOAN)

sáwato be over-satisfied; to be tired of something (as of some food) (PWMP: *sáwaq) *sawaq₂

sáwato be over-satisfied, to be tired of something (as of eating the same kind of food day after day) (PPH: *saw(e)qa)

sawsawto rinse clothes (swishing them around in the water to get the mud off them) (PPH: *sawsáw)

sáyaŋwhat a pity! to be wasted, to become useless (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

Casiguran Dumagat (780 / 999)

sáysaystory; to tell a story (PPH: *sáysay)

səgekto gag (swallow someting, choke on it, and cough it back up again) (ROOT)

səksəkcrowded, tight; plugged up (PAN: *seksek₁)

səlaŋjaw, jawbone (PPH: *selaŋ₂)

səlatcrack, chasm (PWMP: *selat)

seliyoung banana sprout (still small enough to be transplanted); dig out a banana sprout and transplant it (PWMP: *seli₂)

səlpetpincers, tongs, clothespin; to pinch (as finger in door) (ROOT)

séŋgitto shine (of the sun, after a rain) (PPH: *siŋgít)

səpawad of betel nut chew (in the mouth) (PWMP: *sepaq)

səpətpulp, inner stalk (of the inside part of sugarcane); to chew sugarcane (swallowing the juice and spitting out the pulp) (PPH: *sepet)

sibug-sibugto splash (of the splashing sound of a person or animal running in water) (PMP: *simbuR)

sidísift rice in a rice winnowing tray (PMP: *siji)

sidúŋground under a house; yard (PWMP: *siduŋ)

sígaygeneric word for several species of sea shells (cones, scallops and cowries) (PWMP: *sígay)

sigək-sigəkto sob, to whimper (PWMP: *sigek)

sikatto rise, of the sun (PPH: *sikát)

sikat-anEast (PPH: *sikát)

si-kitawe (dual incl.), emphatic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

si-kita-mwe (plural incl.), emphatic pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

si-ko2sg. emphatic (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

Casiguran Dumagat (800 / 999)

sikóelbow (PAN: *sikux)

siko2sg. emphatic pronoun (PWMP: *s-ikaw) *kaSu

sikó-nto jab with the elbow (PWMP: *siku-en) *sikux

síloloop, lasso, collar (PPH: *siluq)

sinághot season, dry season (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

siŋetbee stinger; to sting (PWMP: *siŋ(e)het)

siŋétarrow notch; to notch an arrow (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

sipágambitious, industrious (PPH: *sipag)

sipetpincers of a crab or shrimp; to pinch, of a crab or shrimp (PAN: *sipit)

siponmucus; to have a cold (PPH: *sip(e)qun)

sípulto whistle (with the fingers in the mouth) (LOAN)

sisespecies of oyster: Crassostrea sp. (PMP: *sisi₁)

sítsithiss (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

s<om>latto go between (PWMP: *selat)

sóndaŋbolo, large knife; to carry a bolo (LOAN)

subəŋearplug, to wear an earplug (PWMP: *subeŋ)

subúto put something into the mouth; a mouthful (PPH: *súbuq)

súbukto watch from hiding, to spy; to catch by surprise (PWMP: *subuk₁)

súbukto test, to try (PPH: *subuk₂)

sukátto measure, to take the measurement of; a measurement (PWMP: *sukat)

Casiguran Dumagat (820 / 999)

sukláya comb; to comb the hair (NEAR)

suklúbantype of basket (cubic shaped, and with a cover) (PPH: *suk(e)luban)

suletthe replacement of something planted which has died or been uprooted (as to replant coconuts where the previously planted coconuts had been eaten by pigs; or for a child’s second teeth to come in after the first baby teeth had come out) (PPH: *sulit₂)

sulitexplanation; rendering of accounts; examination; return of something previously entrusted (PWMP: *sulit₁)

sulotorch (PMP: *suluq)

súlsulto incite someone to do something bad, to tempt (LOAN)

sulúŋto push forward, to push something forward, to progress (PWMP: *suruŋ)

suluŋ-andrawer (PWMP: *suruŋ)

s<um>ágəbto carry water (from a stream, pump, etc. to the house) (PPH: *saR(e)qeb)

súmanrice delicacy consisting of glutinous rice boiled with coconut milk and sugar and wrapped in leaves (LOAN)

s<um>əksəkto disappear into a hole (PWMP: *s<um>eksek) *seksek₁

súmpaoath, pledge, act of swearing; to make an oath, to make a sworn promise; to curse someone (PWMP: *sumpaq)

s<um>unudto obey; to follow (PPH: *s<um>unúd) *sunúd

suntukto hit with the fist, box (PPH: *suntúk)

sunudto obey, to follow (PPH: *sunúd)

sunud-sunudto go in single file (PPH: *sunúd-sunúd) *sunúd

súputcloth bag, sack (PPH: *súput)

suway-anto disobey; to deny an accusation (PPH: *suay)

suway-ənto refuse to accept or believe what someone tells you (PPH: *suay)

ta2sg. topic pronoun (PMP: *ka₄)

Casiguran Dumagat (840 / 999)

tabásto cut down, to lop off (excess plant growth or branches, by hacking with a bolo) (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

tábasto cut cloth (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tábi kaexcuse me (a respectful expression of request to be excused for passing between or in front of people) (LOAN)

tablaplaned lumber, sawn lumber; board (LOAN)

tabtabto chop, to trim with a bolo (as to trim the sides of a rice paddy dyke by chopping the edges with a bolo, or to chop the rib bones of an animal when butchering it (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

tabuga type of game drive where game is driven by dogs towards where men are waiting in ambush (PPH: *tabug)

tábunto fill in soil in a low place in the earth (PMP: *tabun₂)

tademsharp (of a knife or axe); fish-hook (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tadtádto chop up; to mince (meat); to chop into pieces the limbs of trees which have been felled in a new swidden field (in preparation for burning the field) (PWMP: *tadtád)

taga-prefix meaning ‘native or resident of’; occupation (PPH: *taga-)

tága-native or resident of; occupation (LOAN)

tagalto remain a long time; to take or last for a long time; duration, perseverance, delay (PWMP: *tagal)

tag-anak-anuterus (archaic) (PPH: *taR-anak) *aNak

taga-todknee high (of the growth of rice, or the depth of a river) (PPH: *taRa-tuhud) *tuduS

tágayto pour liquid into glasses in order to serve drinks; to pour out a little at a time (PPH: *tágay)

tagbákold, rotten (of cloth, rattan) (PPH: *tagbák)

tagbuto go to meet someone at an agreed place (PPH: *tagbúq)

tagtágto scatter, to toss (of the tossing of bundles of rice seedlings througout the paddy in preparation for transplanting); to pass out food from house to house (PPH: *tagtág)

tagúŋto howl, of a dog (ROOT)

takáto be amazed, to be astonished (PPH: *taka)

Casiguran Dumagat (860 / 999)

takálspecies of edible sea cockle shell, a snail: Frogum unedo (PPH: *takál)

takə́da bamboo floor tied down with rattan (in contrast to being nailed down) (PPH: *takéd)

takə́mtightly hooked, locked, tightly closed, snug (PPH: *takem)

takösteal, burglarize (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

talagácertainly, surely; intending to (but not carrying out the intention) (PPH: *talagá)

taliŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

táloto lose in a game or contest (PMP: *talu₂)

talónjungle, forest (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

talúbufor a plant or person to grow much faster than others of its same age (PPH: *talúbuq)

talúkwet rice seedlings (PMP: *taluk)

talúkwet rice seedlings; to plant paddy rice seedlings (PWMP: *taruk)

taluŋeggplant, Solanum melongena (LOAN)

támaright, correct, good, accurate, exact (PAN: *tama₁)

tamadto feel lazy, to not feel like working; lazy (PPH: *tamád)

tamádto feel lazy, to not feel like working; lazy (LOAN)

támpoto sulk, to have a sulky feeling, to complain of lack of attention from one expected to do better (PPH: *tampuq)

tamʔissweet (of taste) (PMP: *taq(e)mis)

tandáŋrooster (LOAN)

tanódto thread a needle (PPH: *tanúd)

tanʔawto look at from a distance (PPH: *taq(e)náw)

Casiguran Dumagat (880 / 999)

taŋádto look up (as at fruit in a tree) (PMP: *taŋad)

taŋílput sticks under something to cause it to rest on them (as in storing lumber, to put posts under the lumber so the lumber won’t rest directly on the ground) (PPH: *taŋíl)

taonyear (PMP: *taqun)

taon-taonyearly, every year (PMP: *taqun)

tapto winnow rice (PMP: *tahep) *tapeS

tápadried meat; to dry meat in the sun (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapaŋcourageous, brave; fierce, mean, bold (PPH: *tapaŋ₂) *tapaŋ

tapekto slap a mosquito (PMP: *tapik)

taposto finish, to complete; after, afterwards (PAN: *tapus)

tárispur (of a rooster); to fit a steel spur onto a fighting cock (LOAN)

tatalchip (of the chips of wood made from the chopping of an axe) (PWMP: *tatal)

táwada discount (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawahto call out (saying something to somone who is a distance away) (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

tawtawto be lost (in the jungle) (PWMP: *tawtaw)

tayáto place a bet; to lay down money (in gambling); bet, wager; expose to danger, to sacrifice or endanger oneself for others (PPH: *tayáq)

tayə́ŋsea urchin (PPH: *tayeŋ)

tebicut a betel nut in half (PMP: *tebiq) *Cebiq

təbtəbto cut a coconut in half (PWMP: *tebteb)

təbtəbcut a coconut in half (PWMP: *tebteb)

tədakto stick with a pin (PPH: *tedak)

Casiguran Dumagat (900 / 999)

tedúŋhold a cloth or a large leaf over the head (as a protection against rain or the hot sun) (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

təgəkwhite, sticky sap (of several species of trees and plants); to drip, of the dripping of white sap from the slash of a bolo, or from where the fruit was picked (PPH: *tegek)

təktəkto drip (of the dripping of liquid) (PAN: *tektek₁)

téndukspecies of banana plant and its fruit (PPH: *tinduk)

tənəŋto be peaceful, to be quiet-spoken (PWMP: *teneŋ)

tənognoise, rattle (as the noise of an airplane, generator, people pounding rice, a swarm of bees, sound of thunder, etc.); to rattle, to purr, to roar, to make a noise, to thump (PWMP: *teneR)

təpak-təpakthe sound of feet hitting against the ground; the sound of a person or animal walking or running (PWMP: *tepak-tepak) *tepak₁

təpak-təpakthe sound of feet hitting against the ground; the sound of a person or animal walking or running (PPH: *tepak₂)

titopic marker for singular personal nouns (PAN: *si₁)

tianbelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tíbaystable, firm, enduring, lasting, strong (structurally) (LOAN)

tíbaystable, firm, enduring, lasting, strong (structurally) (LOAN)

tidug-ənto lay something down (PMP: *tiduR)

tikedfoot, leg; footprints (PWMP: *taked₁)

tikedfoot, leg; footprints (PMP: *tiked)

tiklupto fold cloth; to close a book (PPH: *tik(e)lup)

tilóearwax (PMP: *tilu)

tímbapail, bucket (said to be from Spanish) (PMP: *timba)

timónrudder; to steer a canoe with a paddle (LOAN)

tínato color, to dye (of armbands, bark cloth and the strips of grass used to make the design of mats and baskets (LOAN)

Casiguran Dumagat (920 / 999)

t<in>adtádwas chopped up by someone (PPH: *t<in>adtád) *tadtád

tiŋafor meat or particles of food to be stuck between the teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tiŋtíŋto ring (of the sound of a bell) (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

tipungrouped, gathered together; to group (PPH: *típun)

titíto pour out, to flow out (as to pour water out of a pot after the roots in it are cooked, or for blood to pour out of a wound) (PPH: *títiq)

tiyokwhite-breasted swamphen: Amaurornis phoenicurus (PPH: *tiuk)

todknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

togtogrhythm (of music, or of a rhythmic beat); to beat out a rhythm, to play music (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

tóldufinger, forefinger; to teach, to point out, to show how, to show where (PPh: *tulduq)

tóŋkasleepy, drowsy (PPH: *tuŋkaq)

tórsea contest of strength (for two boys or men to hook their middle fingers together, and each trying to bend his opponent’s arm down) (LOAN)

tostosto lower by rope (as to let down a fishline into the water, or to drop anchor) (PPH: *tustus₁)

tóyosoy sauce (LOAN)

tubecroton-oil plant, Croton tiglium (a small tree, the pods are pulverized and used to poison fish; when put in the water the fish are drugged, and then easily caught) (PAN: *tuba)

túblispecies of vine the root of which is used to poison fish: Derris elliptica (PPH: *tub(e)liq)

tubug-ana carabao wallow (PPH: *tubug)

tugənto deliver (as pig meat to someone who has requested it) (PPH: *tugen)

tugunto set a date; to arrange to meet someone at a certain place at a certain time (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

tuhókto string together, to thread on a string; to pierce through, to put a spit through pieces of meat (as to string fish on a line, or beads on thread) (PPH: *tuhuk)

tukadpush a ladder out away from the floor (PWMP: *tukad₁)

Casiguran Dumagat (940 / 999)

tukiljoint of bamboo tube used to catch the sap dripping from a cut stem of a coconut or nipa palm (from which wine is made) (PWMP: *tukil)

tukódprop, support (of a pole or board set vertically to hold up something above it); to hold a bow vertically, with the end resting on the ground (PAN: *tukud)

tuktukto knock (at a door) (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tulakto depart in a boat; to shove off in a boat from shore (PMP: *tulak)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tuláybridge (PPH: *tuláy)

tuleŋdeaf; a deaf person (PPH: *tuleŋ)

tulisanbandit, burglar, outlaw (LOAN)

túluŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ)

t<um>ubugto go into a wallow (PPH: *tubug)

t<um>ulaŋto clean or pick the bones out of a fish (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tunawto melt, to dissolve (of a burning candle, salt in water, etc.) (PPH: *túnaw)

túnaygenuine, true, real, proven, actual, factual, sincere (PWMP: *tunay₂)

tunóroast in or over a fire (of meat, fish, bananas, root foods) (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupádobeisance to; to comply with what is required; to fulfill, to accomplish (PPH: *tupád)

tupókto be over-ripe (of rice still not harvested) (PPH: *tupúk)

tutoto pound bark (a process in the making of bark cloth) (PAN: *tutuh)

tutódto burn, burn up something; set fire to for the purpose of burning up (PWMP: *tutuD)

tútuto call a dog (saying “tu...tu...tu...” in a high-pitched voice) (PPH: *tútuq)

tutuŋcrust (of the burnt rice caked in the bottom of a pot) (PMP: *tutuŋ)

Casiguran Dumagat (960 / 999)

tuwádto be bent over (standing, but with the hands on the floor); upside-down (PWMP: *tuad)

ubétfemale genitalia (PMP: *ubet)

ubía species of the tuber Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

ubúdupper stalk (of the soft pulp in the upper part of several species of palms, which is edible) (PMP: *qubud)

ubúsfinish, consume, be consumed (PMP: *qubus)

ubusto finish, to consume, be consumed; after (PPH: *ubus)

udáŋfreshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (PAN: *qudaŋ)

udékgo upstream, to travel going upriver (PWMP: *udahik)

udEnrain; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

udin-enget rained on (PAN: *quzan-en) *quzaN

ududəkto grunt, of a pig (ROOT)

ugálihabit, custom, tradition, way, manners, inclination, style, mode, character, behavior (PWMP: *ugáliq)

ugéswash, rinse off (a part of the body, or kitchen utensils, but not clothes) (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

ugíŋcharcoal, dead coals; to spread charcoal powder on something (as the face) (PAN: *qujiŋ)

úguŋloud roar, hum, resonance (of an airplane, wind, sea, etc.); to hum, to roar (PMP: *huRuŋ)

ulágsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulésblanket; cover up with a blanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

ulitöyoung unmarried man, bachelor, lad; to reach the age of puberty (of a boy) (PPh: *ulitau)

ulóhead; knife handle (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

umáswidden, kainging, field, farm, plantation, homestead (after it has been cleared, and has crops growing on it) (PMP: *quma) *qumah

Casiguran Dumagat (980 / 999)

um-apoystart a fire (PMP: *h<um>apuy) *Sapuy

um-inómtake a drink (of water or liquor) (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

unégsoft inner core (of certain species of trees and plants); core of a pineapple (PMP: *qunej)

úpapay, payment for work; wages, salary; to pay wages (PMP: *upaq)

úsuŋcarry on a pole (of two people carrying something slung on a pole between them) (PMP: *qusuŋ)

utáŋdebt, account, indebtedness, liability (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utásfinish, complete, terminate (PWMP: *qutas)

utékbrain (PMP: *hutek)

utúsorder, command; command someone to do some menial task (PWMP: *utus₂)

utú-utúcrazy, mentally retarded (NOISE)

uwáyrattan (PAN: *quay)

uyónto bundle, tie in a bundle; a bundle (PWMP: *uyun)

wadÉ-ŋyounger sibling (vocative) (PWMP: *huaji-ŋ) *Suaji

wadíyounger sibling (ref.) (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

wagwágvariety of paddy (wet) rice (PPh: *wagwág₁)

wakwákcrow, raven: Forrus macrorhychus (PAN: *wakwak)

walúeight (PAN: *walu)

wasáyaxe; chop with an axe (PWMP: *wasay)

waswáswave back and forth (as to wave a cloth, a tree branch, etc. back and forth, or to swish a cloth around in the water to wash away the soap, or to shoo flies away with a handkerchief, or to sweep the ground with a branch with leaves on it) (PPh: *waswás₁)

waswásworn out cloth with large holes in it (PPh: *waswás₂)

Casiguran Dumagat (1000 / 999)

watwatfor something to have a hole torn in it (as for wind to rip off part of a roof, or for one to open a pussy sore with a pin) (PPH: *watwát)

wëtwëtmake a lot of noise (by talking and yelling) (PPh: *witwít₁)

wetwétwave a torch (to make the embers flare up) (PPh: *witwít₂)

witiwetwag, flick, swish the tail (of an animal) (PAN: *witiwit)

yop-yópto blow on something (as to blow out a candle, or to blow on coals to get them to flare up) (PWMP: *heyup heyup) *Seyup

126. Cebuano (2798) WMP (Wolff 1972) [ceb] Philippines (dialects: SE Bohol 4, dialectal 7)

-asubjunctive direct passive affix (PAN: *-a₃)

abáexclamation of pleasure and surprise (PWMP: *abá)

ábaggive material help, help do work (PPh: *abag)

abágashoulder; take responsibility for accomplishing something (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

abagá-hunbroad-shouldered (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

ábaŋrent; hire a prostitute; make an offering to a supernatural being for the use of land which is thought to be in his possession (PWMP: *abaŋ₃)

ábathold on to something fixed to support oneself (PWMP: *abat₁)

abátany supernatural being or human with supernatural powers which shows itself in an unexpected and startling way (PPh: *abat₂)

abat-ánrailing in the shape of a ladder for baby to cling to when he starts to walk (PWMP: *abat₁)

abáymove along together with something moving; bridesmaid or best man (PWMP: *abay)

abúashes (PMP: *qabu)

abuábukind of fish (PWMP: *abu abu)

abuábufish sp. (PWMP: *qabu qabu)

ábudthrow grains to; drop grains into ahole in planting (PWMP: *qabud)

abúgdust; become dusty; turn into dust (PWMP: *abuR)

abúgdust; become dusty; turn into dust (PWMP: *qabug)

ábugchase, drive, drive away (PPh: *ábuR)

abúh-unash-colored (PWMP: *qabu-en) *qabu

ábuŋbar, block the way; something which blocks the way (PWMP: *qambeŋ)

abútarrive, reach a place; have a feeling come over one; be overtaken; come to an orgasm (PPh: *qabut)

Cebuano (20 / 2798)

adláwsun; day; day (as opposed to night) (PMP: *qalejaw)

adláw-adláwevery day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

adlaw-ánfor it to be daylight (PPh: *qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

ágakgive the hand to lead or lend support; guide someone in moral principles (PMP: *aRak)

ágawtake something away from someone (as a toy from a child) (PAN: *qaRaw)

agáw-anfond of snatching (PAN: *qaRaw)

agdáinvite someone to do something (NEAR)

agíikcreak, squeak (ROOT)

agmáŋkind of eel (PMP: *haRemaŋ)

a-guláŋtitle for an old man or woman; old man or woman (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

águmget full use out of some benefit someone bestows on one (PWMP: *agem₂)

agumdirtyish-white, greyish (PWMP: *agem₃)

águsooze, flow out slowly (as pus from a wound) (PMP: *qaRus)

áhugmix something wet with something dry (ROOT)

akeʔ1sg oblique (LOAN) SE Bohol

akúI, me (PAN: *aku)

akup-akupmonopolize a job, possession, or enjoyment of something (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

al-abúh-anstove or any place a fire for cooking is built (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu

áladwooden fence, enclosure; pig sty; enclose in a fence (PAN: *qalad)

álakliquor, strong alcoholic beverage (LOAN)

Cebuano (40 / 2798)

álakliquor, strong alcoholic beverage (LOAN)

álaʔbe mistaken for another person (PWMP: *alaq₃)

alhúpestle; make into a pestle; hit with a pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

ali-baŋbaŋbutterfly, butterfly fish (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₂)

alibaŋbáŋbutterfly (PAN: *qali-)

alibusbúswinged large red house ants that come in swarms, esp. during rainy days, and hover around bright lights (PAN: *qali-)

alímahand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

alimáŋuedible crab of tidal swamps (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

(a)limátukleech (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

(a)li-mugmugrinse the mouth out (PMP: *muRmuR)

ali-mukunwild dove with white ears and light brown feathers speckled with black; Phapitreron leucotis (PMP: *muken) *muken (X + muken)

alimúʔusinvisible (Encarnación 1885) (PWMP: *qali-meqes)

aliŋítshort-tempered, irritable (ROOT)

alipʔipperson's back reaching from the shoulders as far as the waist (PWMP: *qali-peqip)

alúggo down to get water (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

aluhípancentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

álunlong rolling wave, swell; for there to be big waves (PMP: *qalun)

áluŋcast a shadow over something (PMP: *aluŋ)

amáexpression uttered when frightened: help! (PAN: *amax)

ama-ámastepfather (PWMP: *ama ama) *amax

Cebuano (60 / 2798)

amagáa forest tree: Diospyros sp. (PWMP: *amaRa)

amah-anfather (PWMP: *ama-an) *amax

amák-anbamboo matting woven with a kind of twill weave, commonly used for walling (the weft is passed over two and under two warp pieces); weave amákan (PWMP: *amak)

ama námuʔthe Lord's prayer (PAN: *amax)

amaŋmute; silent (NEAR)

amáŋ-amáŋhave the nerve to do something which an ordinary person wouldn't dare do (PWMP: *amaŋ amaŋ)

amáʔ-ungodfather in any ceremony (PWMP: *ama-en) *amax

ambákjump down to a lower place (PMP: *ambak)

ambák-ambákjump up and down (PMP: *ambak)

ambawkind of small mouse (LOAN)

ambiláycarry something with a strap slung over the shoulder (PPh: *abijay)

ambílaycarry something with a strap slung over the shoulder (PPh: *qambiday)

ambílaycarry something with a strap slung over the shoulder (PPh: *qambijay)

ambúʔoverlook, look from a high point (as in looking at someone downstairs), tower over (PWMP: *ambuq)

ameʔ1pl ex oblique (PWMP: *ameq) SE Bohol

amíhanwind from the north (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

amihán-annorth, northern (PPh: *qamihan-an) *qamiS

ampáwdelicacy consisting of puffed rice coated with caramel and stuck into bricks (PMP: *ampaw)

-anlocal passive verb affix, future; noun forming affix. 1. forming nouns which refer to a place where something is found, done, held, located..., 2. forming nouns which refer to a person possessed of a certain power..., adjective forming suffix 1. forming adjectives which mean 'characterized by being [so-and-so]..., 2. added to nouns to form adjectives which mean 'having [so-and-so] (PAN: *-an)

anabúshrub or small tree which produces strong bark fiber of commercial importance: Abroma augusta (PWMP: *anabu)

Cebuano (80 / 2798)

anáhawkind of palm with fan-shaped leaves: Livistona rotundifolia. The leaves are used for mats, hats, etc. Potted anáhaw are widely used for ornamental purposes (PMP: *qanahaw)

anáhaw mubuʔornamental palm similar in appearance to the anáhaw: Licuala spinosa (PMP: *qanahaw)

anákson, daughter; give birth; happen to have for a child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak ánakadopted child; in a child's game, the pretend child (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anák sa búhatlaborer (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

anák sa gawásillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anák-unfor people or animals to be prolific in childbirth (PWMP: *anak-en) *aNak

ánaytermite; be infested with termites (PAN: *aNay)

ániharvest (usually rice, but by extension, other crops); get benefit from something (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

aníbuŋfishtail palm: Caryota spp. It is found in forests and used as flooring (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

anílawsmall trees or shrubs of the genera Columbia and Grewia found in secondary growth forests (PMP: *qanilaw)

aniníputfirefly (PAN: *qaNi-)

anínushadow; cast a shadow on (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

ánitleather; remove the skin, peels (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

anítusupernatural beings which do not show themselves, and do good to people (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

antákstamp one's foot (PWMP: *qantak)

antákstamp one’s foot (NEAR)

antiŋ-antiŋcharm, amulet; wear, have, make into an amulet (LOAN)

a-núwhat? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

ánudfor the current to carry something off; things carried away by floodwater; a person who just drifted somewhere or into something (PAN: *qañud)

Cebuano (100 / 2798)

anúnaŋsmall tree with yellow-white fruit like a cherry: Cordia dichotoma. The fruit is mucilaginous, and is used for paste (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ)

anúʔussoot (PWMP: *anuqus)

aŋhítsmell bad like the body, rancid meat, milk, goats, cows; get to smell bad (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

aŋk-anhaving given birth (PWMP: *anak-an) *aNak

aŋk-an-unfor people to be prolific in childbirth (PWMP: *anak-an) *aNak

aŋkáttake something for resale on credit (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋkúbcovering over the opening of a small boat, the analogue of a deck on large boats; fill something in to cover up a deficiency (PWMP: *aŋkeb)

aŋsúsmelling of urine (as a toilet) (PPh: *qaŋesu)

aŋsúdhaving body odor (PWMP: *aŋ(e)cej)

aŋsúdhaving body odor (PWMP: *qaŋesej)

aŋsúh-ansmall ash-grey shark that has an odor like urine (PPh: *qaŋesu)

aŋtadbe in line of sight (as in watching a t.v. through a window); be where one can see it (PPH: *aŋ(ə)tad)

aŋtúdhaving the smell of burnt hair, cloth, or flesh without fat; smell of burnt hair (PPh: *qaŋetej)

aŋu-aŋusenile (PWMP: *aŋu aŋu)

apasfollow and catch up with; go after someone to bring him home (NOISE)

apdúgall, bile; something bitter to endure (PAN: *qapejux)

ápidarrange things of approximately the same size in a neat stack (PWMP: *apid₂)

apílbe included (ROOT)

ápiŋcheek (PPH: *apipiŋ)

aplúdhaving an insipid to slightly bitter taste with an astrigent effect, such as unripe bananas (PMP: *apeled)

Cebuano (120 / 2798)

apt-ánput a roof on (PWMP: *qatep-an) *qatep

apúgrandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

ápuglime made from burnt seashells; make lime (PAN: *qapuR)

apúyboil which goes deep into the flesh and develops slowly, esp. around the knees (PPh: *apúy)

ásahope (LOAN)

asáwawife; happen to get for a wife, can marry (PAN: *qasawa)

ásiexpression needling a person for pretending (as in pretending to sleep); chiding a person jokingly for something one notices for the first time; chiding a person for acting beyond his station (PWMP: *asih)

asípresume to do something one cannot do (PWMP: *asih)

asi-asipresume to do something one cannot do (PWMP: *asih asih) *asih

asiduacid (LOAN)

asih-asih-unpresumptuous, taking for granted (PWMP: *asih asih) *asih

asínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

asin-únto salt something (PWMP: *qasin-en) *qasiN

aslúmsour; cross, sour in facial expression; be, become sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

asúsmoke; fumes; be in path of smoke; go up in smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

asu-asúgive off smoke continuously; come fast and thick, in rapid succession (PMP: *qasu qasu) *qasu₃

ásudfor two or more people to pound cereal in mortar together and in synchronization (PPh: *asúd)

ásud-ásudcome one after another in rapid succession, like several people pounding rice on one pestle (PPh: *asúd)

asuntíŋkind of erect branching shrub, wild but occasionally planted as ornamental. The leaves are used in treating skin fungi: Cassia alata (PWMP: *asuntiŋ)

aswáŋa person who is possessed of a supernatural force, which attacks from time to time causing him to change his form and go out, often to harm others, preying on their blood, livers, etc. (LOAN)

Cebuano (140 / 2798)

átaŋshelf set next to a stove at the same height with it to hold the pots and pans (PMP: *ataŋ₃)

atáŋwatch, but not carefully, keep an eye on; watch for something or someone to pass; ambush (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

atatalúkind of green caterpillar, especially fond of calladium and taro plants, and also found on citrus, turning into a butterfly (PWMP: *qantatadu)

atáyliver; liver as the seat of emotions (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atay-átaythe hollow or fleshy part of the palm and its analogue in the foot (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atay-átaykind of ornamental shrub with mottled red or green elliptic leaves and smooth margins: Graptophyllum pictum (PWMP: *qatay qatay₂)

átaʔink of squids and similar creatures (NOISE)

ateʔ1pl in oblique (PWMP: *ateq) SE Bohol

átipjoin pieces by sewing, welding or pasting (PMP: *atip)

átipjoin pieces by sewing, welding, or pasting; put a crazy person in a kapok tree stock to cure him (PMP: *qatip₂)

átisbruise, cussing out or anything unpleasant that can be inflicted on one (example sentence refers to being 'boxed') (PWMP: *atis)

átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Anona squamosa (LOAN)

átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Annona squamosa (LOAN)

atsal, atsar, atsárapickles made of shredded green papaya and various other vegetables cut in slices (LOAN)

atsisneeze (NOISE)

átubstone prison cell; pile of stones put somewhere to attract fish and crabs and get them where they can readily be found; pit with flimsy top for trapping animals; to trap in a pitfall (e.g. wild pig) (PAN: *qaCeb)

atubáŋface towards; set oneself to doing something as it needs to be done (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubaŋ-ángenitalia, usually female (euphemism) (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubáŋ-anplace in front of, in the face of (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

a-tulíearwax; materials like earwax; a yellow paste, tobacco tars; yellow, hardened grease sticking in corners of machinery (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

Cebuano (160 / 2798)

atúproof; paper covering for a kite (PMP: *qatep)

awparticle preceding a statement made to correct oneself; particle preceding a statement or question meaning "is that so?", and shows surprise (PWMP: *qau)

awparticle preceding a statement made to correct oneself; particle preceding an afterthought; particle preceding a statement or question meaning 'is that so?' and shows surprise; particle preceding a predetermined answer (PMP: *aw) *Saw

awáŋspace between the upper two front teeth (PMP: *awaŋ)

áwaʔa fish, the ten-pounder: Elops hawaiensis (PMP: *qawaʔ)

áyagsift, separate the coarse from the fine (PWMP: *qayag)

ayag-ánsifter, sieve (PWMP: *qayag)

áyamfor a dog to chase something; hunt with dogs, where the dog keeps track of the spoor (PWMP: *qayam₂)

bain exclamations: how unbelievable that it is that way!; though (PMP: *ba₂)

baquestion marker used in questions with no interrogative (PWMP: *ba₅)

bábacarry something on the back, not tied (PMP: *baba₁)

bábadsoak (PPh: *bábad)

babáwplace up somewhere (PAN: *babaw₃)

babáwplace up somewhere (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

ba-báyiwoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

babáyi-ŋ agaw-ag bánaa woman that is a husband-snatcher (PAN: *qaRaw)

bábuypig, pork (PAN: *babuy₃)

babuy-anpiggery (PAN: *babuy-an) *babuy₃

babuybabuykind of louse which hides in crannies and lives in damp places; woodlouse (PWMP: *babuy babuy)

bábuy i-halaswild pig (PMP: *babuy halas) *babuy₃

Cebuano (180 / 2798)

bábuy-ŋ i-hálaswild pigs (PMP: *halas) *Salas

badbaduntie, get untied; liquidate a debt; solve a problem; translate (PWMP: *bajbaj)

badbáduntie, get untied (PWMP: *bajbaj)

badlísdraw a line (PWMP: *bad(e)ris)

badlísdraw a line (ROOT)

bágaembers; glow (PMP: *baRah)

bágatto meet, especially on the sea; to barter products (from the notion that one goes to meet a fisherman and exchanges something for his fish) (PPH: *baRat)

bágaybefitting, becoming; for instruments to be in tune; for voices to be blended; harmonize with, match; tune musical instruments; for words to rhyme (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bágaybefitting, becoming; for instruments to be in tune (LOAN)

bágaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bagaʔmisbehaving in an unusual way (as by peeping at someone while they are bathing); brazen (NOISE)

baghákkind of medium-sized grouper (PWMP: *bagahak)

baghákkind of medium-sized grouper (NOISE)

bagtíʔbone-dry (as wood, earth) (PWMP: *baRetiq)

bágusmall wild tree the leaves of which are used as a vegetable: Gnetum gnemon (PWMP: *baguh)

b-ag-ukbukkind of weevil that eats lumber and secretes round and very fine waste matter (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bagunbún-unkind of grey and brown coloration of chicken feathers; cock having that color feathers (PWMP: *baRunbun)

bágussmooth a piece of wood or bamboo with a knife (PWMP: *baRus)

baguʔdisease characterized by general debility, swelling in the region of the stomach, and yellowish skin (PWMP: *baguq)

bagyútyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS)

Cebuano (200 / 2798)

bagʔáŋmolars (PMP: *bageqaŋ)

bagʔúnew; modern; recently, just now (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bahágG-string; wear, make a G-string (PMP: *bahaR)

bahág-bahágharmless kind of long thin jellyfish, semitransparent, resembling a snake (PMP: *bahaR)

bahak-háklaugh boisterously (PWMP: *bahak)

baháykind of forest tree, the tuberous roots of which are eaten in times of famine (PMP: *bahay) *baSay

bahay-anrope sewn to the edge of a net to make it stiff and as a place to attach floats; longline in longline fishing, to which several leaders with hooks are attached (PMP: *bahay) *baSay

baháʔflood; flow in a flood, flood over (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

bahúgput liquid or fat into the staple food (PWMP: *bahuR)

bahunsneeze (PPH: *bahen)

báhuʔodorous, ill-smelling (as a toilet); smell, odor (as of roast pig) (PMP: *bahuq)

bákait doesn't matter, never mind if (PMP: *baka)

bákankind of tree important for driving away the unglù (person who is possessed of a supernatural force which attacks from time to time causing him to change his form and go out, often to harm others, preying on their blood, livers, etc.): Litsea sp. (PWMP: *bakan)

bakáŋbowlegged; deprecatory term for the Japanese; become bowlegged; get tired out from looking for something (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

bakátkind of hamper, woven container about two feet high with a top (PWMP: *ba(ŋ)kat)

bákaʔwalk with the legs apart (PMP: *bakaq)

bakbákfrog, toad (onom.) (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bakháwmangrove tree: Rhizophora spp. (PWMP: *bakehaw)

baktáscut across (take a short cut) (ROOT)

bakúkufish sp. (PWMP: *bakuku)

Cebuano (220 / 2798)

bákuŋkind of ornamental bulb, the spider lily: Crinum asiaticum (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

bakúsbelt; wear a belt, tie around the waist (PMP: *bakes₁)

bákuʔstoop-shouldered; become hunched (PMP: *ba(ŋ)kuq)

balábaglie across a path; block someone's way, for a fetus to be in a transverse position (PPh: *bala(R)baR)

balábaglie across a path; block one’s way; piece of wood or metal which lies across something (PWMP: *balagbag)

balágunvine; grow like a vine (PWMP: *balaRen)

balágunvine (NOISE)

balalántiʔsmall tree, the leaves of which have a medicinal use; the wood is of magical importance, esp. in sorcery (PWMP: *balalantiʔ)

balalátukkind of woodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

balánakgeneric for large mullets: Mugilidae (PWMP: *balanak)

balantáksmall woven fish or eel trap with inwardly slanting tines to allow entrance but no exit (NOISE)

baláŋaybarrio, the smallest unit of self-government; kind of large boat (PWMP: *baraŋay)

balaráwkind of dagger (PWMP: *baladaw)

balássand; put sand somewhere; form sand-like particles (PMP: *badas)

balátsea cucumber (PPh: *balát)

balátiktrap consisting of a trip rope which releases a spear (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

balátuŋkind of string bean, reaching more than a foot and less than an inch around: Vigna sesquipedialis (PWMP: *balatuŋ)

baláwa tree: light species of Dipterocarpus (source of timber and resin); resinous preparation used to caulk and waterproof a boat, obtained from the sap of the Dipterocarpus and Agathis philippinensis (PWMP: *balaw₂)

b-al-awbáwput something over something else; skim off the topmost portion of something (PMP: *bawbaw)

baláyhouse, home (PMP: *balay)

Cebuano (240 / 2798)

baláyaŋlarge hardwood tree with short trunk and large branches (PWMP: *barayaŋ)

baldipail; fetch water in a pail (LOAN)

bálibe worth it; serves one right; worth, in the amount, quantity, duration of; amount taken in advance from wages (PWMP: *bali₂)

bálireversed, backwards; turn something over; for wind to change direction, switch party loyalty; be reversed, wrong side out, backwards (PMP: *bali₅)

balíbudwind something around something (ROOT)

bálikgo, come back, come back to get something; return to a former state; have a relapse; (do) again; revive (PMP: *balik₂)

balikídturn around, look back (PPh: *balikid)

balíkiscoil, put around something else (as a python coiling round a pig) (PPh: *balíkis)

balíkuscoil, put around something else (as a python seizing a pig) (PPh: *balíkes)

balikutkútbunch, fold, curl up in an irregular way; cause something to do so (PPh: *balikutkút)

balilawolf herring: Chirocentrus dorab (PWMP: *balida)

balíligeneral name for grasses that do not grow tall (PMP: *baliji)

balíligeneral name for grasses that do not grow tall (PMP: *balizi)

balintawákwoman's dress consisting of a blouse with puffed butterfly sleeves, a long striped skirt and a piece of cloth overlaid (LOAN)

balintúwadfall headlong on the face; pick someone up by the feet and hold him upside down (PWMP: *balin-tuaj)

baliŋbíŋa small cultivated tree with oblong fruit having longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

balísaanxious, apprehensive (LOAN)

baliskúgbecome curled up, rolled (ROOT)

balísuŋjackknife (LOAN)

balitáŋwhippletree of a plow; wood used in stripping abaca, fishing with a net that is pulled, etc.; piece of bone, vein or tendon supposed to lie across the vagina which obstructs the easy birth of a child (PWMP: *bali(n)taŋ)

