Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 6/16/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(About the Languages index...)

 A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    Y    Z    Proto-Languages   


(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)

Pahang Malay
Paiwan (Butanglu)
Paiwan (Makazayazaya)
Paiwan (Northeastern)
Paiwan (Southern)
Paiwan (Tjuabu)
Paiwan (Western)
Palawan Batak
Palin Maloh

Panay Bisayan
Papar Murut
Pattani Malay
Pazeh (Kahabu)
Penan (Long Labid)
Penan (Long Lamai)

Penan (Long Merigam)
Penang Malay
Perak Malay
Petapa Taje
Piching Land Dayak
Pinan Puyuma

Port Sandwich
Proto-Western Micronesian
Provincial Malagasy
Pulo Annian
Punan Busang (Bukitan)
Punan Kelai
Punan Tuvu'
Puyuma (Chihpen)
Puyuma (Nanwang)
Puyuma (Pinan)
Puyuma (Rikavong)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw)

Paama (42) OC. see: Paamese

527. Paamese (42) OC (Crowley 1992) [pma] (Paama) Vanuatu [aka: Paama, Lironesa]

ahinwoman; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

ahin-alisister (male speaker) (POC: *papine) *bahi

a-nammosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

a-sioHalcyon chloris (PMP: *sikek)

asoo-spouse (PAN: *qasawa)

a-tehsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

e-hishow many?; however many; an unknown number; how much? what price? what time? (POC: *pica) *pijax

e-hishow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

e-inhouse, home (PAN: *Rumaq)

e-lutwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

e-lu-a-luin pairs, two by two (POC: *rua rua₁) *duSa

e-telthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

fito-navel (POC: *bito)

gileleducate; knowledgeable; clever (PAN: *kilala)

haito weave, make a fence (POC: *pai₂)

hinu(wa)Macaranga tanarius (POC: *pinuan)

hua-huebeach morning glory (POC: *puRe₂)

huŋe-flower; tiny immature fruit on plants with no flowers (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

i-nauI, me, 1sg. (POC: *naku) *aku

kaand (PAN: *ka₁)

Paamese (20 / 42)

-ku1sg possessive suffix: my (directly attached to some relationship terms but to ‘possessive nominals’ aa- ‘edible possession, mo- ‘potable possession’, so- ‘possession according to traditional law’, ono- ‘general manipulative possession’ for non-intimate possession) (POC: *-gu) *-ku

loŋehear; listen to; feel; pay attention to (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ-loŋaware; wise (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ-loŋ-iennews (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ-loŋo-niget to hear about, become aware of (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ selūsienobey (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lum-lummoss; slime; seaweed; itchy fur on bamboo (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

mah(of sore) healed (POC: *mapo)

matilto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mete-neye; lens of camera; head of boil; small stick stuck into yam mound to show where yam has been planted; lid, stopper, bottletop; operculum of shellfish; of the three holes in the top of a coconut, the one which can be opened easily; the chaser in a game of chasey; leaves to cover up top of breadfruit pit; something really tremendous (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mete-n āiprow of canoe; stern of canoe (POC: *mata ni kayu) *maCa

mete-n ōnurethral opening in penis (‘eye of penis’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mete-tānanus (‘eye of feces’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

salītrim leaves from cane (POC: *sali)

sau-saukind of banana (southern dialect) (POC: *saku₃)

sou-soukind of banana (POC: *saku₃)

sum(u)sumkind of fish (POC: *sumu)

ta-excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tārotaro (POC: *talos) *tales

uītoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

Paamese (40 / 42)

vasgive birth, have a child (POC: *pasu₃)

vula-ispray; ejaculate (POC: *puRas)

528. Padoe (5) WMP [pdo] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

hiloʔolouse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

moŋ-gaato eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

mo-teahard (PMP: *ma-teRas) *teRas

ŋilupainful, hurting (PAN: *ŋilu)

ulutuknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₁) *tuduS

Pahang Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Pahang)

529. Paitan (3) WMP [txa] (Tombonuo) Malaysia (Sabah)

aponrod-and-line (PMP: *hapen)

tinaistomach (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

wogokdomesticated pig (PAN: *beRek)

530. Paiwan (971) Form. (Ferrell 1982) [pwn] Taiwan (dialects: Northeastern 1, Butanglu 1, Tjuabu 1, Makazayazaya 1, Southern 7, Western 42)

aequational construction marker for noun phrase (PAN: *a₅)

-apluralizer with personal nouns and pronominal articles (NOISE)

aiexclamation: alas! oh my! (PAN: *ai₂)

a-i-tsuthis, this one (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

alaptake, pick up (PAN: *alap)

alaythread (PAN: *walay)

alimforget something/someone (PAN: *alim)

aɬuhoney; candy; sweets (PAN: *waNu)

alu, valueight (PAN: *walu)

alʸakchild; interest on deposit (PAN: *aNak) Western

alʸistooth, fang, tusk (PAN: *waNiS)

amafather! (PAN: *amax)

aminfinished; there is no more, there is no other than (PAN: *amin)

amishair-root (of plant); rough hemp cord (PAN: *RamiS)

-anspecific location in time or space; specific one/type: kan-an 'eating place' (kan 'eat') (PAN: *-an)

a-nemawhat? what thing? (PAN: *nema)

a-nema-tsuwhat is this? (PAN: *nema)

apubetelnut quid (PAN: *apuR)

arilet's go! (PAN: *aRi)

ari ariyou go on ahead! (PAN: *aRi)

Paiwan (20 / 971)

asawleaf (PAN: *waSaw)

atukto boil (NOISE)

a-zuathat, those (PAN: *dua)

balatsukFormosan barbet: Megalaema oorti muchalis (PAN: *balalaCuk)

b-alʸ-akbakdrumming sound, as of many stones falling or tumbling, horse's hooves, drumming on table with hands (PAN: *bakbak₂)

b-alʸ-aŋbaŋhave sound as of rain falling on roof, or beating on tin can (PAN: *baŋbaŋ₆)

b-alʸ-ekbek(onom.) make intermittent sound, as three-wheeled truck, or chatter of gunfire in war (PAN: *bekbek₂)

b-ar-eŋbeŋmake buzzing noise, as bee or automobile engine (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂

beriq(onom.) make sound as of excreting when one has diarrhea; to squeak (PAN: *beriq)

biasroe, fish eggs, crab eggs (PAN: *biRaS)

biritssplit, tear (PAN: *biriC)

b-n-alʸitsremove tree bark or old thatch (PAN: *baNiC)

b-n-u-lʸa-lʸitsto skin an animal (PAN: *baNiC)

b-n-uresspew water (not sputum) from the mouth (PAN: *buReS)

b-n-utsaqput suds on something (PAN: *buCaq)

buexclamation of surprise (NOISE)

bua-buayflower (PAN: *buRay) Southern

bulʸuqthrow something with the object of hitting something else (PAN: *buNuq₂)

bureswater squirter of bamboo (child's toy) (PAN: *buReS)

butsaqfoam, lather, suds (PAN: *buCaq)

Paiwan (40 / 971)

clisaciissomething rubbed against (tree, where wild pig scratches) (NOISE)

cu-a-lʸivplace where there are many caves (or rock overhangs) (PAN: *Nihib)

ḍakescamphor laurel: CinnamomumJaponicum, Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS)

deruŋthunder (PAN: *deruŋ)

đikitjshort (PAN: *dikit)

dja-djalancompanion on road (PAN: *za-zalan) *zalan

djakutsgrab, take in hand (noncylindrical objects) (PAN: *dakuC)

djakutsgrab, take in hand (non-cylindrical object) (PAN: *za(ŋ)kuC)

djala-djalansmall path (PAN: *zalan-zalan) *zalan

djalanroad, trail, path (PAN: *zalan)

djalayapCitrus depressa (tree and fruit) (PAN: *dalayap)

djami-arice straw (PAN: *zaRami)

djamuqblood (PAN: *damuq)

djanawlake without outlets; estuary (PAN: *danaw) Western

djapalʸthigh (person); hind leg (animal) (PAN: *dapaN)

djaqmenstrual blood (PAN: *daRaq)

djaqisforehead (PAN: *daqiS)

djaumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

djeketsovercooked rice, used as paste (PAN: *dekeC)

djerenawdissolve, melt (listed under renaw) (ROOT)

Paiwan (60 / 971)

djilaqto lick (PAN: *dilaq₁)

djilʸaŋrust, corrosion (PAN: *diNaŋ)

dj<m>aumto use a needle (PAN: *zaRum)

dj<m>ilaqto lick (PAN: *d<um>ilaq) *dilaq₁

dj<m>ilʸaŋto cause to rust (PAN: *diNaŋ)

djuithorn (PAN: *duRi)

dukuŋa bend, crook (PAN: *du(ŋ)kuŋ)

ḍusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

eremto dye (PAN: *edem₂)

etaone (PAN: *esa)

g-alʸ-eritssound of ripping cloth or paper (PAN: *geriC)

gaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

garaŋpower, influence (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

garutsa comb (PAN: *garuC)

gatselto itch, be itchy (PAN: *gaCel)

gayaŋhunting spear with detachable harpoon-like barbed iron point (PAN: *gayaŋ)

g<em>etselto pinch (PAN: *geCel)

gəmgəmfist (PAN: *gemgem)

getselpincers (of crab) (PAN: *geCel)

Paiwan (80 / 971)

giriŋa growl (PAN: *giRiŋ)

giriŋa growl (NEAR)

g<m>arutsto comb (PAN: *g<um>aruC) *garuC

g<m>əmgəmgrasp object in hand (PAN: *gemgem)

g<m>iriŋto growl (NEAR)

g-m-urugur (medial -u- unexplained)to bark (dog's loud, ordinary bark) (PAN: *gurgur₁)

guŋguŋhave a banging noise (PAN: *guŋguŋ)

guritsto squeal (pig) (ROOT)

guritsasquid, octopus (PAN: *guRiCa) Southern

gutsgutsto weed a paddy field (PAN: *guCguC)

iinterjection of wonder or amazement (PAN: *i₁)

ibe at, be in (PAN: *i₂)

iappositional particle for personal names and pronouns (PAN: *i₃)

i ca i vukidon higher (rainy) slopes (PAN: *bukij)

i-gergertremble (PAN: *gerger₁)

ikutail (of animal, bird) (PAN: *ikuR)

i-likuzbehind (when stationary) (PAN: *likud)

imawho? (restricted use) (PAN: *ima)

(-)in-past tense; action has already begun or been done (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

inamother! (vocative) (PAN: *ina)

Paiwan (100 / 971)

in-alapsomething which has been taken; one's catch (hunting) (PAN: *in-alap) *alap

i-navalʸtoward the upper reaches of river (thus "south" if the river runs from south to north) (PAN: *wanaN)

ininot do something; no! (PAN: *ini)

inuwhere? (PAN: *inu)

inuwhere? (PAN: *i-nu) *-nu

isiqurine (PAN: *iSiq)

itaone (PAN: *isa₁)

ita-ŋathere is one left (PAN: *isa-ŋa) *isa₁

itjenwe, us, our (PAN: *iten)

itjuloquat, fruit of Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu)

i tsasawbe outdoors (PAN: *CaSaw)

i vavawupon (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

i-zayato be higher up (as on a mountain) (PAN: *daya)

i zuathere, over there (PAN: *dua)

i-zuathere is, there exists (PAN: *dua)

ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-sulem-an ‘be caught by darkness’ (cp.sulem ‘darkness, twilight’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-ki-tjalav-an ‘athletic field’ (cp. ki-tjala-tjalaw ‘fight over something; to contest’); ka-tsasav-an ‘courtyard in front of house’ (cp. tsasaw ‘outdoors, outside’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-vavaian-an ‘womanhood, femininity, value as a woman’ (cp. vavaian ‘woman, female person’ (PAN: *ka- -an₃) Western

ka-djalan-anmountain trail (PAN: *ka-zalan-an) *zalan

ka-gaŋ-anred crab sp. (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

Paiwan (120 / 971)

kailanguage, speech, words (PAN: *kaRi₁)

kakasibling, first cousin; term of address for siblings or cousins of either sex (or for any young man of Ego’s generation, whether kin or not) (PAN: *kaka₂)

ka-kan-andining room (PAN: *ka-kaen-an) *kaen

ka-kudá-ncustom, law (PAN: *kuja)

kala-kalawbird sp. (PAN: *kalaw)

ka-ledepwest, west wind (PAN: *ledep)

kalia hole that has been dug (PAN: *kalih)

kaliduŋuduŋulʸbutterfly (PAN: *kali-)

k-al-iŋkiŋhave a ringing sound (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

kalʸa-qudjalʸ-anrainy season (PAN: *quzaN)

kalyedjipto blink (PAN: *kedip)

k-alʸ-eŋkeŋhave ringing in the ears (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

k<alʸ>uskus-anfingernail, toenail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁

kamayamango: Diospyros discolor (PAN: *kamaya) Western

kanto eat (PAN: *kaen)

ka na i-kaif not ... then (PAN: *ka₂)

kan-anplace where one eats (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

ka-navalʸright (hand, side, direction) (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kan-enfood (PAN: *-en)

kan-enfood (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

Paiwan (140 / 971)

kan-ilet’s eat! (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

ka-ŋidawhen (past)? (PAN: *ka-₁)

kaŋkaŋa plow (Min?) (LOAN)

ka-pitju-ana July typhoon (very destructive) (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

k<ar>a-kalito dig everywhere, dig indiscriminately (PAN: *kalih)

k<ar>a-kudawork, labor (LOAN)

k<ar>iskisto make noise by scraping fingernail on blackboard (PAN: *kiSkiS)

k<ar>uskusto have sound of scraping (PAN: *k<ar>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₂

karutrake (PAN: *kaRus)

karutrake (PAN: *karut₁)

ka-sawniearlier today; a little while ago (today) (PAN: *Sauni)

ka-si-to originate from, come from (PAN: *Si-₂)

kasi-kasiv-enforest (PAN: *kaSiw-en) *kaSiw

kasi-kasiwwoodlands (as opposed to grasslands; emphasis on land use) (PAN: *kaSi-kaSiw) *kaSiw

kasiwtree, wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

ka-tiawyesterday (PAN: *ka-₁)

katsbite (PAN: *kaRaC)

ka-tsasav-ancourtyard (in front of house) (PAN: *ka-CaSaw-an) *CaSaw

ka-tsau-anthe world (of living beings); what is actual, existent, not dead (PAN: *ka-Cau-an) *Cau

katsucarry (PAN: *kaCu)

Paiwan (160 / 971)

kausscoop-net (for fishing or catching butterflies) (PAN: *kahuS)

kausscoop net (for fishing or catching butterflies) (PAN: *kauS)

kavaclothing (PAN: *kabaR)

kavasnake slough (PAN: *kabaR) Western

kavayanthorny bamboo (Ho 1978:609) (PAN: *kawayan)

ka-virileft (hand) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁) Western

ka-zatja-nlevel land, plain (PAN: *ka-dataR-an) *dataR

ka-zatja-zatjato be level (PAN: *dataR)

keḍibe small, little, few (PAN: *kedi)

keḍibe small; little, few (NEAR)

kedjipeyelash (PAN: *kedip)

keretreap with a small knife (PAN: *keRet)

keretjreap with a small knife (PAN: *keret)

ki-to get, obtain a thing (vaqu ‘millet’, ki-vaqu ‘to get or harvest millet’, paisu ‘money’, ki-paisu ‘to get or seek money’) (PAN: *ki-)

ki-alap(bride) go to groom's house (PAN: *alap)

kiawbullfrog (PAN: *kiaw)

ki-djilaqto lick oneself (as a cat) (PAN: *dilaq₁)

ki-getselto pinch oneself (PAN: *geCel)

ki-kasiwto gather or cut wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

Paiwan (180 / 971)

ki-likuzto slip away by back way (PAN: *likud)

ki-lʸatseŋto pick plants for vegetables; to buy vegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

kimsearch for (PAN: *kiRim)

k<in>ali-anplace where a hole has been dug (PAN: *k<in>alih-an) *kalih

k<in>a-tsau-tsau-ancharacter; humanity; body (PAN: *k<in>a-Cau-an) *Cau

k<in>atsusomething which has been carried (PAN: *k<in>aCu) *kaCu

ki-nemnemthink, cogitate, pay close attention to (PAN: *nemnem)

ki-paizto fan oneself, to have oneself fanned (PAN: *paid)

ki-pa-talawto sit under falling water (PAN: *salaw)

ki-pa-va-vaibeg (PAN: *beRay)

ki-piliqbe “choosy,” pick out best bits (PAN: *piliq)

ki-qilusclean oneself after excreting (PAN: *qiluS)

ki-quluto headhunt, take heads (PAN: *quluh)

ki-sevalʸask to be carried on someone's back; copulate (animals) (PAN: *SebaN)

ki-suayto pass time idly (PAN: *SuRay)

ki-sulidshare someone's bed (PAN: *Sulij)

ki-suputo read (PAN: *SipuR)

ki-tja-vililʸto follow after (PAN: *biliN)

ki-tjukezto rest one’s head or arm on something (PAN: *tuked)

ki-tsaqu-anto practice, learn skill (PAN: *Caqu)

Paiwan (200 / 971)

ki-tsevuŋgo to meet someone; to fete someone returning home (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

kitsiŋwrist joint (PAN: *kiCiŋ)

ki-tsulʸuburn oneself; join in a sacrificial feast (PAN: *ki-CuNuh) *CuNuh

ki-vadaqinquire, request (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

ki-vutubecome the enemy of (PAN: *busuR₁)

k<m>alito dig a hole (PAN: *k<um>ali) *kalih

k<m>anto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

k<m>aŋkaŋto plow (LOAN)

k<m>asiwto use wood; put boards on (PAN: *k<um>aSiw) *kaSiw

k<m>atsto bite (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

k<m>atsuto carry (PAN: *k<um>aCu) *kaCu

k<m>austo use a scoop-net; to ‘fish’ out meat from soup with a spoon (PAN: *k<um>auS) *kauS

k<m>avato put on or wear clothing (PAN: *kabaR)

k<m>a-zatja-nto level ground (PAN: *ka-dataR-an) *dataR

k<m>eretjreap with a small knife (hemp or any other plant) (PAN: *k<um>eRet) *keRet

k<m>imto search for (PAN: *k<um>iRim) *kiRim

k<m>udawhy? to do what? what is wrong? (PAN: *k<um>uja) *kuja

k<m>uskusto scratch, scrape; remove hair from pig with bamboo knife (PAN: *k<um>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₂

k<m>utsuto delouse (PAN: *k<um>uCu) *kuCux

k<m>uyato damage (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

Paiwan (220 / 971)

ku-I, my (PAN: *-ku)

kuaucrow, kite (bird) (PAN: *kuaw)

ku-kakamy younger siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂) Western

kukuŋtype of tiny bird with loud call of "kung", "kung", "kung" (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

kukuŋtiny bird sp. (call is loud “kung” “kung” “kung”) (PAN: *kukuŋ₁)

ku-lava-lavav-enlarge number of rats (be overrun by rats?) (PAN: *labaw₁)

ku-lavawrat, mouse (PAN: *labaw₁)

kulʸkulʸsmall bird sp. (PAN: *kuNkuN)

kura-kurapwhite, soft tree fungus (PAN: *kurap)

kurapscabies, scaly skin disease (PAN: *kurap)

kurisitching sores which leave dark spots on body (PAN: *kuris₁)

kuskusa scraper (PAN: *kuSkuS₂)

kutjivulva (PAN: *kuti)

kutsulouse (of head) (PAN: *kuCux)

kuyadefect; rip, tear (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

kuzkuz-anheel (PAN: *kudkud)

la-deŋa ~ la-ŋedato hear (PAN: *deŋeR)

lakupa covering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree) (PAN: *lakup)

lakupcovering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree) (ROOT)

la-lapita bat (animal; Western dialect) (PAN: *lapis)

Paiwan (240 / 971)

la-layaa flag, banner (PAN: *layaR)

la-likegnat, midge (PAN: *likeS)

lamlamprecipitate, impetuous (PAN: *lamlam₁)

laŋaw ~ la-laŋawa fly (insect) (PAN: *laŋaw)

ɬaŋuyto swim; to immerse one’s body in water (as to bathe) (PAN: *Naŋuy)

laplaploose skin on baby after birth (PAN: *laplap)

lauzseaward, downslope, toward lower reaches of river (PAN: *lahud)

lavaflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

ɬawɬawoil, oil lamp (NOISE)

layapto fly (PAN: *layap)

ledepdive, plunge (PAN: *lezep)

ledepto dive, plunge (PAN: *ledep)

liku-likuzthe back of the skull (PAN: *liku-likud) *likud

liku-likuz-anthe backmost (PAN: *liku-likud-an) *likud Western

likuzbehind, in back of (PAN: *likud)

lilʸuŋbe non-moving, collected (water) (PAN: *liNuŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lipetja hem (PAN: *lipet)

liqeneck (PAN: *liqeR) Western

liquneck, throat (in some dialects = ‘neck of animals only’) (PAN: *liqeR)

Paiwan (260 / 971)

liseqesnit, louse-egg (PAN: *liseqeS)

litjlitja rope, cord (PAN: *litlit)

l<m>akupto cover over (as with roof-shaped cover); to twine around (as vine) (PAN: *lakup)

ɬ<m>aŋuyto swim, bathe (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

l<m>edepto dive (as into water) (PAN: *l<um>edep) *ledep

ƚ<m>e-ḍusato do two things (Western dialect) (PAN: *duSa)

l<m>itjlitjto wind something round and round with cord (PAN: *litlit)

l-m-upasspit something out (PAN: *lupaS)

l<m>uvaŋto place in a pit (PAN: *l<um>ubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

ludjaqspittle (especially of betel nut) (PAN: *ludaq)

lukutsparasitic long-leafed plant with edible fruit -- grows on trees: Asplenium nidus (PAN: *lukuC)

lumripe (PAN: *luem)

l<um>udjaqto spit (especially when chewing betel nut) (PAN: *l<um>udaq) *ludaq

lupassomething (solid) which is spat out (PAN: *lupaS)

ƚusepitthin (as paper), thin, as person (ROOT) Western

luseqtears (PAN: *luSeq)

lutjukrabbit, hare (PAN: *lutuk₁)

luvaŋa grave, grave-pit; a covered pit trap (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Western

lʸa-lʸaqedi-anboundary between fields (PAN: *Naqeji) Southern

lʸatseŋvegetables, non-staple vegetal foods (cultigens or wild) (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

Paiwan (280 / 971)

lʸa-vaŋasthistle plant, Bidens pilosa (PAN: *baŋaS)

lʸaveksea, ocean (PAN: *Nabek)

lʸa-vela-velaqa tree: Cyperus cyperinus (NOISE)

lʸe-lauzto go downhill (PAN: *lahud)

lʸ-em-eŋlʸeŋto see (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

lʸeŋlook at (PAN: *Neŋ)

lʸia-zaya(go) high upland (PAN: *daya)

lʸimatjekmountain leech (PAN: *qaNi-matek) *-matek

lʸitjeqsap (PAN: *Niteq)

lʸivcavern, cave, den (PAN: *Nihib)

lʸivshelter under overhanging rock (PAN: *Nihib) Western

lʸivuden or nest of rat or wild pig (PAN: *Nibu)

lʸ<m>a-inito refuse, say “no” (Western dialect) (PAN: *ini)

lʸ<m>atseŋto prepare vegetable foods (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

lʸ-m-atuto boil (meat) (PAN: *Nasu)

lʸuaŋcattle (PAN: *qaNuaŋ)

lʸupetjplug, stopper (ROOT)

lʸuqesbone marrow (PAN: *NuqeS)

-m-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>) *-um-

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

Paiwan (300 / 971)

ma-alapbe taken; able to be reached; become convinced, have mind changed; be enticed, led astray (PAN: *ma-alap) *alap

ma-alimbe forgotten; be caused to forget (PAN: *alim)

ma-alʸakbe disturbed by (too many) children (PAN: *ma-anak) *aNak

ma-buressprayed or spewed upon (PAN: *buReS)

ma-butsaqfoam-covered (PAN: *buCaq)

ma-djaqto menstruate (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

ma-djilaqbe licked (PAN: *dilaq₁)

ma-djilʸaŋbecome rusty (PAN: *diNaŋ)

ma-garaŋbe angry; to scold, upbraid (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

ma-getselto be pinched (PAN: *geCel)

ma-ita itaone by one, one after the other (PAN: *isa isa) *isa₁

ma-kaliearth to be dug or disturbed (PAN: *kalih)

maka-lima-lʸfive (days, times) (PAN: *maka-lima) *lima

ma-kánbe eaten (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

maka-nem-elʸsix times (days, occasions) (PAN: *maka-enem) *enem

maka-pida-lʸhow many days? (PAN: *maka-pija) *pijax

maka-sim-atj-elʸfour times (PAN: *maka-Sepat) *Sepat

ma-ka-tjelu-lʸthree (times, days, occasions) (PAN: *telu)

ma-katsbe(come) bitten (PAN: *ma-kaRaC) *kaRaC

maka-walu-lʸeight (times, days) (PAN: *maka-walu) *walu

Paiwan (320 / 971)

ma-kudahow is it? what’s happening? (PAN: *ma-kuja) *kuja

ma-kuda-kudahow much? (PAN: *kuja) Western

ma-kurapto have scabies (PAN: *kurap)

ma-kuristo have kuris (PAN: *kuris₁)

ma-kutsuto be deloused (PAN: *ma-kuCu) *kuCux

ma-ledepsunset (PAN: *ledep)

maɬe-sivanine (persons) (PAN: *Siwa)

m-alimforget (object/person) (PAN: *alim)

ma-litjlitjbe(come) wound with cord (PAN: *ma-litlit) *litlit

ma-lupasbe spat upon (PAN: *lupaS)

ma-lʸatubecome boiled (meat) (PAN: *Nasu)

malʸe-kuyain disorder, broken; bad weather (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

ma-ma-tsaqu-anto be very skilled (PAN: *ma-Caqu) *Caqu

ma-ŋiluto have teeth on edge (as from sour pineapple); to ache, sting (PAN: *ma-ŋilu) *ŋilu

ma-pa-dja-djeketsto press two things together (as one’s hands) (PAN: *dekeC)

mapa-tja-ḍusadivided into two groups (Western dialect) (PAN: *duSa)

ma-pa-tsa-tsugtsugto bump together (as two persons’ heads) (PAN: *CugCug₂)

ma-peteqbecome broken (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

ma-pidahow many persons? (PAN: *pijax)

ma-pilʸaylame, crippled (PAN: *ma-piNay) *piNay

Paiwan (340 / 971)

ma-pu-kuyaritually impure (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

ma-qadawthe sun appears; be burned by sun (PAN: *ma-qajaw) *qajaw

maqawan alder, Alnus japonica (PAN: *maqaw)

ma-qemubecome pulverized (PAN: *qemu)

ma-qipiŋhave one's head inclined to one side (PAN: *qipiŋ)

ma-qudjalʸbe rained upon (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

ma-qusawbe thirsty (PAN: *ma-quSaw) *quSaw

mare-alʸakparent and child (PAN: *maRe-anak) *aNak

mare-ka-alʸakchildren of the same parents (PAN: *maRe-anak) *aNak

ma-reŋetsjealous (PAN: *reŋeC)

ma-reŋetsjealous (PAN: *ReŋeC)

m-ariask someone to accompany oneself (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

maru-vilʸuaqPawlonia fortunei tree sp.: Homalanthus; forest tree with green fruit: Macaranga tanarius Linn.; tree with greenish flower and very sticky sap used as paste: Hernandia ovigera Linn. tree sp. (NOISE)

ma-sakutsbe moved (PAN: *SakuC)

ma-semutjto be smothered (PAN: *Semut)

ma-sepatjfour (persons) (PAN: *ma-Sepat) *Sepat

ma-siaqshy, polite, embarrassed (PAN: *ma-Seyaq) *Seyaq

ma-sulendarkness falls; to be twilight (PAN: *ma-Sulem) *Sulem

ma-sulidsleep together (PAN: *Sulij)

ma-susuqenter a small hole or crack (PAN: *SuSuq)

Paiwan (360 / 971)

ma-susuqenter a small hole and fall; to leak down (PAN: *SuSuq) Western

ma-tja-kaito take one’s turn speaking (PAN: *kaRi₁)

ma-tjalawto be angry (PAN: *talaw)

ma-tja-tja-vililʸgoing along in file (PAN: *biliN) Western

ma-tja-tjeŋtjeŋto whisper together (two persons) (NEAR)

ma-tjeluthree persons (PAN: *ma-telu) *telu

ma-tjelʸevto flood (ROOT)

ma-tjuqtjuqbe hammered, crushed (PAN: *tuqtuq)

matsaeye (PAN: *maCa)

ma-tsabtsabbe beaten repeatedly with open hand (person, wall, etc.) (PAN: *CabCab)

ma-tsakawbe or become stolen (PAN: *ma-Cakaw) *Cakaw

ma-tsaquto be able to; capable, skilled, knowledgeable (PAN: *ma-Caqu) *Caqu

ma-tsevulʸbothered by smoke, smoke-filled (PAN: *CebuN)

ma-tsugtsugbe hit (as on the head) by something (PAN: *CugCug₁)

ma-tsugtsugto be hit (as on head) by something (PAN: *CugCug₂)

ma-tsulʸuto be hot (PAN: *ma-CuNuh) *CuNuh

ma-ulawevade, get out of sight; lose way (PAN: *ma-ulaw) *ulaw

ma-vakaŋto walk bowlegged or with feet splayed outwards (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

ma-valiwind-blown (PAN: *ma-bali₁) *bali₃

ma-vanawtake a bath (PAN: *ma-bañaw) *bañaw

Paiwan (380 / 971)

ma-vekutsbe bent down (as by over-heavy burden, or pressure) (PAN: *bekuC)

ma-velaqbe(come) split (PAN: *ma-belaq) *belaq

ma-velʸutsbe pulled out (grass) (PAN: *beNuC)

ma-vetusatiated, to have eaten one's fill (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

ma-vukrotten (of meat); leprous; dead (conscience) (PMP: *ma-buRuk) *buRuk

ma-vutsahave bad eyesight (PAN: *ma-buCa) *buCa

ma-vutube at enmity (PAN: *busuR₁)

me-gatselbegin to itch (PAN: *gaCel)

me-lawawide (PAN: *lawa₁)

me-ŋiluto cause to smart (PAN: *ŋilu)

mere-ka-kan-enlarge edible thing (as sweet potato); (metaphorically) penis (“eaten” by vagina) (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

me-suawto yawn (PAN: *ma-Suaw) *Suaw

me-tsevuŋto meet (as two persons, or two ends of necklace) (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

mi-kedutsto jump from shock or sudden pain (PAN: *kezuC)

m<in>atsaopen-eyed (PAN: *m<in>aCa) *maCa

mi-sepito dream (PAN: *Sepi)

mudiŋ-anface (a person’s) (PAN: *mujiŋ-an) *mujiŋ

mu-laviqto overflow (PAN: *labiq)

m-ulawlose sight of (PAN: *ulaw)

m-umalʸdo again (PAN: *umaN)

Paiwan (400 / 971)

m-utjaqto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

nagenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *na₃)

na-kuyabad, defective, dangerous (as a person) (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

na-kuya-ndisability (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya Western

na ma-vutsablind (PAN: *ma-buCa) *buCa

na ma-zatjato be level (PAN: *dataR)

na-nema-nema-ŋaeverything, all sorts of things (PAN: *nema)

-navalʸright (-hand), on the right (PAN: *wanaN)

nema-ŋaa thing (PAN: *nema)

niof, by, belonging to (with personal name) (PAN: *ni)

n-ima ~ ni-imawhose? (PAN: *ni-ima) *ima

ni-tjenours (incl.) (PAN: *iten₃) *ita₁

nuif, when (in future) (PAN: *nu₁)

nu-ŋidawhen (future)? (PAN: *ka-₁)

nu-sawniin a little while, later today (PAN: *Sauni)

nu-si-ka-tjeluday after tomorrow (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

nu-tiawtomorrow (PAN: *ka-₁)

nu-tiawtomorrow (cp. ka-tiaw ‘yesterday’) (PAN: *nu-)

ŋadána name (PAN: *ŋajan)

ŋadjaysaliva, drivel (PAN: *ŋajay)

Paiwan (420 / 971)

ŋ<al>asŋasto pant (NOISE)

ŋilupain, tartness (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋisŋisbeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS)

ŋusulʸblood from the nose; nosebleed (PAN: *ŋuSuN)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

padayrice (plant, grain): Oryza sativa (PAN: *pajay)

pa-djeketsto paste (PAN: *pa-dekeC) *dekeC

pa-djuluprepare something in advance (PAN: *zulu)

pa-gəmgəmcrush or grasp forcefully in hand (PAN: *gemgem)

pa-geritsto scream (in fright) (PAN: *geriC)

paka-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

paka-ḍusasecond wife (PAN: *paka-duSa) *duSa Western

pa-kánto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-katsucause something to be carried (PAN: *pa-kaCu) *kaCu

paka-ulawfail to recognize (someone whom one knows) (PAN: *ulaw)

pa-kavato clothe (PAN: *kabaR)

pa-ki-tsaqu-anto cause to learn skill (PAN: *Caqu)

pa-ɬaŋuyto cause swimming or immersion (PAN: *Naŋuy)

pa-li-gəmgəmto make a fist (PAN: *gemgem)

pa-likuzto look back (PAN: *pa-likud) *likud

Paiwan (440 / 971)

pa-likuzto turn one’s back to (PAN: *pa-likud) *likud Western

palisirite, ceremony; tabu; "superstition" (PAN: *paliSi)

palisi-anprivate parts of human body (PAN: *paliSi)

pa-litjlitjto cause something to be wound round with cord (PAN: *pa-litlit) *litlit

p<aɬ>ukpukto throb, pulsate (as heart) (PAN: *pukpuk)

palʸiŋdoor (PAN: *paNiŋ)

panbait (for fishhook or trap) (PAN: *paen)

panaqarrow (PAN: *panaq)

paŋudalʸpandanus; pineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus var. sinensis (PAN: *paŋudaN)

pa-pa-piliqto sort out, divide (PAN: *piliq)

pa-pe-qetseŋelto blacken (PAN: *qeCeŋeN)

pa-pu-laviqto fill something to overflowing (PAN: *labiq)

pa-puzuɬ-ana spool (PAN: *puduN)

pa-qadawput in the sun (to dry); use a burning-glass (PAN: *qajaw)

pa-qetjutjto break wind (PAN: *pa-qetut) *qetut

pa-qudjalʸcause rain, give rain to (PAN: *pa-quzaN) *quzaN

pa-qulʸato make light (ROOT)

pa-qulʸa-qulʸatorch (ROOT)

pa-quzipraise an animal (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

pariukwok, large, round-bottomed metal pan for cooking (PAN: *pariuk)

Paiwan (460 / 971)

pa-sakutscause things to be moved (PAN: *SakuC)

pa-sakuts-anplace to which things will be moved (PAN: *SakuC)

pa-sapitjput between others (as papers); put in a book (PAN: *Sapit)

pa-satjezcause something to be returned (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD

pa-sedjamto lend, loan (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

pa-sedjamto lend, loan (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

pa-sekezto cause to stop (as automobile); to cause to rest (PAN: *Seked) Western

pa-suayto postpone; procrastinate (PAN: *SuRay)

pa-talawput out a container in order to catch falling water (PAN: *salaw)

patsaknewly born calf or deer (PAN: *paCak)

pa-tsegtsegnail something onto something else (PAN: *CegCeg)

pa-tututo suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁ Western

pa-utjaqcause vomiting (PAN: *pa-utaq) *utaq

pa-vaito give (PAN: *pa-beRay) *beRay

pa-vunavunto plant seedlings (PAN: *bunabun)

pa-zalʸumto irrigate (PAN: *pa-daNum) *daNum

pe-djamuqbleed (PAN: *damuq)

pe-luseqto shed tears (PAN: *luSeq)

pe-ŋadjayto salivate, slobber, drool (PAN: *ŋajay)

pe-ŋusulʸhave a nosebleed (PAN: *ŋuSuN)

Paiwan (480 / 971)

pe-quḍasto become white-haired (PAN: *qudaS)

peteqa break, split (in glass, pottery) (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

petsiksnap the fingers (PAN: *peCik)

pi-causative of location; pi-vavaw ‘put on top’, pi-taladj ‘put something inside’ (PAN: *pi-)

piaḍplate, dish (PAN: *piad) Southern

pidahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pikuelbow (PAN: *piku)

pi-natukto boil (PAN: *nasuk)

pitjuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

piukdimple; dent in something soft (PAN: *piuk)

pi-zu ato put there (PAN: *dua)

p<n>aizto fan something (PAN: *paid)

p<n>anaqto shoot, using bow and arrow (PAN: *p<in>anaq) *panaq

p<n>e-ḍusato split into two (PAN: *duSa)

p<n>e-tseviqdivide something; break in pieces (PAN: *Cebiq)

p<n>iliqto choose, sort out (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

p<n>uzuɬto spin a cocoon; to wrap cord around something (PAN: *puduN)

pu-prefix marking the causative of motion verbs; pu-zaLum ‘put water on or in’, pu-tsaqi ‘to defecate’ (PAN: *pu-)

pu-amincomplete, terminate, leave (PAN: *amin)

pu-amin a t<m>ututo wean (amin = finished) (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