Cebuano (260 / 2798)

báliwdivine punishment, usually for incest, consisting of being struck by lightning and turned into stone; crazy (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

báludcream-colored wild pigeon: Ducula bicolor (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

báluklayer of fluffy fibrous material that sticks to the lower end of the palm frond, used as a compress for open wounds or tinder; tinder consisting of this material and charred coconut husks (PMP: *baruk)

b-al-ukbúkpound something into fine particles or powder (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

baluktuthunchbacked (LOAN)

bálunfood, money to take along on a trip (PWMP: *balun₂)

balunusforest liana, the bark of which is used as shampoo: Entada phaseolides (PWMP: *barunus)

bálusdo back to someone what he did to the agent; for something to be done one way and then the opposite way; for a brother and sister to marry people that are also brothers and sisters; avenge; return a favor, repay a moral obligation (PAN: *bales₁)

balútusmall boat with a dug-out bottom, plank or sawali (bamboo matting) sidings, and usually with outriggers (PPh: *balútu)

baluʔgarfish (NOISE)

bambubamboo; one of the suits in the mahjong that has a design consisting of two bamboo nodes, colored green (LOAN)

banahusband (PMP: *banah) *baNaS

banabámedium-sized tree of the secondary forest, also planted for its lilac or pink flowers. The leaves are commonly used as a tea for stomach or kidney disorders: Lagerstroemia speciosa (PPh: *banabá)

banágwoody, spiked vine found in thickets, the tips and fruits of which are used medicinally: Smilax bracteata (PMP: *banaR₁) *baNaR

bánawfor liquids to be spread over an area, spread liquids (as water over a floor) (PMP: *bañaw)

banáʔagray of light (PMP: *banaqaR)

banban, b-al-anbana branching reed, the main stem of which is split and used in weaving and in sewing nipa shingles: Donax cannaeformis (PWMP: *banban)

banban, balanbánkind of halfbeak: Hemirhamphus sp. (PPh: *baranbán)

banduŋlarge boat used to bring the net and fishermen out to the fishing grounds, consisting of a pair of smaller boats or a wide boat so made that a platform can be placed across it (PWMP: *banduŋ)

banhúdnumb from loss of circulation or anesthesia; become numb, for limbs to fall asleep (PPh: *banhéd)

Cebuano (280 / 2798)

banláwrinse, clean with water (PPh: *balñaw)

bántalbundle something (as dirty clothes) (PWMP: *bantal)

bantáʔwarn someone not to do something; plan to do harm to something (PWMP: *bantaq)

bantúgfamous, notorious (PPH: *bantug)

bantúg-anfamous, notorious (PPH: *bantug)

bánugfor fruits to be bruised; bruise by pounding (PPh: *baneR)

banúglarge hawk with chocolate-brown feathers and white-colored breast (PPh: *banúg)

banwáfatherland; town, village (PMP: *banua)

banyágaʔrascal, scoundrel (LOAN)

baŋgáʔcontest of any sort for a winner; bump into something with force (LOAN)

baŋháwhaving the sour smell which develops in cooking starches which are waterlogged, e.g. corn which has been ground without being fully dried, yams which got waterlogged in rain-soaked ground, etc. (PWMP: *baŋ(e)haw)

baŋísfierce; cruel (PWMP: *baŋis)

baŋkáltree sp.: Nauclea orientalis (PMP: *baŋkal)

baŋkáycorpse (slang) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

báŋkaʔa one-piece dugout between 5 to 15 meters, optionally with one or two masts and/or a motor, and/or outriggers (PMP: *baŋkaq)

baŋkilíŋkind of small, deciduous, cultivated tree which has a rounded, light green fruit, fleshy and sour, used as a flavoring for vinegarized dishes or eaten pickled: Cicca acida (PWMP: *baŋkiriŋ)

baŋkulís-ankind of fish (PWMP: *baŋkulis)

baŋkúrua tree: Morinda spp. (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

báŋunget up from a lying position; make something lying erect; redeem one's honor; revive the name of a deceased relative by naming someone after him; put a boat on a small elevated platform or wedges when it is beached to prevent it from getting rotten or infested with shipworms (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baŋún-unbe revived, brought to life again (as the name of an ancestor bestowed on a descendant) (PWMP: *baŋun-en) *baŋuN

Cebuano (300 / 2798)

baŋʔugfoul smell of liquids that have stagnated, or of food that has spoiled (PMP: *baŋ(e)qeR₂) *baŋ(e)qeR

bárawfor fighting cocks to hit each other with their gaffs while in the air (PWMP: *bazaw)

baríʔkind of sickle (PMP: *badiq)

bárutthe inedible pulp of the jackfruit which surrounds the edible flesh (PWMP: *badut)

basákfield of wet-cultivated rice (PWMP: *bacak)

basáʔwet; watery, soft; wash something; cook, using more water than usual; bathe with something on (PMP: *baseq)

basbáschop off nodes, lumps, etc. in wood or bamboo; husk corn (PWMP: *basbas₃)

básirice wine; wine made from sugarcane (PPH: *bási)

batádsorghum, kind of coarse grass used for forage: Andropogon sorghum (PMP: *batad)

bátaŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bátaʔ ka-lúha ŋa líŋkitSiamese twins (PWMP: *liŋkit)

batíʔisleg, especially the lower leg (PWMP: *baties)

batúrock, stone, pebble; precious stone; kidney stone (PMP: *batu) *batux

batu-bátuanchor, sinker on a fishing line (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux

bátuksmall area different in color or texture from the background (PMP: *batek)

batúŋnet used for trapping animals by placing it across the path or dropping it over the animal; trap animals with a net (as with a wild pig) (PPH: *batéŋ)

batu-unfull of rocks, stones; pimply-faced (PWMP: *batu-en) *batux

baúgfor eggs to be addled or old; for a house to be no good; sterile, incapable of producing offspring (PPH: *baqug)

báugbe constipated (PPH: *baqug)

bawbáwplace the gaff higher on a fighting cock so as to give the opponent an advantage (PMP: *bawbaw)

Cebuano (320 / 2798)

báyadpay for something; fee, charge; amount which serves as payment (PMP: *bayaD)

báyaŋ-báyaŋkind of small round-shaped marine fish (PPH: *bayaŋ₂)

bayáwbrother-in-law, sister-in-law (PWMP: *bayaw)

báyaʔleave something exposed (NOISE)

báyifemale animal or plant; have or make into a mistress (PMP: *bahi)

bayr-un-unamount to be paid off (PMP: *bayaD)

bayú, báyubeat to a pulp or powder (PAN: *bayu)

báʔbaʔmouth; any mouth-like opening (PMP: *baqbaq)

báʔbaʔ sa atáy(lit. 'mouth in the liver') pit of the stomach (PWMP: *qulu ni qatay) *qaCay

bíaʔleave a place, leave something behind; abandon, de (NOISE)

bíbikind of lucine clam (PMP: *bibi₁) *bibi

bíbismall duck with colored feathers (LOAN)

bibih-ánduck farm (LOAN)

bídaadventure, experiences of a person in his lifetime; role in a drama; one who plays the leading role; tell one's experiences, adventures; be the leading player (LOAN)

bidh-án-anfish having roe (PWMP: *bihed)

bígaʔplant cultivated for its edible corms, member of the Araceae family, similar in appearance to the bagyaŋ (Alocasia macrorrhiza, but smaller and growing in dry fields); great sexual desire; stimulate one's sexual desire; have sexual desire (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bigaʔ-únlibidinous, oversexed (PMP: *biRaq₁)

bíhagbring into captivity; attract the attention; for fowls to attack another fowl not belonging to the flock; defeat in a contest such that the loser is given to the winner, most commonly in cockfighting; person captured; fowls attracted to another flock; something lost in a contest where the winner takes the loser, esp. the defeated cock (PWMP: *bihaR)

bíhudroe; one's children (humorous) (PWMP: *bihed)

bíkapotsherd (PWMP: *bika)

Cebuano (340 / 2798)

bíkaŋhaving the feet spread apart, from front to back or sideways; take a stride, take a long step; set one's feet apart (PWMP: *bi(ŋ)kaŋ)

bikaŋkáŋspread one's legs apart (as a woman in childbirth) (PWMP: *bikaŋkaŋ)

bikaŋkáŋspread one's legs apart (ROOT)

bikaʔkáʔspread one's legs apart (as a woman into childbirth) (PMP: *bikaq₂)

bikúgmove something fastened; bend something firm out of place; be moved or bent (PWMP: *bikug)

bíladwiden, spread out, spread something out (as a net to dry) (PMP: *bilaj)

bílaŋconsider, treat someone as (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biláŋguʔimprison (LOAN)

bilaŋguʔ-ánprison (LOAN)

bilíprice, worth; to cost, quote a price to someone (PMP: *bili)

bilíbidwind something around something (PWMP: *bidíbid)

bílikturn on its axis, spin something; twist individual strands to be made into rope (NOISE)

bílinleave something behind; for a wife to be left pregnant when her husband dies; leave word (PWMP: *bilin)

b<in>abáyieffeminate; cock with henlike feathers (PPh: *b<in>a-bahi) *bahi

b<in>ahúgfood mixed with soup, lard, or water (PWMP: *bahuR)

bínhiʔseed (fig. of semen); used as a seed for seedlings; implant in one's mind (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

b-in-iláŋguʔprisoner (LOAN)

bínitcarry something heavy by holding it at the top and letting it dangle (PMP: *binit₁) *biNiC

b-in-ládunhusked rice or corn set out to dry under the sun (PPh: *belaj)

bintakind of speedy sailboat used by Muslims, with colorful sails and one or two outriggers (LOAN)

Cebuano (360 / 2798)

bíntullarge fish corral made of bamboo slats placed in a circle; a light placed in the center attracts the fish which are then caught with a net (PWMP: *bintul)

bíntullarge fish corral made of bamboo slats placed in a circle; a light placed in the center attracts the fish which are then caught with a net (PWMP: *bintur)

b-in-ugúkfor an egg to be rotten; rotten in character; for eggs to fail to hatch, addle (PAN: *b<in>uRuk) *buRuk

b-in-úhatcreature (PMP: *buhat₂)

b-in-úlanonce a month, monthly (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

b-in-ulan-ánhousehold help (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

b-in-úlan naŋa sakitthe monthly sickness (menstruation) (PWMP: *sakit bulan) *bulaN

binúŋasmall tree of the secondary forest, the sap of which is used as a glue for musical instruments: Macaranga tanarius (PPh: *binuŋa)

b-in-úta-bútain a blind manner (PWMP: *buta buta₁) *buCa

biŋágkind of baler (volute) shell, used to crush cocoa seeds (PWMP: *biŋaR)

bíŋatwiden the angle of opening (as with a jackknife); stretch the sides of a hole, pull an elastic string (PPh: *biŋát)

biŋáʔkind of baler (volute) shell, used to crush cocoa seeds (PMP: *biŋaq)

biŋbíŋtweak a part of the body with the thumb and forefinger, usually the ears (PWMP: *biŋbiŋ₂)

bíŋka, bi-bíŋkarice cake made from finely ground rice mixed with coconut milk, sugar, and sometimes with other ingredients as flavoring; woman's genitalia (humorous usage); put between the devil and the deep blue sea (from the idea that the bibíŋka is baked in between two fires) (LOAN)

biŋkásrip stitches apart, for stitches to get ripped apart (PMP: *biŋkas)

biŋkuŋtool resembling a small pick or axe with blade spaced at an angle to the handle, used to dig up the soil shallowly, hollow out dugouts, trim logs, etc.; work on something with this instrument (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

birápunch, beat up someone (slang) (PWMP: *bida)

bisbíssprinkle water on something (as seedlings) (PMP: *bisbis)

bisíbissprinkle water on something; for it to sprinkle (PPh: *bisíbis)

bítaslacerate, rip (as a nail ripping a dress that catches on it, laceration of the vagina to facilitate birth); rip, slash, tear; unmarried young woman who has had sexual experience (PMP: *bitas)

Cebuano (380 / 2798)

bítayhang something up suspended; be hanging; execute; be beneath the other cock when fighting on the wing; be far behind in a game or contest; death by hanging or execution (PPh: *bítay)

bitáʔugkind of tree of strand: Calophyllum inophyllum (PMP: *bitaquR)

bitbítcarry or hold something in the hand (as in carrying a basket) (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bitíkcatch with a noose or lasso; become entangled or caught in; trap a person into saying something (PMP: *bitik₁)

bitík sa utútexpression of disbelief or denial: what (gen.) maintains is false! (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

bítincarry something hanging down in the hands (PPh: *bítin)

bitínsnake (PPh: *bítin)

bitíʔisleg, esp. the lower leg (PMP: *bities)

bítucave with a small opening but with a very large and spacious interior; dig a hole, become a cave or deep pit; throw in a hole (PPh: *bítu)

bítukroundworm in the digestive tract; have worms (PWMP: *bituk)

bituk-bitukname given to pipefishes of worm-like size and appearance (PWMP: *bituk)

bitúk-unhaving roundworms (PWMP: *bituk-en) *bituk

bitúʔunstar; kind of tree of strand, the star-shaped fruits of which are used as fish poison: Barringtonia asiatica (PAN: *bituqen)

bitúʔun sa dagatstarfish (PAN: *bituqen)

biyáwkind of small shiny beetle found in trees (NOISE)

biʔáswater container made of one internode of a bamboo tube; make into a biʔás (PWMP: *biqás)

biʔáswater container made of one internode of a bamboo tube; make into a bi?ás (LOAN)

buboo, booing (in disapprobation) (NOISE)

búbubox-like trap woven from bamboo slats allowing entrance but no egress, used to catch fish or monkeys; (set in rivers for fish); make into such a trap; catch things with the búbu (PAN: *bubu₂)

búbudeeply stupid, idiotic (LOAN)

Cebuano (400 / 2798)

bubúnfontanel (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

bubúŋcovering at the ridge of the roof; household unit living under one roof; house, home; cover the space between the upper edges of the roof, at the ridge (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bubúŋ-ancovering at the ridge of the roof; household unit living under one roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

budbúdwind string, wire, strips, etc. around something or into a ball; coil, spoolful (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

budbúdwind string, wire, strips, etc. around something or into a ball; coil, spoolful (NOISE)

budbur-ánreel, spool (PWMP: *bejbej-an) *bejbej

budlátbulging eyes; for the eyes to bulge (ROOT)

budlíslong thin mark, stripe, smear (ROOT)

bugáemit something with force or in great quantity (as an octopus spewing out its ink); treat an illness by expectorating chewed medicinal herbs on a sore spot or at the person (e.g. for a stomach ailment); do something with force or energy; hit something hard with the fist (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

bugah-ándo with force or energy (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

bugáŋname given to various tall tufted grasses and reed (NOISE)

bugáspimple, cyst (as on the skin of a pig) (PWMP: *beRas-en) *beRas

bugáshusked rice or corn; to husk rice or corn (PMP: *beRas)

bugás-ancontainer for husked rice or corn; rice or corn mill (PAN: *beRas-an) *beRas

bugas-únpimply (PWMP: *beRas-en) *beRas

búgawdrive something somewhere, drive away (as flies); act as a pimp; something used to drive something away; pimp (PAN: *buRaw)

bugáybride price; gift originally given to the bride's family, but now often to the bride; give a bride price (PMP: *beRay)

bugkústie a piece of string or something similar around something long, usually to tie it together with something else (as bamboo slats into a bundle); slender around the stomach; be, become slim in the abdominal region (PMP: *beRkes)

bugnáykind of small tree: Antidesma bunius (PWMP: *buRnay)

bugsáyoar, paddle; to row, to paddle; make into a paddle, oar (PMP: *beRsay)

Cebuano (420 / 2798)

bugsáy-anthe place in the boat where the one who paddles sits (PWMP: *beRsay-an) *beRsay

bugsúkdive with a straight body with either head or feet first (PMP: *buRsuk)

bugtásfor string or stitches to snap, break suddenly; rip stitches apart (PMP: *be(R)tas)

bugúkfor an egg to be rotten (PAN: *buRuk)

búguktake a mouthful of liquid to gargle (ROOT)

bugʔátheavy; difficult to accomplish, onerous; heavy punishment, sorrows; grave, serious accusation; for the muscles to be fatigued (PMP: *beReqat)

búhatceremony of offering something cooked with no salt to spirits to insure harvest, give thanks, diagnose an illness; the one who performs this ceremony is the diwatah-an (PWMP: *buhat₁)

búhatdo something, do work; make, construct, create; something made; work, job, deed (PMP: *buhat₂)

búhatto lift (PMP: *buhat₃)

buhat-ánplace of work, office (PMP: *buhat-an₂) *buhat₂

buhat-búhatdo a variety of small chores (PMP: *buhat₂)

buhístaxes, license fee; pay taxes, tribute; offer as tribute (as one's life for country; poetic) (PWMP: *buhís)

buhúkhair on the head (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buhuk-búhuksomething like hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buhuk-búhuk sa máʔiscorn tassel (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

búhus, buhúspour something out; pour one's feelings on someone; for rain to pour (PWMP: *buhus)

bukáfor the eyes or mouth to open, cause them to do so (PMP: *buka)

búkalboil something; for something to boil; be agitated; seethe with anger (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukásopen something; be opened (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

búkawkind of owl: Ninox philippensis (PWMP: *bukaw)

Cebuano (440 / 2798)

búkidmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukíd-nunfrom the mountains (PAN: *bukij)

bukír-anmountain range; farm (PWMP: *bukij-an) *bukij

bukír-unmountainous (PAN: *bukij)

bukládspread something (as a mat) out flat; for a girl to grow to maidenhood (poetic); for a blossom to open (PMP: *bekelaj)

bukládspread something out flat; for a girl to grow to maidenhood; for a blossom to open (PPh: *buklad)

buknúllump, something bulging, bunch of fibrous materials; bulge, be lumpy; tie into a bunch (as hair) (PPh: *buknul)

buktútname given to humpbacked fish, e.g. the Philippine jack: Hymnis momsa; kind of humpbacked shrimp (PWMP: *beketut)

buktútname given to humpback fish, e.g. the Philippine jack (PPh: *buktút)

bukúnode of a stem (as of bamboo); chop something at the node (PMP: *buku)

buku-bukúthe back of a person or animal (PMP: *buku buku) *buku

bukúl, búkulprotruding lump (as on someone's head); lump, clump; get a lump (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bukul-bukúlbe full of lumps (as curdled milk) (PPh: *bukul bukul) *buŋkul

búlaball; game of ball (LOAN)

buládstay out in the sun; dry something in the sun; be, put out under the moon; expose one's body brazenly; lay down an open card, esp. the starting card in a game; dried fish; card laid open, esp. the starting card (PPh: *belaj)

búlagto separate from, get separated (NOISE)

búlakflower, blossom; woman (metaphor); to flower (PWMP: *bujak)

bulákawharmful supernatural being that takes the form of a ball of fire with trailing sparks. If it brushes or gets close enough to smell the skin it makes a permanent white spot; ball of fire used as transportation for úŋluʔ (witch) (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

bulak-búlaksweet things in life; flowery design (PWMP: *bujak)

bulalákawfor the juice squeezed from coconuts to be in a condition such that it yields very little oil when boiled, but instead turns to foam (PPh: *bulalákaw₁)

Cebuano (460 / 2798)

bulalákawshooting star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

bulálu, bulá'luʔgeneric term for good-sized or large cowries (NOISE)

búlanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulan-búlankind of tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides (PMP: *bulan-bulan₁) *bulan-bulan

bulan-búlanevery month (PMP: *bulan-bulan₂) *bulaN

bulan-búlankind of moon shell with edible flesh (PMP: *bulan₁)

bulán-unmoonlight; having weak vision (as if looking at things by moonlight) (PWMP: *bulan-en) *bulaN

búlaŋevent (fiesta or market) at which a cockfight is held (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bulaŋ-áncockpit for holding cockfights (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

búlaswhite odorous accumulation found under the foreski (NOISE)

búlaswhite odorous accumulation found under the foreskin (NOISE)

buláwbronze color of pigs, brownish green color of army blankets or cloth of similar color (PAN: *bulaw)

buláw-angold; become gold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bulawán-ungolden in color; noble, golden in value (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

buláʔbubbles, foam; foamy, forming bubbles (as soapsuds in water) (PMP: *budaq₁)

buláʔbubbles, foam; foamy, forming bubbles (as soapsuds in water); form bubbles, foam (as a horse foaming at the mouth) (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

bulbúlpubic hair, grow pubic hairs (PPh: *bulbúl)

bulhúgblinded because of cataracts; partially blinded; get cataracts; get to be, make someone partially blind (PWMP: *buleheR)

bulíburi palm: Corypha elata. The fibers from the unopened leaves are used in weaving hats, baskets, etc. It is also a source of toddy, vinegar, and sugar. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the trunk is a source of starch (PMP: *buri)

búlighelp (PWMP: *bulig)

Cebuano (480 / 2798)

búligbunch of large fruit, coconuts or bananas; form a bunch of fruit (PMP: *buliR)

bulíkatspread the labia of the vagina apart with the fingers (NOISE)

bulilítsmall child, small and short person; become small and short (PPh: *bulilít)

bulíŋdirt on clothes, face, etc.; smear on one's reputation; to dirty something; become dirty (PWMP: *budiŋ)

bulíŋdirt on clothes, face, etc. (PWMP: *buriŋ)

buliŋ-úndirty, esp. clothes ready for washing; dirty deeds of the past; get covered with dirt (PWMP: *budiŋ)

búlitcaulk, plug up a hole or crack with viscose substances; put paste on something; something used to plug up holes or caulk; paste (PMP: *belit₃)

búlitto caulk, plug up a hole or crack with viscose substances (as cement); put paste on something; something used to plug up holes or caulk; paste; cover over completely with something (PMP: *bulit₁) *bulit

búliʔpenis of man or animal (NOISE)

búludlow hill; be, become a hill (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

búluŋ, bulúŋtreat with medicine (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bulúŋankind of sweet banana with a green peel, Musa sapientum, var. suaveolens (NOISE)

bulútthe shiny black crown of thorns which covers the tubers of the Dioscorea esculenta, esp. the wild varieties (PMP: *bulut₁) *bulut

búluʔkind of unarmed, thin-walled bamboo with straight smooth stems: Schizostachyum lumampao (PAN: *buluq₂)

búmbapump; spray gun; erotic show; engage in sexual intercourse (LOAN)

búmbah-a aŋ púsupump the well! (LOAN)

bumbáyIndian, Hindu; kind of large goat with a long beard and curved horns (LOAN)

búnakwash clothes (NOISE)

búnalstrike with a club or whip; for a fighting cock to deliver a blow with its legs (PWMP: *benal)

bunálclub, whip; blows of a fighting cock; penis (slang) (PWMP: *benal)

Cebuano (500 / 2798)

búnalstrike with a club or whip; for a fighting cock to deliver a blow with its legs; for a person to fall heavily with a thud; club, whip; blows of a fighting cock; penis (slang) (PPh: *bunal)

bunbunfine sand; be filled with, covered with fine sand (PMP: *bunbun)

bunbúnfine sand; filled with, covered with sand (NOISE)

bundáklet something fall with force; stamp one's feet (PMP: *bezak)

bundáklet something fall with force; stomp one's feet; for the rain to fall heavily; speak with a gruff voice (PWMP: *bundak)

buntíspregnant woman; be, become pregnant; be carried in the womb (PWMP: *bentis)

buntíspregnant woman; be, become pregnant; be carried in the womb (PPh: *buqetis)

buntulsmall hill, top of a hill (PMP: *buntul)

búnuggeneral term given to small, somewhat slender-bodied fishes with extensive dorsal and ventral spines and tail fins in one piece; gudgeons and gobies (PWMP: *bunuR₂)

búnukfor rain to fall in torrents (NOISE)

búnutpull something that is in between something; pull out something rooted, stuck in something; pull something out as if uprooting weeds; draw a weapon (PMP: *benut₂) *beNuC

bunútcoconut husk and shell; husk a coconut; scrub the floor with a coconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

búnutpull something that is in between something; pull out something rooted, stuck in something (as a nail); pull something out as if uprooting weeds; draw a weapon (LOAN)

búnuʔkill; throw something at something (as a stone at a person) (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunúʔ-anplace in fish corral where the fish is trapped and taken (PWMP: *bunuq-an₂) *buNuq₂

bunʔíringworm; be affected with ringworm (PMP: *buqeni)

búŋafruit; result, outgrowth; bear fruit; produce results; betel nut palm: Areca catechu. Name also given to other palms of similar appearance (PMP: *buŋa)

búŋa di Tsínaornamental palm which is similar in appearance to the búŋa: Adonidia merrillii (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋáŋafor something to be open wide or ajar (as the mouth falling open in surprise) (ROOT)

búŋa-ŋ káhuyfruit tree (PMP: *buŋa na kahiw) *buŋa

Cebuano (520 / 2798)

buŋátstate, express something (PPh: *beŋát₂) *beŋát

buŋáwabsent-minded, forgetful, esp. due to old age; absent-mindedness, forgetfulness (PWMP: *buŋaw₁)

buŋbúŋwall of a building; side covers of any box-like thing; enclose with, make into a wall; for adverse weather or some other barrier to confine people somewhere (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

búŋiʔharelip (NOISE)

buŋkágtake something apart, break something up into its constituent parts, break up a group, disarrange something in a group; break up a relationship; break the soil in a field that has never been cultivated or not cultivated for some time (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

buŋkágtake something apart, break something up into its constituent parts; break up a group, disarrange something in a group; break up a relationship; break the soil in a field that has never been cultivated or not cultivated for some time (PMP: *buŋkaR)

buŋkásundo something sewn (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

buŋkásundo something sewn (as pants at the seams) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋkúlplace where the bones bulge in the knuckles, ankles, etc.; knot in a tree; cyst (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

búŋugdeafened, stunned (PWMP: *beŋeR)

búŋugdeafened, stunned; stunning because of size or amount, usually said of food; yellowish secretion from an infected ear (PWMP: *buŋug)

buŋúldeaf; for a musical instrument or money not to be resonant; be, become deaf (PMP: *beŋel)

búŋutbeard, moustache; pubic hairs (euphemism) (PPh: *beŋet₂)

búŋutbeard, moustache; pubic hairs (euphemism) (PWMP: *buŋut)

buŋʔáwchasm, narrow gorge (PPh: *beŋqáw)

burákflower (PWMP: *bujak)

búrucover something all over with salt, sugar, flour (as meat); serve, eat fish with lots of salt; small dried fish with more salt than the ordinary (LOAN)

burúldull, not sharp; dull, stupid; for an instrument to become dull; round-tipped, dull-bladed knife for weeding (PWMP: *budul)

búsawglutton; become a glutton (as after experiencing hunger) (PMP: *busaw)

busáywaterfall (PPH: *besay)

Cebuano (540 / 2798)

busg-únlet have one's fill (PWMP: *besuR-en) *besuR

busílakradiate light, especially the sun (ROOT)

busínaauto horn; sound produced by such a horn (LOAN)

busiʔsiʔmake a laceration, esp. in a surface that is tight due to fullness (PPh: *busiqsiq)

buskádundo, undie something, esp. so that the contents spread; for something wrapped or tied up to open; for hair neatly groomed to get dishevelled; expose someone's secret (PPh: *beskaj)

buskágundo, undie something, esp. so that the contents spread; for something wrapped or tied up to open; for hair neatly groomed to get dishevelled; expose someone's secret (PPh: *beskag)

busúgfull, sated (from eating); fill oneself to satisfy (PAN: *besuR)

busúgfluff up cotton or kapok in preparation for further use (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

busúg-anfluffer of cotton or kapok fibers; bow for shooting arrows (so called from the cotton fluffer, which is a small bow); tube with a tie at the end which propels a spear in spear fishing (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

busúnmailbox into which mail is dropped for collection (LOAN)

búsuŋthe punishment inflicted by God on someone for misusing the blessings bestowed on him. The punishment usually consists of deprivation of the thing which had been bestowed by God; earn God's punishment for being wasteful; get stomach pains from overeating (PWMP: *busuŋ)

busúŋ-unget stomach pains from overeating (PWMP: *busuŋ-en) *busuŋ

buswáŋstrong and sudden rush of water; flood out strongly (PPh: *busuáŋ)

bútablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

búta buŋúlblind and deaf (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

búta-bútakind of sorcery which causes the victim to go blind (PWMP: *buta buta₁) *buCa

butákachaise lounge (LOAN)

butakálmale pig; man with a voracious sex appetite (PPh: *butakál)

buth-anánhead of a boil (PMP: *betuʔ₂) *beCuʔ

butísmallpox; kind of contagious swine disease characterized by high fever and tiny eruptions at the base of the tongue exuding a sticky fluid; get smallpox; get swine disease (PPh: *butí)

Cebuano (560 / 2798)

butih-únhaving lots of pockmarks in the face (PPh: *butih-en) *butí

butíkadrug store (LOAN)

bútilfull, sated in eating (coarse); fill oneself up, be full (PPh: *bútil)

butítigeneral name for pufferfishes (PWMP: *butiti)

butkúnarms, esp. the lower arms; sleeves; add sleeves to a garment (PWMP: *beteken)

butlígsmall cyst-like skin eruptions (PMP: *buteliR)

butúblister; get blisters (PMP: *betuʔ₂) *beCuʔ

butúexplosion (as of a volcano); for something to swell and rupture; fall or hit something with a bang (PMP: *betuʔ₁) *betuʔ

butúblister; get blisters; for something to swell and rupture (PMP: *butu₁) *buCu

butufor something to swell and rupture (PWMP: *bu(n)tu) *bu(n)tu₁

bútuvote; cast vote for (LOAN)

bútudswell with water or gas (as a balloon, a bloated corpse) (PWMP: *buntuD)

butúkmake bundles of rice seedlings; sizeable bundle of rice seedlings for transplanting (PPh: *betek₁)

butúlslow, unintelligent, poor in doing things; slow and inefficient; unskillful or unintelligent (PWMP: *butul)

butúŋkind of thick, straight and smooth bamboo: Gigantochloa levis (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

bútuyfor flesh to swell (as from a bee sting) (PPh: *butúy)

bútuʔfemale genitalia; testicles; male of the species, esp. animals; castrated male pig raised for meat purposes; raise a castrated male pig (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butuʔ-bútuʔclapper of a bell, bob of a plumb line (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

búwaʔspongy growth inside a coconut which is produced prior to sprouting; it is good to eat (PMP: *buaq)

búyafloat, buoy (LOAN)

Cebuano (580 / 2798)

buyáŋkind of bright-colored paper umbrella, in vogue before World War II (PWMP: *buyaŋ)

buyúgkind of solitary bluish-black wasp common near the house, nesting in the soil; kind of solitary bee, colored black with reddish overtones (PPh: *buyug)

buyug-únfeather coloration of cocks which is black with reddish overtones (PPh: *buyug)

búyuŋbecome dizzy (LOAN)

búyuŋbecome dizzy (NOISE)

búyut ~ balúyutbag made of straw (NOISE)

búyuʔbetel pepper, a cultivated and wild vine, the leaves of which are used together with búŋa as a chew: Piper betle (PWMP: *buyuq)

buʔákbreak something open, to pieces; for something to break (NOISE)

buʔáyacrocodile; lend or gamble in such a way that there is no chance of getting any but huge returns; hogging the ball in basketball; get to be greedy in lending, gambling or with the ball; for someone to entrap someone into playing with him by pretending not to know how (PMP: *buqaya)

buʔayáh-unhaving a configuration in the lines of the palm resembling a crocodile and which signifies that the bearer will never have living children and further his brothers and sisters will not live to maturity. This configuration can be changed by magical means (PMP: *buqaya)

buʔbúʔpour something out, into something (as water into an aquarium); flush a land crab out by pouring water in its hole; action of watering (as flowers) (PMP: *buqbuq)

buʔbuʔ-ananplace into, through which liquid is poured (PPh: *buqbuq-an) *buqbuq

buʔul-búʔulanklebone; Adam's apple, or any bulge in the area of the neck (PPh: *buqel)

búʔuŋbreak glass or masonry to pieces; ruin someone's reputation (PPh: *búquŋ)

dáanold, not new; the one before, previous (PAN: *daqaN)

dábukcrush by pounding; crushed to fine bits, crumbled (PPH: *dabuk₂)

dábuŋyoung, immature; unripe fruits and vegetables; metal tempered in such a way that it is too soft; bamboo shoots (PPH: *dabuŋ)

dagámistalk that has been left after grain or sugar has been harvested (PMP: *zaRami)

dágatsea; sea water; seasick (PMP: *daRat)

dághuŋgroan (PWMP: *daRehuŋ)

Cebuano (600 / 2798)

dágpakslap hard enough to make a noise (PWMP: *dagepak)

dagpákslap hard enough to make a noise (NOISE)

dágumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

dáhunleaf; grow leaves (PMP: *dahun)

dáhun-dáhunany insect that looks like a leaf (PMP: *dahun-dahun) *dahun

dakdákfall down with a bang; throw something down with force that is heavy, fall down with a bang on the rump; knock someone on the head; heap blame, abuse on someone (PWMP: *dakdak)

dakdák ulánfor a rainstorm to break (PWMP: *dakdak)

dakúpto catch; apprehend, arrest; catch fire (PAN: *dakep)

dakup-dákupgame of tag; play tag (PAN: *dakep)

dalágsnakehead, edible freshwater fish: Ophiocephalus spp. (also called haluan) (PPH: *dalág)

dalágaunmarried woman; young girl who has reached maturity; reach womanhood by virtue of menstruating (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

daláganfor a person to run; for a machine to run, function; speed, velocity; circulation (PPH: *dalágan)

dalag-ítaa girl close to maturity but not yet mature (ten to thirteen years old) (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dalág tásikfish similar to the snakehead but found in the sea (PPH: *dalág)

dálanstreet, road, way; way, means; the way one acts, lives (PMP: *zalan)

dalídlarge root which is flat and projects above the ground (PMP: *dalij)

d-al-ugdugthunder (PAN: *deRdeR)

dálumbeneath, below (a house, etc.) (PMP: *dalem)

dánawpool of water (PAN: *danaw)

daŋdáŋheat something slightly near fire or under the sun (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

Cebuano (620 / 2798)

dápalmeasurement equal to the width of the palm with the fingers outstretched and together reckoned from the middle of the thumb to the base of the little finger (PWMP: *dapal)

dápatbring something into contact with something else; administer medicine; lay hands on one, hit; use in building something; money spent on (PPH: *dápat)

dápaʔlie on the stomach (LOAN)

dápaʔstorage place (hut or large box) for corn and rice (NOISE)

dapdápsmall tree of the seashore, widely planted as an ornamental for its numerous bright red flowers, Erythrina variegata (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dápitattract someone or something to go somewhere (as in using a light at night to attract fish); attract notice, attention; divert water somewhere; place; position, relative standing; direction, vicinity of (PWMP: *dapit)

dapúgplace in the kitchen where the cooking fire is built (PMP: *dapuR)

dapúg-anplace in the kitchen where the cooking fire is built (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

dasmag súluŋrush attack or assault (PWMP: *suruŋ)

datáglevel land (PAN: *dataR)

dátu-ʔrich, wealthy; title of a chief, now said only to Muslim leaders (PMP: *datu)

daúlarge hardwood tree (PAN: *daqu₁)

dáutdestroy, make inoperative; to harm, have bad effects on; be in bad health, cause bad health; harm someone with sorcery; speak ill of someone; of the weather, to get bad (PWMP: *zaqet)

daút-ansorceror; bad in character or effect, not auspicious (PWMP: *zaqet)

dáwamillet: Setaria italica. Widely cultivated, it is most commonly made into budbud [sweet prepared from crushed ingredients (rice, corn, pili nut, millet, etc.) formed into sticks, wrapped in banana leaves and steamed] (PAN: *zawa₂)

dawa-dáwakind of tall grass bearing spikes similar to millet in appearance: Echinochloa crusgalli (PAN: *zawa₂)

díkitbe close so as to touch, put something close to touch it (PWMP: *diŋkit)

díkitbe close so as to touch, put something close to touch it (PWMP: *ziŋkit)

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dílaʔ-dílaʔreed of a wind musical instrument (PWMP: *dilaq-dilaq) *dilaq₁

Cebuano (640 / 2798)

dílaʔ-dílaʔ sa íruʔtwo hairy herbs with medicinal uses: Elephantopus mollis and E. spicatus (PWMP: *dilaq-dilaq) *dilaq₁

d<in>águmpin (PAN: *zaRum)

d<in>akp-ana suspect (one apprehended on suspicion of guilt) (PAN: *dakep)

d<in>ápitguests (PWMP: *dapit)

díŋdiŋwall; side covers of any box-like thing (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

dipʔitput something with some height close to something else so that it is touching or nearly touching (PWMP: *diq(e)pit)

dírisstrong offensive odor of a siŋgawuŋ (kind of civet) (PWMP: *didis)

disdiscut a slit in something (PAN: *disdis)

ditáʔbig tree with light wood used for making wooden slippers, the bark of which is used against malaria: Alstonia scholaris (PMP: *ditaq₁)

dugdúg, d-al-ugdúgthunder (PWMP: *duRduR)

duhátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duhá-dúhadoubtful, unlikely; suspicion; hesitation; to doubt, suspect, hesitate (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

dúkdukpound something repeatedly (PMP: *dekdek)

dukútget stuck in or so something; not move from a place, stick to a job; for starchy foods to form a crust at the pot; adhere to each other; be close to one another; for fire to catch to something (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC SE Bohol

dukútfor fire to catch to something (PMP: *zeket)

dulafor animals to be shy and not allow anyone to approach them (PWMP: *dura)

duldúlkapok fiber or tree: Ceiba pentandra. The pods produce a cotton-like fiber which is used as furniture stuffing (PWMP: *zelzel)

dúlonlocust; be attacked by locusts; swarm somewhat like locusts (PPh: *dúdun)

dulugsleep together with someone (PWMP: *duluR)

dumdúmremember to do something; think something would happen (PAN: *demdem₁)