Paiwan (500 / 971)

pudeknavel; umbilical cord (PAN: *pujek)

pu-djalanto have a road; make a road (PAN: *zalan)

pu-garaŋbe vigorous, (back) in good health (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

pu-kasi-kasiv-anplace for storing firewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

pu-la-layato raise a flag, fly a banner (PAN: *layaR)

puluhandle (as of a hoe) (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

puluqgroup of ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

pu-luvaŋ-ancemetery (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Western

pu-matsato have good eyesight (PAN: *maCa)

punaypigeon, dove (PAN: *punay)

punuqbrain; (in Western dialect: bone marrow) (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

pu-ŋadánto have a name (PAN: *pu-ŋajan) *ŋajan

p-uŋay-anmonkey’s lair (PAN: *uŋay)

pu-panto bait a hook or trap (PAN: *paen)

pu-savikiengaged to be married, betrothed (Western dialect) (PAN: *Sawiki)

pu-tjezaleave over, save (esp. food) (PAN: *teda)

putsaqfoam (W) (PAN: *puCaq)

pu-tsaqito defecate (PAN: *pu-Caqi) *Caqi

pu-tsemeltreat with medicine; a doctor (PAN: *Cemel)

pu-zalʸumto put water in or on (PAN: *pu-daNum) *daNum

Paiwan (520 / 971)

puzuɬcocoon; spool; stick on which cord is wound (PAN: *puduN)

qacaŋpigpen (NOISE)

qadawsun; day; clock, watch (PAN: *qajaw)

qaḍislarge white hawk, Eastern marsh harrier: Circus aeruginosus spilonotus (PAN: *qadiS)

qalifriend (when both friends are male) (NEAR)

qalʸaenemy, stranger (PAN: *qaNa)

qalʸa-qalʸaoutsiders, guests from other villages (PAN: *qaNa)

qalʸi-anspindle and whorl (for weaving) (PAN: *qaNi)

qalʸitsskin, pod, shell (PAN: *qaNiC)

qalʸudjto lose, throw away (PAN: *qañud)

qalʸupto hunt (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

qampangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

qamisnorth (PAN: *qamiS) Northeastern

qanivuŋPhoenix hanceana var. formosana (bush and fruit) (PAN: *qanibuŋ)

qaŋelitsbe scorched (rice or millet) (PAN: *qaŋeliC)

qaŋeruodor of rotted crab (PAN: *qaŋeRu)

qapedugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapejux)

qapizsomething braided in six strands (as jewelry) (PAN: *qapid)

qa-qalʸup-anhunting territory (PAN: *qaNup-an) *qaNup

qa-qalʸup-enwild game (object of hunting) (PAN: *qaNup-en) *qaNup

Paiwan (540 / 971)

qa-qelʸev-anprison (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

qarizaŋstring beans (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

qaselupestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

qatiasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

qatsayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

qaubamboo (generic) (PAN: *qauR)

qauŋto weep; grief, sorrow (PAN: *qauŋ)

qava-nshoulder (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

qavasa blaze (mark cut on tree to show ownership) (PAN: *qabaS)

qavuashes; betel lime (PAN: *qabu)

qavu-qavu-anstove, three-stone fireplace for cooking (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu

qavuvuŋheart (physical organ) (NEAR)

qawqawshout loudly (PAN: *qawqaw)

qayamomen bird (PAN: *qayam₁)

qeletsa joint in bamboo (PAN: *qeleC)

qeluzmain house pillar (which supports ridge pole) (PAN: *qelud)

qelʸevdiaphragm (anat.) (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

qelʸuanimal trail, small path made by animals (PAN: *qeNuR)

qemqemhave mouth full; to muzzle (PAN: *qemqem)

qemusomething that has been beaten in a mortar, as millet into flour (PAN: *qemu)

Paiwan (560 / 971)

qesir(onom.) have a deadened sound (as bells falling to the ground) (PAN: *qesir)

qesirto have a deadened sound (as if bells fell to the ground) (ROOT)

qetepto swallow liquid while masticating something solid (as sugarcane) (PAN: *qesep)

qetjutjfart, flatulence (PAN: *qetut)

qetseŋbarrier, fence, enclosure; a "no entry" sign to humans or evil spirits (e.g. a stick left in certain position in front of house) (PAN: *qeCeŋ)

qetseŋelblack (PAN: *qeCeŋeN)

qetsiluegg (of bird, snake) (PAN: *qiCeluR)

qevutjextinguish a fire (NOISE)

qezetja weight, pressure from above (PAN: *qedet)

qiawfrog (PAN: *qiaw)

qilusbits of faeces left around anus (PAN: *qiluS)

qilʸasmoon, month (PAN: *qiNaS)

qilʸas-anmoonlight (PAN: *qiNaS)

q<in>alʸá-nvillage (PAN: *qaNa)

q-in-am-anpangolin's hole or den (PAN: *qaRem)

q-in-atia-nsomething which has been salted (PAN: *qasiRa-en) *qasiRa

q<in>emuflour (PAN: *qemu)

q-in-uma-ncrops (PAN: *q<in>umah) *qumah

qisushark (PAN: *qiSu)

qiuŋsound of a pig squealing (PAN: *qiuŋ₁) *qiuŋ

Paiwan (580 / 971)

q-m-adawthe sun shines (PAN: *q<um>ajaw) *qajaw

q-m-alitsto skin (animal) (PAN: *q<um>aNiC) *qaNiC

q<m>alʸa-qalʸato entertain guests (PAN: *qaNa) Western

q-m-alʸupto hunt (wild game) (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup

q-m-elʸevto shut something (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

q-m-etepto "eat" the liquid portion of something (as sugarcane) (PAN: *q<um>esep) *qesep

q-m-etjutjto break wind (PAN: *q<um>etut) *qetut

q-m-ezetjpress down (as a lid); to oppress (people) (PAN: *qedet)

q-m-ilusclean a child after bowel movement (PAN: *qiluS)

q-m-ipiŋincline one's head to one side (PAN: *qipiŋ)

q-m-udjalʸto rain (PAN: *q<um>uzaN) *quzaN

q-m-uzi-quzipanimal (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

quayrattan: Calamus margaritae (PAN: *quay)

quḍaswhite hair (PAN: *qudaS)

qudjalʸrain (PAN: *quzaN)

(quLi)-mezawdizziness, “seeing stars” (PAN: *-medaw)

quluhead (PAN: *quluh)

qulu-quluhead end (as of bed) (PAN: *qulu qulu) *quluh

qumacultivated field (PAN: *qumah)

qumuwater held in the mouth (not saliva) (PAN: *qumuR)

Paiwan (600 / 971)

quŋtsuytobacco-pipe (Min) (LOAN)

qupuŋa swarm of honeybees (PAN: *qupuŋ)

quriawnoise of many people shouting loudly (PAN: *quriaw)

qusav-anthirst (PAN: *quSaw-an) *quSaw

qusawthirst (PAN: *quSaw)

qutsa-qutsalʸfallow land, land formerly used for cultivation but now reverted to wilderness (PAN: *quCaN)

quvalʸhair of head; animal's hair (PAN: *qubaN)

quvispubic hair, axillary hair (PAN: *qubiS)

quzaŋshrimp, lobster (PAN: *qudaŋ)

quze-quzemdull (PAN: *qudem)

r<m>a-kudá-nwhen? at what time (to go somewhere)? (PAN: *kuja)

r-m-autsto split wood (PAN: *rauC) Western

r-m-awrawto rinse (clothing) (PAN: *rawraw)

ru-kai-kaito chatter, be a chatterbox (PAN: *kaRi₁)

ruvua nest (PAN: *Rubu) Tjuabu

ruvu-ruvunest; prison (PAN: *Rubu) Western

saclause-linking particle: and, and then (PAN: *Sa₁)

sakutsroute over which things are moved (PAN: *SakuC)

sa-kuyabad-tasting (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

s-alimbusy, preoccupied (PAN: *alim)

Paiwan (620 / 971)

samaqan herb: Lactuca indica (PAN: *Samaq)

sametsia plant: Solanum nigrum (PAN: *SameCi)

sanaqotter (PAN: *Sanaq)

sapediqbe tender-footed; feet hurt (cited as sa-pediq) (PAN: *Sapejiq)

sapitjbook (PAN: *Sapit)

sapuya fire; artificial light (PAN: *Sapuy)

sa-sayalʸtermite (PAN: *SayaN)

sa-sekez-ana resting place beside a trail (PAN: *Seked)

sa-sipetjworm sp. found in millet beer (NOISE)

sa-surur-anpulley (PAN: *SuluR)

satjezreturn something; object which is being returned (PAN: *SateD)

savatspiles of firewood (NOISE)

savidthings without exception, identical (as children born at the same time and all of same sex) (PAN: *Sabij)

savikiAreca catechu (tree and nut) (PAN: *Sawiki)

sawnia short while (PAN: *Sauni)

sa-zua-indestination (PAN: *dua) Western

sedjamsomething borrowed (PAN: *Sezam)

se-djeketsto adhere to, stick (PAN: *dekeC)

selemthe dark, the World of the Dead (ROOT)

selutstie in a knot (NOISE)

Paiwan (640 / 971)

sematongue (PAN: *Sema)

s<em>enaysing (LOAN)

semutjsmothering, choking (PAN: *Semut)

se-nemabelonging to what place (village, nation)? (PAN: *nema)

seŋatsone who characteristically dislikes things (ROOT)

se-pa-lyatuto be boiled accidentally along with meat (PAN: *Nasu)

sepatjfour (PAN: *Sepat)

sepidream (ROOT)

se-qalʸato be shy (PAN: *qaNa) Western

se-qalʸudjbe lost (object); die (person); be carried away by current (PAN: *qañud)

setimeat (PAN: *Sesi)

se-tsugtsugto bump one’s head against something (PAN: *CugCug₂)

sevalʸcarry someone on the back (PAN: *SebaN)

sevusto hiss (as water on fire) (PAN: *sebuS)

sevutsremove grain stalks from field after harvest (PAN: *SebuC)

si-be the instrument or cause of (PAN: *Si-₁)

sibelonging to a certain time in the past (NOISE)

siaqshyness, embarrassment (PAN: *Seyaq)

si-ka-prefix for ordinal numbers (PAN: *Sika-)

sika-ḍusasecond (PAN: *Sika-duSa) *duSa

Paiwan (660 / 971)

sika-limafifth (ordinal numeral) (PAN: *Sika-lima) *lima

si-káneating implement; reason for eating (PAN: *Si-kaen) *kaen

sika-puluqthe tenth (PAN: *Sika-puluq) *puluq

si-ka-ta-qalʸá-none’s own villagers (PAN: *qaNa)

si-ka-tjeluthird (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

simaraw animal fat (after cooking or rendering into oil it is qalev) (PAN: *SimaR)

s-in-evalʸsomeone carried on someone else's back (PAN: *S<in>ebaN) *SebaN

siŋusto sniff (PAN: *Siŋus)

si-paiz-ana fan (PAN: *paid)

si-qelʸev-anwindow, sliding door (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

sisilʸGould’s Quaker-Thrush, Alcippe brunnea brunnea Gould; an important omen bird. Flying from right to left means taboo; heard with tjiḍir [small brown omen bird] it means ‘you will eat pork’. (PAN: *SiSiN) Western

si-tiav-anyesterday (NOISE)

siupsuck in air (PAN: *Seyup)

sivanine (PAN: *Siwa)

si-vetsikwriting or drawing implement (PAN: *beCik)

sizinative wild goat, the Formosan serow: Capricornis crispus swinhoei Gray (PAN: *Sidi)

s-m-akutsmove objects from one place to another; move objects over same route more than one trip (PAN: *SakuC)

s-m-apaspread out (on ground); put pad of leaves between burden and one's back (PAN: *SapaR)

s-m-apaspread out (on ground); put pad of leaves between burden and one's back (PAN: *S<um>apaR) *SapaR

s-m-apitjput in a pile (papers, etc.) (PAN: *Sapit)

Paiwan (680 / 971)

s-m-apuycarry a torch or light (PAN: *S<um>apuy) *Sapuy

s-m-atjezreturn something; send off a visitor (PAN: *S<um>ateD) *SateD

s<m>a-zuago there (PAN: *dua)

s<m>ekezto stop, rest (PAN: *Seked)

s<m>emastick out the tongue (Western dialect) (PAN: *Sema)

s<m>emutjto smother someone (PAN: *Semut)

s<m>uayto pass (as time passes) (PAN: *SuRay)

s<m>u-kasiwto remove branches (as when tree is too large to be felled) (PAN: *kaSiw)

s<m>u-kavato take off clothes (PAN: *kabaR)

s<m>u-luseqto wipe away tears (PAN: *luSeq)

s<m>ulʸato freeze; to snow (PAN: *SuReNa)

s<m>uputo count, reckon (PAN: *SipuR)

s-m-u-vutsacure blindness (PAN: *buCa)

suyou, your (sg.) (PAN: *Suʔu)

su-to take off; kava ‘clothes’, su-kava ‘to take off clothes’, tjaLupun ‘hat’, su-tjaLupun ‘take off a hat’ (PAN: *Su-)

suawyawn (PAN: *Suaw)

sulemdarkness; twilight (PAN: *Sulem)

sulemdarkness, twilight (ROOT)

sulʸaice, snow (PAN: *SuReNa)

sulʸamekpowder (ROOT)

Paiwan (700 / 971)

sunatpaper (LOAN) Makazayazaya

supiqlongest leaf-shoot of taro (edible) (PAN: *Supiq)

supusum, amount, number (PAN: *SipuR)

surura taut-stretched line (PAN: *SuluR)

ta-one (PAN: *esa)

ta-one (PAN: *sa₃)

ta-our, we (inclusive) (PAN: *-ta)

ta-alay-ana single thread (PAN: *sa₃)

ta-djalansame, same kind of (“one road”) (PAN: *zalan)

ta-djalan a tsautsausame kind of people (PAN: *zalan)

ta-idayone hundred (PAN: *sa₃)

taketsmuntjac, pygmy deer (PAN: *sakeC)

talawfalling water (PAN: *salaw)

taleŋpine tree, evergreen (generic); Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (PAN: *saleŋ)

taɬiwsmall (pocket-sized) whetstone (PAN: *saNiw)

tamaqa fraction (of thing, number) (PAN: *samaq)

tamaqa fraction (of thing, number) (NOISE)

tapawhouse in fields (PAN: *sapaw)

ta-puluqten (PAN: *sa-puluq) *puluq

taqtaqsplit bamboo (PAN: *saqsaq)

Paiwan (720 / 971)

taqtaqsplit bamboo (NOISE)

ta-si-ka-tjeluday before yesterday (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

ta-tamekgnat (LOAN)

ta-tamekgnat (NEAR)

ta-tapav-antrace or ruin of where a single house formerly stood (PAN: *sapaw)

tataq-anlarge whetstone (PAN: *Sasaq-an) *Sasaq

ta veŋinone night (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

ta-vuled-anone single mountain (PAN: *buled₁)

tedepenter (house) (PAN: *sejep)

telʸarbrightness; light (natural) (ROOT)

teptepsuck (PAN: *sepsep)

tequŋhorn (PAN: *sequŋ)

tevua skin bag (made from animal’s bladder) (PAN: *sebu)

tezuhiccup (PAN: *sedu)

tiparticle used before personal name or independent pronoun (PAN: *si₁)

ti-akenI (PAN: *aken)

ti-akenI (PAN: *iten)

tiawday before or after today (PAN: *ka-₁)

ti-kakamy older siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂) Western

tikaymaggot (PAN: *sihikay)

Paiwan (740 / 971)

tikaya maggot (LOAN)

t-imawho? (from ti-ima) (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

t-ima-imawho? (several persons) (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

t<in>alawwater which has fallen (PAN: *salaw)

ti-tjenwe (incl.), independent form (PAN: *iten₃) *ita₁

ti vuvu i imawhich grandparent? (‘grandparent who?’) (PAN: *ima)

tja-our, we (inclusive) (PAN: *ta-₁)

tja-inaM (affectionate term, most frequently used in speaking to children) (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina

tja-i-vililʸbehind; afterwards (PAN: *biliN)

tjakitlarge knife, sword; sickle (Western dialect) (PAN: *takis)

tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips (PAN: *tamtam)

tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey) (PAN: *taNek)

tjamafather (familiar, usually in questions to child) (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax

tjamakutobacco (LOAN)

tjanaqAralia decaisneana (PAN: *tanaq)

tjanu-akenme (PAN: *aken)

tjanu-akenme (PAN: *iten)

tjanu-itjenus (incl.) (PAN: *iten₃) *ita₁

tjara-ḍusaeach one (gets) two (PAN: *duSa)

tja-tjenun-enthreads already placed on the loom (PAN: *tenun)

Paiwan (760 / 971)

tjeguŋmake noise (ROOT)

tjeguŋto make noise (PAN: *teguŋ) Western

tjeluthree (PAN: *telu)

tjelʸevheavy, flooding rain (ROOT)

tj-em-eŋtjeŋto whisper (PAN: *teŋteŋ₁)

tj<em>ukezto prop something up (PAN: *tuked)

tjenunto weave (PAN: *tenun)

tjenun-anloom (PAN: *tenun-an) *tenun

tjeŋitsgrimace at pain (PAN: *teŋiC) Western

tjevasto cut, prune, clear (vegetation) (PAN: *tebaS)

tjevussugarcane: Saccharum officinarum (PAN: *tebuS)

tjezasomething saved, left over; a remainder (PAN: *teda)

tjialʸbelly (PAN: *tiaN)

tji-kezemhave the eyes closed (PAN: *kezem)

tjimizchin, mandible, jaw (PAN: *timij)

tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general (PAN: *t<in>aNek) *taNek Western

tj<in>uzuq-ana drop of water that has fallen (PAN: *tuduq)

tj<m>enunto weave (cloth) (PAN: *t<um>enun) *tenun

tj<m>eŋtjeŋto whisper (NEAR)

tj<m>ialʸhave a large belly (PAN: *tiaN)

Paiwan (780 / 971)

tj<m>iptjipto suck (NOISE)

tj-m-uktjukto peck; to strike (as a snake) (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

tj-m-uqtjuqto hammer (PAN: *tuqtuq)

tj<m>uzuqto drip (PAN: *tuduq)

tjuiqbird sp. (PAN: *tuiq)

tjukeza prop (PAN: *tuked)

tjuktjukbeak (of bird) (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

tjuɬaeel; penis (jokingly) (PAN: *tuNa)

tju-qalʸaother villages (PAN: *qaNa) Western

tjuqezlow tree-stump (PAN: *tuqed)

tjuqtjuqblacksmith's hammer (PAN: *tuqtuq)

tjurtjurdove, pigeon (PAN: *tuRtuR)

tjutjurdove, pigeon (PAN: *tutur₂) Western

tjutjutsparrow (PAN: *tutut)

tjuzuqa drop (of water) (PAN: *tuduq)

t<m>alawto catch falling water in a container (PAN: *salaw)

t<m>aɬiwto hone, to whet (as knife) (PAN: *saNiw)

t-m-aqtaqto split bamboo (PAN: *saqsaq)

t-m-ataqto whet (on large stone) (PAN: *Sasaq)

t<m>avuto package, wrap (PAN: *C<um>abu) *Cabu

Paiwan (800 / 971)

t<m>eptepto suck (as water off skin, or blood from wound) (PAN: *s<um>epsep) *sepsep

t<m>equŋto use horns (as buffalo when fighting) (PAN: *sequŋ)

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *suNaR) Southern

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *s<um>uNaR) *suNaR Southern

t<m>ututo suckle (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

tsakawsteal; do secretly (PAN: *Cakaw)

tsaliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa)

tsaliŋa-liŋaColeus scutellarioides; Iresine herbstii (PAN: *Caliŋa)

tsaliŋa nua djaumeye of a needle (PAN: *Caliŋa)

tsalisa hemp cord (PAN: *CaliS)

ts-alʸ-ebakmake the sound of one object falling (as stone, book) (PAN: *Cebak)

ts<aly>udjuq-anfinger (PAN: *Cuzuq)

tsalʸumto carry water (PAN: *CaNum) Western

tsaŋladmiscanthus grass (PAN: *Caŋelaj)

tsapadried meat or fish (PAN: *Capa)

tsapela cloth patch (PAN: *Capel)

tsaqiexcrement, feces (PAN: *Caqi)

tsaqismake clothes by sewing; sew (-en) (PAN: *CaqiS)

tsaquto be able to (PAN: *Caqu)

tsaqu-anskill (PAN: *Caqu-an) *Caqu Western

Paiwan (820 / 971)

tsasawoutdoors, outside (PAN: *CaSaw)

tsa-tsaqis-enclothes being made by sewing (PAN: *Ca-CaqiS) *CaqiS

tsau tsauperson, human being; (in some contexts) living being (as embryo found in egg, or bee as opposed to the nest) (PAN: *Cau Cau) *Cau

tsavilʸyear (PAN: *CawiN)

tsavua wrapping; fingerless gloves for work in fields (PAN: *Cabu)

tsebukmake a "bong" sound (PAN: *Cebuk)

tsegtsega nail (PAN: *CegCeg)

tsekesthin bamboo (used for pipe stems, arrow shafts); a pipestem (PAN: *CekeS)

tsektseka stake, pointed stick (PAN: *CekCek)

tselaqa crack or split (e.g., in wood, foot, fruit) (PAN: *Celaq)

tselaqcrack or split (ROOT)

tseltselpound in a nail (PAN: *CelCel)

tsemelplants (generic, excluding trees); medicine (including now pills and injections) (PAN: *Cemel)

tseme-tsemeluncultivated land (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel

tsetekhave an injection (PAN: *Cesek)

tse-tsemela grass field (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel Western

tseviqa portion of something left after shares have been taken (PAN: *Cebiq)

tsevudspring-water; water from a natural source (PAN: *Cebuj)

tsevulʸsmoke (PAN: *CebuN)

tsevuŋto meet; something held in common (as field jointly owned) (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

Paiwan (840 / 971)

tsikel-ucome back! (PAN: *Cikel)

ts-in-akawstolen objects (PAN: *C<in>akaw) *Cakaw

ts-in-aqis-ansewn seam (PAN: *CaqiS-an) *CaqiS

ts-in-ulʸube burnt, slaughtered (PAN: *C<in>uNuh) *CuNuh

tsiŋasfood particles between teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

tsiqawfish (generic) (PAN: *Ciqaw)

tsirularge dipper (PAN: *Cidu)

ts-m-abtsabclap hands (PAN: *CabCab)

ts-m-alisto manufacture hemp cord (PAN: *C<um>aliS) *CaliS

ts<m>aŋitjto wail (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis Western

ts-m-aqissew, make clothes by sewing (PAN: *C<um>aqiS) *CaqiS

ts-m-egtsegdrive a nail into something (PAN: *CegCeg)

ts<m>evulʸbe smoky; perform type of ritual action (PAN: *CebuN)

ts-m-ikelto return (somewhere) (PAN: *Cikel)

ts-m-ugtsughit something against something else (PAN: *CugCug₁)

ts<m>ugtsugto hit something against something else; to knock on (door) (PAN: *C<um>ugCug) *CugCug₂

ts-m-ulʸuto roast meat; burn something or someone; kill a pig or chicken (PAN: *C<um>uNuh) *CuNuh

ts-m-uqelalʸbe bony, have prominent bones (PAN: *CuqelaN)

ts-m-usuto string (beads) (PAN: *C<um>uSuR) *CuSuR

ts-m-uvuqto sprout (PAN: *C<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

Paiwan (860 / 971)

tsukevcover (ROOT)

tsulʸuto roast something (PAN: *CuNuh)

tsulʸu-anheat (PAN: *CuNuh-an) *CuNuh

tsumaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

tsupukhit with a club (ROOT)

tsuqelalʸbone (PAN: *CuqelaN)

tsuqelalʸ nua kasiwheartwood (PAN: *CuqelaN)

tsurisa scratch, gash (wound); a line (PAN: *Curis)

tsusua cord for stringing something on (as beads, millet) (PAN: *CuSuR)

tsuvuqa free-standing sprout; bamboo sprout (PAN: *Cubuq)

tu-aoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *su)

tukuz-anstaff, cane, walking stick (PAN: *sukud)

tulʸarbrightness, light (PAN: *suNaR) Southern

tuqulʸcarry on the head (PAN: *suquN)

tuqulʸa tree: Acacia confusa (PAN: *tuquN)

tu-tsunow (PAN: *-Cu)

tutubreasts (PAN: *susu₁)

uaexclamation of pain or surprise (PAN: *ua₁)

uatsvein, blood vessel; sinew (PAN: *huRaC)

u kaif ... were to (PAN: *ka₂)

Paiwan (880 / 971)

ulawcountless; a boundless number (PAN: *ulaw)

ulʸaysomething broken off inside something else (as thorn in flesh) (PAN: *uNay)

umaqhouse; (Western Paiwan) grave (PAN: *Rumaq)

uqalʸaymale (PAN: *RuqaNay)

utjaqvomit (PAN: *utaq)

vadiwedible mushroom sp. (PAN: *bajiw)

vaigive (PAN: *beRay)

vaidaweaver's sword (for loom) (PAN: *baRija)

valaŋaa mortar (PAN: *balaŋa)

valaŋa-laŋaminiature mortar (for betel nut) (PAN: *balaŋa)

valeŋpickled meat (preserved with salt, water, and millet-beer dregs) (LOAN)

valetoppose someone, talk or strike back; do in return; trade places with; return a visit; oppose, take revenge (PAN: *bales₁)

valiwind, air (PAN: *bali₃)

valiwind (LOAN)

validthick (forest), dense, closely planted (NOISE)

valʸaa plant: Smilax bracteata, S. china (PAN: *baNaR)

valʸasmale, of animal (somewhat obscene) (PAN: *baNaS)

valʸiboard, wooden plank (NOISE)

valʸitjuqshiny metal object; lead; bullet; money (LOAN)

vaŋasa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

Paiwan (900 / 971)

vaŋ-vaŋchest cavity (anatomical) (PAN: *baRaŋ)

vaqesiŋa sneeze (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

vaqu-annew (PAN: *baqeRuh)

v-ar-eŋveŋblazing, of fire (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂ Western

vatseed, kernel, grain; testicles (PAN: *beRas)

vatsalʸa deep pool; lake (Western Paiwan) (PAN: *waCaN)

vatsa-vatsalʸsmall pond (PAN: *waCa-waCaN) *waCaN Western

va-vai-anwoman, female person (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

vavawup, above (PAN: *babaw₃)

vavuywild pig: Sus taivanus (PAN: *babuy₃)

velakaa split in wood (ROOT)

velaqa slit, rip; vulva (PAN: *belaq)

velibuy, sell (PAN: *beli)

velʸelemcloud shadows; overcast (PAN: *beNelem)

velʸelemcloud shadows; overcast (ROOT)

velʸvelʸbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

venandeer (gen.); Cervus unicolor swinhoei (PAN: *benan)

veŋinnight (as occurrence) (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

veŋveŋwind-screen, shelter (PAN: *beŋbeŋ₁)

vereŋetswrinkled; scowling (face) (ROOT)

Paiwan (920 / 971)

vetsikwriting; tattoo; design (carved, beadwork, etc.) (PAN: *beCik)

vetsucallus (PAN: *beCu)

viaqleaf used in rites (may be of various plants) (PAN: *biRaq₁)

vigeŋnitsto make faces (ROOT)

vililʸbe behind (when moving) (PAN: *biliN)

vilʸuaqOreopanax formosanus, Hibiscus mutabilis (NOISE)

vilʸvilʸpull towards oneself (as one's hand) (NOISE)

v-in-etsik-ansomething which has been written or drawn (PAN: *b<in>eCik) *beCik

viqi-viqirlopsided, off-center (PAN: *biqiR)

vireŋitsgrimace at pain (ROOT)

vi-reŋitsto grimace (at pain) (PAN: *reŋiC) Western

virileft (direction) (PAN: *wiRi)

virvirlips (PAN: *biRbiR)

vitjivitjwave; wag back and forth; dart back and forth (PAN: *witiwit)

vitsukastomach (PAN: *biCuka)

v-n-aito give (PAN: *beRay)

v<n>akaŋto walk bowlegged (intentionally) (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

v<n>aŋasto thunder in winter (? a sign that vaŋas are budding) (PAN: *baŋaS) Western

v<n>aqesiŋto sneeze (when one sneezes he should say ‘palisi’ [taboo] and if going somewhere he should return home) (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

v<n>ay-vaydry something in the sun (by hanging it up) (PAN: *waRi₁)

Paiwan (940 / 971)

v-n-ekutspull something down (as branch of tree); pull trigger (PAN: *bekuC)

v-n-elaqsplit a long object; split with one blow (PAN: *b<in>elaq) *belaq

v-n-elʸutspull up or out (grass, plants) (PAN: *beNuC)

v-n-etsubecome calloused (PAN: *beCu)

v-n-etu(of food) to cause to be satiated (PAN: *besuR)

v-n-iqircause to be lopsided (PAN: *biqiR)

v-n-tsikto write; to design (PAN: *b<in>eCik) *beCik

v-n-uklet something rot (PAN: *b<in>uRuk) *buRuk

vuakto hatch (NOISE)

vuaqDioscorea alata (wild); Dioscorea esculenta var. spinosa (cultigen) (PAN: *buaq)

vukrotten meat (PAN: *buRuk)

vukidforest; forested inland mountain areas; continuous forest (PAN: *bukij)

vuki-vukideyebrow; woods on foothills (said to be inhabited by ancestors and evil spirits) (PAN: *bukij)

vuleda single mountain (PAN: *buled₁)

vulilʸawlʸawwhirlwind (PAN: *buli-)

vulʸawloach (fish sp.) (NOISE)

vunavunseedlings of grains or grasses (PAN: *bunabun)

vuŋuMeliosma rhoifolia (young leaves fried and added to soup) (PAN: *buŋuR)

vusRhus semialata var. roxburghiana (leaves used as soap) (PAN: *beRus₁)

vuteŋutsmake a wry face (ROOT)

Paiwan (960 / 971)

vutjsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

vutuenemy (PAN: *busuR₁)

vuvugrandparents/grandchildren (PAN: *bubu₆)

zalʸumwater (PAN: *daNum)

zaqusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Butanglu

zayaupland; upriver (PAN: *daya)

zeletbowstring (PAN: *deles)

zemzempitch dark(ness) (PAN: *demdem₂)

zepuŋcobra: Naja naja (PAN: *depuŋ)

z-m-aiŋmake noise, shout (PAN: *daRiŋ)

zua-zua-infurthest (PAN: *dua) Western

zuŋdistant rolling thunder (PAN: *deRuŋ₁)

Paiwan (Butanglu) (1) Form.

zaqusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Butanglu

Paiwan (Makazayazaya) (1) Form.

sunatpaper (LOAN) Makazayazaya

Paiwan (Northeastern) (1) Form.

qamisnorth (PAN: *qamiS) Northeastern

Paiwan (Southern) (7) Form.

bua-buayflower (PAN: *buRay) Southern

guritsasquid, octopus (PAN: *guRiCa) Southern

lʸa-lʸaqedi-anboundary between fields (PAN: *Naqeji) Southern

piaḍplate, dish (PAN: *piad) Southern

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *suNaR) Southern

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *s<um>uNaR) *suNaR Southern

tulʸarbrightness, light (PAN: *suNaR) Southern

Paiwan (Tjuabu) (1) Form.

ruvua nest (PAN: *Rubu) Tjuabu

Paiwan (Western) (42) Form.

alʸakchild; interest on deposit (PAN: *aNak) Western

djanawlake without outlets; estuary (PAN: *danaw) Western

ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-vavaian-an ‘womanhood, femininity, value as a woman’ (cp. vavaian ‘woman, female person’ (PAN: *ka- -an₃) Western

kamayamango: Diospyros discolor (PAN: *kamaya) Western

kavasnake slough (PAN: *kabaR) Western

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁) Western

ku-kakamy younger siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂) Western

liku-likuz-anthe backmost (PAN: *liku-likud-an) *likud Western

liqeneck (PAN: *liqeR) Western

ƚusepitthin (as paper), thin, as person (ROOT) Western

luvaŋa grave, grave-pit; a covered pit trap (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Western

lʸivshelter under overhanging rock (PAN: *Nihib) Western

ma-kuda-kudahow much? (PAN: *kuja) Western

ma-susuqenter a small hole and fall; to leak down (PAN: *SuSuq) Western

ma-tja-tja-vililʸgoing along in file (PAN: *biliN) Western

na-kuya-ndisability (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya Western

paka-ḍusasecond wife (PAN: *paka-duSa) *duSa Western

pa-likuzto turn one’s back to (PAN: *pa-likud) *likud Western

pa-sekezto cause to stop (as automobile); to cause to rest (PAN: *Seked) Western

pa-tututo suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁ Western

Paiwan (Western) (20 / 42)

pu-luvaŋ-ancemetery (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Western

q<m>alʸa-qalʸato entertain guests (PAN: *qaNa) Western

r-m-autsto split wood (PAN: *rauC) Western

ruvu-ruvunest; prison (PAN: *Rubu) Western

sa-zua-indestination (PAN: *dua) Western

se-qalʸato be shy (PAN: *qaNa) Western

sisilʸGould’s Quaker-Thrush, Alcippe brunnea brunnea Gould; an important omen bird. Flying from right to left means taboo; heard with tjiḍir [small brown omen bird] it means ‘you will eat pork’. (PAN: *SiSiN) Western

ti-kakamy older siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂) Western

tjeguŋto make noise (PAN: *teguŋ) Western

tjeŋitsgrimace at pain (PAN: *teŋiC) Western

tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general (PAN: *t<in>aNek) *taNek Western

tju-qalʸaother villages (PAN: *qaNa) Western

tjutjurdove, pigeon (PAN: *tutur₂) Western

tsalʸumto carry water (PAN: *CaNum) Western

tsaqu-anskill (PAN: *Caqu-an) *Caqu Western

tse-tsemela grass field (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel Western

ts<m>aŋitjto wail (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis Western

v-ar-eŋveŋblazing, of fire (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂ Western

vatsa-vatsalʸsmall pond (PAN: *waCa-waCaN) *waCaN Western

vi-reŋitsto grimace (at pain) (PAN: *reŋiC) Western

Paiwan (Western) (40 / 42)

v<n>aŋasto thunder in winter (? a sign that vaŋas are budding) (PAN: *baŋaS) Western

zua-zua-infurthest (PAN: *dua) Western

531. Pak (37) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [pkg] (Pak-Tong) Papua New Guinea

antermite, white ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

asa-ninner gills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

defeces, excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

denihsardine (POC: *tanipa)

dohuconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

dolaweast wind (POC: *tokalaur)

ehirthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

haŋto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

hayblood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

hohdark (POC: *rodrom₁) *demdem₂

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kal-moŋmangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

kanfood (POC: *kani) *kaen

kanfood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

kanuhsaliva (PEMP: *kanus-i) *kanus

kanuhsaliva; to spit (PEMP: *kanisu)

kayatoutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

kehersago grub (PMP: *qabatiR)

kophermit crab (POC: *koba)

kuŋkind of four-cornered fish (POC: *koŋa)

Pak (20 / 37)

laltrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

lum-lummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

mimi-eurine (POC: *mimiq) *miqmiq

mi-mimurinate (POC: *mimiq) *miqmiq

mok-opu-grandchild (POC: *mokobu) *empu

mo-kopu-grandchild (POC: *mo-kobu) *kempu

osugall, gall bladder (< A) (POC: *qasu₂)

ouhwind (generic) (POC: *aura)

pa-maruncooked, raw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

penitgrass (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

pi-ñawwidow (POC: *ñaRo)

pomkind of seaweed used to scrub pots (POC: *poma)

punbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

so-ŋ-ohten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

talsea urchin (POC: *salaŋ)

tuŋhungry (POC: *soŋe)

wihidolphin (POC: *kuriap)

532. Paku (47) WMP [pku] Indonesia (Kalimantan)

adi-ʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ateluyegg (PMP: *qateluR)

baratwind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

elatwing (PMP: *qelad₂)

iraʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

ka-reŋeyto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

kenahfish (PMP: *kenas)

kikitto bite (PMP: *kitkit)

kiteto see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

limofive (PAN: *lima)

loŋunhand (PMP: *leŋen)

ma-intemblack (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

matoeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tuʔehold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ŋadito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

ŋ-anupto hunt (PWMP: *maŋ-qanup) *qaNup

ŋaranname (PAN: *ŋajan)

Paku (20 / 47)

oroʔfar (PMP: *zauq)

pahucheek (PAN: *pasu₁)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

poʔoleg (PAN: *paqa₁)

raiforehead (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

ratasmooth (PAN: *dataR)

raunleaf (PMP: *dahun)

rikutgrass (PWMP: *rikut)

sasiŋworm (PWMP: *caciŋ)

tadirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

takutafraid (PAN: *takut)

taneʔearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

tasiksea (PMP: *tasik)

taunyear (PMP: *taqun)

tetuŋporcupine (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

toluthree (PAN: *telu)

uletcaterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

uranrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uruŋnose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

wakatroot (PMP: *wakat)

Paku (40 / 47)

wataŋstick (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

watustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

wayunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

wiahhusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

wiwilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

wulubody hair, feathers (PMP: *bulu₁)

wuluʔbamboo (PAN: *buluq₂)

533. Pala (2) OC

matuamother’s brother (Milke 1958) (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *ŋa)

534. Palauan (371) WMP (McManus and Josephs 1977) [pau] Palau

aarticle (PMP: *a₁)

aligature, linking particle (PAN: *a₅)

aieight (PAN: *walu)

babarea or space above; top; surface (PAN: *babaw₃)

babílfemale (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

badstone, rock, coral; crossbeams supporting floor of house; asleep (PMP: *batu) *batux

baivillage meeting-house; guest-house; community house (PMP: *balay)

báilclothing; wrapping material; to wrap (present, package) (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

baŋʔto bite (PWMP: *baŋiq)

basembers; burned pieces of wood (PMP: *baRah)

báusmell, odor, scent (PMP: *bahu)

bəábrodent; rat, mouse (PMP: *balabaw)

bədík-lany trap used to catch animals on land; snare (< *bitik-an) (PMP: *bitik₁)

bəkát-əlis to be unwrapped, unravelled, etc. (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

bəkə-báu(cooked meat, or fish, cooking pot, etc.), foul-smelling (PMP: *bahu)

bə-llaʔ-əlpurulent, festering (PWMP: *nanaq-en) *naNaq

bəlúucountry, village, place (PMP: *banua)

bə-rálmwatery; flat-tasting (e.g. not sweet or salty enough) (PMP: *danum) *daNum

beríuscurrent (in ocean, river, etc.) (ROOT)

bəsebəsbark of tree used for tying; rope; cord (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

Palauan (20 / 371)

bəsósoar; paddle; propeller; war spear; small paddle-shaped fish which swims vertically (PMP: *beRsay)

bəʔesnew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bil-elmonth of pregnancy (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bísəʔwild taro (makes mouth itchy); fish with black and yellow stripes (makes mouth itchy); easily aroused sexually (PMP: *biRaq₁)

btáʔəsAlexandrian laurel tree; kamani (wood used for canoes; nuts used as marbles): Calophyllum inophyllum L. (PMP: *bitaquR)

btuʔstar; starfish; military star (on hat or clothing) (PAN: *bituqen)

bubtrap (usually for fish) (PAN: *bubu₂)

búdəʔyellow-cheeked tuskfish: Choerodon Anchorago (PWMP: *butaq₁)

búilmonth, moon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

búiʔcowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana (PMP: *buliq₁)

buklhill, mound of earth (PAN: *bukij)

bu-lits smell, its odor (PMP: *bahu)

bulsthe moonfish: Platax orbicularis (PMP: *bunaR)

bulsthe moonfish: Platax orbicularis (PWMP: *bunuR₂)

buŋflower; green coconut sheath protecting developing coconuts (later becomes chesechosu); type of trepang (shaped like a flower) (PMP: *buŋa)

búuʔbetel nut (PMP: *buaq)

chelébedwhip; club; bat; anything to hit with (ROOT)

cheroll (< *qezen-en)birth; birthday (PMP: *qezen)

chiráŋylang-ylang tree: Cananga odorata (LOAN)

dáittaro (plant) (PMP: *tales)