Cebuano (660 / 2798)

dúmulput something near the face (lips, mouth) (PWMP: *dumul)

dúŋandone or happening at the same time; do something together or at the same time (PMP: *deŋan)

duŋúgto hear; to listen; heed one’s requests; reputation, honor; be bruited about, widely known; hear one another (PMP: *deŋeR)

dupáto extend the arms out sideways (as in Christ on the cross); bar the way with outstretched arms; measure something by fathoms (PAN: *depa)

dupúŋkind of short-bodied and very venomous snake (PAN: *depuŋ)

dusdússhove, push something close towards or against something (as pushing two beds together, or shoving a torch against a beehive); push one’s way (as through a crowd) (PPH: *desdes₁)

dúyanhammock; cradle; rock oneself in a hammock; swing back and forth; for an emotion to sway one; make a hammock (PPH: *dúyan)

dúyuŋdugong, kind of sea cow (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

gabhí-untaking place at night (PPH: *Rabi-en) *Rabiqi

gabíʔinight (PMP: *Rabiqi)

gábnutuproot something flexible with a jerk (PWMP: *Ranebut) dialectal

gabúkfor wood and fiber to be weakened from decay (as in a floor); not well-founded, unsound (PMP: *Rabuk)

gábunfog; be covered with fog (PMP: *Rabun)

gabún-unfoggy (PMP: *Rabun)

gábutpull out plants not in a careful way (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

gágustupid, lacking in sound judgment (PWMP: *gagu)

gahuŋpit trap; trap something in a pit (PMP: *Rahuŋ) *RaSuŋ

gákitbamboo or log raft; ride on a raft; make into a raft (PMP: *Rakit)

gakúdto lash, tie something against something (PPH: *Rakéd)

gákuttie something so as to prevent it from being opened or detached (PMP: *Rakut)

Cebuano (680 / 2798)

gakʔáŋsquat, sit on one's heels on top of something (PWMP: *Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ)

galiŋmill or grind something in a mill (PWMP: *gariŋ)

gamútroot of plants; root cause; for plants to take root; stay long in a place (PMP: *Ramut)

gansúhook attached to sacks to help one heave them; crochet hook; large safety pin; hook in wrestling; put a hook in something to lift it with (LOAN)

gáŋgaŋput something over the coals to dry it or heat it (PWMP: *gaŋgaŋ)

gaŋkaywell dried out, cooked dry (PWMP: *Raŋkay)

gapúʔweak, easily broken; sickly, weak due to old age, brittle-boned (PWMP: *Rapuq)

gásagauze; incandescent mantle of pressure lanterns (LOAN)

gasgasdamage something by scratching it (PWMP: *gasgas)

gataʔjuice squeezed from coconut meat (PMP: *Rataq)

gátaʔjuice squeezed from coconut meat (PWMP: *gateq)

gatúshundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gatus-anin groups of a hundred, hundreds (PWMP: *Ratus-an) *RaCus

gawaŋdoor; hole in flooring or in a wall (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

gawáŋdoor; hole in floor or in wall (PWMP: *gawaŋ)

gawáytentacle (PMP: *gaway)

gayáŋkind of bolo about 18” long with a straight blade; the back edge curves slightly upward forming a crest near the tip, with a flat end that slants outward so that the end and the bottom form a point (PAN: *gayaŋ)

gaʔanlight in weight (PMP: *Raqan)

gi-k<in>ablitto play a guitar (PPH: *kablit)

gílakglitter, sparkle (PMP: *gilak)

Cebuano (700 / 2798)

gílawsteady flow of light from something glowing, gleamimg; glow, gleam (PWMP: *gilaw)

gilúktickling sensation; tickle, feel something tickling (PWMP: *gilek)

g<in>abíʔihappening every night (PPH: *R<in>abiqi) *Rabiqi

g<in>ákitlashed together to form a raft (PMP: *Rakit)

g<in>atʔ-ansomething cooked with coconut juice (PWMP: *gateq)

gi-nháwabreath; appetite for eating; one’s feelings (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gínlawshine, glitter (PWMP: *ginelaw)

gísiʔtear something; make a slight cut or laceration (PMP: *Risiq)

gi-tágumdye something dark or stain something (PMP: *taRum)

gitikpluck a musical instrument (PMP: *gi(n)tik)

giwáŋfissure, narrow crack (PPH: *giwaŋ)

giyáncrave something one is addicted to (PWMP: *gian)

giʔúk ~ gíʔukremove grain from rice stalks with the feet (PAN: *Riqek)

gukúʔbent, bowed, crouched (ROOT)

gúlaŋold in age; mature; to grow old; for fruit to become mature (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

guláŋ-unelderly (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gúlistear along the grain into long strips; make a long, slender scratch mark; long strip; long slender scratch (PWMP: *guris)

gúlistear along the grain into long strips; make a long, slender scratch mark; long strip, long slender scratch (PPH: *gúlis)

gulutincision made in meat (PWMP: *geret₂)

guntiŋscissors; scissors in game of pik (hammer, scissors, paper); cut with scissors (LOAN)

Cebuano (720 / 2798)

gúpakapplause; croaking of frogs, flapping of wings, clacking of wooden slippers (ROOT)

guramigourami, a freshwater food fish: Osphronemus goramy (LOAN)

gusáʔfor a child to be restless, fussy (PWMP: *gesaq)

gúsukrib; hit in the ribs (PAN: *Rusuk)

gusúk-anplace where the rib cage is found (PAN: *Rusuk)

gutgutcut, mark something with a slicing motion; make a sawing motion on something (as in playing the violin) (PPH: *getget₂)

gutukgutukmake a popping noise such as that emitted by food being boiled when the water is nearly gone (PWMP: *getuk)

gúyudto draw, tow; invite a partner to dancing; rope used in trawling or towing; runners of a sled (PWMP: *guyud₃)

guyúr-ansled consisting of a platform without sides mounted on runners (PPH: *guyúd-an) *guyud₃

ha-adjective forming affix added to adjective referring to degree. It has no meaning other than to give a formal flavor to the style: ha-taás 'tall', ha-láyuʔ 'far', ha-lapad 'broad' (PMP: *ha-₁) *ha-

ha-affix added to adjectives referring to degree (PMP: *ha-₂) *Sa-

habágatstrong wind that hits Cebu from the southwest, common from June to September (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

habagat-ansouthwest (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

hábasgrowth which develops in horses' mouths which causes hardship in eating (PPh: *hábas)

ha-bílinbe left behind (as a passenger when a boat leaves); be the amount remaining; for a girl to fail to get married (PWMP: *bilin)

habl-únblanket, sheet, or anything used as covering for sleeping; hand loom; cloth woven in a hand loom (PWMP: *habel-en) *habél

hábukfertilize plants with compost (PMP: *habuk)

habúlweave with a hand loom (PWMP: *habél)

hagdánstairs, ladder; ladder made of a bamboo pole with projections left at the nodes used as the footholds; something by which one climbs or improves; climb a ladder; make into, put a stair or ladder somewhere (PMP: *haRezan)

hagk-án-ango somewhere to kiss something as part of tradition (PPh: *hajek-an) *Sajek

Cebuano (740 / 2798)

hagkútsticky (ROOT)

hagpákslam with a loud bang (ROOT)

hagpíkslap someone fairly hard on the shoulders (ROOT)

hágpuʔfor a line or rope to break under tension (ROOT)

hagtákmake a cracking or banging sound (of objects on colliding or falling) (ROOT)

hagtíksharp clicking sound (PWMP: *hagetik)

hagtíksharp clicking sound (ROOT)

hagtúkloud knocking sound (PWMP: *hagetuk)

hagtúkloud knocking sound (ROOT)

hagtúkloud knocking sound (ROOT)

hagtúsfor a line or rope to break under tension (ROOT)

háguksnore (PWMP: *haguk)

háguŋcontinuous humming, high-pitched sound (PMP: *haRuŋ) *SaRuŋ

hakúpscoop up with one hand; clasp something with one hand; embrace, seize or hold something by encircling it with the arms (PWMP: *hakep)

hákutcarry or haul something in several trips (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

hakut-an-anplace where something one hauls is obtained; place where things are hauled; something used in hauling things (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

ha-lapadwide, broad (PMP: *ha-₂) *Sa-

halígipost; pillar or strong member of an organization; head, mainstay on which a group rests; outstanding person in a specific field of endeavor; penis (humorous); use as a post (PMP: *hadiRi) *SadiRi

halínmove away from a place permanently (PMP: *halin)

halúmonitor lizard (PWMP: *haluh)

Cebuano (760 / 2798)

haluansnakehead, edible freshwater fish: Ophiocephalus spp. (PWMP: *haruqan)

halúkkiss, sniff, putting the nose next to the person kissed; to kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

hambincarry something by folding up the front part of one's skirt or shirt and putting it in the folds (PWMP: *hambin)

hambúgbig talk, most often not quite true; engage in big talk (PPh: *hambúg)

hampákstrike, slam with force making a noisy impact (PPh: *hampak)

hampáŋhave intercourse (euphemism) (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

hampáŋplay (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

hampílattach something to something solid, as a patch or sign; spread something on top of something else or between two objects as a protection; pile flat, flexible things one on top of the other (PMP: *hampil)

hámuksuperhuman beings that harass people by frightening them. They usually assume the form of oversized animals if they show themselves, or may just indicate their presence without showing themselves. They may be found in any lonely place (PMP: *hamuk)

hana-gdúŋ, hina-gdúŋsmall tree of thickets. A fluid which is blown out of the wood is used as a poultice for swellings. The leaves are mixed with water for bathing babies (PMP: *deRuŋ₂)

handa-lámaysmall tree: Pipturus argenteus. The white part of its bark is scraped and placed over dislocated bones to prevent swelling; the leaves are applied to eczemas (PMP: *adamay)

hantatalúkind of green caterpillar, esp. fond of caladium and taro plants, and also found on citrus, turning into a butterfly (PWMP: *hantatadu)

háŋakpant, be out of breath from exertion (PWMP: *haŋak)

haŋalinattentive to what one is about (LOAN)

háŋinair; wind; breath or air as necessary for the body, stamina; mere talk, idle words; force, agency that carries something along or influences something; become windy; be blown by the wind; get puffed up, conceited (PMP: *haŋin)

haŋin-ánkind of sea cucumber that shrinks greatly when taken out of the water (PWMP: *haŋin-an) *haŋin

háŋin-uncrackpot, characterized by silly and impractical ideas (PWMP: *haŋin-en) *haŋin

haŋítget irked or irritated to the point of anger (PMP: *haŋit)

háŋusbreathe heavily or with difficulty; heavy breathing (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

haŋútbite at, chew something rubbery or sinewy (PPh: *haŋút)

Cebuano (780 / 2798)

hapdússtinging, burning pain in a wound, pangs of hunger; for words to be stinging (PMP: *hapejes)

hapínsomething that is laid over or under something; food taken along with drinks as a digestive buffer; lay something over something (PMP: *hapin)

hapin-únbe lined by (PPh: *hapin-en) *hapin

hápiʔfor plants to bend flat to the ground (as corn bent flat by a strong wind) (PMP: *hapiq) *Sapiq

hapúhapstroke gently back and forth with little pressure (PMP: *hapuhap) *SapuSap

hapúnfishing line (PMP: *hapen)

hápunafternoon, early evening (PPh: *hápun)

hásaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

hasáŋ-anhaving gills (PWMP: *hasaŋ-an) *hasaŋ

hásaŋ-hásaŋan outlet on the side of a ship's hull to let the bilge water out (PMP: *hasaŋ)

hasúgpush something into a container and tamp it down to fill it tight (as in filling a sack with copra) (PWMP: *haseg)

hasúkinsert something into a hole or sheath (PWMP: *hacuk)

hasúkmake a hole to sow seeds in; insert something into a hole or sheath; drive in stakes or pegs; dibble stick; hole dibbled in the ground to sow seeds in; action of making a hole; peg, stake (PMP: *hasek₁)

hasúkpack inside tight by compacting or tamping it down (as copra in a sack); compressed and well-packed inside a container (PMP: *hasek₂)

hasúkinsert something into a hole or sheath (PWMP: *hasuk)

hátawappear for a moment on a surface (Also Maranao atao 'float, drift') (ROOT)

hatáyexpression preceding a phrase warning someone against doing something foolish: watch out (PWMP: *hatay)

ha-taʔásvery long; high (PMP: *atas) *aCas

hatd-ánbring (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

hatúdtake something somewhere; make something reach a certain distance in time or space; something delivered (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

Cebuano (800 / 2798)

háwakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

hawák-anwaistline (PWMP: *hawak-an) *Sawak

hawak-untend to suffer from backaches (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

háwanclear an area; for an area to become clear (PWMP: *hawan)

hawan-ánliving room; floorspace or anything enclosed (PWMP: *hawan)

hayúnswing the arms in walking (PWMP: *hayun)

háyupdomestic animal; a person with base instincts and desires (PPh: *hayep)

híasgood qualities, virtues not inherent in something pa-hias something used to make a woman beautiful; use jewelry or make-up (LOAN)

hi-bílinbe left behind (as a passenger when a boat leaves); be the amount remaining; for a girl to fail to get married (PPh: *hi-bilín) *bilin

híbunfor a depression to get filled up or covered (PMP: *hibun)

híbunfor a depression to get filled up or covered (ROOT)

hi-bútuʔto castrate animals (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

higdáʔlie down (PPh: *hideRáq)

higpítnarrow, for something to be small such that it restricts motion, causes difficulty (PPh: *higpít)

hígupsip, take in liquid by sucking it up with air; take in air in the same manner (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

higup-án, higup-ánansomething from which one sips a liquid (PWMP: *hiRup-an) *SiRup

higúttie something up; tie something to something (PPh: *hiRét)

hika-túlugfall asleep (PAN: *tuduR)

hiknátpull slightly with the fingers as if stretching something (PPh: *hikñat)

hikúttie something up; tie something to something (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

Cebuano (820 / 2798)

hiláwuncooked, raw; unripe, green (PPh: *hiláw)

híligleaning, tilted to one side; develop a tendency, inclination (PPh: *hírig)

hilíŋexamine something carefully, touching it to see what is there; examine one's health (PWMP: *hiliŋ)

hilítsecluded, isolated in location (as a place with no near neighbors) (PPh: *hilít)

hilúpoison ingested; poison something or someone (PWMP: *hilu)

hílumsilent, quiet; secret, not overt (as secret love); keep something secret, hush something up (PWMP: *hidem)

hilúsfor something tied securely in place to slip off, move out of place by sliding (ROOT)

hílutmassage, pull the bones for medicinal purposes (PPh: *hílut)

hímagoil with magical healing properties obtained from a special kind of leech (PMP: *himaR) *SimaR

him-bulbúldress fowl or birds by plucking the feathers (PPh: *hi-bulbul) *bulbúl

him-búligproducing lots and lots of bunches (PMP: *buliR)

hiN-prefix forming verbs which mean 1. be almost (such-and-such) a state, time of day, 2. referring to an intense action, 3. added to nouns to form a verb meaning 'get the (noun) out', 4. added to a few verb bases to form nouns referring to an accidental or involuntary action (PMP: *hin-) *Sin-

hi-nablúkeat something in great quantity to (PPH: *sab(e)lek)

hínameager, intensely desirous (as to eat) (PPh: *hínam)

hi-nánaʔtake out pus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

hin-aŋk-anhen that has raised a brood (PPh: *hin-anak-an) *aNak

hin-a-tulíinstrument for getting earwax out (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

hináwwash the hands (PMP: *hiñaw) *Siñaw

hinaw-anwash basin (PMP: *hiñaw-an) *Siñaw

hi-nawnáwrinse (PAN: *ñawñaw)

Cebuano (840 / 2798)

hin-basáʔwash someone's feet (PMP: *baseq)

hindáŋkind of small tree: Myrica javanica (NOISE)

hin-púsudcut the umbilical cord; instrument for cutting the umbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

hiN-siksíkfor birds and fowls to preen their feathers; search for nits in the head by running the strands of hair between thumb and forefinger (PWMP: *siksik₁)

h-in-úgasdishwasher (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

h<in>uŋáwgas or air exuded (PMP: *heŋaw) *Seŋaw

híŋakbreathe deeply and rapidly (PPh: *híŋak)

híŋakbreathe deeply and rapidly (ROOT)

híŋanhave enthusiasm, interest for something (NEAR)

hi-ŋáʔunfond of eating (PAN: *kaen)

híŋussniffle, draw the snot up into the nose (PMP: *hiŋus₂) *Siŋus

híŋussniffle, draw the snot up into the nose (PWMP: *hiŋus₁) *hiŋus

híŋus-híŋuskind of peppery dish made from chicken intestines (PMP: *hiŋus₂) *Siŋus

hipsútslip out (ROOT)

hípunsmall anchovy which comes seasonally in great abundance, most common eaten preserved in salt (PMP: *hipun₁)

hípuntiny shrimp (PPh: *hípun₂)

hipʔútnarrow space or passageway; tight in financial situation, mode of living; for clothes to be tight (PWMP: *hiqepet)

hiumpress the lips tight (PPh: *hium)

híusfor air to leak out; be deflated; leaky, letting air or gas out (PWMP: *hius)

hiwal-híwalwrithe, wriggle (as a worm) (PWMP: *hiwal)

Cebuano (860 / 2798)

híwaʔcut something into smaller pieces or slice (PPh: *híwaq)

hiwaʔ-án-ancutting board (PPh: *hiwáq-an) *híwaq

híwiʔcrooked, winding or twisting, slanting to one side or askew; crooked, dishonest; deformed; become crooked, make something crooked; make a face at someone (PWMP: *hiwiʔ)

hiwíʔcrooked, winding or twisting, slanting to one side or askew; crooked, dishonest; deformed; become crooked, make something crooked; make a face at someone (NEAR)

húbadbreak out of a hold in wrestling or in judo; translate into another language (PPh: *hubád)

hubásdry up or drain liquids out (PPh: *hebás)

hubúnfontanel, the soft, boneless areas in the skull of a baby or young animal which are later closed by the formation of bone (PMP: *hubun₁)

hubún-hubúnfontanel, the soft, boneless areas in the skull of a baby or young animal which are later closed by the formation of bone (PWMP: *hubun hubun)

húgaswash anything but clothes (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

hugás-anplace for washing (PWMP: *huRas-an) *SuRas

hugás-iwash (imper.) (PWMP: *huRas-i) *SuRas

hugás-undishes to be washed (PWMP: *huRas-en) *SuRas

hughúg, h-al-ughúgdrawstring in the waistline of clothing to hold it up; put a drawstring at the waist; pass a thread in and out loosely through the edge of cloth in shirring or basting (PMP: *huRhuR) *SuRSuR

húguŋproduce a steady humming sound (PMP: *heReŋ)

húguŋproduce a steady humming sound (PMP: *huRuŋ)

húgutpull in rope or the like; pick nits from a strand of hair (PAN: *SuRut)

hugútfirmly tied, attached, closed; taut, holding tight; firm in belief, purpose, feeling (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

húgutpull in rope or the like (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

hukábopen, remove a cover through forceful or nonhuman action (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

húkastake clothing off of the top part of the body; expose a secret (PWMP: *hukas)

Cebuano (880 / 2798)

hukúmpass judgement, give a verdict (LOAN)

húkuʔ-húkuʔbe doubled over (PWMP: *hukuq)

hulámborrow something; adopt, take over as one's own (PWMP: *huzam)

hulámborrow something; adopt, take over as one's own (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

huláwdrought, prolonged period without rain (PMP: *hedaw)

hulhúlto bark; to shout halt; barking; shout to halt (PAN: *hulhul₁)

húlugdrop, fall freely, cause something to do so (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

hulúg-angive money to (PWMP: *huluR-an) *SuluR

hulúslower something attached on a string which passes through a pulley (PWMP: *hurus)

humáygeneral term for rice (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

hunáwwash the hands (PWMP: *huñaw)

hunáwwash the hands (PMP: *heñaw) *Señaw

húnaʔ-húnaʔthink about something; think of doing something; think of something or someone; consider, think something over, ponder (PPh: *henaq)

húnisong, musical sounds (PMP: *huni) *Suni

hunsúypipe for smoking (LOAN)

húnusdrawer; pull a drawer out (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

huŋák-huŋákbreathe deeply and rapidly (PMP: *heŋak)

huŋáwfor wind to blow; for air to leak out; for the ground to exude a stench after rain; for body heat to escape, lending relief (PMP: *heŋaw) *Seŋaw

huŋaw-an-ánhole where air or gases leak (PMP: *heŋaw) *Seŋaw

hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact (PWMP: *hepak)

Cebuano (900 / 2798)

hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact (PWMP: *hupak)

hupákdevelop a crack such that the separated pieces are no longer in contact (Also Tiruray ufak 'split lengthwise') (ROOT)

hutíkfor a fish to snap at the bait (ROOT)

huwág(huwág)slender vine, the split stems of which are used for tying purposes: Flagellaria indica (PMP: *huaR)

huyexclamation used upon greeting someone with whom one is intimate; exclamation to attract immediate attention; exclamation uttered upon being provoked (PMP: *huy)

húyaŋrickety, shaky; lacking in firmness, resolve, or will power (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

huyúpblow air, blow something away; treat an ailment by huyúp (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

huyʔábyawn (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

húʔhuʔempty a container of its contents by turning it upside down and agitating it. (PMP: *huqhuq) *SuqSuq

iexpression uttered upon making an error or inadvertently breaking something; exclamation expressing surprise; particle expressing disgust (PAN: *i₁)

iprefix added to roots referring to a place or direction to form nouns meaning "place of (so-and-so)" (PAN: *i₂)

i-instrumental passive verb affix, future (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

íakchirp, cheep (PMP: *iak)

íak-íakkind of bird, the barred graybird: Coracina striata (PMP: *iak)

i-ánudbe carried off (e.g. by floodwater) (PPh: *i-qañud) *qañud

íaʔterm of address for older women (NOISE)

ibá(given as a dialect form of ubán) the other ones, additional ones; include in a group (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

i-bábawplace high up; a place on top of something; high (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

ibaʔtree with sour fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L. (LOAN)

i-budbúdwind around (instrumental focus) (PPh: *i-bejbej) *bejbej

Cebuano (920 / 2798)

íbugattracted (PMP: *ibeR)

íbug-íbugtempt (PWMP: *ibeR ibeR) *ibeR

ibútpull out something rooted, stuck into something; for copulating things to get apart; draw a weapon on one (PMP: *ibut₁)

ibútpull out something rooted, stuck into something (ROOT)

i-daŋdáŋleave something in the sun to heat it (PPH: *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ) *daŋdaŋ

ifkitclose together, usually people (ROOT)

igbáwat the top of something (ROOT)

ígifor a person to feel bad because someone else is shown more affection than he is, esp. by being given something which he did not receive; be jealously possessive of someone (PWMP: *qiRih)

igih-anpossessively jealous (PWMP: *qiRih-an) *qiRih

ígikfor pigs to squeal (ROOT)

ígutscrape something by rubbing a knife which has been fixed into something immovable up and down against it (ROOT)

i-hálasof the jungle; ignorant; become wild, ignorant (PMP: *halas) *Salas

ihápcount (PMP: *ihap)

ihíexpression of surprise or warning (PMP: *ihi)

íhiʔurinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

íhushark (PAN: *qiSu)

i-húlugthrow something down (PPh: *i-huluR) *SuluR

particle showing disbelief (PMP: *iqi)

ika-prefix for ordinal numerals (PMP: *ika-) *Sika-

ika-duhásecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

Cebuano (940 / 2798)

ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

ika-piláwhich [number] is it? (PPH: *ika-pija) *pijax

ika-pitúseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

ika-tulúthird (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

ika-unúmsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

ika-upátfourth (PPh: *ika-epat) *Sepat

i-káwyou (singular) (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

ikúdfollow immediately behind someone (PAN: *ikuD)

íkugtail, or analogous structure (PAN: *ikuR)

i-kuŋkúŋcurled up, bent (PMP: *kuŋkuŋ₂)

ikʔíksqueak like a mouse (PWMP: *qikqik)

ílatheir, by them; thing that's theirs (PMP: *ida)

ílaidentify, distinguish which is which; recognize who a person is; know a person; acknowledge, consider someone as something; experience, taste (PWMP: *ila₂) *ila

iláshy, afraid to approach someone unfamiliar (PMP: *ilah)

ilág, ílagdodge (PWMP: *qilag)

ilah-ánshy (PWMP: *ilah-an) *ilah

ilaŋ-ílaŋkind of medium- to large-sized tree which produces a multitude of fragrant flowers, esp. in May and June: Cananga odorata (LOAN)

iláp, ílapfor flames to lick at something; touch lightly (PMP: *ilap₁)

i-láwudplace toward town and away from rural areas (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

i-láyaarea away from the coast or town (PAN: *daya)

Cebuano (960 / 2798)

i-laya-nhunhillbilly, one from the remote interior regions (PAN: *daya)

ilh-ánanidentifying mark or sign (PWMP: *ila₂) *ila

íli, ilíh-anremote area, thinly populated, usually forested and inaccessible to vehicles (PMP: *qilih)

íliwlong for something, miss something that one loves (PPh: *íliw)

íluone who has lost a parent (PWMP: *ilu)

íluwipe someone after a bowel movement; something used to wipe oneself after a bowel movement (PAN: *qiluS)

iluh-ánanus (PPh: *qiluh-án) *qiluS

ílukarmpit; carry under the arm (NOISE)

ilúŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ímbawkind of grey lucene clam with concentric ridges running along the width but with no vertical lines, 2 to 3 inches in width (PMP: *qibaw₁)

imn-ún-unalcoholic liquor or beverage; any liquid for drinking; folk medicine consisting of boiled herbs and roots taken orally (PWMP: *inum-en) *inum

impáspaid off, up; be done for, finished off, dead (PMP: *qimpas)

ímuyou (sg.) (PMP: *imu) *Simu

imut-imútbe financially hard-up on a long-term basis (PPh: *ímut)

ináold word for 'mother' that is confined to set phrases (PMP: *ina)

ina-ínastepmother; foster mother (PWMP: *ina ina) *ina

in-amák-ansomething woven like amákan (PWMP: *amak)

in-amaŋpantomime, in sign language (NEAR)

in-ániharvested rice or millet (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

in-asínfood preserved in salt (PWMP: *q<in>asin) *qasiN

Cebuano (980 / 2798)

ínatstretch, cause to extend farther in length or time (PWMP: *iñat)

inát-unbe stretched by (PPh: *iñát-en) *iñat

ina-úngodmother; act as godmother (PWMP: *ina-en) *ina

indúŋkind of moray eel (NEAR)

ínibe here (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

ínithot, warm to the touch; enthusiastic, heated, with vigorous concern; sunny and clear; heat; sun, as opposed to shade (PWMP: *qinit)

init-uneasily angered; become short-tempered (PPh: *qinit-en) *qinit

intílclitoris (PWMP: *itil)

inúmdrink, drink liquor (PMP: *inum)

inúm-andrinking container; place where one habitually drinks (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

inútclose-fisted to the point of not spending for the barest necessities (PWMP: *qínut)

inut-ínutspend money or use something sparingly (PWMP: *qínut)

iŋkitbite off a small piece with the front teeth (PWMP: *i(ŋ)kit)

iŋkítfingers which are joined congenitally together (ROOT)

íŋugpiercing and persistent in sound; find something unpleasant to hear (PWMP: *qiŋeR)

íŋuswhimper (as a puppy) (PMP: *iŋus)

iŋʔiíŋonomatopoetic for the sound of the music to suspenseful portions of movies, used by children to indicate the part that is suspenseful (PPh: *iŋqiiŋ)

ipáksplit, break a piece off of something hard; divide into pieces (PWMP: *ipak₂)

ipáksplit, break a piece of something hard (ROOT)

ípillarge hardwood tree of the primary or secondary forest, furnishing yellowish lumber and a dye from the bark: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

Cebuano (1000 / 2798)

ipil-ípilsmall rapidly growing tree of waste places or cultivated, extensively used for firewood. The leaves are used as animal feed and medicinally. It bears beans also used medicinally: Leucaena glauca (PPh: *ipil ipil)

ipít, ípitjammed, wedged in between two things (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

ipsútslip out (ROOT)

ipúndo something together with someone as he does it; live or stay with someone; mingle with (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

i-puntílto put into a bag; make a bag (PWMP: *pu(n)tir)

ípussmall cockroach (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

ísipcount something; consider, treat something or someone as something (PPh: *ísip)

isíp-unto count (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

isúgmove, cause something to do so; budge from one's belief (PMP: *iseR)

isúgmove, cause something to do so; budge from one's belief (PMP: *isuR)

ísulmove backwards without turning around (PPh: *isul)

ísʔisexclamation to urge dogs (Llamzon 1969:89) (PMP: *qis)

i-tanúmto plant; implant, nurture in the mind (PPH: *i-tanem) *CaNem

ítikwhite duck (PWMP: *itik₂)

itikkind of ornamental vine: Aristolochia elegans (PWMP: *itik₃)

itlíbbite gently with the front teeth; nibble at (NOISE)

itlúgegg; testicle (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

itúmblack (PMP: *qitem)

íuthave sexual intercourse with (avoided word) (PAN: *qiut)

íut tacoarse interjection of disbelief (PAN: *qiut)

Cebuano (1020 / 2798)

iwás, íwasslip away from, get out of the way (as someone slipping away from his drunken companions) (PPh: *iwas)

íwikfor pigs to squeal (PPh: *íwik)

iwítlast in a race, class, or anything where things are compared (PPh: *íwit)

íyuthave sexual intercourse with (avoided word) (PPH: *iut₂)

ka-prefix added to adjectives in exclamations: ka-gwápu sa ímu-ŋ baláy ‘What a beautiful house you have!’ (cp. gwápu ‘beautiful, good-looking’); ka-dákuɁ ‘How big it is!’ (cp. dákuɁ ‘big, great’) (PPH: *ka-₃)

ka-affix forming nouns which mean ‘one’co-[noun]’: aku-ŋ ka-klási ‘my classmate’ (cf. klási ‘class, kind’), aku-ŋ ka-áway ‘my opponent’ (cp. áway ‘to quarrel, fight’) (PPH: *ka-₄)

ka-affix added to adjectives to form nouns which mean ‘the state of being [so-and-so]’: ka-súbuɁ sadness’ (cp. súbuɁ ‘sad’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

kashort for ikáw used in constructions requiring the nominative except the predicate (PMP: *ka₄)

ka-adlaw-anbirthday, day of patron saint (PPh: *ka-qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

ka-alimátukcovered with leeches (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

ka-aŋhítfoul smell (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

ka-aŋsúfoulness (PPh: *qaŋesu)

kábagto have gas pains; gas pains (PPH: *kábag)

ka-báhuʔstench (PMP: *bahuq)

kabántrunk, chest; to store in a trunk (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabánmeasurement equivalent to twenty-five gantas (LOAN)

kab-an-ancontainer for fetching water (PMP: *kabuq)

kabán-kabánkind of bivalve, so called because it opens and closes like a trunk (PWMP: *kaban₂)

ka-bantúgfame, honor (PPH: *bantug)

kabáŋspotted, splotched; unevenly painted or cut (PPH: *kabaŋ)

Cebuano (1040 / 2798)

kabásigizzard shad: Nematalosa nasus, and Anodontostoma chacunda (PWMP: *kabasi)

kábigmake something move toward one; to convert (PWMP: *kabiR)

ka-bílininheritance (PWMP: *bilin)

kabítcling to, hang on to; join in on a transportation franchise on a minor basis; hook up to a telephone with another line; take a paramour or lover (PPH: *kabít)

kabkábdig a hole by scooping out dirt (PPH: *kabkáb)

kablítto touch, move something by curling the fingers; ask a favor readily from a close acquaintance or friend (PPH: *kablit)

kabúdtie ropes, strings, wires around something large (PWMP: *kabej)

kabúgkind of large fruit bat with a dark brown color, growing to a five or even seven foot wingspan; the flesh is highly esteemed (PPH: *kabég)

ka-búgawone who assists someone in driving away animals or birds (PWMP: *ka-buRaw) *buRaw

kabúgawkind of astringently sour citrus used for hair rinse and seasoning: Citrus hystrix (PPH: *kabuRaw)

ka-bugʔat-únweight; importance, influence (PWMP: *ka-beReqat-en) *beReqat

ka-bukír-anthe mountains (PPh: *ka-bukij-an) *bukij

ka-búlakbestrewn with flowers (PWMP: *bujak)

ka-bulák-anpatch of flowering plants; young women, women collectively (PWMP: *bujak)

ka-búlighelper (PWMP: *bulig)

kabúsvery poor, indigent; to run out of something (PMP: *kabus₁)

ka-butíl-unsatiation (PPh: *bútil)

kabuʔdip water, scoop solids out of a container; fetch water; make, use as a water dipper; something used as a dipper or scoop (PMP: *kabuq)

ka-dalagá-hanmaidens (PWMP: *ka-daRa-an) *daRa₂

kadaŋ-kadaŋblight affecting coconut trees; have coconut blight (LOAN)

Cebuano (1060 / 2798)

ka-datág-anplains (PAN: *ka-dataR-an) *dataR

kadlítstrike a match (PWMP: *kad(e)rit)

kadlítstrike a match (ROOT)

ka-duŋg-án-anhonor (PWMP: *ka-deŋeR-an) *deŋeR

ka-gagúh-anstupidity (PWMP: *gagu)

kágaŋkind of small crab of muddy areas near the shore, with highly prized flesh, but small (PWMP: *gagu)

kágaŋsmall crab of muddy areas near the shore, with highly prized flesh (PMP: *kaRaŋ) *gaRaŋ

kagaskásrustling sound; to rustle (as dry leaves in the wind) (PPH: *kaRaskas)

kagátbite to inflict injury; grab or hold something; catch, snag so as to hold firmly (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

kágawgerms; be contaminated with germs (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

kagiŋstiff (as jerked meat which has been left out too long) (PWMP: *kaRiŋ)

kagiskisa shrill, scraping, scratching sound; make a shrill scraping sound (PPH: *kaRiskis)

kagitkítgrinding, grating sound; make a grinding, grating sound (PPH: *kaRitkit)

kagíʔitmake a creaking sound (PMP: *kaRiqit)

kagt-ánadult freshwater shrimp with well-developed pincers (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

kagúdgrind something to shreds by rubbing or scraping it; abrade, wear off (PMP: *kaRud)

kagúdgrind something to shreds by rubbing or scraping it; to abrade, wear off; have intercourse (slang) (PPH: *kagud)

ka-guláŋ-unage (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

kagúŋmake a hollow sound when empty (ROOT)

kágusscrape something that is hard and coarse (PAN: *kaRus)

Cebuano (1080 / 2798)

kaguskusdull rustling sound (PPH: *kaRuskus)

ka-gúyudboats which are pulled along by another large boat (PWMP: *guyud₃)

ka-háŋin-anatmosphere, air space (PWMP: *ka-haŋin-an) *haŋin

kahílsmall, green, somewhat bitter orange which turns yellow when overripe: Citrus aurantium (LOAN)

ka-hiwiʔ-anmisdeed (NEAR)

kahúg ~ káhugto mix moist and dry ingredients together; to stir something thick (PWMP: *kahug)

ka-humáy-anrice field (PPh: *ka-hemay-an) *Semay

káhuytree; wood, firewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kahuy-káhuykind of weed roughly resembling a full grown tree in structure, growing up to one and one half feet, the leaves of which are used as a poultice to stop bleeding (PMP: *kahi-kahiw) *kaSiw

kahúy-uncoarse, like wood (PWMP: *kahiw-en) *kaSiw

ka-íbugattraction to something (PWMP: *ka-ibeR) *ibeR

ka-íhiʔ-unfeel like urinating (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

kaíŋlarge, cylindrical, rattan basket loosely woven in a hexagonal design, 3’ tall by 2’ across; make into a kaiŋ (PPH: *kaqiŋ)

kaíŋlarge cylindrical rattan basket, loosely woven in a hexagonal design, 3 feet high by 2 feet across (PPH: *kaiŋ)

kaíŋinslash and burn agriculture; area in the forest cleared by burning for agriculture, of temporary or permanent nature (LOAN)

ka-ísip-anmind, seat of consciousness, intellect (PPh: *ka-ísip-an) *ísip

ka-kahúy-anwoods (PWMP: *ka-kahiw-an) *kaSiw

kákakcackle (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak

kakáwcacao: Theobroma cacao L. (LOAN)

kakaʔchildren's word for female genitalia (PMP: *kakaq)

Cebuano (1100 / 2798)

kakhascrape, scratch out something loose, as a chicken scratching around for food (PMP: *kahkah) *kaSkaS

ka-kusg-únspeed; loudness or intensity; briskness of sales (PAN: *keseR)

kalábahoneycomb; to form or build a honeycomb (PPH: *kalába)

ka-lákido one’s best (PMP: *laki₁)

ka-lalakin-anthe menfolk as a group (PWMP: *ka-(la)laki-an) *laki₁

kalamánsi ~ kalamánsiʔa small citrus tree bearing small, round, acid fruit, orange-colored when ripe, with an easily separable peel: Citrus microcarpa (PPH: *kalamansiq)

kala-maty-ána fatal spot on the body (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

kalámaysugar; brown sugar (as opposed to asúkar); make sugar; become sugar (PWMP: *kalámay)

kalamúndiŋa small citrus tree bearing small, round, acid fruit (LOAN)

kálan ~ kalánsmall portable stove made of clay; to make into such a stove (LOAN)

kalásagshield (PWMP: *kalasag)

kalatkátclimb up something using the hands and feet; climb to get, bring (PPH: *kalatkat)

kalátuŋknocker made from a section of a bamboo with a slit on the side (ROOT)

kálawthe hornbill: Buceros hydrocorax (PMP: *kalaw)

ka-lawr-anseas (PWMP: *ka-lahud-an) *lahud

ka-limafive times (PWMP: *ka-lima) *lima

ka-lima-anfifty (PWMP: *ka-lima-an) *lima

ka-lípayhappiness (PPH: *lípay)

káliskind of pointed sword, around 18-20 inches long, with serrations near the handle (LOAN)

ka-lúhatwin, twins (PWMP: *ka-duha) *duSa

Cebuano (1120 / 2798)

k<al>ukhúscrape, scratch off something that sticks to a surface (PWMP: *k<ar>uhkuh) *kuSkuS₂

kalumpaŋspreading tree bearing foul-smelling flowers which are a deep red in color, and kidney-shaped fruit: Sterculia foetida (PMP: *kalumpaŋ)

k<al>uŋkúŋfor the body or limbs to be curled up, bent (PMP: *kuŋkuŋ₂)

k<al>uskússcrape or scratch to remove something from a surface; scratch the hair hard with the hands (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

kalútscratch an itch (PAN: *karut₁)

ka-luwás-ansafety, preservation from destruction (PMP: *luas₁)

ka-ma-guláŋ-aneldest among a given group; first-born (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

kamagúŋkind of large forest tree producing a prized, hard, black wood used as building material and for making canes; the fruit is brown and hairy with white flesh and edible: Diospyros discolor (varieties bearing few seeds are planted and sold commercially as mabúlu) (PPH: *kamaguŋ)

kamáligstorehouse for farm products; stable for work animals (PMP: *kamaliR)

kamandágpoison venom (PPH: *kamandag)

kamansibreadfruit with seeds, the seeds and pulp of which are eaten as a vegetable when not ripe: Artocarpus camansi (NOISE)

kamantígian ornamental annual growing up to two feet high, bearing red, white, and pink flowers, and and fleshy capsules which burst when touched: Impatiens balsamina (PPH: *kamantigi)

kámaŋcreep, crawl (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

kamaŋy-andried form of the resin obtained from almasiga (Agathis philippinensis) and other forest trees. It is burned over coals for its smoke, which is used in folk medicine and other rituals for magical purposes, and also as a mosquito smudge (PWMP: *kamaŋi)

ka-mátayfor people to be killing each other; mass death, killing on a vast scale (PWMP: *ka-m-atay) *aCay

kamátistomato; cook something with tomatoes; be green or red like a tomato; for a penis just circumcized to swell like tomato (LOAN)

kamáysummon by a wave of the hand (PAN: *kamay)

kamkámtouch with the fingers; take something that is not one’s own (as in embezzling funds) (PWMP: *kamkam)

kampítake sides with (PPH: *kampi)

kamuniŋsmall tree of the secondary forest: Murraya paniculata (PMP: *kamuniŋ)

Cebuano (1140 / 2798)

kamúthand; do with the hand; be obtained, achieved (PMP: *kamet)

kamyákind of ornamental ginger producing good-sized, white, fragrant flowers; the rhizomes are used medicinally: Hedychium coronarium (PPH: *kamiá)

kam-ʔáwshallow earthen bowl used to hold food; to put in a small earthen bowl (PPH: *kam(e)qáw)

kánapspread over an area (as measles over the body) (PMP: *kanap₁)

kanap-kánapblurred, dim eyesight; for the eyesight to become blurred (PPH: *kanap₂)

kanáwaywhite sea bird, some 6 inches long and 4 inches high, found perched on driftwood or on sea corals (PMP: *kanaway)

kanʔ-an-aneat somewhere regularly; place to eat (eating table, dining room, restaurant) (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

kanʔ-uncooked rice or corn (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

ka-ŋpossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983) (PAN: *ka₃)

kaŋkáŋfor two or more things which are joined at the base to spread apart (as leaves of a book, legs wide open) (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

kaŋ-uwak-ánplace where crows abound (PMP: *uak₁)

kaŋʔaslightly open, having come off, having a long crack (PMP: *kaŋeqa)

ka-paŋpaŋ-ancliffs; the province Pampanga; its people and its language (PPh: *ka-paŋpaŋ-an) *paŋpaŋ

ka-patág-anplains (PWMP: *pataR₂)

kápawcome to the surface (as a shark fin breaking the surface of the water); rise up into something; for an emotion to show (PPH: *kápaw)

kapáypectoral fins on a fish; anything analogous that propels: wing, flipper; to swim, fly with flapping motions (PMP: *kapay)

kapay-kápayflap something repeatedly (PMP: *kapay)

ka-piláhow many times? (PWMP: *ka-pija) *pijax

kapínbe in excess or extra; profit (PWMP: *kapin)

ka-pitu-anseventy (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

Cebuano (1160 / 2798)

kapkápgrope for something; search a body for something; struggle to obtain something; sneak into a house with the intention of having intercourse with a girl (PAN: *kapkap)

ka-pulutbird trap made of a sticky sap extracted from a tree and placed on a stick tied to a branch; catch something with this trap (PMP: *pulut)

ka-pupús-ancoming to an end (PWMP: *puspus₁)

káput ~ k<ul>áputtwine around something (as a squash plant that is entwining a papaya tree; cling to something (as a monkey clinging to a branch) (PPH: *kapet)

ka-pútiʔwhiteness (PWMP: *ka-putiq) *putiq

kápuytired, weary, exhausted through exertion; something that is too much trouble, one who is too lazy to do (PPH: *kápuy)

ka-ráanolden times; very old, leftover from an olden time (PAN: *daqaN)

káraŋstilts or similar contrivance to walk on, used for walking through water or for amusement; to walk on stilts, make into stilts; tall and lanky (PWMP: *kazaŋ₁)

ka-sakítpain, physical or emotional (PWMP: *ka-sakit) *sakit

ka-sákitcrucifix (PWMP: *ka-sakit) *sakit

kásawmake noise by splashing in the water (so as, for example, to disturb someone who is fishing) (PWMP: *kacaw)

ka-saysay-ánhistory, chain of events; legend, story handed down by tradition (PPH: *sáysay)

ka-sílawbrilliance (PMP: *silaw)

kasílikind of darter: Anhinga melanogaster (PPH: *kasíli)

kasíŋtop; make into a top; game of playing with a top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

kasiŋ-kásiŋheart (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

ka-siyám-anninety (PPH: *ka-siam-an) *siám

kaskásuproot vines to clear an area (PMP: *kaskas₁)

ka-suka-unto feel like vomiting (PPH: *suka₂)

kasúycashew, Anacardium occidentale (LOAN)

Cebuano (1180 / 2798)

kátafor sounds to be rapid, in quick succession (as in someone speaking a foreign language very fast); make a series of sharp short sounds in quick succession (as a machine gun rattling) (PPH: *kata)

ka-táguʔ-unfeel very much like hiding oneself (PMP: *taRuq)

katambakkind of fish (PWMP: *katambak)

katáŋedible freshwater crab growing to 4” by 3”, dark browning-green in color (PPH: *kataŋ)

ka-tawáto laugh (PWMP: *ka-tawa) *Cawa

ka-tawh-anpeople, masses (PMP: *ka-tau-an) *Cau

kátidecoy (PPH: *káti)

kátigfloat of an outrigger; provide a boat with outriggers (PMP: *katiR)

kati-guláŋ-anold folks; ancestors (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

katih-andecoy, lure in fishing (PPH: *káti)

ka-típunhousemate (PPH: *típun)

ka-tipún-ana secret revolutionary society which aimed at independence from Spain (PPH: *típun)

katkátundo something sewn or crocheted (PAN: *katkat₂)

ka-tlu-anthirty (PWMP: *ka-telu-an) *telu

ka-tubh-ansugarcane plantation (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

katukconk someone on the head (PMP: *katuk)

katúkconk someone on the head; become stupid, slow to understand and lacking in sense (as if having been hit on the head) (PPH: *katúk)

ka-tukúr-anfounding, establishment (PAN: *tukud)

katulmosquito repellant in coil form, burnt to give off smoke (from the brand name Katul) (LOAN)

ka-tulg-án-anplace one sleeps (PAN: *tuduR)

Cebuano (1200 / 2798)

ka-tulúthree times (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

ka-túlugsleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

ka-ugát-unblood vessels (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ka-uháwthirst (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

ka-ulahí-anthe last (PWMP: *ka-udehi-an) *udehi

ka-unúmsix times (PWMP: *ka-enem) *enem

kauŋmake a hollow sound when empty (PMP: *kauŋ)

ka-upátfour times (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kawáli ~ káwaliʔround bottomed skillet with no handle, smaller than the kawaɁ (LOAN) dialectal

ka-walúeight times (PWMP: *ka-walu) *walu

káwatwire used for conducting electricity (LOAN)

kawáytentacle (PMP: *kaway₂)

kawáyangeneral name for bamboo, but most specifically refers to armed species, esp. Bambusa spinosa (PAN: *kawayan)

kawayán-unresembling a bamboo (PAN: *kawayan)

káwaʔa broad, deep pan without a handle used for stewing, made of cast iron (PWMP: *kawaq)

kawaʔ-káwaʔconcave depression on the ground roughly having a depth and diameter of a káwaɁ (PWMP: *kawaq)

káyawithin one’s ability, easily tackled; within one’s financial capacity to shoulder; to tackle, handle something with ease (PWMP: *kaya)

kayá-anhaving the means to spend for whatever one likes (PWMP: *kaya)

káyabfor cloth or the like to flap, cause it to do so; raise a flag or unfurl a sail (PWMP: *kayab)

kayaŋ kayaŋfall on one's back tottering and grasping the air with the limbs (PWMP: *kayaŋ)

Cebuano (1220 / 2798)

kaykáy ~ kalaykáydig up something with the hands, hoe up something in a scratching manner (PPH: *kaykáy)

kay lagibecause, after all, that is what one would expect; expressing surprise at something contrary to one's expectations (PMP: *lagi)

káʔuneat; destroy by fire; consume, use up; take a man in games of chess, checkers and the like; for a man to have sexual relations with a blood relative; for a girl to be old enough to be had for sexual intercourse; for a fish to bite on one’s line (PAN: *kaen)

káʔun-káʔuneat light snacks between meals (PMP: *kaen kaen) *kaen

kibkíbwear down something bit by bit withthe front teeth (as in biting coconut meat from its shell because it is hard to scrape out); nibble, as a pig at the trunk of a papaya tree (PPH: *kibkíb)

kibúlhaving a cropped or cut-off tail; for something else to be cropped short (PPH: *kibul)

kibútfor the anus to move in contracting; for the mouth to move in chewing or speaking; for a mass of something to move in a somewhat wriggling fashion; movement of the anus or lips (LOAN)

kídlapglitter, flash (PWMP: *kidelap)

kikhi (< *kihki)scrape off something that cakes onto something (PAN: *kiSkiS)

kíkikbird which makes the sound kíkik, (malevolent supernatural) (PMP: *kikik)

kilab kilabglitter, flash intermittently (PMP: *kilab)

kilásmaking rapid and shifting movements; moving about too much, roaming about; flirting too much with the opposite sex; be or become unsteady and shifting in motion; roam about, move about too much, get to have loose morals (PPH: *kidas) SE Bohol

kiláscharacterized by making rapid and shifting movements; moving about too much, roaming about; flirting too much with the opposite sex (PWMP: *kilas)

kílatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kilat-ancurse hoping lightning strikes someone, especially for doing something immoral (as committing incest); have a lucky break in a seemingly impossible situation (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kílaweat something raw or unripe; have a raw seafood eating spree (PPH: *kilaw₁)

kílayeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray)

kílayeyebrows; put on false eyebrows, line the eyebrows (PWMP: *kiday)

kiláy-unhaving bushy eyebrows (PWMP: *kiday)

kilíg-kilígshudder from cold or on experiencing something that raises goosebumps; shake the body (PWMP: *kilig)

Cebuano (1240 / 2798)

kilíg-kilígshudder from cold or on experiencing something that raises goosebumps; shake the body (PWMP: *kirig)

kíliŋlean, list to one side; defect to the opposite side (PMP: *kiliŋ)

kilum-kiflumdusk (< *-dem?) (ROOT)

kimpáŋwalk with a limp as if with one leg shorter than the other (PWMP: *kimpaŋ)

kimpítsqueeze something between two long things to hold it; tongs, chopsticks (PAN: *kipit)

k<in>amútdo something by hand (PMP: *kamet)

kina-pusur-ancentermost portion; at the very heart; core, innermost; heart of the thing (PMP: *pusej)

k<in>a-ráanold-fashioned (PAN: *daqaN)

k<in>asíŋshaped like a top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

k<in>a-táwunature, inborn character or inherent tendencies of a person (PMP: *k<in>a-tau-an) *Cau

k<in>a-ulahí-anthe last one in the group (PWMP: *ka-udehi-an) *udehi

k<in>áʔuneaten, consumed (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

k<in>áʔun sa gabassawdust (what was eaten by the saw) (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

kindáŋ-kindáŋwobbling, rocking from side to side; to rock from side to side (PWMP: *kindaŋ-kindaŋ)

kiníthis (PWMP: *ka-i-ni) *-ni

kínlawgleaming brightly, shining with a steady reflected light (PWMP: *kinelaw)

kípitto hold or take hold of something between two fingers, or with two sticks, tongs or the like (PAN: *kipit)

kíputfor an opening to become closed or something exposed to get to be covered or hidden; cause it to do so (PMP: *kiput)

kisamiceiling of a house; put up the ceiling (LOAN)

kísawmake a soft, pleasant, rustling sound; hum with activity (PWMP: *kicaw)

Cebuano (1260 / 2798)

kísaʔproduce a crackling, rustling sound (as rats rustling in the roof); talk loudly, too garrulously; preparation for a party, esp. cooking, as evidenced by noise (PWMP: *kicaq)

kislápgleam, sparkle (as the gleam in someone’s eye or the sparkling of a diamond) (PPH: *kis(e)láp)

kitáŋkind of longline sea fishing, done with a main line to which individual leaders with hooks are attached for catching large fish; to fish with the kitáŋ (PPH: *kitáŋ)

kitiŋtendons in the back of the heel (PAN: *kiCiŋ)

kitkítwear something down, wear off bit by tiny bit, with the front teeth taking tiny bites (PWMP: *kitkit)

kítuŋdeep-sea fish with a compressed body and very fine, soft thin scales -- usually golden brown, speckled with grey; similar to daŋgit (flat fish with 13 poisonous dorsal spines), but a good deal larger (PWMP: *kiteŋ)

kiwákiwwag one’s tail (LOAN)

kiwkíwshake rapidly in pain, as the hand after hitting one’s finger with a hammer (PAN: *kiwkiw) *kiwkiw₁

kíyawground bird, nearly as big as a wild chicken, named from its sound (PAN: *kiaw)

kíyudthrust the lower part of the body forward, as male does in sexual intercourse; sexual intercourse (coarse, though not as taboo as iyut) (PMP: *kiud)

kuánpause word used to fill in when the speaker cannot think of the right word; um, well (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kuánpause word used to fill in when the speaker cannot think of the right word: um, well (PWMP: *kuan₂)

kubáfor the chest to tighten from fright or from suddenly realizing something frightening; for the heart to beat in a pounding way (PPH: *kebá)

kúbal ~ kubálcallus; thick skin on a pig (PWMP: *kubal)

kubíttouch someone, curling the fingers to get his attention (PMP: *kebit)

kubkubpurse seine or impounding net used to catch fishes that run in schools; the school is surrounded with the net which is then pursed at the bottom (PMP: *kebkeb)

kubkúbpurse seine or impounding net used to catch fishes that run in schools; the school is surrounded with the net, which is then pursed at the bottom (PPH: *kubkub₁)

kubkúbdig away dirt, scooping it with the hands or with a similar motion using an instrument (PPH: *kubkub₃)

kublítake cover, hide behind something to keep from being seen (PPH: *kub(e)li)

kubúŋprotective covering; mosquito net; put up a protective covering, make into a protective covering (PPH: *kubuŋ₂)

Cebuano (1280 / 2798)

kubútkeep a mistress; wed someone on his deathbed by just having the couple hold hands and blessing them (PPH: *kubut₂) *kubut

kúbuʔstoop-shouldered; for the posture to be hunched over (PPH: *kubuq)

kudkúdgrind into fine pieces by rubbing or scraping; file off metal to clean it or thin it before sharpening it (as in scraping rust off a blade) (PMP: *kuDkuD)

kudkur-áncoconut shredder (PWMP: *kuDkuD-an) *kuDkuD

kugandry crust, scab of a sore or wound; for a scab to form (PAN: *keRan₁)

kugaŋdry crust, scab of a sore or wound; for a scab to form (PAN: *keRaŋ₂)

kugáw, kúgawfingerling of the milkfish at the stage 4-8 inches in length: Chanos chanos (PMP: *kuRaw)

kugítakind of octopus with the body about the size of a baby’s head; eye disease in which there is a growth in the eyeball which spreads out like the tentacles of an octopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kugitá-hunlike an octopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kugíutcreak, squeak (PWMP: *kuRiat)

kugíutcreak, squeak (PWMP: *kuRiut)

kugkúgshiver from cold, usually with quivering lips (PAN: *keRkeR)

kugkúgcurl up stiff and hard (ROOT)

kugtúŋname given to very large groupers: Epinephelus spp. (PMP: *keRteŋ)

kugúmhold on to something with the fingernails or claws (PWMP: *kugem)

kugúmhold on to something with the fingernails or claws (as a hawk clutching a chick) (ROOT)

kúgunImperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata, a tall, tough grass, with solid, slender stems, somewhat like bamboo; this grass, together with taláhib (Saccharum spontaneum) moves into deforested areas and takes possession after the area is burnt; the leaves are used for thatching and the stems for various handicrafts (PMP: *guRun)

kúhitto poke, jab, touch something with the fingers or something long to remove or obtain it; touch someone by curling the fingers to attract his attention; hook used in embroidery to catch hold of threads (PWMP: *kuhit)

kukh-ánhaving claws; grasping, inconsiderate of others’ needs (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kukhúscrape, scratch off something that sticks to a surface with a thrusting motion (PMP: *kuhkuh) *kuSkuS₂

Cebuano (1300 / 2798)

kukúfingernails, toenails; claws, hooves; get caught or hit by the claws (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kulá ~ kúlaglue to hold something together (LOAN)

kulaknitkind of edible fruit-eating bat (LOAN)

kuláŋutmoist nasal discharge in the nose, but not soft (PPH: *kulaŋut)

kúlap, kulápdim, not affording much light; for the eyes to be dim (PWMP: *kelap₁)

kuláp ~ kúlapdim, not affording much light; or for the eyes to be dim; for light or vision to dim; for one’s popularity to fade (PWMP: *gelap₂)

kuláp ~ kúlapdim, not affording much light; or for the eyes to be dim (PPH: *kulap)

kulap-kúlapblink the eyes (PWMP: *gelap₂)

kulasísikind of parakeet with a shrill voice, commonly kept as a pet: Loriculus philippensis (PPH: *kulasísi)

kulátagunstock; ; maul someone, beat someone badly (LOAN)

kulíliŋringing, tinkling sound as that of a phone or small bell; for a small bell to ring (PPH: *kuliliŋ₂)

kuliliŋringing, tinkling sound as that of a phone or small bell (ROOT)

kúlitcarve or engrave (PMP: *kur(e)qit)

kulíʔikshrill piercing shriek (PMP: *keriqik)

kulíʔika shrill, piercing shriek (PWMP: *kuliqik)

kulíʔika shrill, piercing shriek (PWMP: *kuriqik)

kulkúlgrow to be gnarled, curled up; shrink back in fear (PWMP: *kulkul)

kulúblie on one's belly, be overturned (as a boat) (PWMP: *kureb)

kulumbábithang or cling onto something (ROOT)

kúluncooking pot made of clay; to cook in this kind of pot; to make into this kind of pot (PAN: *kuden)

Cebuano (1320 / 2798)

kulúŋput in confinement of some sort (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

kulúŋfor the hair to be curly, wavy; the process of curling hair (PWMP: *keluŋ₁)

kulus-kulúsrustling sound made by leaves or paper (PWMP: *kerus₂)

kulútcurly haired (as the hair of Negritos); for hair to become curly, cause it to do so (PMP: *kulut)

kulútcurly haired (as the hair of Negritos); for hair to become curly, cause it to do so (PMP: *kurut)

k<um>agátready to bite at the least provocation (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

kumisuckerfish, remora: Remora sp. (PMP: *kemi)

kumkúmhold something in the hand with the palm closed; get possession of something (PWMP: *kemkem₁)

kumpásbeing in harmony or correct timing with something else (LOAN)

kumpáykind of grass growing wild or cultivated in wet places for hay: Panicum maximum; to gather something for animal fodder (PPH: *kumpay)

kúnattough and slightly elastic; difficult to chew (PWMP: *keñat)

kúnatbeing tough and slightly elastic, difficult to chew (as taffy) (PPH: *kúñat)

kundímankind of red cotton cloth of a cheap variety, commonly used for pillows (LOAN)

kundulspreading annual vine producing long, green melons of oblong or bottle-like shape, eaten cooked when unripe, and when ripe made into candy: Benincasa hispida (PWMP: *kundul)

kunúit is said, someone said (PMP: *kunu₂)

kunúit is said, someone said (PWMP: *kenu)

kúnutpinch someone with the finger and the thumb (PMP: *kunut)

kupásfor something to lose its aroma from having been left uncovered (PPH: *kupas)

kupítto extort petty amounts (PPH: *kúpit)

kupkúpfor hair to be lying down flat, close to the scalp; for hair to become flat on the head; stick close to something for protection (PPH: *kepkép₂)

Cebuano (1340 / 2798)

kuráp-kurápfor lights to flicker; grope in the dark (PWMP: *kezap)

kurátbe startled or frightened by something sudden (PWMP: *kezat)

kurúŋ ~ kúruŋveil or any other head covering used by women in church (PWMP: *kuduŋ)

kurút ~ kúrutto pinch, squeeze hard using the thumb and the sides of the bent forefingers (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

kusg-ánstrong (PAN: *keseR)

kuskus, k-al-uskusscrape or scratch to remove something from a surface (PAN: *keskes₁)

kusladhost of lice and nits; for hair to be infested with lice and nits (LOAN)

kusúgfast, rapid; loud, heavy or forceful motion; selling briskly; avid doer of something; have strength to do something; do something avidly, at a rate more than normal; dynamic strength, force; muslce; exert strength, do something energetically (PAN: *keseR)

kutánaask a question, inquire about (PMP: *kutaña)

kútaʔfort; to make a fort (LOAN)

kútibfor the lips to move rapidly, as in mumbling, eating, praying, or chewing watermelon seeds (PPH: *kútib)

kutímto nibble small hard seeds (as rats nibbling rice grains fast, or someone chewing on dried melon seeds) (PPH: *kutím)

kutíŋkitten (PWMP: *kutíŋ)

kutíŋbedbug; be infested with bedbugs (PWMP: *kutiŋ)

kutiŋ-únbe infested with bedbugs (PWMP: *kutiŋ)

kútisskin texture, fineness of complexion; get a certain kind of complexion (LOAN)

kutkutscrape off something hard by rubbing on it back and forth (PAN: *kutkut₂)

kútuhead louse; be infested with head lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutuk-kutúksound made by chickens in summoning other chickens (PWMP: *ketek)

kutúlpinch something hard with the thumb and the index finger (PPH: *ketél)

Cebuano (1360 / 2798)

kutul-únto pinch (PPH: *ketel-én) *ketél

kuykúydig up something by scratching away things that cover it (PPH: *kuykúy₂)

kúyuggo together with, accompany; abide with the decision of the majority; companion; together with (PPH: *kuyug)

kuyug-kúyuggang mate, regular companion; going together with a gang regularly (PPH: *kuyug)

kuyutfor the flesh to sag due to old age (PWMP: *kuyut)

labáto wash clothing (LOAN)

labág ~ lábaga bundle of abaca fibers consisting of thirty-two smaller bunches; any large bundle of threads or yarn; to group fibers into bunches (PPH: *lábag)

labáhastraight razor; shave someone with a straight razor (LOAN)

lábakfor a sore or an infected wound to be opened wide (PMP: *labak)

labákthrow something hard on the ground (PMP: *la(m)bak)

lábantake sides with; defend someone in a lawsuit; defend one’s honor (PMP: *laban₂)

labán-antending to take sides with one’s child or other person in whom one is interested (PMP: *laban-an) *laban₂ dialectal

labanúsradishes; the white (Chinese) radishes are the variety most commonly grown in Cebu (LOAN)

labaŋcross something, go across, bring across (PWMP: *la(m)baŋ)

labátfence; patches made in clothing, walls, fence (PPH: *labat)

labatíbaenema (LOAN)

labawjut out higher than something, stick out farther from the margin or limit; be more, over in degree, number; be ahead in a contest; prevail over (PPH: *labaw₂)

labh-anandirty laundry; place to wash clothes (LOAN)

labímore, greater; be greater than something else; excessive (PMP: *labi)

lábidbraid, become entwined (PPH: *labid)

Cebuano (1380 / 2798)

labitto stitch with a loop that holds but can be unravelled (PPH: *labit)

labnáwheavily diluted, having too much water; be diluted, put too much water in a mixture (PPH: *labnaw) dialectal

lábnutpull something with a jerk (PWMP: *ranebut)

lábtikto strike with a flipping or snapping motion (PWMP: *labetik)

labtíkstrike with a flicking or snapping motion; for a mechanism to flick or snap; action of flicking (PPH: *lab(e)tik)

labuto fool someone by flattery or lies (PWMP: *labu₁)

lábugthrow out (from a container, etc.) (PWMP: *la(m)bug₁)

labúgdish consisting of shredded broiled fish mixed with pickled fish (PWMP: *labuR)

lábuŋabundant and long, of growth; exaggerating for the sake of bragging (PWMP: *labeŋ)

lábutconcern, connection, part of; including (PPH: *labut)

labúyuʔadolescent rooster; wild chicken, male or female, characterized by its smallness compared with the domestic ones (LOAN)

labúyuʔ-unhaving the characteristics of a wild chicken (LOAN)

ládladspread soaped white clothes under the sun to bleach them; spread for display; show, present, tell (PPH: *ladlad)

lagasáksplattering, pattering noise made by water falling on something (ROOT)

lágaʔto boil water or water with something in it: coffee, medicinal herbs and the like (PMP: *la(ŋ)gaq)

lagiparticle used to assert emphatically that something is what it is (PMP: *lagi)

lagíwrun away, escape from a place (PAN: *laRiw)

lagnúberect shrub or small tree with smooth, glabrous, and shiny oval leaves, used to stop bleeding: Ficus hauili (PPH: *labnuR)

lágpakslap, strike a part of one’s body with the hand, or with something flat (PWMP: *lagepak)

lágpakslap, strike a part of one’s body with the hand, or with something flat (PWMP: *ragepak)

Cebuano (1400 / 2798)

lágsikfor small things to fly off, splatter (PWMP: *lagecik)

lágsikfor small things to fly off, splatter (PWMP: *ragecik)

lágtubgiving off a single thud (PWMP: *lagetub₁)

lágtubinflamed, blistered (like something cooked crisp) (PWMP: *lagetub₂)

láindifferent, another (PWMP: *laqin)

lákadto step over something; go beyond, exceed; marry or wed ahead of big brothers (PMP: *lakaj)

lákaŋstep across (PWMP: *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ)

lákaŋstep across; a step, stride (PWMP: *lakaŋ)

lakátwalk (PAN: *rakat)

lakátwalk; for something to be going on; go away, depart (PAN: *lakat₂)

lakatánkind of sweet yellow banana, longer than alitundan, very much like those sold in the United States; it is eaten raw, and is more difficult to digest than the alitundan: Musa sapientum var. lacatan (PPH: *lakatan)

lakáwto walk (PMP: *lakaw)

lakímale animal or plant; paramour (PMP: *laki₁)

lákihave exceptional ability (PMP: *laki₁)

lakin-una female that acts like a male, tomboy (PMP: *laki₁)

laklákfor trousers, pants, underpants to be too loose (PWMP: *laklak)

lakunto coil something (as a rope); a coil (of rope, wire) (PPH: *lakun)

lakʔaŋstand or squat with legs wide apart (PWMP: *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ)

lálaweave leaves, straw, plastic (as to make hats or a mat) (PWMP: *laja)

lalákihuman male; turn out to be a boy; paramour (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

Cebuano (1420 / 2798)

lálikind of amberjack (PMP: *lajih)

lálinemigrate, transfer one’s residence to a far place; transfer something to a new location (PMP: *lalin)

lámaŋonly, just; merely, (do) nothing more than (PPH: *lámaŋ)

lambanúg ~ lambánugalcoholic drink made from the water taken from the nipa palm bud that has been fermented and diluted (LOAN)

lambáyuŋcreeping vine of seashore with purple morning glory-like flowers: Ipomoea pescaprae (PWMP: *lambayuŋ)

lambáyuŋcreeping vine of seashore with purple morning-glory-like flowers: Ipomoea pes-caprae (PWMP: *rambayuŋ)

lambudwing around, get wound around (PPH: *labej)

lampás ~ lápaspast, beyond a time or place considered right; go past a certain time or place, do something beyond, especially when one shouldn’t (PPH: *lampás)

lampásuto polish a floor by rubbing a half coconut husk or something similar over it (LOAN)

lampuyaŋginger: Zingiber officinale; to flavor with ginger (PWMP: *lampuyaŋ)

lamúkmosquito; be infested with mosquitoes (PMP: *lamuk₂)

lámunto put large chunks of food in the mouth whole (PPH: *lamun₂)

lámuʔtemporarily preserve tiny fish by salting lightly (PPH: *lamuq)

lánaoil obtained from plants (PMP: *laña)

landásananvil (PWMP: *landasan)

lánsalaunch; to go or travel by launch (LOAN)

lantáyanything with a top or bottom consisting of bamboo slats: a bed, table, tray, bench, shelf; to put or make into a lantáy (PWMP: *lantay)

lántiŋfor boats with no anchor or floats to tie up to or together with another boat (PWMP: *lantiŋ)

lánugloud, resonant; echo (ROOT)

lánuthemp for abaca; any kind of long, tough plant fibers (PWMP: *lañut)

Cebuano (1440 / 2798)

lánuthemp from abaca; any kind of long, tough plant fibers; make hemp from abaca (PPH: *lánut)

láŋawhousefly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋáw-unbe infested, swarm with flies (PAN: *laŋaw-en) *laŋaw

laŋaʔstupid, foolish, silly, dull, simple (PWMP: *laŋaq₂)

laŋgifkittie or attach things together or side by side (ROOT)

laŋgútfor a fish to break a line (PWMP: *raŋgut)

láŋitheaven, sky; joy, happiness (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láŋit-láŋitegg white; canopy of an altar or bed (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkubcombine several things, ideas, quantities into a group at the same time; include, comprehend (PWMP: *raŋkeb)

laŋsihaving fishy smell or the taste of blood (PMP: *laŋ(e)si)

laŋúyto swim; float as if swimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

lapadflat, level surface (PMP: *da(m)paD)

lapadflat, level surface (PMP: *ha-₂) *Sa-

lapádflat, level surface (as of a face or nose); broad, having considerable width (PMP: *lapad)

lapákspank someone lightly (PWMP: *lapak) dialectal

lapalapasole, bottom surface of the foot (PAN: *dapa)

lápaspast, beyond a time or place considered right; vilate a law, go beyond certain rules or agreements (PWMP: *lapas)

lápawgo above or beyond a certain amount (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

lápaʔto cut into sizeable chunks (as in butchering a pig); to hack to pieces (PAN: *lapaq)

lápito bend or fold something over double (as a cloth to be cut); to double, increase twofold, or by extension, a few folds more (PPH: *lapi)

Cebuano (1460 / 2798)

lapidatombstone; make a tombstone, put a tombstone on (LOAN)

laplápfor clothing to be loose and flapping (PAN: *laplap₁)

laplapslice off something from a surface (PPH: *laplap₂)

lapuspenetrate, pierce through the opposite side (PWMP: *la(m)pus₂)

lariŋkind of sword with a slight curve to the blade (PMP: *ladiŋ)

larútpull up by the roots (ROOT)

lásataste (LOAN)

látagspread something out under the sun (as corn, copra, or clothes) (PPH: *latag)

latáscross or pass through (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

latiguwhip; punishment inflicted with a whip (LOAN)

latíksyrup made of sugar and water, or sugar and coconut milk; sweet prepared from seedless breadfruit (kulu) cooked in syrup mixed with coconut milk (LOAN)

latíŋfor a missile to ricochet, bounce off (PWMP: *latiŋ)

látuʔbranching, semitransparent seaweed, greenish in color and edible (PMP: *latuq)

latʔásgo straight across something; take a shortcut (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

laúnaged; for something that gets better as it grows old to be mature; mellowed, aged; old stock left over from the previous harvest (PWMP: *laun)

laúspast one’s peak or popularity (PPH: *laqús)

láwaŋfor an area to be wide, spacious (PWMP: *lawaŋ₁)

láwaŋ-láwaŋhave too much space for the amount of material put in; be in a place which is too spacious; make something wider (PWMP: *lawaŋ₁)

láwaysaliva; feel very desirous of something one cannot have (PPH: *láway)

lawáy-ana folk doctor who treats patients with his saliva (PPH: *láway)

Cebuano (1480 / 2798)

láwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

láwaʔ-láwaʔspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

láwisickle feather, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of domestic cocks (PMP: *lawi₁)

lawí-an ~ lawí-hanname given to fish of various families that have filamentous projections, usually from the fins (PMP: *lawi₁)

lawi-láwisomething like a tail feather (PWMP: *lawi-lawi) *lawi₁

lawi-láwi sa kúgunthe flower of the cogon grass (PWMP: *lawi-lawi) *lawi₁

lawúddeep open sea (PAN: *lahud)

lawud-láwudbe like a sea (as a vast wet rice field) (PAN: *lahud)

láwʔayoffensive to decency, revolting to the taste (PPH: *law(e)qay)

láyagsail of a boat; put up the sail (PAN: *layaR)

laylaytired, drooping from fatigue; for plants to be limp or drooping (PPH: *layláy)

láyugtall and quite straight (as a coconut tree) (PPH: *láyug)

libákto backbite, say bad things about a person when his back is turned or when he cannot understand them (PPH: *libák)

libáswild tree with sour leaves and fruits: Spondias pinnata; the leaves and fruits are used in stews, and the leaves have medicinal uses (PWMP: *libas₁)

libátcross-eyed; become cross-eyed (PPH: *libat)

libkásfor a trap to spring, for something held back to be released suddenly (ROOT)

líbutgo, bring, put something around a place; surround (PWMP: *libut)

lígasgarter to hold the stockings up (LOAN)

ligisflatten or smash something into powder by pressing something heavy on it (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

ligpítfasten something temporarily by pressing it down with something that holds it in place; clip to fasten something (PPH: *lig(e)pít)

Cebuano (1500 / 2798)

ligwánsmall wild honeybee, having black and light orange stripes, nesting inside trees or walls (< *qali-Ruan) (PMP: *qani-Ruan)

líhato rub or smooth down with sandpaper or something similar (LOAN)

lihíyacaustic soda or lye obtained from wood ashes; make lye (LOAN)

liklíkto go along the edges of something or round about, not straight across or in the center (PPH: *liklík)

likúdbehind, at the back of; coming after (PAN: *likud)

likud-líkudeve before a wedding (PAN: *liku-likud) *likud

likúgfor something long and thin to get crooked or curled (PWMP: *li(ŋ)kug)

likúŋ ~ líkuŋmake into a circle, coil (PWMP: *likuŋ)

likur-ánplace in back of something (PAN: *likud-an) *likud

líkusbe coiled around something (as a snake around a branch) (PMP: *likes)

líkuʔto turn, change directions; to bend, be wound around (as a belt around a dog’s neck, a road encircling a hill); a bent pipe for channeling gas in a lantern (PMP: *likuq)

likúʔ-anbend of a road; place one turns off (PMP: *likuq)

likuʔ-líkuʔzigzagging; not direct to the point, beating around the bush; to be, become zigzagging (as a road one is driving on) (PWMP: *liku-likuq) *likuq

likuʔ-líkuʔ-anone who is inconsistent in what he says; unreliable (PWMP: *liku-likuq) *likuq

liliŋ-líliŋto circle around looking for something (as an airplane circling around looking for targets before dropping bombs) (PWMP: *liliŋ-liliŋ) *liliŋ₂

líluʔwhirlpool; form a whirlpool; be agitated as if swirled in a whirlpool (PMP: *lileq)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

límasbail water out; empty a pool or big container by bailing the water out (PMP: *limas)

limássomething used for bailing (PMP: *limas)

limás-unwater in the bottom of a boat, bilge water (PWMP: *limas-en) *limas

Cebuano (1520 / 2798)

limúddeny, conceal something upon being confronted (PPH: *liméd)

límunroll and wrap something up to conceal it, facilitate disposal, carrying and the like (PMP: *limun)

limuŋ-límuŋto hide, withhold something from someone that he ought to know (PPH: *limeŋ)

l<in>ákiman’s bicycle; ride astraddle like a man (PMP: *laki₁)

l<in>aŋy- ánstyle of swimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

línawcalm, free of agitation; be calm, undisturbed; pool, lake (PMP: *linaw)

lindagtoss about restlessly in bed (PWMP: *lindag)

lintáʔleech (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

línugearthquake; for there to be an earthquake (PAN: *linuR)

liŋá, líŋainattentive due to preoccupation with something else (PWMP: *liŋa₁)

liŋásunable to keep still, but moving about all the time instead (PWMP: *liŋas)

liŋátfor the eyes to rove, move the eyes; behave badly, wildly when one is in a place where formal behavior is expected (PPH: *liŋat)

liŋáy, líŋayfor the sun to move beyond the zenith and the shadows to lengthen in the afternoon (PWMP: *liŋay)

liŋbásfile (PWMP: *liŋ(e)bas)

líŋiʔturn one’s head to the side to look back (PPH: *liŋiq)

liŋkitfor two things to be joined along their lengths (PWMP: *diŋkit)

liŋkitfor two things to be joined along their lengths (PWMP: *ri(ŋ)kit)

liŋkítfor two things to be joined along their lengths (PWMP: *ziŋkit)

líŋkitfor two things to be joined along their lengths (PWMP: *liŋkit)

lipákcut bamboo into slats (PWMP: *ripak)