Palauan (40 / 371)

dáktfear, awe (PAN: *takut)

dáŋəblid, cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

dáobsea, ocean, saltwater (PWMP: *taeb)

darthundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

daʔexcrement, shit; residue; secretion (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

dəbsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

dəbusəʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn (PMP: *tabuRiq)

dəchórstand; standing (PMP: *tuquD)

dekəlpole for boat, canoe, raft, etc; spare motor (for boat) (PMP: *teken)

dəkəl-elfriend, mainstay in times of need (PWMP: *teken-en) *teken

d<əl>áləmplanted (PWMP: *t<in>anem) *CaNem

d<əl>ásəʔthing carved (PWMP: *t<in>aRaq) *taRaq₁

dəlaʔintestines, bowels (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

dələʔi-lhis/her intestines (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

d<əl>órəmsharpened (PWMP: *t<in>azem) *Cazem

d<əl>úbwas bombed, was dynamited (PWMP: *t<in>uba) *tuba

dəlúlbroiled; roasted; sunburned (PMP: *t<in>unuh) *CuNuh

dəmá-paternal GP (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

dəŋáraʔlying face up; place rightside up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

dəŋərəʔ-ál-lstate of looking up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq-an) *tiŋadaq

Palauan (60 / 371)

deŋəsoriental mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. (PMP: *teŋeR)

dərúdmporcupine fish (PMP: *taRutum)

dəsáʔəlspiny squirrelfish: Holocentrus spinifer (PMP: *taRaqan)

dəsáʔ-əlthing being carved/thing to be carved (PWMP: *taRaq-en) *taRaq₁

dəʔá-lits ripeness, its maturity (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

dəʔóylspine; backbone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

didbridge (PMP: *titey)

didbridge (PMP: *taytay)

didí-l a ʔarmbeams/rafters at ends and sides of house (on which rats often run) (PMP: *taytay)

díməssouth, south wind (PMP: *timuR)

diŋear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

diylabdomen; womb (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

d<m>ásəʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at (PAN: *t<um>aRaq) *taRaq₁

d-m-ulto broil, to roast (PMP: *t<um>unuh) *CuNuh

dortironwood tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *teRas)

dubbomb; dynamite; tree in legume family whose leaves and roots are used as poison to catch fish; vine in Legume family (whose roots are used as poison to catch fish) (PAN: *tuba)

dubəʔcoconut sprouting on ground (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

dúrəʔleaking water; leak (PAN: *tuduq)

dursaction of sleeping (PAN: *tuduR)

dus-al-lplace for sleeping, bed (PAN: *tuduR)

Palauan (80 / 371)

dúʔstate of ripeness or maturity (of a fruit) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

e-déithree (PAN: *telu)

e-ímfive (units of time) (PAN: *lima)

elísəbyesterday (PWMP: *niRab)

e-lóləmsix (PAN: *enem)

e-rú-ŋtwo (units of time); a few (esp. when referring to small catch of fish (PMP: *duha) *duSa

iásdolphinfish (PMP: *lajih)

iásmilky mangrove tree; a river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha L.) (PMP: *laji₁)

iéləbflood (of major proportions) (PWMP: *leñeb)

iəŋ-elits cave, his/her cave (PMP: *liaŋ)

íicave (PMP: *liaŋ)

iidekaccumulated dirt (in clothes, on body, etc.) (PMP: *litek)

-il-marker of past tense (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

ilúm-əldrink, beverage (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

i-tíwnine (units of time) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

i-tíwnine (when counting in sequence) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

-k1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

kallfood (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

-kau2nd person sg. pronominal object: you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

káu2nd person sg. emphatic: you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

Palauan (100 / 371)

kauddam; end of menstruation (PMP: *ka(m)pet)

káuddam; end of menstruation (ROOT)

kə-dáktbe afraid of each other (PMP: *ka-takut) *takut

kədáolsquirrel-fish (PMP: *katawan)

kə-dəŋáraʔlie together face up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

kə-dórəmsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

kə-dúlburn each other (PAN: *ki-tunuh) *CuNuh

kədu-lhis/her louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kə-dúrssleep together (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

kəku-lhis/her fingernail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kəlátkind of fish (PAN: *kaNasay)

kəláugeiger tree: Cordia sebestena L. (PMP: *kanawa)

kəmám1pl. excl. emphatic pronoun, we, us (PMP: *kam-ami) *ami

kəmiu2pl. emphatic, you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

kə-rəmerəmperiod when moon is waning (PAN: *demdem₂)

kər-rásəmcold, chills (PAN: *dajem)

kərrəkártree; wood; log; board (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kəsákoland crab (PMP: *kaRakap)

kətútfull-breasted (PWMP: *ka-susu) *susu₁

kid1st person plural inclusive, emphatic: we/us (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

Palauan (120 / 371)

kimtype of large clam (PMP: *kima)

kisəmclamshell axe (PMP: *kiRam)

klou a dələlhave a pot belly; have a large belly (e.g., when pregnant) (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

kl-tíwnine (animals, things) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

ksawflower cod; carpet cod (type of grouper): Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (PMP: *kuRapu)

ku-preverbal subject pronoun (‘hypothetical pronoun’) (PAN: *-ku)

kuáta tree in the coffee family, good for roofing: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. (NEAR)

kudlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kukfingernail, toenail, claw (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kuld-pinch mark on body (PMP: *kunut)

-l3sg. suffix of inalienable possession, used with body parts, kinship relations, and the relationship of part to whole (PAN: *ni-a) *-a₂

labbush in cocoa family (bark used for cord): Abroma augusta L. (PWMP: *anabu)

lábəktime of large ocean swells and strong current; large ocean swells accompanied by strong current (PMP: *nabek) *Nabek

láləʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

lasa timber tree: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) (PMP: *naRah)

ləmáusmall, deep spot within shallow area inside reef (PMP: *namaw)

ləʔúlscar; shadow (PMP: *qanunu)

líuscoconut (tree) (PMP: *niuR)

lulktree in fig family (similar to banyan tree): Ficus microcarpa var. latifolia (PMP: *nunuk)

lúsəʔluck (PMP: *nuRuq)

Palauan (140 / 371)

maddie; (electricity, etc.) go out; go numb (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

madeye; face; point; edge; front; area/space (directly) in front of (PMP: *mata) *maCa

malkchicken; person who reaches sexual climax rapidly (PMP: *manuk)

mamlwrasse (fish): Cheilinus undulatus (PMP: *mamin)

márəkripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked (PMP: *ma-esak) *esak

márəkripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

márəkripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked (PMP: *ma-hasak) *Sasak

and (PMP: *mai)

mə-chellhave a baby; be born (PMP: *qezen)

mə-dáktto fear, be afraid of (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

meda-l a tutnipple of the breast; nipple of baby bottle (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mədúʔstrong, durable (of wood, metal); half-ripe (i.e., ready to pick) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

məduʔ əl buuʔkidney (PMP: *buaq)

mə-iúsrow, paddle; stir (PAN: *aluja)

məkə-mádwar (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mə-lábdto skin (animal, fish); remove bark/outer fiber of plant; to husk a coconut (PWMP: *sabut)

mə-láləmto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

m<əl>áməʔto chew betel nut; to smoke tobacco (< *m>in>amaq) (PMP: *mamaq)

mə-láŋəbto cover (PWMP: *ma-naŋeb) *taŋeb

mə-lásəʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq₁

Palauan (160 / 371)

mə-laʔəl (dəʔal-l)set a trap (PAN: *taqan₁)

mə-leləbcover, submerge; flood over; cover (person) with blanket, etc. (PWMP: *leñeb)

mə-lídto cross over (log/stones being used as a bridge) (PWMP: *ma-naytay) *taytay

mə-lilíutthin and flat; slender (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

mə-límətbail; scoop dirt out of (PAN: *nimas)

mə-lubto bomb, bombard, dynamite (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

melúbssprinkle, spray, throw water on (ROOT)

mə-lúiʔto shine, reflect light on, illuminate; go night fishing with torch or lamp (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

mə-lúlto broil, roast; get oneself sunburned (PMP: *ma-nunuh) *CuNuh

mə-lúl a ʔadcremate (PMP: *ma-nunuh) *CuNuh

mə-lúl a ʔausmake lime from coral (PMP: *ma-nunuh) *CuNuh

mə-lúsəʔalways lucky (PMP: *ma-nuRuq) *nuRuq

mə-lúʔəlcarry on the head (PAN: *suquN)

mə-lúʔəsto prop open; to open (umbrella) (PWMP: *ma-nuked) *tuked

məŋ-ábput ashes on, get ashes in (PWMP: *maŋ-qabu) *qabu

məŋ-ablcarry under the arm (PWMP: *meŋ-qabin) *qabin

məŋ-ádəspave with stones; pile up stones when building (jetty, grave, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-qatuR) *qatuR

məŋáisurgeonfish (PWMP: *maŋali)

məŋátsmoke (fish, etc.); dry (wrapped tapioca); give (someone) steam bath (so as to regain strength, esp. after childbirth); smoke out (mosquitoes, etc.) (PMP: *qasu₃)

məŋ-áussprinkle lime on (PWMP: *maŋ-qapuR) *qapuR

Palauan (180 / 371)

məŋ-órt, k-m-ortscrape (road, etc.) (PWMP: *kerus₁)

mə-ŋuldpinch with fingernails (PMP: *kunut)

məŋ-úmbake (food) in a hole in the ground (PMP: *qumun)

məŋ-úʔətchew or munch on (sugarcane, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-ququs) *ququs

məŋ-ʔádoto roof (a house) (PWMP: *maŋ-qatep) *qatep

məŋ-ʔatgive off smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

mərádərsend/see person off; return; send back; bring (bride) to prospective husband's family (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

mə-ráktlook as if one is very sick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

mə-rasmto sew (cloth or thatching) (PAN: *zaRum)

mə-ráudto close (a fishnet) (PMP: *dapet)

mə-raylgo; walk; travel; leave; (water) flow/move (in pipe); (blood) flow out (PWMP: *z<um>alan) *zalan

merekerékedsticky (ROOT)

mə-sáktmake (raft); tie side by side; crowd out (as weeds in crowding out other plants); change (subject of conversation) (PMP: *Rakit)

mə-súldwipe off (mouth, nose, private parts, etc.) (PMP: *Runut)

mə-ʔab(atmostphere, view) dim/blurred; grayish (PWMP: *ma-qabu) *qabu

mə-ʔədshallow; (tide) low (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

mi-rəmerəmdark (at night) (PAN: *demdem₂)

mireméremdark (at night) (ROOT)

misksound of sucking teeth or clicking lips (to show disapproval) (PMP: *misik)

muddamsel fish (PMP: *mutu₁)

Palauan (200 / 371)

ŋádərgift of food accompanying bride when she is brought to prospective husband's family (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

ŋak1sg. emphatic subject and object pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

ŋaklname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋaltermite; termite-ridden (PAN: *aNay)

ŋáləkchild; baby; anyone younger than speaker; sweetheart; fiance(e) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ŋáləkpinkie; small finger (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

ŋálək ər a orəoməlraəlbastard (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ŋasironwood (PMP: *aRuhu)

ŋáufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ŋəbárdwest, west wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

ŋəbok-ldrooling (PWMP: *ibeR-en) *ibeR

ŋíbəsdrooling saliva (PMP: *ibeR)

ŋid1st person plural inclusive; us (PAN: *ita₁)

ŋídəʔclimbing fern: Lygodium circinatum (Burm.f.); large food basket made from ŋídech plant (PWMP: *ituq₁)

ŋíi3sg. (emphatic) (PAN: *ia₁)

ŋíkəlfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ŋikəl əl bubfish caught with a trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

ŋirtmucus (from nose only) (PMP: *idus)

ŋ klou a ʔədəŋal əl ʔad(lit. 'the man has a big liver') He's a brave man (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

ŋ-u-íbəshave desires for, lust after (PMP: *ibeR)

Palauan (220 / 371)

ŋuí-llabor pains (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ŋuisPalau tree snake: Dendrelaphis lineolatus (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ŋurdvein, artery (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

oaməko-ádkill; extinguish; put out (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

oáʔfoot; leg; back paws (of animal) (PAN: *waqay)

odi-bsəbs-állis to be filled to overflowing, is to be poured out (PWMP: *bujbuj)

odi-bsóbsfill with (liquid) to overflowing; pour out (large quantity of liquid) (PWMP: *bujbuj)

o-ímfive (used when counting in sequence) (PAN: *lima)

ok-ə-dəythirty (PMP: *paka-telu) *telu

olab rəkt-əlpregnant (PMP: *sakit)

o-lásəʔtool for carving/chopping (< *pa-naRaq) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

olə-ŋíbəstempt, tease, seduce (PMP: *ibeR)

olíkfruit bat (PMP: *paniki)

olíkcrossbeam at ends of village meeting house above the door (NOISE)

o-límətinstrument for bailing (PAN: *nimas)

ol-sebəkmake (something) fly (PMP: *Rebek)

olsírslean against, lean (ROOT)

o-máolto attract, lure with bait (< *pa-maen) (PAN: *paen)

omə-chellgive birth to; assist (woman) in delivery (PMP: *qezen)

omək-sebəkmake (something) fly (PMP: *Rebek)

Palauan (240 / 371)

oməŋ-ədfishing; someone's characteristic way of fishing (cited under ched 'low tide') (PMP: *qeti₂)

omerékedpaste, glue (ROOT)

oməsebəstie (basket) closed by pulling string through open edges; tie up; tie (box) all over (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

omókətunwrap, unravel; unwind; comb out or undo (hair) with hands; break (hold); lift (magic spell) (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

om-rálmrinse clothes (PMP: *danum) *daNum

o-múbcatch fish with a trap; go out to check fishtrap (PAN: *bubu₂)

o-múkədcatch (fish) by casting net (PWMP: *pa-muket) *puket₁

omúŋbloom, blossom, flower (PMP: *buŋa)

oŋ-áləknuclear family (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

oŋórPandanus aimiriikensis Mart. (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

or-rayllead (animal, etc.); drive (boat, car, etc.); start (engine) (PWMP: *pa-zalan) *zalan

or-reŋəshear; listen to; obey (PMP: *deŋeR)

ou-ráktto be sick, suffer chronically from (PMP: *sakit)

ou-ʔármkeep (animal) as a pet; raise (animal) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

oʔi-lfoot or leg of (PAN: *waqay)

raktsickness, disease (PMP: *sakit)

ralmfresh water (PMP: *danum) *daNum

rásəʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

rasmneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

ráudclosing (PMP: *dapet)

Palauan (260 / 371)

raylroad; path; way; connection (between families, etc.) (PMP: *zalan)

ráysroot (PMP: *dalij)

ráʔəlbranch, bough; branch of government (PMP: *daqan₁) *daqan

rekerékedsucker fish (ROOT)

rəkt-əl a rədilmenstruation (PMP: *sakit)

ris-elit’s root (PMP: *dalij)

róroIndian coral tree: Erythrina variegata L. (PMP: *dapdap₁)

saktstring, cord, wire used for making raft (PMP: *Rakit)

saŋspider conch: Lambis lambis (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

səʔálmale (PMP: *Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

silssun; day (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sisti-plant, Cordyline (PMP: *siRi)

skorscane, crutches, walking stick (ROOT)

s-u-ebəkto fly (out from) (PMP: *Rebek)

suldcoconut fiber used for cord (originally used for wiping) (PMP: *Runut)

táodthree-pronged fish spear (PMP: *saet)

táoʔ(man-made) mangrove channel (PMP: *sawaq)

tebúd-elis to be skinned, scraped (PWMP: *sabut)

təkrársailfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

təŋətáŋstarfish (PMP: *saŋa-saŋa) *saŋa₁

Palauan (280 / 371)

tərremainder; leftovers; change (from purchase) (PAN: *teda)

tə-tíwnine (people) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

tir3rd person plural emphatic: they, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

t<m>utsuck on (breast, thumb, candy); to suck milk (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

tomátotomato (< English) (LOAN)

tubspittle, saliva (PMP: *suba)

túiʔtorch, lamp (especially for night fishing) (PMP: *suluq)

tutbreast, baby bottle (PAN: *susu₁)

ua-dámold man (term of reference for older male in-law) (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

ua-dámold man (term of reference for older male in-law) (PMP: *ua₂)

uáolbait (PAN: *paen)

uáuʔtree in periwinkle family: Ochrosia oppositifolia (PMP: *pauq)

Ɂuðəljobfish: Aprion virescens (PMP: *qutun)

uíijackfish, Gnathodon sp. (PMP: *pilu)

ukád-əlcaught, trapped in a net (PWMP: *puket-en) *puket₁

ukí-lher vagina (PAN: *puki)

uləko-áddead, extinguished, paralyzed (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

u<l>úkədcaught, trapped in a net (PWMP: *p<in>uket) *puket₁

uʔáuʔcrotch (PWMP: *apaqpaq)

uʔəl-elbeginning, start, origin; ancestors (PMP: *puqun)

Palauan (300 / 371)

uʔúlbase (of tree); reason; cause; basis (PMP: *puqun)

uʔúl a kərrəkarbase of tree; butt end of log (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

uʔúl a yaŋdhorizon (PMP: *puqun)

uʔúl a yaŋdhorizon (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

uʔutchew or munch on (sugarcane, etc.) (PMP: *ququs)

wəlsea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

wiðseven (used when counting in sequence) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

wiŋəltooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

wlawlfloor (< *panpan) (PMP: *papan)

wúdəsnavel (PMP: *pusej)

wukvagina (PAN: *puki)

wukədfish or mosquito net (PMP: *puket₁)

yámlgrass in snapdragon family that grows in swampy areas: Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr. (PMP: *lamun₁)

yáŋdsky; weather (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

yarssail (PAN: *layaR)

yáyəshousefly (PMP: *lalej)

yóbəʔravine, valley (PWMP: *le(m)baq)

yumdalgae (PMP: *lumut)

ʔabashes; fireplace; hearth (PMP: *qabu)

ʔadliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

Palauan (320 / 371)

ʔadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody (PMP: *qaRta)

ʔad ər a uʔúl a yaŋdforeigner (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

ʔádəsroad (orig. paved with stones) (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

ʔádoroof (PMP: *qatep)

ʔáibarracuda (PMP: *qalu)

ʔáipestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

ʔáolfish sp.: the tarpon (Chanos chanos) (PMP: *qawan)

ʔarmanimal (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ʔat-to praise (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi

ʔatsmoke; steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

ʔáuslime for betel nut (PAN: *qapuR)

ʔa-ʔabl(mother and child) walk together, with child carried under mother's arm (PMP: *qabin)

ʔəbál-lgray or white hair; gray-haired, white-haired (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

ʔəbə-ʔabdust (especially under house) (PMP: *qabu)

ʔəbú-lits ashes (PMP: *qabu)

ʔədlow tide (PMP: *qeti₁)

ʔəda-lperson of (PMP: *qaRta)

ʔə-dámfather (addr.) (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

ʔə-dilM (addr.) (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

ʔədi-lits low tide (PMP: *qeti₁)

Palauan (340 / 371)

ʔə-dílmother (address); uh-oh (exclamation uttered when accident occurs) (PMP: *qina)

ʔədó-olbe thatched (PWMP: *qatep-an) *qatep

ʔədúia fish, the blue-lined sea bream: Symphorus spilurus (Günther) (PMP: *qatulay)

ʔədúk-lpaved; piled up, of stones when building something (PWMP: *qatuR-an) *qatuR