Cebuano (1540 / 2798)

lipákloud thunderclap (PWMP: *lipák)

lipákcut bamboo into slats (ROOT)

lípasto not go directly over something, pass around; gone beyond a point in time (PAN: *lipas)

lípayglad; be happy, glad (PPH: *lípay)

lipud-lípudhide something by circumlocution or covering up (PWMP: *lipud)

lípuŋto become dizzy, woozy (PPH: *lipeŋ)

lipútgo behind something; catch something by going the other way; doublecross; fight unfairly by doing something treacherous or taking unfair advantage (PPH: *liput₂)

liputgo behind something (as a thief ducking in back of a house and disappearing) (PAN: *lipuC)

lipʔitput something in between two flat surfaces (PWMP: *diq(e)pit)

lipʔítput something in between two flat surfaces (PMP: *liq(e)pit)

lipʔítput something in between two flat surfaces (PWMP: *lipit)

litúkflick with the fingers, hit something by flicking the fingers at it (PPH: *lituk₂)

líucircle around (PMP: *liu₂)

líwagmove something at one end to get it out of the way or make it change position; face a different direction (PPH: *liwag)

líyucircle round (PAN: *liuS)

líyugfor something long and slender to be bent or crooked; warped (PWMP: *liug)

líʔugneck (PAN: *liqeR)

luagloose, not tightly attached or wound around; having ample space (PWMP: *ruqag)

lubákto pound, beat heavily with something (as (PWMP: *debak)

lubákto pound, beat heavily with something (as in pummeling someone’s face with the fists) (PWMP: *lebak₁)

Cebuano (1560 / 2798)

lubáŋtransplant seedlings (PPH: *lubaŋ₂)

lubk-an-anplace where pounding is done; mortar (PWMP: *lebuk)

lubúkto pound with a pestle (PWMP: *lebuk)

lubúkto pound with a pestle (PMP: *lubuk₂)

lugárgeographical place; proper place, occasion for something (LOAN)

lúgawporridge from rice or corn grits; to make porridge; turn to, becomed a mud puddle or mire (PPH: *lúgaw)

lugaʔlúgaʔmove something in a hole back and forth (as a stick to unplug a stopped-up tube) (PWMP: *degaq)

lúgitextract something buried or fastened hard to a surface with something pointed or sharp; extract coconut meat from the shell in making copra (PWMP: *lugit)

lúgusforce, force oneself; rape (PPH: *luges)

lúguʔshake a vessel with liquid in it to slosh the liquid around (PWMP: *deguʔ)

lúhaʔtears; get tears in the eyes (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luháʔ-anwith tears (PPH: *luheq-an) *luSeq

lúhaʔ sa baucrocodile tears (‘tortoise tears’) (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lúhitremove the meat of a sea shell with a pin or the like (PWMP: *luhit)

luhúdto kneel; worship, surrender (PPH: *luhúd)

luhur-án-anrail one kneels on (PPH: *luhúd)

lúkabpry open; open a door or window shutter (PWMP: *lukab)

lukátredeem something pawned or mortgaged (PWMP: *lukat₁)

lúkatuproot something, prying the roots out of the ground (PPH: *lukat₂)

lukát sa signusin folk belief, an occurrence or happening which spares a person's life by taking someone who dies in his stead (PWMP: *lukat₁)

Cebuano (1580 / 2798)

lukípenclose or insert something in a letter (PPH: *luq(e)kip)

luklukto go or put into a tight or hidden place (as a snake lurking in the grass) (PPH: *lukluk)

luksúto jump; skip a grade in school (PPH: *luksúh)

lukúbenclose something in an area, or by putting something over it; shutter, cover (PWMP: *lekeb)

lukúbclose and lock; enclose something in an area, or by putting something over it (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)keb)

lukúbclose and lock; enclose something in an area or by putting something over it; shutter; cover; space enclosed; kind of fish corral for impounding fish in a receding tide (PPH: *lukúb)

lukúbkind of chisel with a curved (concave-convex) cutting edge (LOAN)

lúkuncoil up, coil something up, usually in several coils (PMP: *leken)

lúkuncoil up, coil something up, usually in several coils (PAN: *reken)

lukuŋmake a coil, form a circle from something stiff (PAN: *du(ŋ)kuŋ)

lúkuŋmake a coil; form a circle from something stiff (PMP: *leŋkuŋ)

lukúpdo something the entire area of something; do something to each and every one or thing (PWMP: *lekep₂)

lukup-lúkupgo over almost the entire area of something (PWMP: *lekep₂)

lukutroll up, cause something to do so (PMP: *rekut)

lúkuʔcurled up; fall down in a curled up position (PWMP: *ru(ŋ)kuq)

lúkuʔbe curled up (as the body), loaf in bed; fall down in a curled-up position (PWMP: *lekuq₁)

lúkuʔbe curled up (as a person’s body); loaf in bed; fall down in a curled-up position (PWMP: *lekuq₂)

lúkuʔ-lúkuʔinside of the knee joints (PWMP: *lekuq₁)

lúmbaʔrace, have a race; outrace; outdo each other, as if to see who can do it the more (PWMP: *lumbeq)

lúmbaʔrace, have a race; outrace; outdo each other to see who can do it the more (LOAN)

Cebuano (1600 / 2798)

lúmiʔcrease, fold, wrinkles (PMP: *lumiq)

lumíʔtto crease, wrinkle (PMP: *luqemit)

lumlumsit on eggs; sit on papers which need processing or attention; stay inside something; for feelings to be in the breast (as envy, loneliness) (PAN: *demdem₁)

lumpátto bounce up suddenly (PWMP: *lumpat)

lumpát-lumpátbounce up and down (PWMP: *lumpat)

lumpíaʔegg roll, a dish consisting of a thin pancake filled with sauteed meat and vegetables (LOAN)

lúmpuʔlame, cripple (PWMP: *lumpuq)

lumutender, gentle in personality (PMP: *lumu₂)

lumútender, gentle in personality (PWMP: *lemu)

lumukfor the hair to be oily after oil has been applied to it (PMP: *lumuk)

lumukfor the hair to be oily after oil has been applied to it (PWMP: *lumek)

lumúkfor the hair to be oily after oil has been applied to it; be, become oily (PMP: *lemek₂)

lúmuŋfor water to collect and form a pool (PMP: *lemeŋ₁)

lumúsdrown, get drowned (PMP: *lemes)

lúmutgeneral term for lichens or algae of the sort that attach themselves; be covered with moss or seaweed; be left idle (until moss covers it) (PMP: *lumut)

lúmut-lúmuttiny lichens which grow on the trunks of palms and other trees, or on the sides of water containers not cleaned, greenish in color (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

lumút-uncovered with moss or green seaweed (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

lumúysoft and delicate, not rigid; become momentarily weak on experiencing a great emotion (PPH: *lumúy)

lumúy ~ lúmuysoft and delicate, not rigid (PWMP: *lemuy)

LúnisMonday (LOAN)

Cebuano (1620 / 2798)

lúnudsink something (PWMP: *leñej)

lúnupflood; for an emotion to flood over one (PWMP: *leñep)

lúnusfor fruits, vegetables, root crops to soften; cause them to do so (PPH: *lúnus)

luŋásesame seeds used for tidbit decorations or flavorings on sweets: Sesamum orientale (PMP: *leŋa)

luŋbúysmall tree with elliptical leathery leaves 6-12 cm., bearing clusters of juicy, oval fruit, dark purple, 1.5-2 cm. long: Syzygium cumini (PPH: *luŋ(e)búy)

luŋkábbreak something open by prying so as to get into it (PWMP: *lukab)

luŋkábbreak something open by prying so as to get into it (PWMP: *ruŋkáb)

luŋút-luŋútrestless, moving about and talking in anger, exasperation, impatience to do something (PWMP: *deŋut)

luŋut luŋutrestless, moving about and talking in anger, exasperation or impatience to do something (PMP: *reŋet) *reŋeC

lupádto fly, take a plane, be sent flying; pass swiftly by; fly into a rage (PPH: *lepad)

lupádto fly, take a plane, be sent flying (PWMP: *lempaD)

lúpisdried strips of abaca trunk or certain varieties of bananas which have not been processed into fibers, used for tying and other similar purposes (PPH: *lupis₂)

lúpiʔturned down corner of a page (PWMP: *lupiq)

lúpiʔturned down corner of a page (PWMP: *lepiq)

lúpuʔsmall blackish fish with lightly toxic dorsal spines, often found on the bottom in fresh or brackish waters: Gymnapistes niger (PMP: *lepu)

lúpuʔsmall blackish fish with lightly toxic dorsal spines, often found on the bottom in fresh or brackish waters: Gymnapistes niger (PMP: *lepuq₂)

lupʔítpress something tight between two surfaces (PMP: *luqepit)

lúsaplate made of metal coated with enamel (LOAN)

lúsadto bring down, descend, dismount (PPH: *lusad)

lúsadgo, bring down, descend, dismount (NEAR)

Cebuano (1640 / 2798)

lusáʔnit, egg of a louse (PMP: *leseq)

lúsiʔtweak or pinch with a twisting motion; work on an itchy foreskin by pinching, twisting and turning it inside out (PPH: *lusiq)

luslusfor something that wraps something and is attached to it to slip off, especially the foreskin (PPH: *lesles₁)

luslusfor something that wraps something and is attached to it to slip off, esp. the foreskin (PMP: *luslus)

lusútpass, go through (PWMP: *lucut₁)

lusútto pass, go through; go through, come out successful; (in basketball) to drive through the defense (PPH: *lusút)

lusutto pass, go through (as a big toe coming out of torn socks); in basketball, to drive through the defense (PWMP: *lecut)

lutakcrack, a break without complete separation of parts (PWMP: *letak₁)

lutaŋsurface in the water (PWMP: *lutaŋ)

lutáwto float; to show, manifest itself (PWMP: *le(n)taw)

lútuto wear black clothes in mourning (LOAN)

lútubform a blister from burning or rubbing; for blood to form a black spot under a finger or toe that has been injured (PWMP: *letub)

lútuʔto cook; make something tender; manner of cooking; done, cooked (PWMP: *lutuq)

luwáa word of command for a carabao to halt (PPH: *luá)

luwásto save, remove something from harm; free from debt, discomfort (PMP: *luas₁)

lúwaʔto spit or eject from the mouth; spit to express contempt; action of spitting (PMP: *luaq)

lúyaweak or lacking in strength of body or muscle; not active, aggressive enough (PWMP: *luya₂)

luylúydrooping, hanging limply (PPH: *luylúy)

lúyutfor something not firm to sag out of shape under a weight (PWMP: *luyut)

luʔágloose, not tightly attached or wound around; having ample space; for something not to occupy a whole area; being in a comfortable situation; for one’s emotions or sickness to be relieved; be, become wide in area (PMP: *luqaR)

Cebuano (1660 / 2798)

lúʔukbay (PWMP: *luquk)

lúʔumput something entirely into the mouth (PWMP: *luqum)

ma-abútcan be done, reached (PPh: *ma-qabut) *qabut

ma-basáʔget wet (PMP: *ma-baseq) *baseq

mabáwshallow (ROOT)

mabulumedium-sized tree of the primary forest, cultivated for its fruit; the wood is hard and used for furniture, the heartwood being nearly black: Diospyros discolor (LOAN)

ma-buŋáh-unfruitful (PMP: *buŋa)

ma-duha-duhá-unfull of doubts, suspicions (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

mag-ápugmake lime for betel chewing (PPh: *maR-qapuR) *qapuR

mag-búlaŋhold a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

mag-buluŋ-bulúŋsomeone who treats illnesses (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

mag-busúgeat one's fill (PPh: *maR-besuR) *besuR

mag-dánawform a pool in, flood (PAN: *danaw)

mag-inúmto drink (PWMP: *maR-inum) *inum

magka-dúŋughear one another (PMP: *deŋeR)

mag-tábanto elope (PWMP: *maR-taban) *tabaN

ma-guláŋelder sibling; older than someone; a little more than something compared to (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ma-húlugturn into something worse; fall into sin or disgrace (PWMP: *ma-huluR) *SuluR

ma-huní-unmelodious (PMP: *huni) *Suni

ma-i-bábawbe the part on top (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

Cebuano (1680 / 2798)

ma-iláshy (as chickens) (PWMP: *ma-ilah₁) *ilah

ma-ilashy (as chickens) (PWMP: *ma-ilah₂) *ma-ilah

ma-inúmsomething to drink, esp. alcoholic (PWMP: *ma-inúm) *inum

ma-ísipwise, learned; prudent, thinking before acting (PPh: *ma-ísip) *ísip

maka-potential active verb affix, future (PWMP: *maka-)

maka-ásabe able to hope (LOAN)

maka-limáfive times (PAN: *maka-lima) *lima

maka-piláhow many times? (PAN: *maka-pija) *pijax

maka-pitúseven times (PAN: *maka-pitu) *pitu

ma-ka-saysay-an-unhistoric, full of history (PPH: *sáysay)

maka-tulúthree times (PWMP: *maka-telu) *telu

maka-unúmsix times (PAN: *maka-enem) *enem

maka-upátfour times (PWMP: *maka-epat) *Sepat

maka-usáonce (PPh: *maka-esa) *esa

maka-walúeight times (PAN: *maka-walu) *walu

makúpaa small tree cultivated for its red, top-shaped fruits, with white, spongy meat and a mild flavor, a large meaty variety of the Syzygium samarangense (PPH: *makúpa)

m<al>amaʔ-ancontainer for the lime, betel nut, and betel leaf (PMP: *mamaq)

mala-puntíkind of red deep-sea fish with big reddish scales, two feet by six inches, similar to a snapper, but with a filament projecting from the tip of the tail (PWMP: *punti₂)

ma-lumutender, gentle in personality (PMP: *ma-lumu) *lumu₂

maluŋgáya small, radidly growing, cultivated tree, with thrice pinnate leaves, the leaflets of which are one of the most popular eaten vegetables in the Visayas: Moringa oleifera (PPH: *maruŋgay)

Cebuano (1700 / 2798)

mámaʔchew of betel nut (búnga) and piper betel leaves (búyù) with lime (ápug), and optionally tobacco; action of chewing; to chew betel nut (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-mítay-mítayexecutioner (PPh: *maŋ-bítay) *bítay

ma-mu-múnuʔkiller, murderer (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

ma-múnaswash oneself off with a washcloth (PMP: *punas)

ma-nagaʔ-nagaʔwoodcutter (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq₁

manáhunprosper, do well financially (PWMP: *maŋ-dahun) *dahun

mantiyanaksupernatural being which preys on newborn infants. It drinks the blood from childbirth, and tries to get at the newborn baby's liver. If the baby dies he drinks the mother's milk without her knowledge and kills her thereby. It is pictured the size of a baby, with horns and fangs, with long pointed ears, dirty brown in color and angular in features. It has the ability to walk, change its appearance, and make itself invisible (LOAN)

ma-nubágto answer questions (PPH: *ma-nebaR) *tebáR

manúkchicken; gamecock (PMP: *manuk)

manúk-anpoultry business; one who has lots of chickens (PWMP: *manuk-an) *manuk

manúk-mánukwind coming in strong gusts; weather vane (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

manuk ŋa abuhungray-colored cock (PWMP: *qabu-en) *qabu

manuk-unthe cow-nosed ray, so-called because it moves like a bird in the water (PPh: *manuk-en) *manuk

ma-nuluŋ-súluŋattacker, invader (PWMP: *suruŋ)

maŋágata fish, the snapper, name given to most species of Lutianus (PPH: *maŋaRat)

maŋ-íkugto put or be at the rear (PWMP: *maŋ-ikuR) *ikuR

maŋkusomeone with an arm deformity characterized by being twisted at the elbow (ROOT)

maŋ-utútbreak wind (PWMP: *maŋ-qetut) *qetut

maŋ-uway-uwáyrattan gatherer (PPh: *maŋ-quay) *quay

máraŋkind of large fruit tree, bearing fruit similar to the jackfruit, but smaller and sweeter; not commonly cultivated except in Mindanao: Artocarpus odoratissima (PPH: *mádaŋ)

Cebuano (1720 / 2798)

ma-sakít-unpatient, an ill person; be, become gravely ill (PMP: *sakit)

maski(n)even, including; even though, nevertheless (LOAN)

másusledge hammer; to do something with, make something into a sledge hammer (LOAN)

matáeyes; eyeglasses; eyelet in shoes; any growth or structure similar in some way to the eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataankind of fish with huge eyes: Selar crumenophthalmos (PPH: *mataqan)

mata-mátawake up accidentally (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

matá-matásee an illusion, mirage (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

matá sa gábia button-like outgrowth on the flesh of the taro rootstock (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matá sa lubitwo spots on a coconut shell tha resemble human eyes (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matá sa lumbanan eye-like operculum found in turban shells (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matá sa pinyaeyes of a pineapple, the hollow cavity found on the surface of the flesh of the pineapple fruit which contains seeds (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ug síkuphawk-eyed (PWMP: *sikep₁)

ma-tawajovial face or visage (PMP: *ma-tawa) *Cawa

m-atáydie; stop functioning (as a watch); for the moon to be in its invisible phase; exclamation of displeasure (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-tubág-tubág-uninclined to talk back insolently (PPH: *tebáR)

ma-tulúg-unfond of sleeping, always sleeping (PAN: *tuduR)

matʔ-anhit in the eye; wake up, be awake (PPH: *mata-an) *maCa

máyakind of small bird found in rice fields, the chestnut mannikin: Lonchura malacca (PPH: *máya) dialectal

mímisa variety of first-class rice having white, smooth, shiny, slender, and long grains; any first-class white rice (PPH: *mímis₂)

mismisparticles of yellowish substance sticking to the face after sleep; hardened mucus from the eyes or mouth (PWMP: *mismis₁)

Cebuano (1740 / 2798)

mu-punctual active verbal prefix, future (PAN: *mu-)

mu-batúharden (PWMP: *b<um>atu) *batux

mudmúdpress or bury one’s face hard against something (as one’s face in a pillow when crying) (PPH: *mudmúd)

mu-duŋúgto heed (PMP: *deŋeR)

mu-dutdútmove close in through obstacles; crown close to someone; put, be crowded together; stuff something into an opening; crowded close together (PWMP: *detdet)

mu-grahigo to/toward the garage (grahi = garage) (PAN: *mu-)

muhúnconcrete land marker buried in the ground (LOAN)

mu-kílatfor lightning to flash (PWMP: *k<um>ilat) *likaC

mu-kísawto make a soft, pleasant rustling sound (as a forest when the wind blows through it); disturb the water; hum with activity (PPH: *kisaw)

mu-kubíltouch something so as to do something to it (PPH: *kebil)

mu-lawudgo to/toward the sea (lawud = sea) (PAN: *mu-)

mulmulgeneral name given to parrot fish: Scarus spp. (PPH: *mulmúl)

multaa fine; pay a fine; impose a fine (LOAN)

mumhulittle particles of cooked rice corn that fall next to the plate when eating (PPH: *muhmuh)

murádureddish purple (LOAN)

mustásamustard, common raised as a vegetable: Brassica integrifolia (LOAN)

mu-tágumbecome dark or black (as skin xposed too long in the sun) (PMP: *taRum)

mu-tuhudreach nearly as high as the knees (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

mutúna metal or wooden case containing a pulley or pulleys (LOAN)

mu-watwátopen up something that opens into a slit (as an eye to remove a speck of dirt); open up someone’s secrets for the whole world to know (PPH: *watwát)

Cebuano (1760 / 2798)

muʔuŋkind of cardinal fish: name given to numerous small, red, lightly scaled fish of the family Apogonidae (PMP: *muquŋ)

naparticle following the first word of the predicate, now [so-and-so] is the case by now, will be the case by a certain point of time; (with commands and exhortations) [do] now!; ayaw na ‘Stop (doing)! Enough! (PMP: *na₄) *Na₂

na-buth-anhaving got blisters (PMP: *betuʔ₂) *beCuʔ

nágalarge forest tree yielding a hard, red wood, highly prized for furniture-making: Pterocarpus indicus (PMP: *naRah)

na-kuŋkúŋto be gnarled, as the fingers of an old man (PMP: *kuŋkuŋ₂)

n-ákuʔmy; by me (agent/possessor form) (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

namot-namotCynometra iripa, Fabaceae (PMP: *namut-namut)

namúkmosquito; be bothered by mosquitoes (PMP: *ñamuk)

namuta tree: Cynometra ramiflora L. (Madulid 2001) (PMP: *namut)

namut-namuta tree: Cynometra iripa Kostel, Fabaceae (PMP: *namut-namut)

nánawto gaze over a wide area; scan an area to search for something (PPH: *nanaw)

nánaʔpus; be filled with pus; give off pus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nánuysoft and sweet, melodious (as the melody of a flute) (PWMP: *ñañuy)

náŋkaʔjackfruit, a medium-sized tree cultivated for its large spiny fruit, which may reach 70 lbs and is eaten unripe cooked, and raw when ripe. The seeds are eaten as a vegetable, roasted or boiled: Artocarpus heterophyllus Linn. (PWMP: *naŋkaq)

náraa tree: Pterocarpus spp. (PMP: *nara)

nátadyard of a house or building; sphere of work or activity (PMP: *natad) *NataD

natiyoung of a pasture animal: calf or kid (PMP: *nati)

natúkpowdery starch of any sort that has been obtained by soaking the source in water and letting it settle (PWMP: *natek)

nawnáwput something in a liquid and swish it around (PAN: *ñawñaw)

nawnáwput something in a liquid and swish it around (as clothes in soapy water) (PPH: *nawnáw)

Cebuano (1780 / 2798)

nigenitive marker before names or titles [marker of possession and agency of a non-actor voice verb] (PAN: *ni)

nígurattan winnowing tray; make into a winnowing tray (PMP: *niRu) *Rinu

niláof them, by them (PWMP: *ni ida) *ida

ni-lúgawrice porridge (PPH: *l<in>ugaw) *lúgaw

nípaʔpalm of great commercial importance growing along tidal streams and in dense stands in brackish swamps; the leaves are used mainly for thatching, but also for bags, hats, and handicrafts; the sap is fermented into toddy and distilled into a stronger liquor called manyan: Nypa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

nipísthin, not thick (as the pages of a Bible); thin, scanty; become, make thin; do something on a scanty scale, thin something out (as hair) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

nisnísclean or smooth something by rubbing something back and forth over it (as in rubbing wood smooth before painting it) (PPH: *nisnís)

nítuʔscrambling ferns, the stems of which are used in weaving baskets, hats, boxes: Lygodium spp. (PMP: *nituq)

níwaŋthin, not stout (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

núkasore, infection on the skin, not of great size (PWMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

núkasore, infection on the skin, not of great size (PMP: *nuka) *Nuka

nuka-uninfested with sores (PWMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

nuka-uninfested with sores (PWMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

ŋániʔeven (as in ‘I don’t even have a peso’) (PPH: *ŋaniq)

ŋáŋa ~ ŋaŋáopen the mouth; be unable to speak, usually for not knowing what to say; for things that have edges to gape (as a wound, overfull suitcase) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋasŋasdamage by scraping (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋaʔnáʔstuttering (ROOT)

ŋilúsetting the teeth on edge, causing the spine to tingle (said of eating sour things, as unripe mangoes, shrill noises, having teeth filed) (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋípn-anhaving serrations or teeth; litter born with teeth (PAN: *ŋipen)

ŋípunteeth; teeth of saws, gears, and the like (PAN: *ŋipen)

Cebuano (1800 / 2798)

ŋísito grin (PMP: *ŋisi)

ŋulŋuldeep-seated pain over a wide area (PMP: *ŋulŋul₁)

ŋulutgrowling in defiance or complaint (of dogs) (PMP: *ŋurut)

ŋutŋútpulsating, throbbing pain, as of a boil; emotional pain, as when jilted (PMP: *ŋutŋut₂)

ŋuyŋúy, da-ŋuyŋúywail, cry with deep sorrow (PPH: *ŋuyŋuy)

pa-derivative verb-forming affix to which inflectional affixes are added without morphophonemic alternation: 1. referring to actions one has caused someone to do (either to something else or to oneself), 2. added to adjectives, have someone make something (adj.); have something become (adj.), 3. added to nouns, cause someone to do the action that verbs derived from the noun refer to, 4. added to doubled adjectives, pretend to be, 5. added to nouns, go to (noun) (PPh: *ipa-)

pastill, yet: up to now, up to a specific point in the past; else, in addition (PAN: *pa₁)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-anúdallow oneself to go with the current, but with control; drift net which is left to float in the sea and catches fish by the gills (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud

pa-aŋk-anmake someone pregnant (PWMP: *pa-anak-an) *aNak

pa-asáwabe married off to (PMP: *pa-qasawa) *qasawa

pa-asúfumigate, apply smoke to plants to make them bear (PMP: *pa(ka)-qasu) *qasu₃

pa-atubáŋtowards, in a direction to (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

pa-báyaʔpay something no mind (NOISE)

pa-bígaʔaphrodisiac (PMP: *biRaq₁)

pa-bílinstay behind, remain in the same way (PWMP: *bilin)

pábuturkey (LOAN)

pa-búkidgo, bring to the mountains (PAN: *bukij)

pa-búlanhire oneself, someone out as a servant (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

pa-butúfire, make something explode (PPh: *pa-betuʔ) *betuʔ

Cebuano (1820 / 2798)

pa-dápitput something at some place (PWMP: *dapit)

padpádfor wind or water to carry something in the current; bring someone somewhere; remove something from whatever it was mixed with or stuck to (PPH: *padpád)

pa-duŋug-dúŋugsay something in someone’s earshot to embarrass him or give him a hint (PMP: *deŋeR)

págashelf put above the stove; platform built close to the roof forming a loft, but not extending the entire length of the house (PAN: *paRa₁)

pa-gabíʔispend the night (PMP: *Rabiqi)

pa-gamútpropagate plants by letting cuttings develop roots (PMP: *Ramut)

pagátpattree of mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris and acida (PWMP: *paRatpat)

pagáwhoarse, become hoarse (PAN: *paRaw)

paghídput s.t. on by spreading (PPh: *paRhid)

págigeneral term for rays (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pa-gilúkto tickle someone (PWMP: *gilek)

pagpágagitate to remove dust, shake the dust off things (PPH: *pagpág)

pagutputput-put sound; croaking sound of frogs (PPh: *p<aR>utput) *putput₂

paha-lípayto congratulate, felicitate (PPH: *lípay)

pa-háŋinexpose oneself to the wind, draft (PMP: *pa(ka)-haŋin) *haŋin

páhidrub on, apply by wiping; wipe (PWMP: *pahid)

pahír-andoormat; rags to wipe the hands (PWMP: *pahid)

pa-hiumsmile (PPh: *hium)

pa-hulámlend (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

pa-hulámto lend (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

Cebuano (1840 / 2798)

páhuʔkind of small, fibrous mango: Mangifera altissima (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pa-i-bábawto soar up (as a crow trying to escape a hawk) (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

pa-i-láyato go inland (PAN: *daya)

pakword used in writing to represent the sound of a slap, or explosion of firecrackers (PMP: *pak)

paka-derivational verb-forming prefix; with durative active affixes, verbs with paka- mean ‘pretend to be, act like so-and-so’, and with the direct passive affixes they mean ‘consider as so-and-so’, or ‘treat like so-and-so’ (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

paka-bútapay no heed to someone (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

paka-duŋúghear many things; cause someone to hear (PWMP: *paka-deŋeR) *deŋeR

paka-gabíʔispend the night (PMP: *paka-Rabiqi) *Rabiqi

pákalstuff a hole (as by putting rocks into a rat-hole) (PWMP: *pakal)

paka-lalákiact like a man, consider, treat like a man (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

paka-matáydie for a cause; commit suicide; allow someone to die (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

paka-sadʔ-unimpute a fault on someone (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

paka-sákitto make sacrifices (PMP: *sakit)

paka-túluginduce, put to sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

pákawhandle stuck into a frying pan with a rounded bottom; buoy or float made of a long bamboo node one and a half to two feet in length, used principally as a marker for fishing equipment (PWMP: *pakaw)

pakáwbow-legged, pigeon-toed; have an inarticulated elbow, such that one cannot straighten his arm (PPH: *pakáw)

pakpákapplause (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pakpákhusk, bark of trees; to peel off, shell (PWMP: *pakpak₂)

pakúkind of fern, the young leaves of which are eaten as a salad: Athyrium esculentum (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pa-kusúgcontest of strength (as weightlifting) (PAN: *keseR)

Cebuano (1860 / 2798)

páladpalm of the hand; one's fate (PMP: *palaj₁)

páladone's fate (PWMP: *palaj₂)

palákaʔfrog (LOAN)

palákaʔfrog (NOISE)

palakpákapplause; clap (PPH: *p<al>akpak) *pakpak₁

p<al>akpákapplause (PAN: *pakpak₁)

palakúl, palákulaxe, hatchet (LOAN)

pala-palatemporary shed without walls, with a flat roof (PPh: *pala pala₂)

palár-anfortunate (PWMP: *palaj₂)

palásankind of rattan with a stem as big around as the arm (LOAN)

palatafish found around rocks in shallow waters; not particularly good eating (PMP: *palata)

palátikoutrigger boom to which the float (katig) is attached (PWMP: *palantik)

pala-utútone who constantly breaks wind (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

palaʔ-palaʔhorizontal trellis for plants to grow on (PWMP: *paraq paraq)

palaʔpálaʔhorizontal trellis for plants to grow on; temporary shed without walls (LOAN)

pálhifor a place to be inhabited by supernatural beings that can get easily angered and inflict diseases on the object of their ire (PAN: *paliSi)

pa-libutsurroundings (PWMP: *pa-libut) *libut

palidfor the wind to blow something away; be blown off course; winnow, throw grains in the air (PWMP: *palij)

palidpídpass close along the side of something (PWMP: *p<al>idpid) *pidpid

palíŋfor something not rooted or fixed at the base to fall over to its side (PMP: *paliŋ)

Cebuano (1880 / 2798)

pálisfor the wind to blow something away (PWMP: *palis₁)

palítbuy (PPh: *palit)

paliyá, palíyawidely cultivated vine producing an elongated fruit with wart-like skin, eaten unripe as a vegetable, having a bitter taste, Momordica charantia (PWMP: *paria)

palíʔlarge scar (PWMP: *paria)

páliʔlarge scar (PWMP: *paliq₂)

palpáfor the feet to get flat; flat, of feet (PWMP: *palpal₂)

palpálhit someone on the open palm; knock something with the flat palm (PPH: *palpál₁)

palpálfor the feet to get flat; flat, of feet (PWMP: *parpar)

palpal-únsomewhat flat-footed (PWMP: *palpal₂)

palpal-únsomewhat flat-footed (PWMP: *parpar)

paltikhomemade firearms (PWMP: *paletik)

pálumast, pole (LOAN)

palúŋcut the cockscomb (PPH: *páluŋ)

p<al>uŋpuŋa cluster or bunch (as keys, grapes) (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₂)

pa-lupʔítput something in between two flat surfaces so as to press it (PMP: *luqepit)

pálutpeel skin off; for the skin to get chafed; shave the head bald (NOISE)

pálutpeel skin off (as from an apple); for the skin to get chafed; shave the head bald (NOISE)

pálut ságiŋbanana peel (only in certain expressions) (NOISE)

pa-luwáto command a carabao to stop (PPH: *luá)

páluʔhit, slap in punishment (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

Cebuano (1900 / 2798)

pa-mágayrhyming, verse-making (PWMP: *bagay₁)

pa-mampámpatronize a prostitute (PPH: *pampám)

pa-mampámto patronize a prostitute (LOAN)

pamanafor women to get married (PMP: *banah) *baNaS

pamanh-únunhusband-to-be (PMP: *banah) *baNaS

pam-atáysomething used to kill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pa-máypayto fan oneself (PPH: *paypáy)

pa-míhudhave roe; become pregnant (humorous) (PWMP: *bihed)

pa-miŋkuŋ-anname given to the hammerhead shark, so called because its flattened head with its oculonarial expansions is positioned to the body as the blade of a pick is to its handle (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

pa-mítaythe lower wattles of a chicken (PPh: *bítay)

pampámprostitute (slang), become a prostitute (PPH: *pampám)

pampámprostitute (slang); become a prostitute (LOAN)

pampam-ánwhorehouse (LOAN)

pa-múhatbusiness of making something (PMP: *buhat₂)

pa-muhíssystem of taxation (PWMP: *buhís)

pa-mukúlfor the breasts to develop in adolescence (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

pa-múkutfishing with a púkut (PWMP: *pa-muket) *puket₁

pa-múlaŋattend a cockfight and bet; for a cock to win in a fight (PWMP: *paŋ-bulaŋ) *bulaŋ

pa-mutítifor rice sheathes to swell prior to blossoming (PWMP: *butiti)

pa-mútuengage in the business of selling pútu; go somewhere to eat pútu (LOAN)

Cebuano (1920 / 2798)

pa-nakítpains, aches, characteristics of a sickness (PWMP: *pa-ñakit) *sakit

pa-nalg-án-anstorey of a house; floor joist; floor clearance from the ground (PMP: *saleR)

pa-nambálto practive medicine (PMP: *tambar)

pa-nanúmplanting, farming, agriculture (PWMP: *pa-nanem) *CaNem

pa-napútattire, the kind of clothes one wears as opposed to the type worn by other classes or on other occasions (PMP: *saput₁)

pánawtravel, journey; regularly scheduled trip; make a travel or journey (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

panáyearthenware vessel, usually hemispherical but shallow, used to hold liquids (PMP: *panay)

pa-naytáytravel along a mountain ridge (PMP: *taytay)

pánaʔarrow, spear projected; shoot an arrow, to spear (PAN: *panaq)

pandákshort and stout; be short and stout (PMP: *pandak)

pan-dumdúm-anmind (PAN: *demdem₁)

paN-íhiʔurinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

pa-níkadpush with the feet, exerting effort; kick the ground, as if eager to fight (as a bull); very eager to do something (PPH: *sikad)

pa-nipíscome too close to another vehicle (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

pánitskin, peelings, bark, leather; shell of a shrimp, egg; to skin, peel something; beat someone in gambling; be trounced in a fight (PWMP: *panit)

pantukknock something against something else (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

pa-núgunask someone to get and bring something back (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

pa-nulátwriting as an avocation or profession (LOAN)

pa-nulund-unsomething which is inherited (< met. of *pa-nulud-nun?) (PPH: *sunúd)

pa-núluʔgo hunting or fishing at night with torchlight (PMP: *suluq)

Cebuano (1940 / 2798)

pa-númpaʔto swear, make an oath to do something or that something will happen (PWMP: *sumpaq)

pan-úniquality of singing, intonation and pitch; tone of voice (PMP: *huni) *Suni

pa-núwayto go clamming (PMP: *tuay)

panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell (PPh: *panuqes)

panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell (PPh: *panuqus)

paŋáforked stick; forked handle of a slingshot (PAN: *paŋa₁)

pa-ŋáhuycut down and gather firewood (PWMP: *pa-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

pa-ŋahuy-káhuyfor muscles to get stiff with fatigue (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

paŋ-amíhanblow from the north (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

paŋ-anáksponsor in a baptism (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

paŋ-ánudcloud (PPh: *paŋ-añud) *qañud

paŋ-apúhave grandchildren (PPh: *paŋ-apu) *apu

paŋa-ráanbe engaged in something over a long period of time (PAN: *daqaN)

paŋ-asáwafor men to get married (PPh: *paŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

paŋ-asin-ansalt beds (PPh: *paŋ-qasin-an) *qasiN

pa-ŋátidecoy, lure in fishing (PPH: *káti)

páŋdanany of the plants of the genus Pandanus, esp. tectorius (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

paŋ-húgaswash oneself (PWMP: *paŋ-huRas) *SuRas

pa-ŋilátfor lightning to be flashing intensely (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

páŋkaʔbump against something (PWMP: *paŋkaq)

Cebuano (1960 / 2798)

paŋ-líʔugget thick at the neck (from having rolls of fat) (PAN: *liqeR)

paŋpáŋcliff (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋpaŋ-anuncliff dwellers (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋpaŋ-uncharacterized by having cliffs (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋ-ugátbe angry (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

pa-ŋugítacatch octopuses (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

paŋ-uláŋtrap used for catching freshwater shrimps (PAN: *qudaŋ)

paŋ-úlube, become a leader, chief (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paŋ-útanpick, gather vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

paŋ-uwáygather rattan (PPh: *paŋ-quay) *quay

papánstone slab (PMP: *papan)

pa-pilítto paste, stick something to something (PMP: *pilit₁)

pa-píliʔbe a candidate (PWMP: *pa-piliq) *piliq

paráwschooner, galleon (PWMP: *padaw)

pa-sákitto make sacrifices (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pasi-bantúgto boast about one’s ability, skill (PPH: *bantug)

pasígshoals, a shallow place in a body of water; for a water-covered area to become shallow (PWMP: *pasiR)

pa-síkatto show off (PPH: *sikát)

pa-silibpeep, look at while remaining hidden; look furtively out of the corner of the eyes (PWMP: *silib)

pa-sílʔippeer slyly or secretly; take a hasty furtive look (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

Cebuano (1980 / 2798)

paspasduster; stick with strips of paper at the end to chase away flies; drive flies away with a fly whisk; hit someone with a duster or a fly whisk (PWMP: *paspas₂)

paspasfast in motion or doing something; do something hurriedly, get to be fast (PPH: *paspás₄)

pa-súlittest, examination; hold an exam (PWMP: *sulit₁)

pa-súsufeed with the breast or bottle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

pasʔáncarry something over the shoulders (PMP: *pasaqan) *pasaqaN

pátagfor an area to be flat and level; flat, level lands, plains (PWMP: *pataR₂)

patániʔlima bean: Phaseolus lunatus (PPH: *pataniq)

patáwbuoy tied to something; buoy used to hold up fishing nets, used to mark a fish trap in the sea, used to mark an unattended fishing line tied to a rope with a harpoon to hold the fish back, etc.; use a float, fasten a float to a rope (PPH: *patáw)

p-atáykill, slay; dead; for something to have been killed, deadened (as an engine); new moon; be head over heels in love (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patáy-pátaydo something intensely (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patáy sa utuggirl used to satisfy one's sexual desires (lit. something to kill one's erection on) (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pa-taʔásraise, lengthen, increase the length; upward (PMP: *atas) *aCas

pátiktattoo, mark with a brand (PWMP: *patik)

patísliquefied preserved fish paste; soy sauce (LOAN)

pa-túlutpay out rope or string; sail smoothly, swiftly with the wind (NOISE)

patuŋkind of thick, straight and smooth bamboo: Gigantochloa levis (PWMP: *patuŋ)

patʔak (ʔ unexplained)splotch, spatter all over something (PAN: *paCak)

paúdput something against or over something hard to steady it; press something against something hard with one’s weight; presss part of the body against something (PWMP: *paqud)

pa-ulahíbe the last, do something as the last thing; allow oneself to be left behind (PWMP: *pa-udehi) *udehi

pa-ulánstay out in the rain; rain in large quantities (PAN: *pa-quzaN) *quzaN

Cebuano (2000 / 2798)

pa-ulíʔbring someone back home; go back to the place one started (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

paús ~ páusseverely hoarse (as from singing too much); to get severely hoarse (PPH: *paqus₁)

pa-útaŋextend credit; get in the last word in a dispute (PWMP: *pa-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

pawíkansea turtle; be affected by a sea turtle, i.e. be unable to come apart in intercourse (from sorcery where the penis of a sea turtle is hidden in the clothing of an adulterer so that he cannot disengage when he has intercourse) (PPH: *pawikan)

pawikan-untending to cry easily (as women) (PPH: *pawikan)

paypáyfan; kind of thin, fan-shaped bivalve, found in sandy seabeds, of no food value (PPH: *paypáy)

payúpasfan, any device used for fanning (PWMP: *payupas)

páʔathigh, legs from the knees up (PAN: *paqa₁)

páʔa-hanthe upper leg of a pair of pants (PAN: *paqa₁)

pa-ʔaŋtadput something in the line of sight (PPH: *aŋ(ə)tad)

paʔítbitter in taste, bitter in situation (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

páʔpaʔbite something or grab it with the teeth without tearing or wounding (PMP: *paqpaq₁)

paʔúnbait; to bait something; to make or use as bait; use someone else as a means to deflect danger from oneself (PAN: *paen)

píaŋdislocate, sprain, fracture someone; make something crippled, be at a disadvantage because of a loss or absence of something indispensable (PPH: *piqaŋ)

pidpidvery near or close (PWMP: *pidpid)

pidpídvery near or close (as a bed placed very close to a wall); put, stay very close along something; travel close along something (as a boat traveling close to the shore) (PAN: *pijpij)

pígaʔpress, squeeze something (as juice from grated coconut, a hand in welcome) (PPH: *piRaq₁) *piRaq

píguŋto grip or hold something firmly (as a squirming piglet, or a board to be sawed) (PWMP: *pigeŋ)

pikpikto pat, tap lightly on the body; make pottery by tapping with a flat wooden paddle; hammer out dents in a car; kind of sorcery inflicted by tapping someone on the back, counteracted by tapping the person who sent it on his back (PAN: *pikpik)

píkupickaxe; dig with a pickaxe (LOAN)

Cebuano (2020 / 2798)

píkutto corner a man into marriage (slang) (PPH: *pikut₂)

píkuʔfor something pliant to bend into a position in which it stays; cause it to do so (PAN: *pikuq₁)

piláhow much?, how many?; to what extent? (PAN: *pijax)

pilá-hayonly recently, not so long ago (PAN: *pijax)

pílaksilver; money; to plate with silver (LOAN)

pílaybend or droop at its base limply (as the head of a child that has fallen asleep in his seat) (PAN: *piNay)

pílay-pílayto sway to and fro (as rice stalks in the wind); spineless, as a person without convictions (PAN: *piNay)

pílitinsist on doing something, or that someone else do something (PPH: *pílit)

pilítstick on (as a gecko sticking to a surface) (PMP: *pilit₁)

pilít-pílithaving difficulty enunciating (because of the tongue ‘sticking’) (PMP: *pilit₁)

píliʔchoose, pick a choice; elect someone to office; sort out the good or bad (PAN: *piliq)

pilpilto slap someone’s hands lightly (PWMP: *pilpil)

pilúkwink or blink the eyes (PWMP: *pidek₁)

pilúʔfold something flat, crease, turn a hem up, be doubled, multiplied (PMP: *piluq)

p-in-a-aŋk-anillegitimate child; one who gave birth out of wedlock (PWMP: *pa-anak-an) *aNak

p<in>a-kaʔunbe fed with something special on a regular basis (PAN: *p<in>a-kaen) *kaen

p<in>awíkancrying with a profuse flow of tears (like a sea turtle is said to do) (PPH: *pawikan)

p<in>ílíʔsomeone or something elected or chosen; something select, special; select kind of large-grained rice (PWMP: *p<in>iliq) *piliq

pinpingame of eeny, meeny, miny, mo (LOAN)

p<in>ukpukkind of cloth made from fine abaca fiber that has been pounded after weaving; wear, use pinukpuk cloth; make pinukpuk cloth (PAN: *pukpuk)

Cebuano (2040 / 2798)

piŋkítfor things that are alike to be joined by some part of themselves; piŋkít na ságiŋ two bananas joined together as one (PMP: *pikit)

piŋkíʔknock lightly, esp. something that produces a clinking noise (as two glasses) (PPH: *piŋkíq)

piŋús-piŋúsmake quick sniffs at intervals as in sobbing, or simply drawing mucus back into the nose (PMP: *piŋus)

piŋʔutfor the nose to be stuffed; have a stuffed nose (PMP: *piŋ(e)qut)

pípichild’s word for female genitalia (PAN: *pipi₂)

pisák ~ písakmuddy ground, mire (PPH: *pisak₂) *pisak

pisak-pisakspatter or splatter dirt or liquid; make a spattering sound (PPH: *pisak₂) *pisak

pisikspatter, splatter (PMP: *picik)

pispiskind of green tree insect that makes a shrill sound at night (so called from its sound); it is believed that a pispis in the house is the voice of a departed one who has come to ask for help (PWMP: *pispis₂)

písupeso, the Philippine unit of currency (LOAN)

pisúk, písukpush something small into a depressed position; make a dent in something covering only a small area (PWMP: *picuk)

pisunsteamroller (LOAN)

pitpitkind of swift; the mahjong piece with one bamboo that resembles the pitpit bird (PWMP: *pitpit₁)

pitúseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pítuwhistle; whistling sound; blow a whistle, usually as a signal (LOAN)

piutnarrow, not affording enough space (PPH: *piet)

piyákcheeping sound of chicks or young birds (PMP: *piak)

piʔpíʔto hammer or pat something into shape (as a pot, or dented fender back into shape) (PPH: *piqpiq)

pudpúdwear down or decay at the ends or tips (as teeth from eating too much candy); knock the ashes off something burning slowly; worn down or decayed (PPH: *pudpud)

púgadput fowl away for the night; put newly hatched baby chicks down from the nest for the first time (LOAN)

Cebuano (2060 / 2798)

pugaʔsqueeze to extract juice; force someone to do something (PAN: *peReq)

pugs-ún-unneeding to be urged or told to do something (PAN: *peRes)

pugúscompel someone to do something (PAN: *peRes)

pugútname given to triggerfishes, especially species with very small mouths (as opposed to the pakul, which have larger mouths) (PWMP: *peget)

pugut-un ug baʔbaʔhaving a small mouth (PWMP: *peget)

pukonomatopoetic word for a rapping sound (PMP: *puk₂) *puk

pukabreak something that is attached to something by holding tight to it (PMP: *peka)

pukáka child’s word for female genitalia (PWMP: *pukak)

pukáŋchild's word for female genitalia (PWMP: *pukaŋ)

púkaŋchild's word for female genitalia (NOISE)

pukáslift up something that covers or hides something; become uncovered; for a girl's dress to creep upwards, uncovering her legs (PWMP: *pukas₁)

púkifemale genital organ (euphemism) (PAN: *puki)

pukpukpound with the fist or something held in the fist, not necessarily with force; masturbate (slang); act of pounding or hammering; drumstick (PAN: *pukpuk)

púkutgeneral term for fish nets put somewhere, into which the fish are driven and caught by the gills or which are used in trawling (PMP: *puket₁)

pulared; any color ranging from dark yellow through orange, red and brown (PMP: *pula₁)

puláw ~ púlawstay up very late at night, or the whole night through; keep a fire or lamp going the night through; for a feeling to be kept alive (PPH: *pulaw)

púliŋforeign body or matter in the eye or eyes (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

pulpúlnot bright (as a child);, unskillful in doing or executing things; for vehicles or animals to be slow in running speed (LOAN)

púluhandle of bladed instruments (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

púlunwind a string or rope into a ball (PMP: *pudun) *puduN

Cebuano (2080 / 2798)

púnaswash the face and limbs with a soapy washcloth (PMP: *punas)

púnaythe pink-necked green pigeon: Treron vernans (PAN: *punay)

punpúngather powder, grains into a heap by scooping them with the hands; compile, collect (PWMP: *punpun)

puntikspot, dot (PWMP: *pe(n)tik)

puntílsmall bag of cloth, paper (PWMP: *pu(n)tir)

púnuʔtrunk of a tree, main stem or body of a tree apart from the limbs and roots; base, lowest part of something; point of attachment of a part of the body; officials in charge of an office; main office of a company (PMP: *puqun)

púnuʔfilled, full; covered with something; fill up a container or space (PMP: *penuq)

púpuscoming to its end (PWMP: *puspus₁)

pusákbreak something hard (as a plate, or cement flooring with a hammer) (PMP: *pesak)

pusáʔcrush or squash something soft; break something fragile; hatch an egg (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

pusítkind of small squid (PPH: *pusít)

puspússtrike hard with something stiff and long; be dashed onto something; fall heavily (PWMP: *puspus₂)

púsudnavel; center point of something (as the center of a city) (PMP: *pusej)

pusútfor liquid to spurt out (PMP: *pucut₁)

púsuʔbanana blossom, including the petals; ear of corn; for corn to have ears or bananas to develop their blosssoms; woman’s breast (euphemism); gather, get banana blossoms for food (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusuʔpúsuʔ sa bitíʔisbiceps, or the muscles of the lower legs (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pútashatter, crush something to bits (PMP: *peta)

putakfor chickens to keep squawking, as when laying eggs; complain, talk or protest loudly (PWMP: *petak)

putháwiron, steel (LOAN)

pútiʔwhite; in plant description, green varieties of plants that have green varieties and red or brown varieties; white race (PMP: *putiq)

Cebuano (2100 / 2798)

putiʔ-ana variety of coconut and pineapple more orange in color than the ordinary (PWMP: *putiq-an) *putiq

putiʔ-unwhitish, fair-skinned (PWMP: *putiq-en) *putiq

pútucake made of steamed starches, coconut, and other optional ingredients (LOAN)

putúk-putúkrapid beating or throbbing of the heart (PWMP: *petuk)

putúlsever with a bladed instrument or by snapping; cut down; cut something out; break a connection; cut something short; put an end to something; cut something off from something (PMP: *putul) *putun

puyúthe climbing perch: Anabas testudineus (PWMP: *puyu₁)

púyuŋgather together the ends of a sack or bag to close it up, or take something flat and fold up the ends to put something inside it (PWMP: *puyuŋ)

puʔpuʔpick fruits, leaves, flowers from a tree by breaking off the peduncle (PMP: *puqpuq₁)

saparticle indicating grammatical relations: preceding a phrase referring to a place, to time, to past time, to possession or analogous concepts; indicating dative relations, etc.; in comparisons: than (PAN: *sa₂)

sabaŋarea on or near the mouth of a river (PMP: *sabaŋ₁)

sábaywalk with, beside (PWMP: *sa(m)bay) *sabay₁

sablúkintense desire to eat something one hasn’t eaten in a long time; have an intense desire to eat something (PPH: *sab(e)lek)

sabsábto graze (as goats) (PAN: *sabsab)

sabudcatch something against an obstruction; trip, cause someone to stumble; be delayed (PWMP: *sabeD)

sábudsow, sprinkle seeds on a bed; feed chickens by sprinkling grains on the ground (PWMP: *sabuD)

sábuŋcockfight, usually without gaffs; to fight cocks; pair of people, usually in a love match (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

sábʔavariety of cooking banana with rectangular fruit similar to but smaller than the kárdaba, with 7-12 or more hands in the bunch; the fiber can be made into cloth: Musa sapientum var. compressa (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sabʔítput something small around something that holds it, or pierce with a hook; decorate with a medal hung from a ribbon put around the neck; put a curved thing around something to pluck or bring it down (PMP: *saqebit)

sabʔit-án-ansomething onto which something is hooked (PPh: *saqebit-án) *saqebit

sadsaddance with the feet (rather than with the hands or some other part of the body) (PPH: *sadsad)

Cebuano (2120 / 2798)

sadʔ-anguilty, be found guilty (PWMP: *salaq-an) *salaq₁

ságapcatch a whiff by accident (PPH: *saRap)

sagapsápfibrous and dry to chew; rough to the touch (PPH: *sagapsap)

sagisítall, slender, ornamental palm with pinnate leaves, the fruit of which are similar to the Areca and may also be chewed: Heterospathe elata (PPH: *sagisí)

sagúdead man's saliva (PWMP: *saRu₂)

sagúsago starch obtained from palm trunks, especially the sago palm (lumbiya) and the buri palm (buli) (PMP: *sagu₁)

sagúdead man’s saliva (PWMP: *sagu₂)

ságudfor a rope or string to be worn out by friction (PWMP: *saRud)

sagúpadopt or take someone under one’s care; harbor, give temporary shelter (PMP: *saRep)

sa-gúyudtrailing behind (PWMP: *guyud₃)

sa ibábawup on top (PAN: *sa₂)

sakayput something, ride, get on a vehicle; join in with other people; include something together with a list that has been made up (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakáʔaŋtotter under a heavy weight with the legs spread far apart for balance and foothold; walk with the legs wide apart due to some ailment (PPH: *sakáqaŋ)

sakbútsnatch, grab something from (ROOT)

sakgúmhold something in both hands (ROOT)

sakítpainful; hurting, causing wounded feelings; violent death or way of dying; physical pain; ache, emotional pain; (PMP: *sakit)

sakít sa babáyivenereal disease; menstruation (sickness of a woman) (PMP: *sakit)

sakníblay two things out flat so that the one is partly over the other (as mats with edges overlapping) (PPH: *sak(e)níb)

saksákchop something into pieces, usually to mix it into something else (PAN: *saksak₁)

sáksito see, witness; testify, say something in evidence; ask someone’s opinion about something (LOAN)

Cebuano (2140 / 2798)

sakúŋbent downward more than it should be (as a spring pole used with noose traps) (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂)

sakúŋbent downwards more than it should be (ROOT)

sakúpcatch, capture (PMP: *sakep)

sakupclose something (as a door, book) (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kep)

sakúpto catch, capture (as a runaway pig; someone who is cheating); come upon someone doing something (PMP: *sakup₁)

sálabto singe, pass a flame over (PWMP: *sadab)

sálagnest (PMP: *salaR)

s<al>akít-ansusceptible to diseases; infested with organisms that cause diseases (PMP: *sakit)

salampátigeneral term for pigeons; prostitute (euphemism) (LOAN)

salapáŋspear that is thrown, or a harpoon (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

salapaŋ-únto hit with a spear or harpoon (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

salápidbraid, plait; walk crossing the feet over each other; be inarticulate in speech (PWMP: *salapid)

s-al-asacut the leaflets from the fronds of the nipa palm for shingles (PMP: *sasah)

salátanstrong wind coming from the south during storms (PWMP: *salatan)

sálaʔsin, fault; commit a sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

s<al>idsídgo, take something along the edge of something (as a boat following a coastline) (PMP: *siDsiD)

salidsidto go or take something along the edge of something; to skid, slide in doing a curve (as truck on a slippery road) (PPH: *sarijsij)

saliŋsíŋnew branch growing out from a mature branch; one’s offspring (literary); outgrowth, outcome of something (literary); to grow new branches (PPH: *saliŋsíŋ)

salsálforge; pound, hammer out metal that has not been heated (NEAR)

saludvessel used to catch falling liquids (PWMP: *saluD)

Cebuano (2160 / 2798)

sálugriver, any body of flowing water (PWMP: *saluR)

salúgfloor; storey; put, construct a floor (PMP: *saleR)

salugsúgsplinter sticking into the skin; get a splinter in the skin (PPH: *salugsúg)

sálumswim under water; for the sun to set (literary) (PWMP: *salem)

sáluŋdammar resin in a soft state or as an ingredient of the balaw (resinous preparation used to caulk and waterproof a boat) used to caulk boats, esp. from the almasíga tree (PAN: *saleŋ)

s<al>uŋsuŋgo directly against the current or wind; brave adverse weather conditions or a battle; bravely face someone difficult to approach (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

sámalike, same as; similar; treat, consider someone as, or similar to (PWMP: *sama)

sa Manilato Manila (PAN: *sa₂)

sama-sámabe fair, not taking undue advantage of one another; be in a spirit of good fellowship with someone (PMP: *sama-sama) *sama

sambugmix things together; for emotions to have a tinge of something else mixed; mixture; add ingredients (NEAR)

sambúgmix things together; add ingredient; mixture of rice and corn (ROOT)

sampagítaspreading and ornamental bush grown for its fragrant flowers, jasmine: Jasminum spp. (LOAN)

sampanflat-bottomed, square-ended barge, usually with no engines; to go by, take a barge; make into a barge (LOAN)

sampáyhang laundry out; put up in someone else’s place, cause one to do so (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

sampáy-sampáybe shoved around from home to home as a dependent (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

sandaylay or rest something on and across something else (PAN: *saŋeday)

sandúkscoop something out or off of; utensil used to scoop rice from the pot; a scoopful (PWMP: *sanduk)

sanípaedging similar to an eaves board which trims a roof; a short curtain across the top of a window, framework of a bed, and the like; design in series at one side or around the edges of a cloth; folding room divider; lamp shade to concentrate light (PPH: *sanipa)

santákpull a fishing line with a jerk to hook a fish that nibbled at the bait (PWMP: *santak)

santíkbuild a fire by rubbing two dry bamboo sticks together; build a fire by rubbing flint and steel together; kind of flint used in building a fire by friction (PPH: *santik)

Cebuano (2180 / 2798)

saŋábranch, limb of a tree; lateral extension of a road or path; fork of a slingshot; bamboo or wooden hook attached to a rope used to draw up a fish trap from the water; an extra finger or toe in addition to the usual five; have or grow a branch; for the road to fork (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋá aŋ dílaʔbe fierce and violent (like a snake with a forked tongue) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋá aŋ tiŋgilfor a woman to have sexual appetite (lit. have a forked clitoris) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋa- saŋáfell a tree branch by branch (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋɁátput something up somewhere (as an object on top of a fence so a dog can’t get it) (PPH: *saŋ(e)qát)

saŋáyperson having the same first name (PWMP: *saŋay)

sáŋgaɁbe underneath something so that it supports or protects it; put something under something else; catch something dripping or falling with a container (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

sáŋitto be in the way and hold something in place, snag, catch (PPH: *saq(e)ŋit)

saŋkápcomplete, having the necessary equipment (NEAR)

saŋlágroast something in a pan with little or no oil (as coffee); action of roasting in a pan (PMP: *saŋelaR)

sápaɁbrook or creek (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapálback up someone’s obligations; take charge or care of another person’s needs; be enough to cover expenses (PPH: *sapal)

sapínfootgear: shoes, slippers, boots, but not socks; diaper (PPH: *sapín)

sapláslightly bitter in taste with an astringent effect, as unripe bananas; get this taste in one’s mouth; for unpolished cereals to be rough on the tongue when eaten (PWMP: *sapela)

saplúdslightly bitterish in taste; get a bitterish taste (as some beers) (PWMP: *sapeled)

sapsápto trim down a piece of wood by chipping pieces off (as a stake to make it sharper) (PWMP: *sapsap₁)

sapúto wipe, put something back in place using the hands (PMP: *sapu)

sapúpuhave, pick up something in one’s arms (PPH: *sapupu)

sapútclothes; wear clothes (PMP: *saput₁)

saput-ánclothe something in something (PMP: *saput₁)

Cebuano (2200 / 2798)

sariʔ-sáriʔall different types of things sold in one place; category of store which sells miscellaneous items in small quantities; be of all different types; dish made of pork with various vegetables and liver, and sautéed; dish made of various greens mixed with diced squash and eggplants and stewed; be varied or of different kinds (LOAN)

saságkind of exterior walling made of bamboo slats and palm thatch, nailed to wooden studs (PWMP: *sasag)

sásiŋkind of edible white worm of the mud near the sea shore (PWMP: *caciŋ)

sawálarge snake; python (PMP: *sawa)

sawɁáfeeling uneasy when one stops doing things he usually does; to get this feeling of uneasiness (PPH: *saw(e)qa)

sawálibamboo matting woven with a kind of twill weave, commonly used for walling (LOAN)

sáwangiving a dizzying feeling from looking down from heights; be intensely frightened (PWMP: *sawan)

sawán-ananprone to intense fright (PWMP: *sawan)

sawsáwdunk something into something else and shake it around (PPH: *sawsáw)

sáyaŋexpression of regret at something wasted or an opportunity missed; for something to be a waste, consider it so (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

sáyawdance (PWMP: *sayaw)

saysáyto narrate, relate (as in explaining a situation that happened, a procedure to be followed); narration, declaration (PPH: *sáysay)

sayuti ~ sayutiskind of vegetable, similar in appearance to a pear, cooked and eaten like squash, growing on a climbing vine with squash-like leaves: Sechium edule (LOAN)

saʔsáʔcrack and flatten bamboo stems so as to make them resemble and serve as boards for walling; sheet of cracked and flattened bamboo for walling (PAN: *saqsaq)

saʔúpsharecropper (PWMP: *saqup)

siparticle before names or titles of persons used in constructions which require the nominative (PAN: *si₁)

siáthis, that thing (PAN: *si ia₂) *ia₂

sibáyan extension room added to an already existing dwelling, with the floor raised some distance from the ground; add an extension to a house (PPH: *sibay)

sibay-síbaywoman maintained by a married man; for a (PPH: *sibay)

sibítsafety pin; fasten with a safety pin (PWMP: *cibít)

Cebuano (2220 / 2798)

sibítsafety pin; fasten in with a safety pin (PPH: *sibít)

sibúkawsmall tree with scattered prickles, the wood of which is used in boat building: Caesalpinia sappan (PPH: *sibukaw)

sidlítsquirt out in a stream (PWMP: *ciderit)

sidsídhem, lower edge of dress, curtain, or the like; edge, border (literary) (PMP: *siDsiD)

sígabright, giving off intense illumination; bright-eyed, or having big, round eyes; to burn bright; for the lights to be on; for the eyes to be big or bright; for the eyes to be wide, glaring at someone (PMP: *sigá)

sígawnoisy, making a disturbance (PWMP: *sigaw)

sihúdsmall fish trap made of flexible vines, used to scoop small fish from shallow waters; to fish with the sihud (PWMP: *sihud)

síkadpropel something with the feet, bending the knees and kicking the legs; to pedal; have two fighting cocks spar by holding them by the tail and allowing their legs to scratch or kick the ground (PPH: *sikad)

síkadpropel something with the feet, bending the knees and kicking the legs; to pedal; have two fighting cocks spar by holding them by the tail and allowing their legs to scratch or kick the ground (PWMP: *sikaD)

síkatcocky, showing off one’s good looks or posture; worthy of praise or envy (PPH: *sikát)

sikh-únto nudge with the elbow (PWMP: *siku-en) *sikux

sikífetlock, a thumb-like projection above the foot in the legs of animals (PPH: *sikí)

siksíkgo over an area in systematic detail to search for something, ignoring no inch (PWMP: *siksik₁)

síkuelbow; a unit of measurement reckoned from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow, used to measure yarn (PAN: *sikux)

sikúh-anto nudge each other with the elbows (PWMP: *siku-an) *sikux

síkupbird of prey (PWMP: *sikep₁)

síkupcatch fish or shellfish by running a net or hands along the bottom of the water; arrest, usually after a dragnet operation; trap an elusive bachelor into marrying (PMP: *sikep₂)

siláthey (PMP: *si ida) *ida

silábset fire to, put something burning close to something else (PPH: *siq(e)láb)

sílakfor the sun to be shining clear and bright (PMP: *cilak)

Cebuano (2240 / 2798)

sílakfor the sun to be shining clear and bright (PMP: *sirak₁)

silakfor the sun to be shining clear and bright (PMP: *silak₁) *silak

sílawray, beam of emitted light; to shine, emit rays of light (PMP: *silaw)

sílipepper, Capsicum spp. (LOAN)

silibappear as if coming out from hiding (PWMP: *silib)

silíŋ-anneighbor; border, verge on (PWMP: *sidiŋ)

sílitflow in a continuous stream from where it is pent up; drive, move swiftly forward; for firecrackers to fizzle or sputter; leaky (as a tank of water) (PWMP: *cirit)

sílitflow in a continuous stream from where it is pent up (PWMP: *ciderit)

silsilcold chisel, a chisel for metal, stone; to inscribe, work something with a chisel (LOAN)

sílutpenalty for a crime; penalty in a game for an infraction of the rules; impose a penalty for a crime or in sports (LOAN)

síluʔhave hurt feelings (as when excluded from some event that others are invited to, or as a result of derision) (NEAR)

sílʔip ~ sílippeep through a small hole or opening (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

símaɁbarb; glans penis (euphemism) (PPH: *simaq)

símbato to attend church services; adore, regard with respect and affection; know someone’s innermost thoughts (LOAN)

simsímtaste a liquid in small sips (as a bee sipping nectar) (PPH: *simsím)

s<in>ákitmartyr (PMP: *sakit)

s<in>aŋlágthing roasted (as peanuts) (PMP: *s<in>aŋelaR) *saŋelaR

s<in>apsápchips of wood which result from this process (PWMP: *s<in>apsap) *sapsap₁

sin-dálanto do something else while walking (PMP: *zalan)

s<in>ikp-anfish or shellfish caught by hand (PMP: *sikep₂)

Cebuano (2260 / 2798)

s<in>ípita simple anchor made from a forked branch in between which a stone is tied (PPH: *s<in>ipit) *sipit

sintákpull a fishline or a line attached to a trap with a jerk (PWMP: *sintak)

siŋgítshout, yell at someone (as police at a suspect) (PWMP: *siŋgit)

siŋílask for payment; exact payment for what one has done, collect on a promise (PWMP: *siŋir)

siŋkamáskind of vine cultivated for its fleshy and juicy turnip-shaped root, widely eaten raw and cooked: Pachyrrhizus erosus (LOAN)

siŋkíttie two coconuts together by their husks partly stripped off (ROOT)

siŋkuglame, cripple (ROOT)

siŋkulhard growth on the skin covering bony parts, especially the ankles and elbows (PMP: *siŋkul)

siŋkuʔuŋwell-curved on the sides (as a sickle with a well-curved edge); for the roof or the bottom of a boat to be curved so that it affords little room (PWMP: *siŋkuquŋ)

siŋʔítlodge something firmly into something V-shaped (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

sípiɁhand of bananas, a group of bananas growing in one line in the bunch; to separate into hands (PPH: *sipíq)

sípiŋstay or put close by the side (as a kettle next to a pot of rice); rudimentary genital organ of the opposite sex in addition to one’s own genital organ (PPH: *sípiŋ)

sipíŋ-anhermaphrodite (PPH: *sípiŋ)

sípitto carry something between the arm and body; hold firmly between the legs; pincer of a crab or lobster (PAN: *sipit)

sipsipsuck, take in by sucking (PAN: *sipsip)

sipsípcut something with long sweeping strokes with a bladed instrument (PPH: *sipsíp)

sipɁúnhead cold; nasal mucus; have a runny nose (PPH: *sip(e)qun)

sisismall oysters (PMP: *sisi₁)

síwaŋcut or split the lips; a harelip (PMP: *siwaŋ)

síyamnine (PPH: *siám)

Cebuano (2280 / 2798)

siyáppeep, chirp (as a chick) (PWMP: *ciap)

síyuksputter; give a continuous hissing or screeching sound (PMP: *siuk)

súbaɁriver; go upstream or to the hinterland (PPH: *súbaq)

subaŋfor heavenly bodies to rise; for it to be the first quarter; to appear, become known as someone distinguished; to appear as if to rise (as a smile appearing on someone’s face); first quarter of the moon (PPH: *sebaŋ)

subúfor something boiling to overflow; douse water onto live embers; temper, harden iron or steel by heating it and then immersing it in oil or water (PMP: *sebuh) *sebuS

súbutbe pricked, get a splinter in one (PWMP: *sebet)

súdlaycomb; harrow, a raft-like device with toothed undersides pulled by a water buffalo, used for raking off leaves and breaking up the lumps of soil (NEAR)

sudsudclose together (PWMP: *suqud suqud)

sudsúddig up or turn up the earth by shoving with the tip of an instrument, or (by animals) with the snout; push sand lightly with the feet in search of crabs; bladed instrument with a blunt end used to remove weeds by shoving under the roots (PPH: *sudsud₂)

sudsúddig up or turn up the earth by shoving with the tip of an instrument, or (by animals) with the snout; push sand lightly with the feet in search of crabs (PPH: *sedsed₃)

sugsúgtease, harass someone by irritating actions or remarks, or by poking fun at him; to annoy, bother with persistence (as mosquitos that keep buzzling in one’s ears) (PPH: *sugsúg)

sugúdthe sting of an insect; for poisonous insects to bite leaving a stinger in the thing bitten (PWMP: *seRed)

súkato vomit; to ‘squeal’, divulge a secret (PPH: *suka₂)

súkisteady customer or seller; be in the súki relation, i.e. that of a seller and buyer (LOAN)

sukipinclude something together with something sent; put closely in between two things or inside something (as money into someone’s pocket) (PPH: *suq(e)kip)

suksúkgo or put something into or in between something else (as a child snuggling between her mother’s legs) (PAN: *suksuk)

suksukgo or put something into or in between something else (as a child snuggling between her mother’s legs) (PAN: *seksek₁)

súkulfight back against, stand up (as to someone who challenges one to a fight); react, snap back into place as if offering resistance; resist, endure; endure and do the same in return (PWMP: *sukul₁)

súlaunopened terminal stem of plants that are sharp, e.g. of cogon or lagnub (Ficus hauili) (PWMP: *sulah)

suláh-ankind of nose fish, a delicious fish with a sharp projection in front of the eyes: Naso spp. (PWMP: *sulah)

Cebuano (2300 / 2798)

sulámbiʔan extension to a house, appended to a side or end, usually used for storage; paramour; make an extension room for the house (PWMP: *surambiq)

sulápidbraid, plait (ROOT)

sulátto write something; write a letter, story; letter, mail; written or printed message (LOAN)

súlidsmall twine, thread of two or more strands twisted together; make a thread of this sort (PPH: *sulid)

sulpútissue forth suddenly, pop out of (ROOT)

sulsúlurge, egg someone into doing something bad (LOAN)

sulumkind of black ant the size of an ordinary red ant, infesting fruits; it does not bite, but secretes an acid which can sting the eyes (PWMP: *sejem)

súluŋto set against, attack; go somewhere to look for trouble (PWMP: *suleŋ)

súluŋset against, attack; go somewhere to look for trouble; go somewhere to do something (PWMP: *suruŋ)

súluttightly wound rope (PWMP: *selut)

súluʔtorch made of a dry palm frond bound tightly at regular intervals along its length to make it burn slowly; use a torch in doing something, or illuminate ones way with a torch (PMP: *suluq)

sulʔutfit something precisely over, around or into something else (PWMP: *sel(e)qut)

súmansweet prepared from crushed ingredients (rice, corn, pili nut, millet, etc.) formed into sticks, wrapped in banana leaves, and steamed (LOAN)

súmpaʔto counteract something evil before it happens, usually of a magical nature (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpítblowgun or something used to squirt liquid; to squirt liquid or blow pellets with a blowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

sumpúŋbe in one of one’s bad moods, have one’s sickness or fit come over one (LOAN)

sund-án-untending to have offspring closely spaced (PPH: *sunúd)

sundáŋbolo, the general name for large knives, machetes, and swords used for heavy cutting work and as weapons; make into a bolo (LOAN)

sunsunclose together or to each other (as coconut trees planted close together, or cloth that is thick because the weft threads are close to each other) (PPH: *sensén)

sunsunclose together or to each other (as coconuts planted close together, or a cloth that is thick because the weft threadss are close to each other) (PPH: *sunsun)

Cebuano (2320 / 2798)

sunúdto follow, go behind someone; do something later as the next thing; do something right after having done something else; follow, imitate (PPH: *sunúd)

sunud-sunúdkeep following, tagging along after (as a dog following its master) (PPH: *sunúd-sunúd) *sunúd

súnugto burn something up (as weeds); be burnt, destroyed by heat; roast something that one uses slightly burnt; fire, conflagration (PMP: *sunuR)

súŋayhorn; to butt, gore (PPH: *suŋay)

suŋáy-ananimal with horns; the devil; one like a devil (PPH: *suŋay)

suŋkabget at food by breaking open the place where it is kept (PMP: *su(ŋ)kab)

suŋkita pole or stick, usually with a hook at the end, used to get something out of reach; to get something out of reach with such a pole (PMP: *su(ŋ)kit)

suŋkúdcane, crutch (PAN: *sukud)

suŋsuŋstop up or stuff something into a tube or mouth of a bottle (tobacco into pipe, cork into bottle); stopper; pinch of pipe tobacco, enough to put in the pipe; posthole digger made of a bamboo pole which is forced into the ground and then pulled out with the dirt stopped up inside it (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

suŋúbill, beak of fowl or birds; similar structure in other animals, as trunk of elephants or the proboscis of mosquitos; the whitish triangular lower structure of a grain of corn that attaches it to the cob; in cockfighting, set the cocks and let them peck at each other before fighting them or determining the winner (PPH: *suŋu₂)

súŋut, suŋútacrid in smell (as formaldehyde); irritating, irksome (PMP: *seŋet₁)

súŋut-súŋutirritating, irksome (PWMP: *suŋut₁)

súpaɁfeed someone pre-chewed food (PWMP: *sepaq)

supláarrest the motion of dice or coins that have been thrown; interrupt someone’s speech, usually with a question; check vice, bad manners (NEAR)

supsup bútuʔass-kisser (coarse) (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

supútshoot with a blowgun; force something out from a tight hole by hammering in something in its place; soar up, as if shot from a blowgun; blowgun or a dart shot from a blowgun (PWMP: *seput)

súputgeneral name for bags, esp. paper bags (PPH: *súput)

supʔáksplit something lengthwise, esp. along the grain, break off (said of tree branches) (PMP: *cep(e)qak)

sus-anhaving a mammary gland, or something like it; mother with a nursing child (PWMP: *susu-an) *susu₁

sus-ito suckle (PAN: *susu₁)

Cebuano (2340 / 2798)

súsubreast, the mammary gland or its analogous formation in males; angular corners of pillows, sacks, and the like that can be taken hold of (PAN: *susu₁)

susu-g ágtaʔhornets nest hanging from a tree (lit. an agtàs breast) (PAN: *susu₁)

súsuʔsmooth cerith shell of fresh waters, black, dark green or brown (PMP: *susuq)

sutsutslurp; eat or drink noisily in a sucking way (PWMP: *cutcut)

súwatpull up something lightly rooted on the ground (PMP: *suat₂)

suʔsúʔpound something, usually with short and moderately heavy strokes (PWMP: *seqseq)

suʔudclose in space or time (PWMP: *suqud suqud)

ta1pl. incl. in certain constructions when followed by a second person pronoun (PAN: *-ta)

tabákuʔtobacco (LOAN)

tábanelope (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tábaŋhelp, give a hand (PMP: *tabaŋ)

tábascut lengthwise or through something flat; make a dress (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tabáyagkind of edible squash, round in shape with a knob-like protrusion at the top; the shell becomes hard when mature and is used as a container: Lagenaria leucantha var. (PPH: *tabayaR)

tábaʔpork fat (PWMP: *tabeq)

tábiparticle of courtesty used to ask permission to leave for a second, ask a question, pass in front of someone; excuse me (LOAN)

tabídbraid the hair (PWMP: *tabíd)

tabídbraid the hair; hamper woven from bamboo strips (ROOT)

tábilput up a curtain in order to conceal something (LOAN)

tabtabhack something off with several blows (PAN: *CabCab)

tabtábhack something off with several blows (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

Cebuano (2360 / 2798)

tábugto drive, send away (as a pig that has gotten into one’s yard) (PPH: *tabug)

tábugto drive or send away (as a pig in the garden); throw something away to dispose of it (PPH: *tabuR₂)

tábuncover something to protect or conceal it; cover up for someone’s mistakes (PMP: *tabun₂)

tábunsmall white heron often found perching on the backs of water buffaloes, eating insects (PPH: *tabun₁)

tabʔáŋflat in taste, lacking sugar or salt (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

taga-prefix added to words that refer to a place to form nouns which mean: 1. one who is from [such-and-such] a place, 2. one who is associated with a certain group (LOAN)

taga-búkidmountaineer (PAN: *bukij)

tagalstipulated length or period of time to do something (PWMP: *tagal)

taga-líʔug“up to the neck” (as in debt) (PAN: *liqeR)

taga-túhudup to the knees (PPH: *taRa-tuhud) *tuduS

tagáukfor roosters to crow (PPH: *taRaquk)

t<ag>aytaymountain ridge (PPH: *t<ag>aytay) *taytay

tágaʔcut down trees (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tag-gatúsa hundred each (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

tagkúsfasten something to something with a knotted cord; tie into a loop that easily gets undone; tie something around something (PPH: *tagkes)

tag-lakin-anthe groom’s relatives at the wedding (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

tag-limáfive each, do something by fives (PWMP: *taR-lima) *lima

tag-nipísname given to various kinds of long and slender sardines and herrings (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

tag-piláhow much apiece? (PAN: *pijax)

tagpísslice something thinly; be skinny and slim (PWMP: *taRpis)

Cebuano (2380 / 2798)

tag-pítuseven at a time (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

tagsúkpack elongated things tightly in an upright position (ROOT)

tagsúkpierce; plant into but not through (< *-sek?) (ROOT)

tag-sulátauthor (LOAN)

tag-túkudfounder, organizer (PAN: *tukud)

tágumindigo: Indigofera suffruticosa (PMP: *taRum)

tag-upátfour apiece; odds of four to three in betting (PWMP: *taR-epat) *Sepat

tag-urhatwo at a time (PWMP: *taR-duha) *duSa

tagutuŋ-anporcupine fish, Diodon sp. (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

táguʔhidden from view (as a house behind trees); to hide, keep away from view or knowledge; put away in a safe place for future use (PMP: *taRuq)

táguʔ-an-anhiding place; hideout (PWMP: *taRuq-an) *taRuq

táguʔ-táguʔgame of hide-and-seek (PWMP: *taRuq taRuq) *taRuq

táhiʔsew, stitch (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tahiʔ-an-andress, tailor shop (maN-REDUP, -un-un) (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tahúpchaff of cereals; separate the husk from husked grains (PMP: *tahep) *tapeS

táhuʔginger tea; have ginger tea (LOAN)

ta ka, ta ikaw, ta kamuI will (do) to you, you are my (noun) (PAN: *-ta)

takádto step on a line or specific area (PPH: *takad)

tákaŋto step across; a step, stride (PPH: *tákaŋ)

takbálean forward on something or someone and cling to it; mount for copulation; for humans to have intercourse (coarse) (PPH: *takbá)