ʔədu-lreligion, belief (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ʔ-əl-abhad ashes put on (PWMP: *q<in>abu) *qabu

ʔ-əl-ádocondition of being thatched (PWMP: *q<in>atep) *qatep

ʔələ-ʔólbeach; sand (PMP: *qenay qenay) *qenay

ʔəlídgod; deity; spirit; sacred object (about which some prohibition is made); center (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ʔəmádəʔunripe/green; (food) raw/uncooked (PAN: *qamataq)

ʔəmáŋlarge sea crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

ʔəóssun (PMP: *qalejaw)

ʔətu-lits smoke, its steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

ʔəʔút-əlbe chewed or munched on (as sugarcane) (PWMP: *ququs-en) *ququs

ʔ-il-ablcarried under the arm (PMP: *qabin)

ʔimhand; arm; front paws (of animal) (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

ʔimá-lhis/her hand or arm, its paws (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

ʔirtlarge spoon (PAN: *qidus)

ʔíulpoisonous centipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

ʔiú-lhis/her hair (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

Palauan (360 / 371)

ʔiullpillow (PMP: *qalunan)

ʔoldfart (< *qentut) (PMP: *qetut)

ʔólofish scale; money (PMP: *quhenap) *quSeNap

ʔúdəlgrass, grassy (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

ʔúihair (on head) (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ʔúisworm, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

ʔullrain; rainy season (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ʔumtype of snail; hermit crab (PAN: *qumaŋ)

ʔumlong-shouted unicorn fish: Naso unicornis (PMP: *qumi)

ʔumhole in the ground for baking (PMP: *qumun)

ʔumlong-snouted unicorn fish: Naso unicornis (PMP: *qumay)

535. Palawan Batak (177) WMP (Warren 1959, Reid p.c.) [bya] (Batak) Philippines

ba-báʔiwoman, female (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bakə́smonkey (PPH: *bakés)

bálaygrandparent-in-law (sex undifferentiated) (PPh: *balaqih)

baláyhouse, dwelling (PMP: *balay)

baribáriiron, metal (NOISE)

batáŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batékcarved designs on wooden handles of tools; design on bark cloth (PMP: *batek)

batórock, stone, flint, pebble (PMP: *batu) *batux

bayóʔoturtle (NEAR)

baʔágloincloth, breechclout made from bark cloth (PMP: *bahaR)

baʔgonew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

baʔí-ʔfemale grandparents and their female siblings (PAN: *baqi)

bédbedwrapping, winding (of string) (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bəgáshusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

béŋeldeaf (PMP: *beŋel)

beŋétbeard, moustache; corn silk (PPh: *beŋet₂)

bibíglower lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bilógbody; container; whole, entire (LOAN)

biʔbitcarry (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

búdbudwrapping of string to hold projectile point on weapon (NOISE)

Palawan Batak (20 / 177)

bukídmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bulalakawnature spirit, deity; spirit of shooting star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

bulánmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulawángold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

búlbulhair in nose; hair; fuzz on plant stem; feather; down (PPh: *bulbúl)

bulíʔbutt, end; buttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

buliʔbutt, end; buttock (NOISE)

bulúdmountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

buludmountain (PWMP: *bulud₂)

bunótcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

búŋabetel nut (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋáfruit, berry (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋá taróŋturtle eggs (PMP: *buŋa)

busóghunting bow (PMP: *busuR₂)

buyókstench (PPh: *buyúk)

dakə́lmany (PPH: *dakél)

daʔonleaf (PMP: *dahun)

dəbdə́́́́́bchest (PAN: *debdeb)

dɨkɨtburn (Reid 1971) (PMP: *zeket)

dɨkɨtto burn (Reid 1971) (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket₁

Palawan Batak (40 / 177)

dilaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dudúʔbreast, teat (PWMP: *duduq)

dugíthorn (PMP: *duRi)

duwátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

gamótroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

gimbálskin-covered drum musical instrument (PWMP: *gimbal)

gúlaycooked vegetables (PWMP: *gulay)

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamu2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

karatrusty (PWMP: *karat₁)

kasílieel (PWMP: *kasuli)

katélto itch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kayówood; tree; stick (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayo ʔápoyfirewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-ʔwawthirst (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

kilalato recognize a person (PAN: *kilala)

kitawe (dual incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kita-miwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

-ku1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kudláplightning (ROOT)

Palawan Batak (60 / 177)

lalakiman, human male (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki₁

laŋítsky, heavens (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lɨbɨkpound rice (PPh: *lebék)

límafive (PAN: *lima)

linógearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

liʔəgneck (PAN: *liqeR)

líʔŋetto sweat (PWMP: *liŋ(e)qet)

lusuŋrice mortar (PMP: *lusuŋ)

luwáʔteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

ma-kəsə́gstrong (PAN: *ma-keseR) *keseR

ma-labegwide (PMP: *labeR₁)

ma-nipísthin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

man-manókbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

manókchicken, fowl (PMP: *manuk)

mapáʔitbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-puŋawlonely (PWMP: *puŋaw)

ma-ramígcold (as water) (PAN: *ramig)

mátaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-taʔmissweet (PMP: *taq(e)mis)

Palawan Batak (80 / 177)

ma-ʔudumrain cloud (Reid 1971) (PWMP: *ma-edem) *edem₁

munóŋupper lip (PWMP: *munuŋ)

namókmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

niguwinnowing basket (PMP: *niRu) *Rinu

nipɨntooth (PAN: *nipen)

niyógcoconut, coconut tree (PMP: *niuR)

padɨkhusk of rice (PWMP: *padek)

panáwwalk (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

paŋi-paŋilankle (Reid 1971) (PWMP: *paŋil)

pataydead, lifeless (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

páʔidto wipe (PWMP: *pahid)

piláta scar (PWMP: *pilat)

pirahow many? (PAN: *pijax)

pirɨkeyelash (PPH: *pidek₂)

pítoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

púntibanana (Musa sapientum) (PAN: *punti₁)

pusúdnavel (PMP: *pusej)

sáŋabranch of a tree or bush (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sa-ŋ-púlokten (PMP: *ŋa)

saʔ-nuwhen? (PAN: *-nu)

Palawan Batak (100 / 177)

sekáa species of rattan; waistband worn by women (PWMP: *seka)

seká (*g > k unexplained)a species of rattan; waistband worn by women (material) (PWMP: *segaʔ)

sepsepsuck (Reid 1971) (PAN: *sepsep)

sikoelbow (PAN: *sikux)

tádowax (PWMP: *tadu)

tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53) (PMP: *tales)

talíŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tálonwoods, forest (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tanán-anall (PPH: *tanan)

t<an>oldoʔ ~ t<un>ulduʔfinger (PPh: *tulduq)

taŋíscry, shout, moan, cry out (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

táoperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tapus-ánend (PAN: *tapus)

tatáfather’s brother; mother’s brother (PAN: *tata₁)

taw-anto know (PMP: *taqu-an) *Caqu

táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide (PWMP: *taeb)

taʔónyear (PMP: *taqun)

tináʔibelly, intestines, stomach (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tudúŋwoven rattan headband worn by women (PMP: *tuduŋ)

turiʔ-úncircumcision (PPH: *turiq)

Palawan Batak (120 / 177)

tutur-anstory; folktales of various types (PMP: *tutur₁)

tuʔláŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

ʔabagáshoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

ʔabélclothing, garments (PPH: *habél)

ʔáboashes (PMP: *qabu)

ʔabwátlarge; long (PWMP: *abuat)

ʔagsemsour (Reid 1971) (PAN: *qaRsem)

ʔakóI (pronoun) (PAN: *aku)

ʔáladfence (PAN: *qalad)

ʔaláwidfar (PWMP: *alawid)

ʔaldáwsun; day (opposite of night, rather than time measure) (PMP: *qalejaw)

ʔalímaarm; hand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

ʔamāy-anFB (PWMP: *ama-an) *amax

ʔamay-anFB (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

ʔamáʔfather (particularly in the nominative) (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

ʔanákchild, young person; offspring, i.e., son or daughter (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ʔanák ka babáygirl, young female (not daughter) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ʔanák ka lalákiboy, young male (not son) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ʔaníbuŋtree sp.; tree shoots or suckers (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

ʔanínuŋshadow (PWMP: *qaninuŋ)

Palawan Batak (140 / 177)

ʔápidtwin (PMP: *qapij)

ʔapókdust, soot (PMP: *apuk)

ʔapónyesterday (PPh: *hápun)

ʔapóyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ʔapó-ʔfather's father; mother's father; male grandparents and their male siblings; son's son, daughter's son (PPh: *apu-q) *apu

ʔari-ʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

ʔasáwaspouse: husband or wife (PAN: *qasawa)

ʔasínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

ʔatáyliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔáteproof (PMP: *qatep)

ʔáyepinsect; animal (PPh: *hayep)

ʔaʔayfoot, leg (Reid 1971) (PAN: *qaqay)

ʔéladwing (PMP: *qelad₂)

ʔéleksleepy (PPh: *helek)

ʔenáystream, brook; streambed (PAN: *qenay)

ʔenemsix (PAN: *enem)

ʔepatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

ʔesáone (PAN: *esa)

ʔeʔeyes (PMP: *heqe)

ʔiof (preposition) (PMP: *qi₂)

Palawan Batak (160 / 177)

ʔiánthere (2p.) (PWMP: *ian₃)

ʔikamɨnmat (PPh: *ikamen)

ʔi-kaw2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

ʔikógtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ʔilógriver (PAN: *iluR₂)

ʔina-ʔM (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

ʔinihere (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

ʔisdáʔfish (PPh: *sidáq)

ʔisímeat, flesh (PAN: *isi₅)

ʔitithere (3p) (PAN: *i-ti) *ti

ʔituhere (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

ʔɨyaʔashamed (PMP: *heyaq) *Seyaq

ʔuaʔelder sibling (PMP: *uaq)

ʔuip-anto blow, as a fire (Reid 1971) (PMP: *heyup-an) *Seyup

ʔu-nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu)

ʔuripenslave (PWMP: *qudipen)

ʔuruŋnose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

536. Palawano (67) WMP

ambugpride (PPh: *hambúg)

dayaŋprince or princess; daughter of a king; rich person (LOAN)

depelfor bodies to touch (PPH: *depel)

ka2sg. subject pronoun, you (PMP: *ka₄)

kaladitaro: Colocasia esculenta (Madulid 2001) (LOAN)

kalantaskind of tree (PPH: *kalantas)

kandistree with tart or sour fruits (PWMP: *kandis)

kapusin need, short of money, insufficient (PPH: *kapus)

kasiŋtop, spinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

kebetsubside, shrink (swelling), heal (PPH: *kebet₂)

keleblie facing down (PPH: *keléb)

kiattributive/benefactive particle for personal names (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

kulintasnecklace (PPH: *kulintas)

kunemcloud (PWMP: *kunem)

kupaŋkind of tree (PPH: *kúpaŋ)

kuskus-anbrush (PPh: *kuskus-an₂) *kuskus₂

kuskus-ento rub (as in rubbing someone’s back to remove dirt) (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

labifreshwater turtle (PWMP: *labi-labi)

labifreshwater turtle (PWMP: *labi₂)

labuʔsquash, pumpkin (PWMP: *labuq₂)

Palawano (20 / 67)

ladaʔchili pepper (LOAN)

ladiŋknife, pocket knife (PMP: *ladiŋ)

lagadisaw (LOAN)

lalumore, even more so, extremely (PWMP: *lalu₁)

lalurice pestle (PWMP: *lalu₂)

lamudmix, mixed (PWMP: *lamud) *lamuj

landakporcupine (PWMP: *landak)

laŋonly (PPH: *laŋ)

laŋkewheight (PMP: *laŋkaw)

lapislayer, level (PWMP: *lapis)

latuʔseaweed (PMP: *latuq)

layasoverflow banks (river); water flowing (PPH: *layas₂)

laʔlurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu)

lebasnaked, undressed (PWMP: *lebas)

lekuto lie down (animals only) (PPH: *lekuq₂)

lepadflight (PPH: *lepad)

lepad-ento fly (PPH: *lepad)

letewto float (PWMP: *le(n)taw)

letikflick with the finger (PWMP: *letik)

leyleywithered, faded, wilted (leaves) (PPH: *layláy)

Palawano (40 / 67)

libedto bind, attach (PWMP: *libej)

libutgo around, go in a circle, move around (PWMP: *libut)

ligpittightly adjusted top of female garment, waistcoat, bodice; hairclip (PPH: *lig(e)pít)

likucurve (PWMP: *liku₂)

limedsecret (PPH: *liméd)

limetaʔwater leech (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

linewstill weather, windless weather, calms (PMP: *linaw)

liŋawlook back, look back by turning one’s head (PPH: *liŋaw₂)

liŋgaŋsway in the wind, constantly moving (PWMP: *liŋgaŋ)

liŋsadlowlands, flatlands (PPH: *liŋ(e)sad)

lipakto beat, hit with a stick (PWMP: *lipak)

lipatforget, lost memory of (PPH: *lipat)

lipat-enforget (PPH: *lipat-en) *lipat

liyad-encurved (PWMP: *liad)

liʔeslouse eggs, nits (PWMP: *liqes)

lublubtinder (PPH: *lublúb)

ludegwrestle (PPH: *ludeg)

lukagawaking, regaining consciousness; get up (PPH: *lukag)

lunsankill, put to death, finish off, go ahead with murder, carry out a murder, not stopping to kill (PPH: *lunsan)

lupiʔfold, hem (PWMP: *lupiq)

Palawano (60 / 67)

luukbay, gulf, harbor (PWMP: *luquk)

me-kunemcloudy (PWMP: *kunem)

meŋ-lebekto pound (grains) (PPh: *lebék)

nakemspirit; mind (PPH: *nákem)

nekneksmall mangrove fly, gnat (PMP: *neknek)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

sä-ŋ-ribu1,000 (PMP: *ŋa)

Palin Maloh (1) WMP. see: Maloh (Palin)

Paluan (6) WMP. see: Murut (Paluan)

537. Palu'e (27) CMP [ple] (Palu’e) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

ata lakiman, male (PMP: *laki₁)

(ata) waifemale; woman (PCEMP: *bai) *bahi

haiwho? (PMP: *sai)

hiwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kau2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kayutree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

keasmall turtle on reef (PCEMP: *keRa)

kuawork (PAN: *kuSa)

lalea fly (PMP: *lalej)

lawalong (PAN: *lawa₁)

misweet (PMP: *hemis)

naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy Palu'e

ŋaraname (PMP: *ŋajan)

paluto hit, strike (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

panago (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

tahisea (PMP: *tasik)

tanaask (PMP: *utaña)

tawato laugh (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

Palu'e (20 / 27)

tuknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tulito sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

tuʔaold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

wakaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

wayacrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

wenato sneeze (PMP: *beñan)

wewamouth (PMP: *beqbeq)

Pamplona (40) WMP. see: Atta

538. Panatinani (1) OC [nmw] (Nimoa) Papua New Guinea

waiinewoman (POC: *pai-p<in>ai) *bahi

Panay Bisayan (2) WMP. see: Bisayan (Panay)

539. Panayati (3) OC

manawind (POC: *mana₂)

umunoven (PMP: *qumun)

varirabefore (in time) (POC: *waRisa)

540. Pangasinan (927) WMP (Benton 1971) [pag] Philippines

ainterjection marking hesitation, agreement, disagreement, etc. (PAN: *a₄)

alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc. (PAN: *a₅)

alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc. (PMP: *ha₂) *Sa₁

ainterjection expressing hesitation, agreement, disagreement, etc. (PPH: *qa)

abaláshoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

ábaŋrent, interest (PWMP: *abaŋ₃)

ábayside, proximity; to approach, go near person or object close by; put beside (PWMP: *abay)

abélcloth (PPH: *habél)

a-bisógbloated, puffed up (PAN: *bisuR)

abóŋhome, house, dwelling (PPH: *hábuŋ)

ábotcatch up (with) (PPH: *qábut)

a-buékdrunk (PMP: *ma-buhuk) *buSuk

a-gebádestroyed, fallen, collapsed (PPH: *gebáq)

ágewday; sun; be light, sunny (PPh: *qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

ágew-ágewdaily, every day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

agíouch! (PWMP: *ajiq)

agíyounger sibling or other person of same generation (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

ágomgreedy (PPH: *águm)

aka-tapákbarefoot (PWMP: *tapak₁)

ákdotremove, pluck out (ROOT)

Pangasinan (20 / 927)

ákopget with both hands (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

ákotwasp (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

aláget, take (PAN: *alaq₁)

aláget, take (PAN: *ala)

ala-ánsource of something (PAN: *alaq₁)

ala-ánsource of something (PAN: *ala)

a-labástoo much, more than enough (PPH: *labas)

álakliquor (LOAN)

álakliquor (LOAN)

álaltired (PPH: *halhál)

alamásmall crabs (PWMP: *qaRama)

alamásmall crabs (PPH: *aRama)

alamásmall crabs (LOAN)

alárfence; to fence (PAN: *qalad)

alílaservant; to care for (esp. children) (PPH: *alílaq)

alísto leave, go away (PPH: *qalís)

álopestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

amáfather (PAN: *amax)

a-magádry (PMP: *maja)

ambelátheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

Pangasinan (40 / 927)

am-belátheavy (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

amínall (PAN: *amin)

am-paítbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

amparnear, beside; compare (NOISE)

am-putíwhite, fair, light colored (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

anákchild, offspring (PMP: *anak) *aNak

andapto flicker (PWMP: *andap)

an-dekétblack (PPH: *deket₃) *deket₂

andóyanhammock, cradle; be in a hammock, etc. (PPH: *dúyan)

ánito harvest (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

anínoshadow (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

anopto hunt with dogs (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

anórto drift (PAN: *qañud)

an-sakkétstick rice (PMP: *ca(ŋ)ket)

ansakkétsticky rice (ROOT)

ansipatype of river turtle (Tsuchida1976:291) (PWMP: *qantipa) *qaCipa

antábayto guide, assist in learning a skill (PPh: *antábay)

an-takotshy, timid (PAN: *takut)

áŋanbelieved, thought by (LOAN)

aŋkátbuy wholesale (PWMP: *aŋkat)

Pangasinan (60 / 927)

aŋlóodor or taste of sour milk or spoiled meat (PAN: *qaŋeRu)

apa-labáspast (time, etc.) (PPH: *labas)

a-pátfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

ápgessmarting pain (PMP: *hapejes)

apgóbile, gall (PAN: *qapejux)

apíŋthe cheeks (PPH: *apiŋ)

aplosto pass the hand over something, caress (PPH: *ap(e)rus)

ápoterm of respect used especially when addressing a priest (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apógrandchild, great-nephew, great-niece (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apóyfire; start a fire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-ralémdeep; become deep (PMP: *dalem)

ásaásasmall herringlike salt water fish (NOISE)

asáŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asawáspouse; marry (PAN: *qasawa)

asínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

asódog (PAN: *asu₁)

a-sugáthurt (PWMP: *suRat)

a-tálowas defeated; lost (e.g. of a bet) (PMP: *talu₂)

átaŋoffering composed of coconut, cake, etc. for the purpose of placating malevolent spirits, usually made before sunset; to make such an offering (PPh: *átaŋ₄) *átaŋ

atéproof (PMP: *qatep)

Pangasinan (80 / 927)

átistree with sweet, light yellowish-green fruit similar in shape to a pinecone and about the size of a large apple, sometimes known as sugar apple (LOAN)

átistree with sweet, light yellowish green fruit similar in shape to a pinecone and about the size of a large apple, sometimes known as sugar apple (LOAN)

áwakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awáŋextent, spaciousness (PMP: *awaŋ)

áweyI don't know! (said by speaker of himself; may be followed by pronoun or phrase marked for topic) (PWMP: *away₃)

ayinterjection expressing hesitation, surprise, or consternation (PAN: *ai₂)

áyepanimal (PPh: *hayep)

báawcooked rice (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

bagátell, say, invite or ask by word of mouth (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bágiostorm, bad weather (PAN: *baRiuS)

báigrandmother; woman of grandparent’s generation (add. or ref.) (PAN: *baqi)

bakbákto whip (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bakesmonkey (PPH: *bakés)

balálung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

balánito attract (LOAN)

balatóŋmung beans (PWMP: *balatuŋ)

balésretribution, vengeance, price (of action, etc.) (PAN: *bales₁)

bálilie (PMP: *bali₄)

balíntawaktype of dress for women consisting of a gown with butterfly sleeves, shawl, and overskirt (LOAN)

balisóŋhunting knife (LOAN)

Pangasinan (100 / 927)

balitókgold (PPH: *balitúk)

balitókgold (LOAN)

baliw-anblack clothing worn by a person in mourning; to wear such clothing (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁

balkésbelt (PMP: *bakes₁)

bálonew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

balólaŋbasket for chickens to nest in (PPh: *balúlaŋ)

baluya tree: Pterospermum diversifolium (Madulid 2001) (PMP: *bayuR)

banáltired (PPH: *banal)

banawaŋcanal, ditch, trench (PWMP: *banawaŋ)

banélto crush (PPh: *banéR)

banuítfish with a rod; fishhook (PPh: *banuít)

banwásun (PMP: *banua)

báŋkaycorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋónarise, wake, get up from bed (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

basáwet (PMP: *baseq)

basíliquor made from fermented sugarcane (PPH: *bási)

batékspackling and dappling, of colors; spot; color of paper, fabric, etc., dye (PMP: *batek)

batóstone (PMP: *batu) *batux

bawásto reduce (PPH: *bawas)

báwito recover what one has lost, given, etc. (PPH: *báwiq)

Pangasinan (120 / 927)

báyarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

bayar-ánpayment (PMP: *bayaD)

bayáwbrother-in-law (PWMP: *bayaw)

baybáysea, seaside (PPh: *baybáy)

bayo-énto pound (PAN: *bayu)

begnáwrinse (ROOT)

beláspolished rice; to polish, mill rice (PMP: *beRas)

belátweight, heaviness (PMP: *beReqat)

belékpiglet, suckling pig (PAN: *beRek)

betákto split (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

bibíllip; lower lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bi-bíŋkarice-cake, usually topped with red sugar (LOAN)

bigaówinnowing basket; also shallow basket used as a container for vegetables (PPh: *bijau)

bigáowinnowing basket, also shallow basket used as container for vegetables (NOISE)

bigláabrupt, sudden; do abruptly, suddenly (PPh: *big(e)láq)

bilá-biláyeveryday life (PWMP: *bihaR)

biláŋto count; to care about (PAN: *bilaŋ₁)

bílaŋfor example (usually follows siŋá ‘like, as if’, or is reduplicated: bil-bílaŋ) (PPH: *bilaŋ₂)

biláylife; to live (PWMP: *bihaR)

bilíprice, value, expense (PMP: *bili)

Pangasinan (140 / 927)

bilíneducation, advice, counsel; to advise, counsel (PWMP: *bilin)

biníseeds saved for sprouting; seedlings (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bisíbissprinkle water by hand (PPh: *bisíbis)

bisógbloat (PAN: *bisuR)

bisokof1snail (ROOT)

bítayhang, execute by hanging (PPh: *bítay)

bitéwenstar (PAN: *bituqen)

bobónwell (for water) (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

bógbogwelt resulting from a beating (PWMP: *bugbug)

bokélbean, grain, seed, clove (of garlic) (PWMP: *bukel)

bokígeast, eastern section of town or province (PAN: *bukij)

bókolswelling caused by a blow (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bólaball (LOAN)

bolánmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bolbólthin porridge of boiled rice; to boil rice thus (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bólikspeckling of black and white (e.g. in the feathers of a chicken) (PWMP: *burik)

bolílitsmall person, dwarf (PPh: *bulilít)

bolókrotten, gone to waste (of fish, meat, produce) (PAN: *buRuk)

bolóŋleaf (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bombápump (LOAN)

Pangasinan (160 / 927)

bontónheap, pile; gather up, pile up (LOAN)

boŋáfruit; bear fruit (PMP: *buŋa)

bóŋboŋcontainer made from a hollow bamboo tube two or three nodes in length, used for storing salt, etc. (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bosínahorn (of automobile) (LOAN)

bosólenmity (PAN: *busuR₁)

bosónmailbox (LOAN)

bótovote; to vote is (LOAN)

botónpush button (LOAN)

buáltear out, break off (as a branch from a tree) (PPh: *buál)

buásmorrow (PPh: *buás)

buátstart; to start (PMP: *buhat₃)

buáyacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

buékhair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buékdrink excessively (PMP: *buhuk) *buSuk

buístax (PWMP: *buhis) *buhís

bukásprout, shoot (of plants); to sprout (PMP: *buka)

búknolknot; to knot (PPh: *buk(e)núl)

bukótbent over, hunched, stooped (esp. of elderly people) (PMP: *bukut)

bulágblind (PPh: *bulág)

búlaŋcockfight; attend a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

Pangasinan (180 / 927)

búlsapacket (LOAN)

bunyágbaptism; to baptize (PPh: *buniag)

buŋisharelip (McFarland 1977) (ROOT)

dáanold (i.e., not new) (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

dabókdust (PPH: *dabuk₂)

dakélmuch, many; often (PPH: *dakél)

dake-rakélabundant (PPH: *dakél)

dakóthandful; to take a handful (PAN: *dakuC)

daláblood (PAN: *daRaq)

dalágmudfish (PPH: *dalág)

dalánroad, way, street, path (PMP: *zalan)

dálawto pay a visit (PPH: *dálaw)

dalayáplime (fruit or tree) (PAN: *dalayap)

dáldaltalkative (also, derogatory term for Chinese) (PPH: *daldál)

daléminside (a pile, etc.); depth (PMP: *dalem)

dalíhurriedly (PPH: *dalíq)

dalikanstove (trivet) (PMP: *dalikan)

dámayempathize, share in trouble, etc. (PWMP: *damay)

danúmwater; become wet, watery (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dáŋdaŋheat; to heat (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

Pangasinan (200 / 927)

daŋólto bark (ROOT)

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

dapítin the direction of, towards (the east, etc.) (PWMP: *dapit)

dapítin the direction of, towards (the east, etc.) (PPH: *dapít)

dápolash; reduce to ashes (PMP: *dapuR₁)

dápotprovided that, as long as (PPH: *daput)

datálwooden or bamboo floor (PPH: *daq(e)taR)

dátuleader of a tribal group, chief (PMP: *datu)

dawárice grain (in relation to remainder of rice plant) (PAN: *zawa₂)

dáwatfavor sought (PPH: *dáwat)

dáyewhonor, respect, praise (PPH: *dáyaw)

dekétblackness (PPH: *deket₃) *deket₂

deŋélto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

dikéncloth ring placed on head under pot, basket being carried (PPH: *dikén)

dilátongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilátstick out the tongue (PWMP: *dilat)

dilátto stick out the tongue (PWMP: *zilat)

d<in>ala-ánpork, etc. cooked in pig’s blood (PAN: *daRaq)

díŋdiŋwall; to wall a house (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁)

ditávenom, poison secreted by snakes and other animals; to smear poison on an arrowhead, etc. (PWMP: *ziteq)

Pangasinan (220 / 927)

ditávenom, poison secreted by snakes and other animals; to smear poison on an arrowhead, etc. (PPH: *dítaq)

dolíŋcross-eyed (PWMP: *zuliŋ)

dónoŋskill, good qualities (PPH: *dunuŋ)

duátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duá-ratwo individuals (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-rúafickle mind; doubts (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

du-duá-ratwo only (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dúlaŋlow table for use of people squatting on floor (PPH: *dulaŋ)

dúlaŋlow table for use of people squatting on floor (LOAN)

dumádifferent, be different (PAN: *duma)

durónwinged stage of locust or grasshopper (PPh: *dúdun)

ebákto peel (a fruit, etc.) (NOISE)

egábyawn (NOISE)

ekálto remove, take off, get out (PPH: *ekal)

elétrigor, firmness (PWMP: *elet₂)

elétrigor, firmness (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

eméldumb (unable to speak) (NEAR)

-enpassive, e.g. bása-en will be read ... -en is also often used in sentences with imperative force, e.g. Tawag-en moy Pedro (will-be-called by-you + subject marker Pedro = ) (You) call Pedro (Benton 1971a:130) (PAN: *-en)

epárice husk (PWMP: *qepah)

épasalight from a vehicle (PWMP: *qempas)

Pangasinan (240 / 927)

etáraw, uncooked or undercooked (PAN: *qetaq)

etélconstipation; difficulty or hardness in bowel movements (PMP: *etel)

gálaŋrespect, honor (PPH: *gálaŋ)

gánasappetite (PMP: *ganas)

gáoroar (PPH: *gáqud)

gatélitching, scratchy; become itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gétgetfold in skin on arms, legs, etc. of young child (PPH: *getget₂)

gilígedge, put at the edge (PPH: *gílij)

gulámanextract from agar-agar seaweed from which a jelly-like dessert is prepared (PPH: *guláman)

íbacompanion; accompany; help (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibégcovet, desire, fall in love with (loanword) (PMP: *ibeR)

igáteel (PPh: *ígat)

igpíttighten something (PPh: *hig(e)pít)

ikaménmat (PPh: *ikamen)

i-kan-áingredients (PMP: *hi-kaen) *kaen

íkawearrings (LOAN)

ikétnet (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikóltail (PAN: *ikuR)

i-lábanto liberate (PMP: *laban₂)

ilíkunhusked rice (PAN: *iRik)

Pangasinan (260 / 927)

ilítto confiscate (LOAN)

íliwhomesickness; be homesick (PPh: *íliw)

ílogriver (PAN: *iluR₂)

ilópto sip (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

ilótmassage or rub gently (PPh: *hílut)

imatónobserve, see, witness, test with the senses (PPh: *himatún)

ímpisthin (inanimate objects only) (PAN: *iŋ(e)pis)

ináM (PMP: *ina)

inámcrave for food, drink, clothing, etc. (PPh: *hínam)

inómto drink (PMP: *inum)

inótdo slowly or by degrees; consume something slowly (PWMP: *qinut)

intsíkChinese (LOAN)

iŋálnoise, shouting, altercation; make noise, shout (PMP: *iŋaR)

iŋóŋotannoyance (ROOT)

ípagsister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipéttightness; become tight (PWMP: *hiqepet)

ipílshrubby variety of acacia (PMP: *qipil)

ipónvery small fish often made into inasin (a relish made from salting fish or shrimp and leaving to age) (PMP: *hipun₁)

íraphardships, torment; be difficult; suffer (PWMP: *hidap)

íraphardships, torment; be difficult, suffer (NOISE)

Pangasinan (280 / 927)

isáone (PAN: *isa₁)

ísipmind; to think (PPh: *ísip)

isísto scour (NOISE)

i-solóŋto wear, put on clothing, etc. (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow (PWMP: *itaq)

(i)táwe (dual) topic pronoun; form used when the preceding word ends in a consonant (PAN: *ita₁)

itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow (PWMP: *ita₂)

ítiknative duck (PWMP: *itik₂)

ítosmall catfish (PMP: *hituq)

itosmall catfish (PMP: *hitu)

i-tobóŋto put something inside something else (PWMP: *tubuŋ)

i-tolákto push (PMP: *tulak)

i-toróto point out, indicate with the finger (PWMP: *i-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

íwasshift one's position, shift something, but not away from the general area in which it is situated (PPh: *iwas)

ka-person or thing proximate to oneself: ka-aráp ‘one who is in front’ (cp. aráp ‘front’) (PPH: *ka-₄)

kayou, sg., familiar, topic pronoun (PMP: *ka₄)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-aboŋ-an ‘houses, group of houses’ (cp. aboŋ ‘house’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

kaa-ralémdepth (PMP: *dalem)

kabána trunk for storing clothes, etc. (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabáncavan, a dry measure approximately equivalent to a bushel (LOAN)

Pangasinan (300 / 927)

ka-bilaŋ-áncaring about (PWMP: *ka-bilaŋ-an) *bilaŋ₁

kabítattach; joint; share a part (PAN: *kabit₁)

káblitto touch lightly (PPH: *kab(e)lít)

káblitto touch lightly (PPH: *kab(e)lit)

ka-bosólenemy, foe; be enemies (PAN: *busuR₁)

ka-buas-ánmorning (PPh: *buás)

ka-buékdrunkenness (PMP: *buhuk) *buSuk

ka-daan-ánold, ancient (PMP: *daqan₂) *daqaN

ka-ísip-ánvoice, opinion (PPh: *ka-ísip-an) *ísip

ka-kan-enthings to eat (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ka-kolaŋ-ánstate of lacking, inadequacy (LOAN)

kálabahoneycomb; similar nest of insect (PPH: *kalába)

ka-lábanenemy, foe (PMP: *laban₂)

ka-labi-ánlast night, the previous night (PAN: *ka-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

kalígold mine (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kaluskusrustling noise (PPH: *kaRuskus)

kamaré-ruasoul (PMP: *duha) *duSa

kamátistomato (LOAN)

kandíŋgoat (PWMP: *kandiŋ)

kán-enfood (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

Pangasinan (320 / 927)

kapálthickness; become thick (PWMP: *kapal)

ka-páraone who is alike, the same (PWMP: *pada)

k-ápatthat which makes four, fourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kapáymake a stroke in swimming (PMP: *kapay)

kapéscotton (LOAN)

kap-igánwhen? (PAN: *ijan)

kapkápto feel, touch with the palm of the hand (PAN: *kapkap)

kapótto close (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput

kápoyweakness, debility (PPH: *kápuy)

káraŋshelter made of nipa and placed on boat or carabao cart (PMP: *kazaŋ₂)

ka-sulat-ánthings one likes to write; persons one likes to write to (LOAN)

kátilow tide; go out, of the tide (PWMP: *ka-qati) *qaCi

ka-toloŋ-ánally (PWMP: *ka-tuluŋ-an) *tuluŋ

kawayábamboo (PAN: *kawayan)

kawíllarge fishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawíŋlink in a chain; to link with chain or cord (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

kayaadvantage, ability to do something (PWMP: *kaya)

kayásto clean a cane or reed by scraping it with a knife (PPH: *káyas)

kayóyou (pl.) (topic pronoun) (PPH: *ka-yú) *iSu

keláwsurprise, astonish, amaze (PWMP: *kelaw)

Pangasinan (340 / 927)

kemélto catch fish with the hands (PMP: *kemel)

kemkémto hold tightly with the hand; to massage (PWMP: *kemkem₁)

kenáto hit a target with a shot, stone, etc. (PMP: *kena₁)

kepésto empty, of a swelling (PWMP: *ke(m)pes)

kepképto hold in the arms (PWMP: *kepkep)

ketélto shiver from the cold (PWMP: *keter)

ketkétto bite (includes insect and snake bites) (PWMP: *ketket)

kídkidto scrape or sand something, producing fine powder or dust (PMP: *kiDkiD)

kidlápshine; brilliance (PWMP: *kidelap)

kiéwtree, stick, timber (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kilí-kilíarmpit (PPH: *kili-kíli)

kílkilfile (tool) (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kimátlightning (PPH: *kimat)

kindátto wink (PWMP: *kindat)

kirémclose the eye (PWMP: *kidem)

kiremclose the eyes (PWMP: *kizem)

kirepeyebrow (PWMP: *ki(n)zep)

kírlapglitter (ROOT)

kiwíto twitch, move a part of the body (PPH: *kiwih)

-kome, my, by me (attributive pronoun; -k when preceding word ends in a vowel) (PAN: *-ku)

Pangasinan (360 / 927)

kokóclaw; finger- or toenail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kolaay punas-ánplace where towels are kept (PMP: *punas)

koláŋinsufficient (LOAN)

kolilíbamboo fire sticks (PPH: *kulili)

kolóbto cover; cover; bamboo used to cover ridge of roof (PWMP: *kulub₁)

kólotcurl, kinky or curly hair (PPH: *kulut-én) *kulut

koma-duásecond in order (PMP: *duha) *duSa

k<om>a-pitóseventh in order (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

k<om>a-siámninth (PPH: *siám)

k-om-a-walóeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

kopítto close mouth, eyes, book, etc. (PAN: *kupit)

korókto call chickens (PWMP: *kuruk)

kóryatcricket (PWMP: *kuriat)

koskósto grate in shreds (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

kotákto cackle (of chickens) (PPH: *kuták)

kotíŋkitten (PWMP: *kutiŋ)

kotkótto dig, inter (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

kotóhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuánsaid, though (followed by attributive particle or pronoun) (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kuánsaid, thought (followed by attributive particle or pronoun) (PWMP: *kuan₂)

Pangasinan (380 / 927)

kuma-limafifth in order (PWMP: *kuma-lima) *lima

kuma-pigáwhich in order? (PAN: *pijax)

lábancompetition; opponent; fight (PMP: *laban₂)

lábinight, evening (PMP: *Rabiqi)

labin-pitóseventeen (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

lagáto weave mats, hats, etc. (PWMP: *laja)

lagóhealthy, robust individual, plant or animal (PPH: *lagúq)

lákigrandfather, granduncle (PWMP: *lakay)

lakímale; boy (PMP: *laki₁)

lalóŋrooster, cock (PMP: *laluŋ)

lámato age, lose polish, etc. (PAN: *lama₂)

lamánbody, flesh, meat, muscle, substance (PPH: *lamán)

lamótroot (PMP: *Ramut₁)

lampásoto scrub (LOAN)

lanáfragrant coconut oil (PMP: *laña)

lánotthick fiber (PPH: *lánut)

laŋápforce a dog to eat by holding its mouth open and inserting food (ROOT)

láŋkajackfruit, a tree with large cylindrical fruit up to two feet long and about half as wide, the outer surface of which is covered with a honeycomb of raised pointed protuberances (PWMP: *laŋkaq₂)

laŋóyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

laókto mix, blend (PWMP: *lahuk)

Pangasinan (400 / 927)

laósto finish something already begun (PPH: *lahús)

láparwide (PMP: *lapad)

lápispencil (LOAN)

lápitto put people or objects very close to each other (PWMP: *lapit)

laríssound of whipping or lashing (ROOT)

látatin can; dipper (LOAN)

látakbeat with force (PWMP: *latak₁)

latákcrack, crevice (PPH: *laták)

lawérpepper leaf used for wrapping betel (PWMP: *Rawed)

lebágto increase in volume; expand under pressure (PPH: *lebág)

leblébto soak in liquid (PWMP: *lebleb₂)

leé taisle, space between (ROOT)

legáwgo astray, lose one's way (PWMP: *regaw)

lemékbecome soft (PAN: *lemek₁)

lenérdrown (PWMP: *leñej)

letaksplit (PWMP: *letak₁)

letáwfloat (of an object being cooked) (PWMP: *le(n)taw)

líbotprocession (PWMP: *libut)

ligísto crush seeds with a rolling pin or similar object; rolling pin; to run over (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

likáwto go around looking without definite purpose, meander (PAN: *likaw)