Cebuano (2400 / 2798)

tákbassever with a swing of the bolo (PWMP: *takebas)

takd-án-anin games, the line on which one steps at the start or any phase of the game (PPH: *takad)

ta-kiŋkiŋhop on one leg (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

takípjoin flat things one on top of the other, or at their edges (PPH: *takíp)

takípinclude along with, do to something at the same time as one does it to something else (PPH: *taq(e)kip)

táklapspread, lay something flat over something so as to cover it (PWMP: *takelap)

táklaʔmake a clicking or clacking noise with the tongue; clacking of the tongue (PPH: *tak(e)laq)

táklubcover something over with something enclosing it (PWMP: *tak(e)lúb)

taktákfor small things or something fastened or stuck to something to detach and drop; cause to drop; have a miscarriage (PAN: *taktak₁)

takúba cover or lid of something which has a different shape from the thing it is put over, and is not attached (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kub)

takúdto attach something to something else, put it right next to something so that it touches; harness an animal, hitch it for work (PPH: *takéd)

takúpshutter (PWMP: *takup₁) *takup

takúriʔkettle (LOAN)

takʔupclose, be closed (PWMP: *takup₁) *takup

talabákind of oyster (PPH: *talaba)

talakítukname given to jacks and other good-sized carangoid fish (PPH: *talakituk)

talambúnuʔkiller cock (in cockfighting) (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

t<al>amn-án-anarea prepared for planting (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tálawback off, be afraid to do something for lacking nerve (PAN: *talaw)

talaw-ancowardly (PAN: *talaw)

Cebuano (2420 / 2798)

talaytayarrange things in a row (PPH: *taraytay)

tálaʔset foot in a place; step, tread on (PPH: *talaq₂)

taláʔukto crow, of a cock (PPH: *taraquk)

tali-bugsúkstakes (PMP: *buRsuk)

talig-káhuygather logs for a house (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

taligsíklarge raindrops which fall in a scattered way (ROOT)

talinumsmall shrub with thick, lanceolate, pale-green leaves, planted as an ornamental and for its leaves, which are used as a vegetable: Talinum triangulare (PPH: *talínum)

talíŋaear; notice, pay heed (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tálipslice root crops into thin strips to dry them under the sun (PPH: *tájip)

talísaykind of large tree similar to an almond tree, growing by the seashore bearing edible nuts: Terminalia catappa (PMP: *talisay)

talithia very fine drizzle; to drizzle (LOAN)

taliwálaʔmiddle, center part; to do something to something at its center, in its middle part (PPH: *taliwájaq)

taliyukturn the body around (PAN: *taliuk)

taltalknock off something that is attached or set (as in scraping mud off the wheels of a pushcart) (PWMP: *taltal₁)

tálutallow, the hard fat in animals, or the wax from beehives, used for making candles, soap, etc. (PWMP: *tadu)

tamádfeel too lazy to do something (PPH: *tamád)

támanuntil, up to a certain part (PWMP: *taman)

tamar-ánbe lazy (PPH: *tamad-an) *tamád

tamaráwkind of wild water buffalo (PWMP: *tamadaw)

támaʔfor something to hit squarely on something; be just exactly on time; make something fit; stop doing something bad (PMP: *tamaq₁)

Cebuano (2440 / 2798)

tambákdump a large number of things in or over something (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambak-ándumping ground; gathering place (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambáltreat an illness, wound; to reform, correct someone (PMP: *tambar)

tambál-anfolk doctor, specializing in diseases of supernatural origin (PMP: *tambar)

tambanname given to sardines of several species (PWMP: *tamban)

tambaŋúŋukind of large, fleshy catfish living in river estuaries (PWMP: *tambaŋuŋu)

tambúgthrow something heavy or bulky into something deep (as the sea); fall (PPH: *tambúg)

tambúlukthe hackles of roosters (PWMP: *tambuluk)

tamílukshipworms, edible marine mollusks that bore into wood; kind of edible insect grub, usually found in rotten logs; be infested with shipworms (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamiŋshield (PMP: *tamiŋ)

tampaloverlay a patch on clothing at places of great wear to add strength (PWMP: *tapal)

tampibank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by (LOAN)

támpiʔtuck a piece of cloth under another to hold it in place, e.g. a shirt that sticks out, or something wrapped around the waist (PWMP: *tapiq₂)

tampukbeat something with the inside of the fist (as if sticking a dagger into it) (PMP: *tampuk₁)

tanánall, everyone; in all (PPH: *tanan)

tantánpay off a debt partially (PPH: *tantán)

tánudkeep watch over something that needs care (PPH: *tánud)

tanúdsewing thread; to thread a needle or sewing machine (PPH: *tanúd)

tanukto boil starchy foods, but not rice: ears of corn, root crops, bananas (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

tanúmto plant, grow plants; implant, nurture in the mind (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

Cebuano (2460 / 2798)

taŋág, táŋaghold something between the teeth, vise and the like, or on something pointed (LOAN)

taŋan-táŋancastor oil plant, the seeds of which produce castor oil: Ricinis communis (PWMP: *taŋan-taŋan)

táŋaʔinattentive, doing even simple things incompetently; consider someone incompetent (PPH: *taŋaq₁)

taŋbuʔcoarse grass of swamps with a hollow stem, used for the manufacture of brooms and hats: Phragmites vulgaris (PWMP: *taŋ(e)buq)

taŋgáldetach, remove something from where it is held firmly (PWMP: *taŋgal)

taŋígikind of Spanish mackerel, silvery white and black color, with no scales, popularly eaten raw: Scomberomorus commersoni and guttatus, and others (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taŋísto cry, weep; a cry, weeping (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋkásrip open the seam, rip off hinges and the like (PMP: *taŋkas)

taŋládkind of tall grass that smells of lemon and is used as a spice, lemon grass: Andropogon citratus (PMP: *taŋelaj) *Caŋelaj

taŋládlemon grass, kind of tall grass that smells of lemon and is used as a spice: Andropogon citratus (PPH: *taŋ(e)laj)

táŋpi ~ támpibank of a body of water, edge of a surface (PWMP: *taŋepi)

tapáto smoke fish; broil fish not close to the embers; kiln-dry copra (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tápamake jerked meat (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapah-áncopra kiln-drier; grate for broiling (PWMP: *tapa-an) *Capa

tápallay something over a small area and stick it (as in placing a medicinal plaster on the body) (PWMP: *tapal)

tapáscut sugarcane and clean it of its leaves (PWMP: *ta(m)pas)

tapátto be true and loyal to someone; resolve oneself to reform; sincere (LOAN)

taph-an-anground cereals to be winnowed; place where winnowing is done (PMP: *tahep-an) *tapeS

taph-iwinnow (imperative) (PMP: *tahep-i₂) *tapeS

táphiwinnow it! (PMP: *tahep-i₁) *tahep-i

Cebuano (2480 / 2798)

tápis, tapíspiece of cloth worn around the waist or upper body as a skirt (PAN: *tapis₁)

tápusput an end to, finish; do to the end, come to an end (PAN: *tapus)

tapwákto drag, push something to danger or sin; dive, dash forcefully towards; meet the eyes; splash onto (PPH: *tapuák)

tárukplant a post or something large; erect a structure (PWMP: *tazuk)

tásikthe liquid residue of sea water that has been crystallized in salt making; liquid residue after milling sugar (PMP: *tasik)

tasŋaʔgrin idiotically (ROOT)

tátafather; address of respect to a father, esp. among Muslims; address of respect to an old man, esp. a close relative (PAN: *tata₁)

tawájovial of face or visage (hika/haka-, hinga-, ka-tawʔ-an-an) (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

táwuman, person; follower; face card; someone left to watch the house; visitor; to stay and watch the house; be born; prepare for guests on special occasions; attend an affair or special occasion; pay a visit (pa-, paka-, hi/ha-, -an, -an-un, pagka-, k-in-a-) (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tawu-táwusomething like a person, e.g. scarecrow or the like; figurehead; pupil and iris of the eye (PMP: *tau tau) *Cau

tawu-táwu sa matáthe pupil of the the eyes (‘person of the eye’) (PMP: *tau nu mata) *maCa

táyaʔto place a bet; to stake one’s life, honor; pay for the others in a treat (PPH: *tayáq)

taytáymountain range; bridge; make a bridge (PMP: *taytay)

taytay-anbridge; means by which something is obtained (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

taʔanset a trap of any sort (PAN: *taqan₁)

taʔáslong, tall, high; grow, appear long; add more length, height; do something in a long way; rise in temperature (PMP: *atas) *aCas

táʔifeces of people and animals; dross from molten metal (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

táʔubhigh tide (PWMP: *taeb)

taʔúb-unsea at high tide (PWMP: *taeb)

taʔúnset a trap or fishline in place; offer a part of the body to receive blows or abuse; place something as a bet (PMP: *taqen)

Cebuano (2500 / 2798)

tiawkind of goatfish (PMP: *tiqaw₂) *Ciqaw

tiawkind of goatfish (PMP: *tiqaw₁) *tiqaw

tígispour liquid into a drinking receptacle (PMP: *tiRis)

tig-káhuylog with branches cut off; twigs; gather cut down wood for firewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

tíiŋpour liquid out for drinking; share joy, pleasure with someone (PPH: *tíqiŋ)

tiíŋ-ancontainer drinks are poured into (PPH: *tíqiŋ)

tiksound made to get fowl to approach; graphic representation of sound produced by clicking the fingers (PMP: *tik₁) *tik

tikáŋplace a foot on a step, rung, or any foothold (PWMP: *ti(ŋ)kaŋ)

tikáŋplace a foot on a step, rung, or any foothold (PWMP: *tikaŋ)

tikaŋ-káŋlie or lean on one's back and spread the legs (PWMP: *ti(ŋ)kaŋ)

tikaŋ-káŋlie or lean on one’s back and spread the legs; fall into such a position (PWMP: *tikaŋ)

tikásraise something which covers something else into the air (as a storm lifts off a roof) (PMP: *tikas)

tikásraise something which covers something else into the air (as a storm lifts off a roof) (Also Mongondow sikat 'lift up, as a mat') (ROOT)

tiklúpto close by folding (PPH: *tik(e)lup)

tiktíkto tap lightly on a hard surface, producing a sound of tick-tick; chip off rust (PMP: *tiktik)

tiktíkto spy on, discover by snooping (PPH: *tiktík)

tiktíkto tap lightly on a hard surface, producing a sound of tick-tick; chip off rust (PAN: *tiktik)

tikúdheel of the foot; heel of shoe (PMP: *tiked)

tikúgaskind of rail found in rice fields or marshy areas, 5-6” high and used for food: the white-breasted swamphen: Amaurornia phoenicurus (PAN: *tikuRas)

tikuŋ-kúŋto curl up the legs (PWMP: *tikuŋ)

Cebuano (2520 / 2798)

tíkupclosed tight, without holes or spaces in between (PWMP: *tikup)

tikúpdoor or window shutter (PWMP: *tikup)

tilíŋ-tilíŋring with the sound of tiny bells or the telephone (PWMP: *tiliŋ)

tiltilrap, tap lightly (PWMP: *tirtir₂)

tiltilto rap, tap lightly (PPH: *tiltil)

tilússpoon made of a coconut shell (PWMP: *tidus)

timtímtaste or sample liquid (as in testing soup) (PPH: *timtim)

tímugwind that hits Cebu from the east (PMP: *timuR)

t<in>águʔsomething hidden (PWMP: *t<in>aRuq) *taRuq

t<in>anúkcooked root crops, bananas, or corn (PMP: *t<in>anek) *taNek

t-in-ápajerked meat; canned fish (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa

t-in-awu-táwucomic strips (PMP: *tau tau) *Cau

tináʔiintestines (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tindukkind of cooking banana, a foot or more long, somewhat curved, and about as big as a man’s arm: Musa paradisiaca var. magna (PPH: *tinduk)

t-in-ubd-ánsource, origin (PAN: *Cebuj)

t<in>ulúinto three, in threes (PPH: *t<in>elu) *telu

t<in>ulu-tulúkind of rope made of three strands (PPH: *t<in>elu) *telu

t<in>úluʔdrip plentifully; drops; shedding of tears, blood or anything in drops; noise of dripping (PAN: *t<in>uduq) *tuduq

tinʔáwclear, not turbid or muddied; clear, definite; clear-voiced; become clear, not muddled or hoarse (PMP: *tin(e)qaw)

tiŋáfood particle lodged between the teeth; have food particles lodged in the teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

Cebuano (2540 / 2798)

tiŋabŋábbe gaping with a huge opening or hole (ROOT)

tíŋalforce something into someone’s mouth; force a pig’s mouth open by sticking something into it (PPH: *tiŋal)

tiŋaʔŋaʔfor a cover or shutter to be slightly open or ajar; cause it to be so (PWMP: *tiŋaqŋaq)

tiŋgílclitoris; mild curse word expressing frustration or exasperation (PPH: *tuŋgíl)

tiptipcut the tip off something with scissors or shears; cut close to the surface or ground (PWMP: *tiptip)

típunput, be together, join in a group; live together; live as a common-law couple (PPH: *típun)

tísaʔkind of single-seeded fruit, the size and shape of a small pear with bright yellow, inedible skin and flesh which is sweet and fleshy, but dry: Lucuma nervosa (PPH: *tisaq)

tisukto plant seed into the ground; thrust a sharp object on the ground; implant in the mind (NEAR)

títibreast; suck the breast (PMP: *titi)

tiwaŋwáŋspread or open apart from a vertex or hinge-like joint (PPH: *tiwaŋwáŋ)

tiwtiwtailor bird, the song of which is popularly said to be ‘Dakug putus’, ‘having a large penis’: Orthotomus atrogularis (PPH: *tiwtiw)

tíyanstomach; pregnancy (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tiyán-unhaving a prominent stomach (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tiʔtíʔdrain, consume to the last drop or bit (PWMP: *tiqtiq)

túbakind of croton plant: Croton tiglium (PAN: *tuba)

tubágto answer (a question, correspondence; talk back, retort; exchange heated words; for an uncommon event to recur or be followed by something similar (in folk belief, a not-so-common event is followed by something similar); answer for, take responsibility; bear someone’s expenses; something which happens after something in response to it (PPH: *tebáR)

tubág-tubágto talk back insolently; a heated exchange of words; responsive or alternate making of sound (PPH: *tebáR)

tubág-túbagto sing, read something alternatingly or with a responsive reading (PPH: *tebáR)

túba-túbakind of shrub, the leaves of which are used as a poultice and the seeds of which produce oil for soap: Jatropha curcas (PAN: *tuba)

túbaʔcut down a banana stalk for the fruit (PPH: *tebáq)

Cebuano (2560 / 2798)

tubtúbcut something at its base, very close to the surface (PWMP: *tebteb)

tubúsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tubúdflow in a steady stream; for liquid to leak out of a container or boat; water spring; leak (PAN: *Cebuj)

tubúgkind of medium-sized tree having small, round, green, inedible fruits in bunches growing directly from the trunk and branches: Ficus sp. (PPH: *tebéR)

tubúkpoke at a point; put a period or dot (PAN: *tebek)

tubúlhard stools; for stools to become hard; have constipation (PPH: *tebel₁)

tubur-ánspring; source of something that gushes in abundance (PAN: *Cebuj)

tubústo redeem, save from; take someone else’s place in his absence or in the event of his inability (PMP: *tebus)

túbuʔgrow, become larger; earn interest; develop feelings; for water, dough or land to rise; growth; interest on a loan; leavening agent; wall stud of bamboo (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

túdluʔpoint at, point out; point, give directions; teach; appoint; index finger (PPh: *tulduq)

tugásmolave, kind of wood producing extremely hard timber: Vitex parviflora; make something out of molave (PMP: *teRas)

tugbáwlofty, high up (ROOT)

tugsúkstrike something pointed into something; stick one’s finger into liquid and immediately remove it (PPH: *tuRsúk)

tugtúgplay a piece of music or an instrument (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

tugúbfull, having something in abundance (boat full of passengers, rich harvest, etc.) (PMP: *teReb)

túgunleave or send someone with instructions to do something; word of instruction to do or get something; final message of a dying man (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

túgunto leave or send someone with instructions to do something; final message of a dying man (PPH: *tugen)

túgutto pay out line; permit, allow; sell something at a price lower than that quoted (PWMP: *tuRut)

túhudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

túhud-túhudask for a girl’s hand from her parents (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

Cebuano (2580 / 2798)

túhugpierce through with a string (as pearls for a necklace), a stake (as a fish impaled on a harpoon), or something else, hang something on something long (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

tukword used in writing to indicate a knocking sound; in bowling a hit scored through the center, opening up a clear path (PMP: *tuk)

túkabopen by pushing something aside, lifting a cover (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kab)

tukáŋput a piece of wood somewhere to inhibit motion, either by propping something under it and keeping it from falling, or by laying it in the way and stopping it from proceeding’ (PMP: *tukaŋ)

tukásopen a shutter, curtain, etc. (PWMP: *tukas)

tukáwtower over (ROOT)

túkaʔpeck at to eat (as chickens pecking at kernels of corn on the ground); beak, bill (PPH: *tukaq)

tuk-tugáukfor a rooster to crow (PPH: *tuRauk)

tuktúkto knock on; peck at repeatedly (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tukúprop stick or post; prop up with a pole or post (PAN: *tuku₁)

túkudbrace, prop; erect a house or building; put up a business (PAN: *tukud)

tukud-túkudfabricate a story, especially one with a dubious motive; fabrication (PAN: *tukud)

tukúnprop up; propel oneself by pushing on a pole (of poling a boat in shallow water); pole for propelling or for supporting (PMP: *teken)

tukuŋtailless bird or fowl (PWMP: *tukuŋ)

túlakpush or move something with the arm (PMP: *tulak)

tuláya bridge; put a bridge across (PPH: *tuláy)

tulíŋ-ankind of mackerel: Rastrelliger kanagurta, Katsuwonus pelamus, etc. (PMP: *turiŋ)

tulíŋankind of mackerel: Rastrelliger kanagurta, Katsuwonus pelamis, and others (PPH: *tuliŋan)

tulúnumeral three (PAN: *telu)

t<ul>ubág-unresponsibility that one has to answer for (PPH: *tebáR)

Cebuano (2600 / 2798)

tulúdto push; to goad, incite (PPH: *tulúd)

tulud-túludto pass work, blame onto one another (PPH: *tulúd)

túluggo, put to sleep; for lard and oil to congeal; for tops to spin steadily without a wobble; be sleepy (PAN: *tuduR)

tulúnto swallow; to endure someone’s temperament, hurting words, etc. (PMP: *telen)

túluybe caught in a net (PWMP: *tuluy₃)

túluʔdrop (as a teardrop); leak so as to cause dripping (as a leaking roof); drip, leak through; for drops to fall; leaky (PAN: *tuduq)

tulʔánknee joint of human being or large animals; legs or lower limbs of man or animals (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

túlʔidstraight (PWMP: *tuq(e)lid)

túmabody louse, similar to the head louse (kútu) in appearance and habits, but found in clothing (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumáh-uninfested with body lice (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

túmanobey; fulfill, realize (PWMP: *tuman)

tumáwpop up, come out, surface, esp. something unexpected, secret, or little known (PPH: *tuq(e)maw)

tumbágacopper, or a copper alloy that is still copper-colored (LOAN)

tumbálikbounce back on, boomerang; turn out to be the exact opposite; the exact opposite (PPH: *tumbalik)

tu-m-bukpoke a finger or something pointed at something; point out, pinpoint (PAN: *t<um>ebek) *tebek

tumpílpile something, usually neatly, on top of something else (ROOT)

tunásmall, glossy-black, worm-like snake, deadly poisonous, found in moist places in grasses and weeds (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

túnawmelt, dissolve; be mortified, melt with shame (literary) (PPH: *túnaw)

tunáw-anvessel for melting something by heating (PPH: *túnaw)

túnayreal, genuine (slang); true, faithful to one’s sweetheart (slang) (PWMP: *tunay₂)

Cebuano (2620 / 2798)

tundaʔ-ansmall boat usually towed behind the stern of a a larger boat, used for putting into shore where the larger boat can’t put in (LOAN)

tundukto poke, to hit or strike something with the end or tip of something (PPH: *tundek)

tunlúbstick, dunk something completely or partially into a liquid or solid (ROOT)

tuntúnto lower something; to sag loosely; for something weighted down to sink; cause it to do so (PPH: *tuntún)

túnudconvey below the surface of the water or into a pit; for the sun to set (PMP: *teñej)

túnudconvey below the surface of the water or into a pit; for the sun to set (ROOT)

tunúgsound of a musical instrument; resonant, producing a distantly loud sound; widely known; be distinctly audible (PWMP: *teneR)

tuŋrake-off given by gamblers to the owner of the gambling paraphernalia used (LOAN)

tuŋáwvery minute red mite that abounds in bushes, producing an itchy bite, and hiding in skin pores (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

túŋaʔhalf; middle, center; vagina (euphemism); hit at the middle or center; consume, reduce to half; place between two or more others (PMP: *teŋaq)

tuŋ-bálayto go to someone’s house (from datuŋ balay) (PMP: *dateŋ)

tuŋtúŋto step, put on top (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

tuŋúgkind of mangrove, the bark of which is used for dyeing and as an ingredient of coconut palm toddy; bark of this mangrove (PMP: *teŋeR)

tupádstay, put beside something; match a cock with another for a cockfight (PPH: *tupáj)

túplakpush someone or something away (PWMP: *tupelak)

túpuŋof the same height, even along the top or bottom; make things even (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tursitwist a limb, wring a neck (LOAN)

turúŋsomething worn as a head covering (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

turússquash something between the two thumbnails (PWMP: *tedes)

túslukprick or poke something by driving something pointed into it (PWMP: *tulesuk)

Cebuano (2640 / 2798)

tusnúddip, immerse a part of something, or something held (ROOT)

tustusto roll up a tobacco leaf (PPH: *tustus₂)

túsukpierce something through something else, skewer; a hole in the ear for earrings or in animals for the tether rope (PMP: *tusuk)

túsupsuck the juice out of something (ROOT)

tutúbcover the mouth of a container securely by laying something over it and tying it (PMP: *tutub)

tutúl ~ tútulto object (PMP: *tutur₁)

tuwádbe in a position with the rump stuck out and the body downward; overturn something bottoms up (PWMP: *tuad)

túwaŋ ~ tuwáŋtilt something over on its side (as a can slowly when you pour water out) (PWMP: *tuaŋ₁)

tuwáy ~ túwaykind of edible clam about 3” in width (PMP: *tuay)

túway-túwaykind of clam (PMP: *tuay)

úbakto separate layers of the banana trunk (ROOT)

úbangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ubáncompanion, someone together with someone else (ROOT)

ubán-unhaving grey hairs (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

úbiwidely grown yam of variable color and size, used mainly as an ingredient in sweet dishes: Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

ubih-anyam patch (PMP: *qubi)

úbudthe tender heart of the trunk of palms, bananas, bamboos, rattans; bamboo shoots (PMP: *qubud)

úbusbe all consumed (PMP: *qubus)

udtútwelve o'clock, for the sun to be overhead; for the moon or something else to be in the heavens at the noon position (PPh: *uRtuh)

udtúh-anzenith (PPh: *uRtuh)

Cebuano (2660 / 2798)

ufbakto separate layers of the banana trunk (NOISE)

ugámwhitish substance coating the tongue and upper palate; to get ugám (PMP: *guham) *guSam

ugátvein, blood vessel; for the veins to come out from exertion or anger (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ugat-úgatleaves having lots of veins; for leaves to be veined (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

ugát-unfull of prominent veins (PWMP: *uRat-en) *huRaC

ugbúnmound, esp. a heap of finely-textured things (ROOT)

ugíshaving completely white feathers; fair of complexion (PPH: *uRis) dialectal

ugíshaving completely white feathers; people belonging to the white race; albino (PPh: *quRis)

ugnátstretch out something somewhat elastic (ROOT)

úgumhold or keep something inside the mouth; enclose something within it as if enclosed in the mouth (PMP: *eŋgem)

úgumhold or keep something inside the mouth (PWMP: *uRem)

úguŋspin a top; be steady and without a wobble (PWMP: *ugəŋ)

uháŋspace between two things which are supposed to be touching or fitting each other (PWMP: *uhaŋ)

uháwthirsty (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

uháyseed-bearing panicle (e.g. as of rice, but not corn); harvest something by just taking the whole panicle (PPh: *quhay)

úhuŋkind of white mushroom (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

uhúŋ-anplace where mushrooms grow readily (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

uhút, úhutstraw of rice or other grain-bearing grasses (PPh: *quhut)

úkubcling or hold firmly to; for two convex things to fit together at their brims (PWMP: *ukub)

ulánrain; rainwater (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

Cebuano (2680 / 2798)

ulan-úlandrizzle, to drizzle (PMP: *quzan quzan) *quzaN

uláŋseparate, keep apart (PMP: *qelaŋ)

uláŋfor dogs to howl; the action of howling (PWMP: *qeraŋ)

uláŋfreshwater shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

uláŋfor dogs to howl (PMP: *quŋal)

ulaŋ-uláŋfishing lure in the shape of a shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

ulát, úlatscar; form a scar (PWMP: *ulat)

ulhí, ulahílast in a group to do something; late (PMP: *udehi)

ulínstern, rear end of a ship; steer a boat from the stern (PMP: *qulin)

úliŋcharcoal; make charcoal, become charcoal (PAN: *qujiŋ)

ulíŋ-unthings suitable to be made into charcoal; kind of tree of the secondary forest (PPh: *qujiŋ-en) *qujiŋ

ulípunslave (PWMP: *qudipen)

ulitáwubachelor, unmarried man; young man old enough to be married (PPh: *ulitau)

úliʔreturn something to someone (PMP: *uliq₁)

uliʔ-ánbe home from time to time (PWMP: *uliq-an) *uliq₁

uliʔ-un-únsomething that is to be returned (PWMP: *uliq-en) *uliq₁

úluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

úludworm; be infested with worms (PMP: *qulej)

ulud-úluddecayed teeth (PMP: *qulej qulej) *qulej

ulug-úlugflatter someone to make him feel good or to get something out of him (PWMP: *ulug)

Cebuano (2700 / 2798)

ulúh-ansomething at the top, at the head; head of a bed, title of a song, etc. (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

ulúnlay one's head on something (PMP: *qulun₂)

ulún-anpillow (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

ulúthave a boundary in between (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

ulut-úlutplace between two things (PWMP: *qelet qelet) *qeleC

umápiece of land on which crops or animals are raised; cultivate or till a piece of land (PMP: *quma) *qumah

um-a-ánakabout to give birth (PWMP: *um-anak) *aNak

úmaŋhermit crab; use, wear something belonging to someone else (PAN: *qumaŋ)

úmaŋ sus-anhermit crab in a shell having a barnacle, used as a medicine for mothers with a swelling breast (PAN: *susu₁)

umbáwoverlook, tower over; look down from a height over the edge of something (PMP: *umbaw)

umpásfall away, crumble down (as an embankment after heavy rain) (PWMP: *empas)

umpú-ʔgrandparent or grandparent's sibling or cousin of the same generation; term of address for a relation of the grandparent's generation (PMP: *empu-q) *empu

umpu-ʔgrandparent or a grandparent's sibling or cousin of the same generation; term of address for a relation of the grandparent's generation (PMP: *umpu)

umúgdamp, moist (as clothing, or coffee which has been exposed to moisture before boiling) (PWMP: *emeg)

úmulroll something into a ball (as meat into meatballs); mold into other shapes (PPh: *qemel)

umúŋpile up harvested rice together with the stalks (PWMP: *emuŋ)

umʔúmput something partly or wholly into the mouth or between the lips (PAN: *qemqem)

-undirect passive verb affix, future; suffix added to adjectives and nouns to form adjectives which mean 'of [such and such] a kind'; e.g. Palit-un ku aŋ bábuy I will buy the pig; Yagpis-un siyag láwas He has a thinnish body; balukbuk kind of weevil that bore in grains, like corn, balukbuk-un become infested with this type of weevil (PAN: *-en)

únaahead, earlier; the one that is first in position (PMP: *unah)

una-únado something ahead of others when it is not proper or usual (PPh: *unah-unah) *unah

Cebuano (2720 / 2798)

unáya deeply embedded sliver or foreign body (PMP: *unay) *uNay

undákjounce in riding; stamp the feet, walk with heavy footfalls (PWMP: *enzak)

undákjounce in riding; stamp the feet, walk with heavy footfalls (PWMP: *qundak)

und-án-unfleshy, muscular; pithy, full of substance or meaning (PPh: *qunej-en) *qunej

undáŋstop doing something, come to a stop (eating, plowing, menstruation) (PWMP: *endaŋ)

undáŋ-undáŋintermittent, on and off (PWMP: *endaŋ endaŋ) *endaŋ

unlúdsink, submerge (possibly from earlier *ulnúd, with root *-n-ed) (ROOT)

untúone of the four top front teeth (PMP: *quntu)

untúlbounce, cause something to do so; rebound (PWMP: *entul)

untúlbounce, cause something to do so; rebound, fail to register or to take a firm hold on (PWMP: *untul)

unúdflesh; content, integral part within something (PMP: *qunej)

unug-ánplace where wild animals or birds habitually stay or go; make a place into a lair (PMP: *qenuR-an₂) *qeNuR

unúmsix (PAN: *enem)

unússquall, sudden burst of heavy wind (PMP: *qunus)

uŋál, úŋalmake a loud bellowing cry (PMP: *quŋal)

uŋáʔlowing, mooing sound of cows and buffalos (PWMP: *eŋaq)

úŋaʔlowing, mooing sound of cows and buffalos; low, moo, bawl as if mooing (NOISE)

uŋkátrevive, bring back to one's consciousness something which has long been forgotten (PWMP: *uŋkat)

úŋulgrowl, snarl (NOISE)

uŋús-uŋússniffle, whine (PPh: *eŋes)

Cebuano (2740 / 2798)

uŋús-uŋússniffle, whine (PPh: *eŋus)

upákbreak or cut off a piece for someone (PWMP: *epak)

úpakbark of trees; peel off, get peeled off (PWMP: *upak₁)

upátfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

upáwbald, lacking hair on the head; devoid of vegetation; infertile (NOISE)

upúŋbunch of stems or stalks, enough to grasp in the two hands (PAN: *qupuŋ)

upússomething long used up until only a stub is left; wear something down (PMP: *upus)

usáone (PAN: *esa)

usádoe (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

usá-ŋathe other one of two or more (PAN: *isa-ŋa) *isa₁

usbáwrise in degree or quantity (ROOT)

úsukdrive stakes into the ground; put stakes around (PMP: *usuk)

úsukdrive stakes into the ground (PMP: *u(n)sek)

usúk-anput (drive) stakes around something (PWMP: *usuk-an) *usuk

úsuŋhelp someone lift and carry something on his head or shoulders (PMP: *qusuŋ)

útanvegetables; cook vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

után-ununcooked vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

útaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utáŋ-anone who owes one something (PWMP: *qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

utaŋ-ún-ungoods for sale on crdit (PWMP: *qutaŋ-en) *qutaŋ

Cebuano (2760 / 2798)

utaŋ-útaŋincur many small debts (PWMP: *qutaŋ qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

utaw-útawto float (ROOT)

utíkporcupine fish: Diodon spp. (PMP: *utik)

útinpenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

utín-anhaving a penis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

utl-án-anboundary (PWMP: *qelet-an) *qeleC

útŋaʔcome off, let go of something firmly attached to something else (as a leech letting go) (PWMP: *uteŋaq)

utúgfor a penis to be erect; the erected penis (PAN: *qeCuR)

utúgfor a penis to be erect; the erected penis; taughten or erect, like the penis (PPh: *utúg)

útukbrain; intelligence, mental ability (PMP: *hutek)

utútfart, gas released from the stomach (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

utútfart, gas released from the stomach (PMP: *qutut)

uwákcrow (PMP: *uak₁)

uwáygeneral name for rattans (PAN: *quay)

uyan impolite way of attracting attention; exclamation of surprise upon noticing something (PMP: *uy)

uylápflare up, burst into flames (ROOT)

úyugshake back and forth in any direction with quick motions; cause something to do so (as a house in an earthquake, a person to wake him up, etc.) (PWMP: *uyeg)

úyugshake back and forth in any direction with quick motions; cause something to do so (as a house in an earthquake, a person to wake him up, etc.) (PWMP: *uyug)

úyugshake back and forth in any direction with quick motions; cause something to do so (as a house in an earthquake, a person to wake him up, etc.) (PMP: *uyuR)

waexpression of mild disappointment (PAN: *ua₁)

Cebuano (2780 / 2798)

waexpression of mild disappointment (NOISE)

wagáspure gold, not worked into jewelry; pure, unmixed (literary) (NOISE)

wagwágvariety of white paddy rice with strong panicles maturing late and giving a heavy yield (PPh: *wagwág₁)

wahígriver (PMP: *wahiR)

wákatintertwine, be intertwined (as mangrove roots); prop roots of mangroves (PMP: *wakat)

wákatscatter, put in disarray (as things scattered around a room) (PPh: *wákat)

wakwáka bird which comes out at night, so called from its call. Its call signals the presence of a vampire (uŋlu) or in some beliefs, it is a form the vampire takes himself (PAN: *wakwak)

wáliŋ-wáliŋan orchid that is grown ornamentally: Vanda sanderiana (LOAN)

walúeight (PAN: *walu)

walwáginsert something long in an opening and work it around (as in working something around in a pipe to remove an obstruction) (PPH: *walwáR)

wáŋisfor a pig's canines to grow long because of age (PMP: *waŋis)

waŋwáŋenlarge an opening by cutting or pushing two things apart; be dilated, widely opened (PPh: *waŋwáŋ)

waráybe gone, not in existence (colloquial) (PWMP: *wada-i) *wada

wásaylarge axe; cut or chop with an axe wasay-wasay 'name of bivalves which are shaped like the head of an axe, e.g. some kinds of hammer oysters' (PWMP: *wasay)

wasay-wasáygeneral name for small dragonflies (PPh: *wasay wasay)

waswásrinse off soap and dirt with clear water in doing the laundry (PPh: *waswás₁)

waswásrip off clothes, bedding, or anything covering the body (PPh: *waswás₂)

watág, wátagscatter something fairly good-sized causing a great disorder, not over a large area; for money to be dispersed without one realizing it (PPh: *watnág)

watíearthworm; be infested with earthworms (PMP: *wati₁) *wati₁ (X + wati₁)

waywáydangle loosely (PPh: *waywáy)

Cebuano (2800 / 2798)

wisíkto make something fly off in all directions (as mud thrown up by a passing truck) (PPH: *wisik)

wisíkmake something fly off in all directions (Also Hiligaynon wisík 'sprinkle, spray') (ROOT)

wisiwísishake something violently in all directions to get it loose; be violently mauled (NOISE)

witíkstrike something with a flick (ROOT)

witwítchirp; complain about something, criticizing; spread bad things about others; chirping of the birds; senseless talk (PPh: *witwít₁)

wíʔwiʔpush the sides apart to create an opening or to widen an opening (PPh: *wíqwiq)

yadʔúkswallow down a liquid (ROOT)

Cebuano (dialectal) (7) WMP

gábnutuproot something flexible with a jerk (PWMP: *Ranebut) dialectal

kawáli ~ káwaliʔround bottomed skillet with no handle, smaller than the kawaɁ (LOAN) dialectal

labán-antending to take sides with one’s child or other person in whom one is interested (PMP: *laban-an) *laban₂ dialectal

labnáwheavily diluted, having too much water; be diluted, put too much water in a mixture (PPH: *labnaw) dialectal

lapákspank someone lightly (PWMP: *lapak) dialectal

máyakind of small bird found in rice fields, the chestnut mannikin: Lonchura malacca (PPH: *máya) dialectal

ugíshaving completely white feathers; fair of complexion (PPH: *uRis) dialectal

Cebuano (SE Bohol) (4) WMP

akeʔ1sg oblique (LOAN) SE Bohol

ameʔ1pl ex oblique (PWMP: *ameq) SE Bohol

ateʔ1pl in oblique (PWMP: *ateq) SE Bohol

dukútget stuck in or so something; not move from a place, stick to a job; for starchy foods to form a crust at the pot; adhere to each other; be close to one another; for fire to catch to something (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC SE Bohol

kilásmaking rapid and shifting movements; moving about too much, roaming about; flirting too much with the opposite sex; be or become unsteady and shifting in motion; roam about, move about too much, get to have loose morals (PPH: *kidas) SE Bohol

127. Cèmuhî (1) OC

1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

Central Amis (10) Form.. see: Amis (Central)

Central Cagayan Agta (28) WMP. see: Agta (Central Cagayan)

128. Central Dusun (3) WMP

luzaŋcopper (PWMP: *luyaŋ)

purakwhite (PWMP: *pudak)

turaliflute (PWMP: *turali)

129. Central Maewo (19) OC (Tryon 1976) [mwo] (Maewo, Central) anuatu [aka: Peterara, Sun̄wadaga]

βisahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

γanito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

γindawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

irathey, them (PMP: *ida)

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lasotesticles (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

ma-etodirty (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

mbalisigrass (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

mbalisigrass (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

samaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

sa-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

taeexcrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-laŋisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

tamafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

umuoven (PMP: *qumun)

unuto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

usubow and arrow (POC: *pusuR) *busuR₂

130. Central Palawan (1) WMP

d-amen1pl ex oblique (PAN: *amen)

Central Sama (7) WMP. see: Sama (Central)

131. Central Santo (5) OC [aka: Matae, Navut]

βusowhite (POC: *puso₁)

lapabig (POC: *lapat)

ma-riricold (POC: *ma-ridriŋ) *diŋdiŋ₂

mata-i-alosun (POC: *qalo₁)

matuaright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

132. Central Tagbanwa (42) WMP (Scebold 2003) [tgt] (Tagbanwa, Central) Philippines

baagloincloth (PMP: *bahaR)

baigrandmother (PAN: *baqi)

guyur-onto lead something by the hand (PPH: *guyúd-en) *guyud₃

i-tuldoto point out something or show something (PPh: *tulduq)

ka2sg nominative pronoun, used as focused participant in verbal clauses, you (PMP: *ka₄)

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

-ko1sg genitive pronoun (marks possessors and non-focused participants in verbal clauses) (PAN: *-ku)

lahara mixture of volcanic ash and water that flows when saturated (PWMP: *lahar)

lampasgreater than, bigger than (PPH: *lampás)

lanavegetable or coconut oil (PMP: *laña)

lɨmɨtto drown (PMP: *lemes)

liyɨdstep (PPH: *liqed)

liyɨr-anto step over something (PPH: *liqed)

lugarplace (LOAN)

mag-tuldoto teach (PPh: *tulduq)

ma-lapadwide (PMP: *lapad)

ma-mi-mintata witch (PPH: *pintas)

ma-navoto draw water from a spring or well (PMP: *tabuq)

man-larato weave fabric or other materials (PWMP: *man-laja) *laja

ma-pintat-anto bewitch (PPH: *pintas)

Central Tagbanwa (20 / 42)

nakɨmthought, state of mind (PPH: *nákem)

nipersonal noun phrase marker, genitive case; marks the proper noun as a nonfocused participant in the clause; also marks possession (PAN: *ni)

pastill, yet (PAN: *pa₁)

patagplain (PWMP: *pataR₂)

pulaw-anwake, vigil for the dead (PPH: *pulaw)

puntibanana plant (PAN: *punti₁)

siyamnine (PPH: *siám)

sumbiŋharelip (PWMP: *sumbiŋ)

tafirst person plural inclusive pronoun, genitive, used as nonfocused participant in verbal clauses and as possessive pronoun in possessive noun phrases where the pronoun follows the possessed noun, all of our (PAN: *-ta)

taparticle of emphasis, marks a peak or an abrupt transition in a discourse (PWMP: *ta₂)

tabasto prune, to mow, to cut down excess growth (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

tamato be correct; to hit the target (PMP: *tamaq₁)

taŋitgrief, weeping, crying (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

t<ar>avo-ana public water well (PMP: *tabuq)

tipersonal noun phrase marker, nominative case; marks the proper noun as subject of the clause (PAN: *si₁)

timbaŋquantity of weight (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

tukavomit, vomitus (PPH: *suka₂)

tuldofinger or toe (PPh: *tulduq)

tuloyto continue, proceed (PMP: *tuluy₁)

t<um>andigto lean against (PMP: *sandiR)

Central Tagbanwa (40 / 42)

t<um>aŋitto weep or cry (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

tuwaŋ-into carry on each end of a pole (PPH: *tuaŋ₂)

133. Cham (5) WMP [cja] (Cham, Western) Cambodia

aθewdog (PAN: *asu₁)

baŋiused of all agreeable sensations: good, tasty, redolant, etc. (PMP: *baŋehih) *baŋeSiS

daraksea (PMP: *daRat)

lipancentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

patihwhite (PMP: *putiq)

Cham (Eastern) (3) WMP

cunto descend; to set, of the sun (PMP: *tuRun₁)

kaləkto tickle (PWMP: *gilek)

karawscratch an itch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

134. Chamorro (386) WMP (Topping, Ogo, and Dungca 1975) [cha] Guam

achaichin (PMP: *qazay)

achom, hachemto sneeze (NOISE)

a-fagaohoarse (PAN: *paRaw)

afaʔfaʔarmpit, crotch (PWMP: *apaqpaq)

afoklime, birdlime, limestone (soft), quicklime (PAN: *qapuR)

aft-eto roof, cover with a roof (PMP: *qatep)

agagaʔred (ROOT)

aguatype of fish: Chanos chanos, family Chanidae, milkfishes (PMP: *qawa₁)

aguasbaby mullet: Neomyxus chaptalii (PMP: *qawas)

agwathe milkfish: Chanos chanos (PMP: *qawaʔ)

agwasbaby mullet: Neomyxus chaptalii (PMP: *qaRuas)

akihomclench, grip (ROOT)

akmaŋaothe mangrove crab: Scylla serrata (PMP: *qali-maŋaw)

alileŋcateye shell (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

alofbeckon, signal, summon by signs, call by signs, wave (PAN: *qalep)

alubarracuda (PMP: *qalu)

alunanpillow (PMP: *qalunan)

amakahammock, swing, hanging bed or couch (LOAN)

am-anuwhere, which? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

-anattributive suffix. It is difficult to find an appropriate name for this suffix. It is usually added to nouns. The affixed form then describes something that has attributes or features of the stem... The stem usually, but not always, takes the infix -in- (e.g. bosbos 'skin rash' : b-in-esbus-an 'condition of having a skin rash', chugoʔ 'sap, juice' : chiguʔ-an 'salty fish sauce', palaoʔan 'woman' : p-in-alaoʔan-an 'effeminate male' or 'having attributes of woman', pao 'odor' : pagu-an 'smelly') (PAN: *-an)

Chamorro (20 / 386)

anineŋshadow; seclusion (PWMP: *qaninuŋ)

anitidevil, satan (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

apagacarry (something) on the shoulder; shoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

apuash -- the remaining substance of what was burned (PMP: *qabu)

arakdistilled liquor made from fermented coconut sap (LOAN)

arakdistilled liquor made from fermented coconut sap (LOAN)

asaguaspouse, husband, wife, mate (PAN: *qasawa)

asgu-esmoke out (PMP: *qasu₃)

ásiduacid (LOAN)

asigasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

asiʔ-iforgive, pardon, excuse, condone, grant forgiveness, exculpate (PMP: *qasiq)

asiʔ-i-yonexcusable, pardonable, forgivable (PMP: *qasiq)

asn-epickle, apply salt (PWMP: *qasin-i) *qasiN

asusmoke, smudge, steam, vapor, fog, the gaseous products of burning organic materials which finally settle as soot (PMP: *qasu₃)

asugiquicksilver, mercury (LOAN)

ataggaʔreddish (ROOT)

atdawsun (PMP: *qalejaw)

atdawsun (PMP: *qalejaw)

atesplant sp.: sweetsop, sugar apple: Anona squamosa (LOAN)

atmaŋaospotted sea crab (PMP: *qali-maŋaw)

Chamorro (40 / 386)

atofroof; put a roof on a house (PMP: *qatep)

atof higairoof made of palm leaves (PMP: *qatep)

atulaytype of fish, big-eye scad: Trachurops crumenophthalmus (PMP: *qatulay)

atupat, katupatwoven container used for cooking rice, a box-like container woven from coconut leaves, into which rice is placed, then submerged into boiling water for cooking (LOAN)

ayuyuthe coconut crab, robber crab: Birgus latro L. (PMP: *qayuyu)

baliworth, value (LOAN)

baʔbaʔto spank, to whip (NOISE)

cecethiss, call by hissing sound, call attention to (PMP: *zitzit)

chagoʔfar, afar, distant (PMP: *zauq)

chagoʔ-ñafurther, more distant (PMP: *zauq)

chahancook in an underground pit; underground pit oven (PMP: *zakan)

chalanroad, highway, street, path (PMP: *zalan)

chugoʔsap, juice (as from an orange); pus; semen (PMP: *zuRuq)

cicéʔgrin (showing teeth); smile (toothy), gritting teeth (PMP: *ziziq)

fa-faʔeta snapper: Lutjanus gibbus (PWMP: *paqit₁) *paqit

fa-fituseven (of living things) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

fa-fiʔahow many? (of living things) (PAN: *pa-pija) *pijax

fagaslightly sloping roof of house, which is poor for water runoff (NOISE)

fagoʔa tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia (PMP: *pauq)

faha-causative/multiplicative prefix with numeral bases (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

Chamorro (60 / 386)

faha-dmafive times (PMP: *paka-lima₁) *lima

faha-fadfour times (PMP: *paka-epat) *Sepat

faha-gwatwice (Costenoble 1940:263; < faha-hugwa) (PMP: *paka-duha) *duSa

faha-tothree times (PMP: *paka-telu) *telu

faha-ulueight times (PMP: *paka-walu) *walu

faha-unumsix times (PMP: *paka-enem) *enem

faha-utiseven times (PMP: *paka-pitu) *pitu

fakmatawake up, get up from sleep (imperative form) (PWMP: *paR-mata) *maCa

fákmatalight sleeper (PWMP: *paR-mata) *maCa

fa-lagurun (imper.), move swiftly, hasten, go rapidly; elope, escape, flee (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

fa-lulonwrap, infold, enwrap, roll up (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

fan-agubear (offspring), give birth (NOISE)

fanihibat (mammal), fruit bat (PMP: *paniki)

fañagubear (offspring), give birth (PMP: *pañaRu)

fasucheek, face (PAN: *pasu₁)

fat-afour days (PAN: *pat-a) *Sepat

fayaanchovy: Thrissina baelama (family Engraulidae) (PMP: *paya)

faʔetsalty (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

faʔitype of plant - Oryza sativa. rice --- when growing (PAN: *pajay)

f-in-aha-unumsixth (PMP: *paka-enem) *enem

Chamorro (80 / 386)

f<in>ataydeath (PWMP: *p<in>atay) *aCay

fituseven (used in serial counting) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fiʔahow many? (PAN: *pijax)

foks-eto squeeze (PAN: *peRes)

fugoʔwring, squeeze (PAN: *peReq)

fulotsensation or taste on tongue from eating unripe banana; tingling sensation from eating certain things (PWMP: *peled)

fulotsensation or taste on tongue from eating unripe banana, tingling sensation from eating certain things (PWMP: *pelet)

fuluʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

funaseradicate, erase, rub out, , wipe out, put an end to, clear (of sin) (PMP: *punas)

gaguironwood tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *aRuhu)

gái-ʔaseʔhave mercy, be merciful, have pity, have forgiveness (PMP: *qasiq)

gapotpull by the hair (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

gatushundred (Costenoble 1940) (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

goʔnaf (< *huqenap)to scale, separate and come off in scales, shed scales, pare off; fish scale (PMP: *quhenap) *quSeNap

guafifire, combustion, conflagration, burning mass of material; to anger, to vex (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

guahahave, there is, there exists (PMP: *wada)

guasaŋgill (of fish) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

guasaʔsharpen, make sharp (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

guasaʔ-onsharpener (for metal tools), grindstone, whetstone (PWMP: *hasaq-en) *Sasaq

guatuthere -- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee) (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

Chamorro (100 / 386)

guatuthere -- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee) (PMP: *wa-tu) *-Cu

gugatvein; muscle; tendon; artery; fishing line (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

guifia dream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

guihanfish (generic) (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

guihithere (3p) (PMP: *i-di) *-di

gu-in-ahawealth, affluence, riches, large possessions esp. of worldly estate (PMP: *wada)

guinihere, in this place (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

gu-in-ifidream (PMP: *h<in>ipi) *Sipi

guiya3sg. (emphatic) (PAN: *ia₁)

guiʔeŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

gumaʔhouse, home, shelter, refuge, dwelling, dormitory, building (PAN: *Rumaq)

gunoswean, accustom (a child or other young animal) to loss of mother's milk (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

gunotcoconut fiber, from trunk of coconut tree, used especially for straining tuba (coconut toddy) and other liquids (PMP: *Runut)

gunumsix (PAN: *enem)

guputo fly, move through the air, travel through the air (PMP: *Rebek)

gutosbreak off (rubber band; string, etc.), snap off (neck of chicken, root) (PWMP: *getus)

gutosbreak off (rubber band, string, etc.), snap off (neck of chicken, root) (PMP: *utus₁)

gwa-gunumsix (of living creatures) (PAN: *a-enem) *enem

gwa-gwalueight (of living creatures) (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu

gwahu1sg. emphatic subject pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

Chamorro (120 / 386)

gwalueight (PAN: *walu)

gwatuthere --- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee) (PMP: *atu)

hagadaughter (PMP: *daRa₂)

hagahafrock crab: Crapsus tenuicrustatus Herbst (PMP: *kaRakap)

hagaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

hagia fish: Scomberoides santi-petri (family Carangidae), pompano or jack crevally (PMP: *daRi)

hagonleaf, foliage, frond (PMP: *dahun)

hagon fahafilefish: Oxymonacanthus longirostris (PMP: *dahun)

haguyou, emphatic singular (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

haguhisand crab (PMP: *kaRuki)

hagwethook; fishhook (PAN: *kawit)

hakotsnatch, grab (PAN: *dakuC)

haleʔroot (of a plant); source, origin (PMP: *dalij)

halito harvest root crop (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

halihanstone -- used for forming a fireplace for cooking; fireplace (PMP: *dalikan)

halihanstone used for forming a fireplace for cooking; fireplace (PMP: *dalikan)

halomin, into, inside; enter (PMP: *dalem)

ham1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

hamafakfragile, brittle, easily broken (ROOT)

hamyo2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

Chamorro (140 / 386)

hanomwater, liquid (PMP: *danum) *daNum

ha-spokfull (from food), satiated, glutted, sated (PMP: *ka-besuR) *besuR

(h)asulifreshwater eel: Anguilla marmorata (PWMP: *kasuli)

hawyou – intransitive subject singular pronoun, transitive subject singular pronoun with indefinite object, transitive object singular pronoun (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

hayasouth (in Guam and Rota); east (in Saipan) (PAN: *daya)

hayustick, wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

haʔaniday (PAN: *daqaNi)

haʔfebrace, put on splint (PMP: *kaq(e)pi)

haʔiforehead (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

higamtraditional adze of clam shell or stone (PMP: *kiRam)

himaclam – various bivalve mollusks (venus mercenaria) (PMP: *kima)

hitawe, us (emphatic, inclusive) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

hiteŋRabbitfish: Siganus punctatus (family siganidae) (PWMP: *kiteŋ)

homhomdark, dim, obscure, dusky, gloomy, not light-colored; bleak (PAN: *demdem₂)

-hu ~ -ku1sg possessive suffix and preverbal subject pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

hugomsqueeze with arms or legs, as in wrestling (PWMP: *kugem)

hugwatwo (old numeral) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

huluthunder (PWMP: *delek)

hunquotative marker; used to distinguish a reported statement from a statement known to be fact (PWMP: *ken)

huŋokhear; heed; be informed; perceive by the ear; gain knowledge (PMP: *deŋeR)

Chamorro (160 / 386)

idefinite article (NOISE)

ibbaʔa tree, Phyllanthus acidus, with sour fruit that makes the lips pucker up (LOAN)

ifeta tree, Intsia bijuga. A very hard and heavy wood resembling black walnut in color (PMP: *qipil)

inaexclamation, oh!, wow! (PMP: *qina)

isaʔan exclamation of surprise (PMP: *qisaq)

iteŋpick, break off, esp. from flowers, fruit, bananas, etc.; banana bunch (PMP: *qitiŋ)

ka-nifesthin, flimsy, not thick, sheer (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

kísamiceiling (LOAN)

lagoʔtear --- a saline fluid secreted by the lachrymal gland (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lagunorth (in Guam and Rota); west (in Saipan) (PAN: *lahud)

laguaslong, skinny, long and slender (refers to plants or animals) (PAN: *lawas₁)

laguaʔscoop net, hand net (PMP: *lawaq₁)

laguetcatch with a hook (PMP: *lawit)

lahe-nson of, man of (PMP: *laki₁)

lahiman, male, boy; also used in direct address among friends in the same way that lai (‘friend’, ‘man’) is used (PMP: *laki₁)

lá-laŋuunconscious; faint, fall in a swoon (PAN: *laŋu)

la-limafive (living things) (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

laloʔhousefly (PMP: *lalej)

lamottype of seaweed (PMP: *lamut)

lanka, nankajackfruit (LOAN)

Chamorro (180 / 386)

lañaoil (generic) (PMP: *laña)

laŋetheaven, sky, outer space (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋŋaʔ (gemination unexpl.)gape, hold mouth agape (PMP: *laŋaq₁)

læsoʔpenis, testicle (PMP: *lasuq₂)

layakmast; sails (PAN: *layaR)

liheŋsaved, safeguarded, rescued, sheltered (as from rain); shelter, refuge; make safe (PAN: *liduŋ)

limafive (Costenoble 1940) (PAN: *lima)

liyaŋcave (natural), cavern (PMP: *liaŋ)

lugaʔspit out (mouthful), to spew or spray out of mouth by blowing, such as a mouthful of chewed coconut meat after juice is gone (PMP: *luaq)

lú-luhota vine: Maytenus thompsonii (PAN: *lukuC)

lumosto drown, suffocate (PMP: *lemes)

lumotmoss, lichen, type of seaweed, green vegetation covering still water (PMP: *lumut)

lupokdeep hole in the ground, crevasse (PWMP: *lubuk₁)

lusoŋmortar (PMP: *lusuŋ) *Nusuŋ

lutumourning, sorrow, grief; mourning dress, dress up in black (when a husband or wife dies) (LOAN)

ma-gapevaporate (expected **magwap) (PWMP: *ma-huab₂) *huab

magihere (toward or in the direction of the speaker) (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

ma-layuwilted, dry (leaves), showing lack of fluid (PMP: *ma-layu) *layu

mamaʔchew betel nut mixed with lime, pepper leaf and tobacco (PMP: *mamaq)

mamaʔ-onbetel nut mixed with lime, pepper leaf and tobacco (PWMP: *mamaq-en) *mamaq

Chamorro (200 / 386)

mamessweet (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

ma-neŋheŋ (< *maniŋdiŋ)cold, frigid, chilled (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₂)

manuwhich, whichever -- interrogative (PAN: *manu)

m-anuwhich, whichever? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

mañacustom, habit, tradition (PWMP: *maña)

maŋ-guifito dream (PWMP: *maŋ-hipi) *Sipi

masaripe, cooked (PMP: *ma-esak) *esak

masaripe; cooked (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

masaripe, cooked (PMP: *ma-hasak) *Sasak

mataeye, eyeball; face; hole for planting (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataidead; corpse; die (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

matai-ñalaŋfamine, die of hunger (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mata-n hanomspring, source of water (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

mataʔraw, uncooked (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

ma-tmosdrown, be drowned (PPH: *ma-lemes) *lemes

matuanoble, magnanimous, lofty, highborn, person possessing high qualities; archaic form referring to higher class in pre-Spanish Chamorro society (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

maysaone (of living things) (PMP: *ma-isa) *isa₁

ma-ʔaksomsour, acid, acidulous, tart (PWMP: *ma-qaRsem) *qaRsem

ma-ʔasensalty, saline, briny, brackish (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

ma-ʔaseʔmercy, merciful, pity; forgiveness, sympathy (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

Chamorro (220 / 386)

ma-ʔasn-esalted (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

ma-ʔiʔotnarrow, acute, not wide or broad (PWMP: *qiqut)

maʔtelow tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maʔtelow tide (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

maʔte i tasithe sea is at low tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

méʔméʔurinate, urine (PMP: *miqmiq)

mokmokgargle, wash the throat with a liquid (PMP: *muRmuR)

naparticle used 1. to link a modifier with a following noun, 2. to link demonstratives with the nouns or noun phrases that follow, 3. to connect the numbers beyond the number ‘one’ with the following noun, 4. to link certain question words with the following noun, 5. to connect a complement clause with a main clause, thus functioning as a complementizer (Topping 1973:138-141) (PAN: *na₂)

næŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

napuwave, rough water, surf (PMP: *nabek) *Nabek

naʔanname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nifentooth (PAN: *nipen)

nigapyesterday (PWMP: *niRab)

niyokcoconut tree and fruit: Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

nosnossquid, cuttlefish (PMP: *nues)

nufoʔstonefish, scorpionfish (highly poisonout if dorsal spines penetrate the skin) (PMP: *nepuq)

nunubanyan tree; type of plant: Ficus prolixa (PMP: *nunuk)

-ña3sg. agent and possessor (Topping 1973:225) (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

ñamñamchew, sound of chewing, eat (PAN: *ñamñam)

ñamumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

Chamorro (240 / 386)

ñufoqscorpionfish, stonefish (PMP: *ñepuq)

ŋahaʔlook up, with head tilted back (PWMP: *ŋadaq)

ŋa-iʔanwhen? (PMP: *ŋa-ijan) *ijan

ŋaŋaschew (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋaŋaschew, masticate, grind with the teeth (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋaŋaʔduck (fowl) (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

ŋaʔŋaʔopen-mouthed while staring blankly; look up with mouth open; gape (PWMP: *ŋaqŋaq)

ŋokŋokunclear speech, sometimes a temporary condition resulting from accident (PMP: *ŋukŋuk)

pagoʔirritate skin, cause skin irritation (PAN: *baReq)

pagua plant: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

pagu-angive off scent, odor, aroma, smell (as cooking) (PWMP: *bahu-an) *bahu

pagw-anscent; give off odor, aroma, smell (PWMP: *bahu-an) *bahu

pahoŋpandanus, screw pine --- bears edible fruit (PMP: *bakuŋ₂)

pakyotyphoon, storm, tropical cyclone (PAN: *baRiuS)

p-al-aŋpaŋloud noise, fall down (noisily) (PAN: *baŋbaŋ₆)

palaspassplash (as a fish in the water) (PWMP: *barasbas)

palusome, some more (PMP: *balu₃)

pantekhandslap (ROOT)

paŋonwake (someone) up, rouse someone from sleep, awaken (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

paoodor, smell, scent, aroma (as of perfume, gas, etc.) (PMP: *bahu)

Chamorro (260 / 386)

papaʔdown, below, bottom, southward, downward, beneath (PMP: *babaq₁)

pappastrip off (bark of a tree), skin (an animal), peel off, rip off (as skin, bark) (PMP: *bakbak₁)

pappawing (PAN: *bakbak₂)

parespair; divisible by two; placenta, afterbirth (LOAN)

paʔgonow, today (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

pigaʔkind of acrid, inedible taro: Alocasia indica (PMP: *biRaq₁)

pokkaʔshatter, crack open; abortion (< *beRkaq?) (PMP: *bekaq)

pokkaʔshatter, crack open; abortion (PWMP: *buŋkaq)

poksaito paddle, propel, row (PMP: *beRsay)

pontanripe coconut -- usually refers to that which has fallen from the tree (PWMP: *buntan)

popposcum, powder substance from a decayed plant; dropping -- termites, dirty substance on top of liquid such as dust, or soot. Not fungus (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

pugasuncooked rice (PMP: *beRas)

pugawcause to scatter, to scatter a group, flock, herd, school of fish, etc. (PAN: *buRaw)

pugwaʔbetel nut palm: Areca catechu (PMP: *buaq)

pugwaʔ machenatype of bush: Davallia solida (PMP: *buaq)

pulantype of fish, family elopidae, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides (PMP: *bulan-bulan₁) *bulan-bulan

pulanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

pulaneye of cateye shell (PMP: *bulan₁)

pulaʔuntie, unwrap, unfold, unravel; translate (PMP: *bekelaj)

pulo-n gaʔgaʔfur, hair of animals (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

Chamorro (280 / 386)

pulo-n teŋhomane (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

pulufeather, hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

punotcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

punoʔkill, murder, slay, assassinate; shut off, turn off, extinguish; execute (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

punoʔ guafifire extinguisher (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

punoʔ laloʔfly-swatter, insect spray, fly killer (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

pupoŋridge of roof, peak of roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

pu-pulubetel pepper: Piper betle (PMP: *bu-bulu)

putaʔsplit, cleave, burst (PMP: *betaq₂)

puteŋtype of tree used for poisoning fish: Barringtonia asiatica (PWMP: *butuŋ)

putiʔonstar (PAN: *bituqen)

sagubad cold, runny nose, influenza, epidemic (PWMP: *saRu₂)

sagubad cold, runny nose, influenza, epidemic (PWMP: *sagu₂)

sagutype of plant, arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea (PMP: *sagu₁)

sagwaleɁthatched house, usually made with karisu (Swamp bamboo: Phragmites karka) (PWMP: *sawaliq)

sagwaʔchannel, inlet of water, canal, narrow passage of water breaking the reef barrier (PMP: *sawaq₁)

sahagudeep water (PMP: *sakaRu)

sahy-anautomobile, small vehicle (PMP: *sakay₁)

sahy-anautomobile, small vehicle, jeep, sedan, car (PWMP: *sakay-an) *sakay₁

sakmanlarge canoe --- from Polynesia or Papua, no outrigger, capable of carrying over 100 people (PMP: *saRman)

Chamorro (300 / 386)

salaʔlate, far gone, incurable (as a disease that has gone too far to cure) (PMP: *salaq₁)

sampagitatype of flowering plant: Jasminum sambac (LOAN)

san-halominside, interior; internal; in, into (PMP: *dalem)

sapi-sapitype of kite (LOAN)

satg-einstall a floor; floor, platform (PWMP: *saleR-i) *saleR

sesse (< *sehseh)delouse (PWMP: *siksik₁)

siarticle, used with proper names, but not used for direct address (PAN: *si₁)

sigigo on, advance, continue, forward (LOAN)

sigwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sihathey -- intransitive subject pronoun, transitive object pronoun, emphatic pronoun (PMP: *si ida) *ida

sihekMicronesian kingfisher: Halcyon cinnamomina (PMP: *sikek)

s<in>etsotrepentance (PWMP: *selsel₂)

somnaksunshine, sunlight, ray (from the sun) (ROOT)

soŋsoŋplug up, close up (hole); stopper, plug (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

soŋsoŋplug up, close up (hole); stopper, plug (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

sotsotcontrite, repentent (PWMP: *selsel₂)

soʔsoʔscrape coconut meat from its shell, make copra, pry loose, scrape (with thrusting motion) -- as in scraping a pancake from the griddle (PWMP: *suqsuq)

sugoɁstop by, stop for awhile, visit briefly, drop in on (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

suhudip water (with container); water container (PMP: *sudu)

suloʔtype of fishing, torch-fishing (PMP: *suluq)

Chamorro (320 / 386)

sumantype of food made from rice and coconut milk; after rice is cooked in coconut milk it is wrapped in banana leaf and steamed (usually served as a dessert) (LOAN)

susubreast; suckle, breast feeding (PAN: *susu₁)

tafy-ethresh, remove husk from grain by threshing (PMP: *tapi)

tagaʔhack, chop (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tag-lima-nfive (in linear measurement) (PWMP: *taR-lima) *lima

taktakmince, chop, cut up into slices, cut by striking repeatedly with a sharp instrument; pecking sound (PAN: *taktak₂)

t<al>aktakrattle, tapping, clicking, clacking, clink, clatter (PAN: *taktak₂)

talisaya tree that bears edible nuts, the Indian almond: Terminalia catappa (PMP: *talisay)

tambotdrum (LOAN)

tampattype of fish: Bothus mancus (Bothidae), flounder, flatfish (PWMP: *tampar₁)

tamtamtest, try out, sip, taste (PAN: *tamtam)

t<an>choʔselect, nominate, point, elect (PMP: *t<an>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

tanomto plant seeds or seedlings (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanoʔworld, earth, land, soil, ground (PMP: *taneq)

taŋan-taŋana large bush that proliferates on many of the high islands in Micronesia, good for cattle feed and fuel: Leucaena leucocephala (LOAN)

taŋesa cry, a sob (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tasisea, ocean, beach (PMP: *tasik)

tasm-esharpen to a point (PMP: *tasim-i) *tasim

tatafather (PAN: *tata₁)

tatafather (PAN: *tata₁)

Chamorro (340 / 386)

tá-tagaʔunicorn fishes: Naso unicornis (family Acanthuridae) (PMP: *taRaq₂)

tá-t<an>choʔforefinger, index finger (PMP: *t<an>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

taʔpaŋrinse -- salt water by using fresh water (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

teʔteʔdrain pus, puncture an infection for purposes of draining (PWMP: *tiqtiq)

timónsteer (with a rudder), guide (with a rudder); rudder (LOAN)

t<in>aktaka meat dish in which the meat is chopped into small pieces; the process of chopping or mincing meat (PAN: *taktak₂)

tiŋteŋclink, ding, tinkle, jingle (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

tiʔaogoatfishes: Upeneus vittatus (family Mullidae) (PMP: *tiqaw₂) *Ciqaw

tiʔaogoatfishes: Upeneus vittatus (family Mullidae) (PMP: *tiqaw₁) *tiqaw

tohn-eto brace, support so as to give firmness, support with a brace; brace, strut, prop, stanchion (PMP: *teken)

toktokcluck, as when the hen calls for her chicks (PAN: *tektek₂)

toŋhonape of the neck (PWMP: *teŋkuk)

toŋtoŋpound, beat, batter, bang against, strike heavily or repeatedly with fist (PAN: *CuŋCuŋ)

totŋ-eignite (a fire) (PMP: *tutuŋ)

toʔlaŋbone, skeleton (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tronkon hayutree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

tugapburp, belch, eruct (PMP: *teRab) *CeRab

tuhoŋhat, sombrero, cap (PMP: *tuduŋ)

tuhoŋhat, sombrero (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

tuhoʔdrip, leak, trickle, fall in or form drops, spot with rain, pour drop by drop (PAN: *tuduq)

Chamorro (360 / 386)

tuluthree (PAN: *telu)

t<um>a-taŋesto be crying (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

tumatestomato: Solanum lycopersicum (< Spanish) (LOAN)

t<um>unokget down, let down (as from a tree or bed) (PWMP: *t<um>uRun) *tuRun₁

tunokget down, let down (as from a tree or bed) (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tunuburn, barbecue, scald, broil (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupoʔwell, pit sunk into the earth to reach a supply of water (PAN: *Cebuj)

tuputype of plant -- Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tutupound, strike heavily or repeatedly with the fist; beat, pulverize, make into pulp by beating (PAN: *tutuh)

uchanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ududumb, mute, speechless (NOISE)

ugoŋmoan, groan, lament, mourn, utter in lamentation (PMP: *heReŋ)

ugoŋmoan, groan, lament, mourn, utter in lamentation (PWMP: *quRuŋ)

ugotmassage (with the feet), usually by walking on the body (PMP: *quRut)

uhaŋshrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

uhaʔpry open (PMP: *qukaq)

uhaʔpry open (PMP: *qu(ŋ)kaq)

uloʔworm, germ, bacteria, caterpillar, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

uluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

-um-"Almost any noun can be converted to a verb-like word -- a word that can function as a predicate -- by adding the verbalizing infix -um-." Contrasts with man-, used with plural subjects. (Topping, Ogo, and Dungca 1975:226). (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

Chamorro (380 / 386)

umaŋhermit crab -- land (Paguridae) (PAN: *qumaŋ)

unaisand (PAN: *qenay)

upospass, go beyond (PMP: *qubus)

uʔospeel with teeth, tear off with teeth when eating such things as sugarcane, green coconut (PMP: *ququs)

wahutype of fish: Acanthocybium solandri (family scombridae). Wahoo, type of tuna (LOAN)

yo-ʔaseʔmerciful person, forgiving person (PMP: *qasiq)

135. Cheke Holo (92) OC (White 1985) [mrn] Solomon Islands [aka: Kmagha, Maringe]

ahobe clear and sunny, good weather (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

aiexclamation of surprise (PAN: *ai₂)

ba-balacrossbeam, pole running cross-wise in house roof construction (POC: *baRa baRa)

balhupigeon (generic) (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

barafence, barrier (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

barafence, barrier (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

bara-bosupigpen (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

bara-bosupigpen (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

binucup for drinking made by folding a leaf (POC: *binu)

bionautilus shell, used for making inlaid patterns (POC: *bio)

bitistone oven (LOAN)

buburugrass (generic) (POC: *buburu)

bulepeace, formerly established through feast exchanges between chiefs (NOISE)

bulicowrie shell (POC: *buliq₁)

da-darablood; bleed (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

fa-fatifourth (POC: *pati pati) *Sepat

farabamboo or wooden storage shelf, often located above a stone oven (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

fari-reciprocal prefix; simultaneously, mutually (e.g. fari-gamu 'eat together') (PEMP: *paRi-)

fa-tabuto make taboo (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

fa-ʔulufirst, before others (POC: *qulu) *quluh

Cheke Holo (20 / 92)

filathunder clap from a nearby lightning bolt, making a loud, sharp bang (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

firisnarl, tangle (as fish in fishing line) (PMP: *pirit)

folibuy (PEMP: *poli) *beli

franebe brave, bold, not timid or afraid (POC: *paRane) *baRani

fufubamboo-borer; be worm-eaten (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

fu-fuat-astick or piece of bamboo, placed over the shoulder for carrying a netbag on one's back (POC: *puat-an₂) *buhat₃

furaflow or spring from the ground; spew, gush out (of water from a spring); suddenly proliferate or 'spring out' from the ground (phaja snakes) (POC: *buraq) *budaq₁

fuʔafruit or nut, the seed-bearing part of a plant (POC: *puaq) *buaq

gamueat (POC: *kamu₃) *kamu₂

-g-umy (possessive suffix, inalienable object) (POC: *-gu) *-ku

hageto go or come up, move higher, rise, ascend, climb up; lift up (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

hanuword used to replace a taboo word or name (PMP: *sanu) *-nu

iva-BIL, SIL (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

k-ulufirst, before others (POC: *qulu) *quluh

laogo, move in one direction, begin or go ahead with (POC: *lako) *lakaw

liupass by, go by way of (PMP: *liu₂)

lothoinfect with pus, develop an infection (POC: *lotos)

lujaload cargo into a vehicle, as a canoe (PMP: *lujan)

lumube overly greasy, causing indigestion (food) (PMP: *lumuk)

luʔato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

Cheke Holo (40 / 92)

mafoto heal, be cured, recover from pain, illness or injury (POC: *mapo)

mairileft side or direction (POC: *mawiRi) *wiRi

malinocalm (sea) (POC: *ma-lino) *linaw

mamafather, elder male kin of first ascending generation; father-in-law (vocative) (POC: *mama) *mamah

mamhibe sweet tasting (POC: *mamis) *hemis

mifidream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

munocaterpillar (generic) (POC: *muno)

nadirock which is smooth, sharp and clear in color, probably quartz, used to make adze blades (POC: *nadi)

n-anitu, naʔituspirit, ancestral spirit, ghost, forest spirit; spiritual power; any unfamiliar, frightening presence (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

nuhocuttlefish (POC: *nuso)

n-ulhomaggot (PMP: *qulej)

n-ululeader, leading person or thing, in the first position (POC: *qulu) *quluh

ñamitaste by licking with the tongue (PMP: *ñamit)

odoʔodowalk in a slow, bent-over fashion, as from exhaustion or old age (NOISE)

ogobent over, stooped (tree, or old man) (POC: *oŋkol) *eŋkel

paŋafish spear with several prongs (PAN: *paŋa₁)

rafiget dark, become evening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

rai-rafiget dark, become evening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

sekuend part, extremity of long object, such as hair or leaves (POC: *siku)

tabutaboo, prohibited, sacred (POC: *tabu) *tambu

Cheke Holo (60 / 92)

tadalook up, turn face upwards (POC: *tadal)

t-ahi-younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tahiocean, sea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

tanhito cry, shed tears, whine (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

ta-tahitaste salty (PMP: *tasik)

tavato glide, soar with wings spread, hover (POC: *tapa₃) *tapa₂

thiroglass; mirror (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

thiro thataeyeglasses (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

thiʔabody part, belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

thua-tufagenerous, giving frequently or generously (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

thufaa gift or share presented at a feast, a distribution (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

thunube burned (living being) (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tʰuruto sleep (POC: *turuR) *tuduR

tiroview, look out at or down upon, as looking out over a vista (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tomnoto swallow (POC: *toñom)

tua-tufadistribute food at a feast, divide and distribute shares (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tufato give, distribute, present as a gift or share at a ceremony or feast (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tunuburn with fire (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tusu khameto point with the hand (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

tututo hit, pound, hammer on, as in pounding nuts (PAN: *tutuh)

Cheke Holo (80 / 92)

tu-tunumake small fires in a garden area to remove the debris which has been cut down to clear the ground (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

ufagreying (hair), have grey hair, become grey (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ulhobecome infested with maggots (PMP: *qulej)

uluat the head of, in front of, before (POC: *qulu) *quluh

vaharaPandanus conoideus (POC: *pwasa(rR))

vahebutcher, cut up meat, as pig, turtle or fish (POC: *wa(n)se)

vakaship, boat (POC: *waŋka)

valistingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

valunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

valuhapaddle (POC: *paluca) *aluja

vi-vihohollow reed (POC: *pijo)

volito buy (PEMP: *poli) *beli

Chihpen Puyuma (1) Form.. see: Puyuma (Chihpen)

136. Chuukese (189) OC (Goodenough and Sugita 1980) [chk] Micronesia [aka: Trukese]

a-locative prefix, at (PAN: *qa₁)

a-locative prefix, at (PMP: *ha₃) *Sa₂

ááffire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

áám1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

aanroad, street, path, way, route, course (at sea); approach (to a job or problem); method, way (of doing); line of reckoning (in genealogies); Milky Way (short for anenimey, lit. path of breadfruit, because on this heavenly path the breadfruit comes from its southern homeland when summoned by the sowuyótoomey, the breadfruit summoner who performs the ritual to induce the spirit of the breadfruit to come each year from its southern homeland to Truk and ensure a good breadfruit harvest) (POC: *salan) *zalan

aasupper part, top, summit; eastern side; above (vertically) (PMP: *atas) *aCas

aatúto smoke, to steam; cause to be smoked or steamed (for curing) (PMP: *pa(ka)-qasu) *qasu₃

aawmouth; opening into something stem end (of fruit); stalk end (of taro) (POC: *qawa₂)

aawa tree: Ficus carolinensis. the bark is used as medicine against evil spirits; fruits and leaves used as medicine; roots used to flavor a special breadfruit pudding (PEMP: *qayawan)

afarshoulder (of human, animal, bottle) (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

amas(a)not fully cooked, raw (PAN: *qamataq)

ana-food to eat; food portion (of cooked starchy food) (POC: *kana) *kana₁

áni-to eat (of cooked starchy food, bread, any leafy vegetable, cooked or uncooked, cooked fish, copra; but not uncooked bananas or other fruit, uncooked fish, or cooked or uncooked meat) (POC: *kani) *kaen

asam(a)doorway, door opening (PMP: *kataman)

asa-nabove him; its upper side (POC: *atas-ña) *aCas

chaanliquid, juice; fresh water (POC: *ranum) *