Pangasinan (420 / 927)

likáw-líkawto go around looking without definite purpose, meander (PPH: *likáw-likáw) *likaw

líkocorner (PMP: *likuq)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

limá-m-plofifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

linábbrilliant, resplendant (PPH: *lináb)

linákcalm (PPH: *linak)

li-náwabreath; to breathe (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

lináwabreath; to breathe (PPH: *linawa)

liŋáwturn the head to one side; look back (PPH: *liŋaw₂)

liŋóto err; mistake (PWMP: *liŋu)

lipáksound produced by palm when hands are clapped (PWMP: *lipak)

lipáksound produced by palm when hands are clapped (PWMP: *lipak)

lípottreachery (PPH: *liput₂)

liwágdelay, postponement; diversion, recreation (PPH: *liwag)

lobírrope, string (PPH: *lúbid)

loblóbto revive a fire or make it flare up by putting on more wood (PPH: *lublúb)

lobósto buy land or goods for sale in their entirety, leaving nothing for others (PPH: *lubús)

lokóbto surround, encircle; cover oneself completely, e.g. when cold (PPH: *lukúb)

loksóto jump with feet together (PPH: *luk(e)súh)

lómbarunning race (PWMP: *lumbeq)

Pangasinan (440 / 927)

lómbarunning race (LOAN)

lómotenderloin (cut of meat) (PMP: *lumu₂)

lonlónto stuff one’s mouth with food; gluttony, voracity (PWMP: *lunlun)

lópakbreak off, break up (PWMP: *lu(m)pak)

lorémcloud (PWMP: *ludem)

losókstomach, abdomen (PAN: *Rusuk)

luátears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luásto go to town (PMP: *luas₁)

luásto go to town (PPH: *luás)

luglúgto clean a bottle, vase, etc. inside by pouring in some water and shaking it for awhile (PMP: *luglug)

lukásto open, uncover (PMP: *lu(ŋ)kas)

ma-ágomvery greedy (PPH: *águm)

ma-ámotame (refers only to animals) (PPH: *ma-haq(e)muq) *haq(e)muq

ma-apíŋto have big cheeks (PPH: *apiŋ)

ma-asín(very) salty (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

ma-awáŋextensive, spacious (PMP: *awaŋ)

ma-baligiven to lying, untruthful (PWMP: *ma-bali₂) *bali₄

ma-biláyalive, living (PPh: *ma-bihaR) *bihaR

ma-boŋábearing fruit, laden (PWMP: *ma-buŋa) *buŋa

ma-etaunripe, green (fruit), uncooked (PAN: *ma-qetaq) *qetaq

Pangasinan (460 / 927)

magáto dry, wither (PMP: *maja)

ma-írapdifficult, hard (emotionally) (PWMP: *hidap)

maka-paka-sawádull, boring (PWMP: *saweqaq)

maka-pa-keláwstrange, amazing (PWMP: *kelaw)

ma-kapálthick (PWMP: *ma-kapal) *kapal

ma-kápoyweak, ineffectual, inferior, in poor condition (PPH: *ma-kápuy) *kápuy

ma-kdémsharp (PWMP: *ma-tazem) *Cazem

ma-lagóhealthy, vigorous (PPH: *ma-laguq) *lagúq

ma-letstrong, well-founded (PWMP: *elet₂)

ma-létstrong, well founded (PMP: *ma-heRet) *SeReC

ma-liŋóoften mistaken (PWMP: *liŋu)

mama-írapthe poor (NOISE)

ma-manáshoot an arrow (PWMP: *kelaw)

ma-ma-oránrainy season (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

ma-matéybutcher (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

ma-milíto choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-mílitto force (PPH: *pílit)

mamin-duátwice, two times (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ma-mítayto hang (another) (PPh: *maŋ-bítay) *bítay

ma-monásto wipe (PMP: *punas)

Pangasinan (480 / 927)

man-abálato be busy or occupied; to annoy, be a disturbance (PPH: *abála)

ma-nakéwsteal (PWMP: *ma-nakaw) *Cakaw

man-alagárto wait (PPH: *alagád)

mana-mílielector (PAN: *piliq)

man-anákbear a child (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

ma-nanámsavory, tasty (PPH: *ma-ñañam) *ñamñam

man-andóyanto swing in a hammock, cradle, etc. (PPH: *dúyan)

man-aŋésto breathe (PPH: *haŋes)

maN-apoystart a fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

ma-nawáyto taste (PWMP: *taway)

ma-nawtáwto lose (PWMP: *tawtaw)

man-dáitto sew (PMP: *zaqit)

man-dáŋdaŋto heat (PWMP: *maŋ-daŋdaŋ) *daŋdaŋ

man-daópto put the palms of the hands together (PPH: *daup₂)

man-depáto spread with outstretched arms (PPH: *man-depa) *depah

man-dumábecome different (PAN: *duma)

man-gálaŋto respect, honor (PPH: *gálaŋ)

man-gáorto row a boat (PPH: *gáqud)

man-gebáto destroy (PPH: *gebáq)

man-gíliŋto grind (PMP: *giliŋ)

Pangasinan (500 / 927)

man-goyórto pull, drag (PWMP: *Ruyud)

manipeanuts (LOAN)

man-ikaménto sit or sleep on a mat (PPh: *ikamen)

man-ilápto cut finely (PPH: *maŋ-hilap) *hilap

ma-nímbaŋto weigh (so much), to equal (PWMP: *ma-nimbaŋ) *timbaŋ

man-kalánsiŋto tinkle (NEAR)

man-kalógto shake up and down (PPH: *kalug)

man-kiláwto eat raw meat or fish (PPH: *kilaw₁)

man-kiskísto shave (oneself) (PAN: *kiskis)

man-kokóto cut one’s nails (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

man-kólotto curl someone’s hair (PPH: *kulut-én) *kulut

man-la-laókmixed up, scrambled (PWMP: *lahuk)

man-lotóto cook (PWMP: *lutuq)

man-óabto yawn (PWMP: *maŋ-huab) *Suab

manókbird, fowl, chicken (PMP: *manuk)

ma-nopsópto suck, take repeated big sips (PAN: *supsup)

man-osílrun after (PWMP: *maŋ-usiR) *qusiR

man-paypáyto fan (PPH: *paypáy)

man-pitpítto crush, smash to pieces; hammer metal flat (PAN: *pitpit₃)

man-pokpokto shake off dust (PAN: *pukpuk)

Pangasinan (520 / 927)

man-púyatto be sleepless (PPH: *púyat)

man-sabítto hang clothes, etc. on a peg (PMP: *saqebit)

man-sabítto hang clothes, etc. on a peg (PWMP: *sabit)

man-sábsab(of pigs) to eat, (of people) to eat like a pig, slurping food with smacking lips (PAN: *sabsab)

man-sakémto clasp (PPH: *sakém)

man-sambótto be on time; take advantage of an opportunity to do something (PPH: *sambut₁)

man-saŋsáŋto discuss something, debate, argue (PPH: *saŋsáŋ)

man-satsátto unstitch (PWMP: *tastas)

man-seksékfilled, packed tight, stuffed; to stuff fish, etc. (PAN: *seksek₁)

man-silábto burn leaves, papers, etc. (PPH: *sil(e)qáb)

man-silábto burn leaves, papers, etc. (PWMP: *sirab)

man-silípto peep (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

man-silípto peep (NEAR)

man-siráto eat meat or fish (PPH: *siraq₂)

man-solótto wear clothes (PPH: *suq(e)lút)

man-sorsórto plane (wood) (PPH: *sudsud₂)

man-sugátto hurt (PWMP: *suRat)

man-súkayto investigate, search (PPH: *sukáy)

man-taídefecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

man-taŋáystand outside a person’s house shouting insults, etc. (PPH: *taŋay)

Pangasinan (540 / 927)

man-taytáycross a bridge (PWMP: *ma-naytay) *taytay

man-topíto fold (clothes, etc.) (PPH: *tupíq)

ma-núlatto write (LOAN)

maŋ-ákoaccept, receive (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋ-asawáto marry (PWMP: *maŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

maŋgámango (LOAN)

ma-ŋiskísto shave (another person) (PAN: *kiskis)

maŋi-tabónto bury (PMP: *tabun₂)

maŋi-tolákto thrust (PMP: *tulak)

maŋi-toónto put pot on stove, to cook (PPH: *tuqun₁)

ma-rabókdusty, full of dust (PPH: *ma-dabuk) *dabuk₂

ma-rakélmany (PPH: *ma-dakél) *dakél

ma-rónoŋskilled (PPH: *dunuŋ)

ma-snágbright, brilliant (of light, stars, etc.) (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tabáŋ(of water) potable (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

ma-takótafraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

ma-táloto win; conquer, defeat (PMP: *talu₂)

ma-tóloŋhelpful (PWMP: *ma-tuluŋ) *tuluŋ

Pangasinan (560 / 927)

mi-búlaŋparticipate in cockfighting (by owning a cock, betting, etc.) (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

m-ika-pitóseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

m-ika-siámninth (PPH: *ika-siám) *siám

mikmíkcrumb, morsel (PPH: *mikmik)

mi-líbotto take part in a procession (PWMP: *libut)

mínsanonce only (PPH: *minsan)

mokomókreduce to powder; gold dust (PWMP: *mukmuk)

mokomókreduce to powder; gold dust (ROOT)

molíŋforehead (PAN: *mujiŋ)

molmólkeep (sweet, etc.) in the mouth to dissolve; suck thumb or finger (PMP: *mulmul)

na-ániharvested crops (especially rice, corn) (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

na-buástomorrow (PPh: *buás)

na-kánfood (PAN: *kaen)

nanámto savor, taste appreciatively (PAN: *ñamñam)

nan-asáŋgilled, having gills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

na-ŋel-ánwas heard (PMP: *deŋeR)

na-pnófull (PPH: *na-penuq) *penuq

nawáhave sufficient space, time, etc. (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

nawnáwdissolve, diminish in volume, as sugar, salt, etc. when exposed to the atmosphere (PPH: *nawnáw)

nawnáwdissolve (ROOT)

Pangasinan (580 / 927)

neŋneŋlook at, see (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

ni-dumáabnormal (PAN: *duma)

niógcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ni-rumá-rumáunique (PAN: *duma)

nisnísbroom, brush (PPH: *nisnís)

nótnótmanner of chewing of small children or older persons without teeth (PWMP: *ñutñut)

ŋalŋálcrush something hard or brittle with the teeth; chew (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

ŋalŋálbellowing of a carabao or bull (PPH: *ŋalŋál)

ŋáŋaopen mouth (PMP: *ŋaŋa₂)

ŋaránname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋáremafternoon (ROOT)

ŋipéntooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

ŋitŋítannoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁)

ŋitŋítannoyance (ROOT)

ŋitŋítannoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger) (PMP: *ŋitŋit₂) *ŋiCŋiC

ŋosŋósthe jumping up and squealing etc. of dogs greeting their master; noises made by very young children wanting food or attention (PAN: *ŋusŋus)

oábyawn (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

obákbark or skin of tree (PWMP: *ubak)

obángreyish hair; to have white hairs (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

obóŋnest (of bird); be nesting (NOISE)

Pangasinan (600 / 927)

ogálicustom; character (of a person) (PWMP: *ugaliq)

ógoŋto thunder (of any noise) (ROOT)

ogtónoon (PPh: *ugtu)

okókcough; to cough (PMP: *ukuk)

okókcough; to cough (ROOT)

olaol(of a person) very sensitive, weeping easily (PPH: *ulaqul)

olátvein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

olégsnake (PMP: *qulej)

olésblanket; cover with a blanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

olíreturn; become resurrected (PMP: *uliq₁)

olí-olíonce more; mention something repeatedly (PMP: *uliq uliq) *uliq₁

ólitrepeat; again (PWMP: *ulit)

olóhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

olópaccompany, go together (PWMP: *uRup)

ománchange, repair, repeat (PAN: *quman)

onáfirst, do first (PMP: *unah)

oná-anfirst in order (PPh: *unah-an) *unah

on-aŋáyto fit well (PPH: *aŋáy)

onátspread out (a mat); stretch (PPh: *huñat)

onátto spread (e.g. spread out a mat), stretch (PPh: *uñat)

Pangasinan (620 / 927)

on-dápolanding place; to alight, drop onto (PPH: *dapu)

on-dekétbecome black (PPH: *deket₃) *deket₂

on-lábanto fight (PMP: *laban₂)

on-labásto go beyond, pass through; surplus, excess above requirements (PPH: *labas)

on-lábibecome night (PMP: *Rabiqi)

on-layógexcessive tallness; grow very tall (PPH: *láyug)

on-líkoto turn, veer (PMP: *likuq)

on-lotóto ripen (PWMP: *lutuq)

on-saŋáto grow branches (PMP: *saŋa₁)

on-sapátto mount a horse (PPH: *sapat)

on-sibáto eat a lot, become voracious (PPH: *sibáq)

on-soloŋto go ahead, put into effect (PWMP: *suruŋ)

on-taŋáyto look up at (PPH: *taŋay)

on-tóloŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ)

oŋólroar (of sea, wind, water, a crowd); to roar (PMP: *huRuŋ)

óoŋmushroom (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

oránrain; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

oráŋshrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

oríŋcharcoal; to make charcoal (PAN: *qujiŋ)

osílrun after (PAN: *qusiR)

Pangasinan (640 / 927)

otávomit (PAN: *utaq)

ótaŋbill, account, debt; to owe (PMP: *qutaŋ)

otékbrain, brains (PMP: *hutek)

owákcrow (bird species) (PMP: *uak₁)

oyhey! (exclamation to attract attention of distant person) (PMP: *huy)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-alísto let leave, drive away (PPH: *qalís)

pádparrun aground because of adverse wind or current; shipwreck (PPH: *padpád)

pagáshoarse; to speak hoarsely (PPH: *pagas)

pagéyrice plant; unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay)

paítbitter tasting (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-kánto feed; to serve food (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakóedible fern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pakpákto beat cotton or cloth with a rod (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pálacoconut pith (PMP: *para)

pálaplace for storing pillows and mats (PAN: *paRa₁)

palakpákapplause (PPH: *p<al>akpak) *pakpak₁

p<al>akpákapplause (PAN: *pakpak₁)

palápamidrib of coconut leaf (PMP: *palaqpaq)

pála-pálatemporary shed prepared for a special occasion, esp. a wedding reception (PPh: *pala pala₂)

Pangasinan (660 / 927)

pálarlines on palm of hand; luck, fortune; be affected by fortune (PMP: *palaj₁)

pálarluck, fortune (PWMP: *palaj₂)

pálispleen (PAN: *paliq₁)

palíkpikfins or dorsal spines of fish (PPh: *p<al>ikpik) *pikpik

palíŋto turn (PMP: *paliŋ)

palíŋturn (ROOT)

palísburn weeds in a seedbed or other piece of land (NOISE)

palítbuy new clothes, have new clothes (PPh: *palit)

palóŋthe comb of a rooster (PPH: *páluŋ)

pálotpull out (PMP: *paRut)

pálpalto drive a wooden stake into the ground (PPH: *palpál₂)

paltík(usually homemade) gun (PWMP: *paletik)

paltík(usually homemade) gun (PWMP: *pale(n)tik)

palyábitter melon (PWMP: *paria)

panáarrow (PAN: *panaq)

panag-tanémplanting season (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

pan-anáktime or month of delivery (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

panaŋ-ániharvest season (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

pa-naónseason, in season (PMP: *taqun)

pándoŋmantilla, veil (NOISE)

Pangasinan (680 / 927)

panikía bat (PMP: *paniki)

pánitto skin (e.g. a frog) (PWMP: *panit)

panóto fill to overflowing (PMP: *penuq)

pan-ti-típon-ángathering place; assemblage (PPH: *típun)

pantóksummit, top (PPH: *pantuk)

paŋátto cook fish in vinegar with garlic (PWMP: *paŋat)

paŋátto cook fish in vinegar with garlic (LOAN)

paŋpáŋriver bank, riverside, seaside (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋ-úlobe a leader; eldest (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paŋ-ulo-anfirst child (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paóIndian mango (rounded and somewhat smaller than native varieties) (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pa-olíleave (something) for awhile (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

pa-oránbe caught in the rain (PAN: *pa-quzaN) *quzaN

pa-ótaŋto lend (PWMP: *pa-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

páralike, the same; be the same (PWMP: *pada)

pa-ranúmirrigation system (PMP: *pa-danum) *daNum

pára-páramatching (PWMP: *pada pada) *pada

párawtraditional type of sailboat (PWMP: *padaw)

parespair of sponsors at wedding, baptism, etc. Each pair is composed of a man and a woman, who thereby attain the relationship of compadre and comadre respectively to the parents of the child or couple involved (LOAN)

pa-sosóto give the breast to (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

Pangasinan (700 / 927)

patá-tanól-enfirecracker (PPH: *tanúR)

patáwbuoy; to float (PPH: *patáw)

patáwbuoy; to float (ROOT)

patéydeath (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patéy-enkill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patíeven, including, together with (PPH: *patí)

pátoŋan extra piece or amount added to something bought (as a bonus); small increase in price (LOAN)

páyoŋumbrella; to use an umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

paypáya fan (PPH: *paypáy)

pekétto hold, stick together, or pin together (PMP: *peket)

perperto fill a given measure without inflating the contents; give full measurre (PPH: *perper₁)

pespéssqueeze (PMP: *pespes)

pidáso‘piece’, unit for selling certain commodities, including dried guláman (extract from agar-agar seaweed from which a jelly-like dessert is prepared) (LOAN)

pi-dáwatto seek a favor (PPH: *dáwat)

pí-duasecond time (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pigáhow much? (PAN: *pijax)

pigá-rahow many?, so many (PAN: *pijax)

pikítplaster; sticky (PMP: *pikit)

piláksilver, money (esp. silver coins) (LOAN)

pílitto be obliged, have obligations (PPH: *pílit)

Pangasinan (720 / 927)

pínatstretch (ROOT)

pínsancousin (PPH: *pinsan)

pisáklowland (PPH: *pisak₂) *pisak

pisoone peso note (LOAN)

pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitó-m-ploseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

poégknee (PPH: *puéj)

pogóislet (PPH: *pujuq)

pokpókshake off dust (ROOT)

políancestry, pedigree, family tree; race of people; inherited characteristics (PPH: *pulí)

polóten (appears only with affixes) (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

ponássponge bath (PMP: *punas)

pónitto cover or close off small holes or openings (PPH: *punit)

ponitito box (LOAN)

pósoheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

posóheart of a banana fruit (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pospósend, finish, termination (PWMP: *puspus₁)

potíkto decorate cloth, etc. with braided threads (ROOT)

pótocake made from rice flour (LOAN)

pusácat (LOAN)

Pangasinan (740 / 927)

pusítsquid (PPH: *pusít)

putífairness, beauty (PMP: *putiq)

sabáa variety of cooking banana with large squarish fruits (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sabáŋmouth of a river (PMP: *sabaŋ₁)

sabítthorn, spine, fish bone (PMP: *saqebit)

sabólfountain, spring (of water) (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

sabóŋimmature fruit (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

sagófine comb (PMP: *saRu₁)

sagóa herbaceous plant the roots of which are cooked and eaten (PMP: *sagu₁)

saíŋto join two objects end to end (PPH: *saiŋ)

saítto sharpen on a stone, etc., whet (PAN: *saqit)

sakáyto navigate (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakay-ánship, vessel (PWMP: *sakay-an) *sakay₁

sakémterritory, jurisdiction; to absorb, acquire (PPH: *sakém)

sakítache, disease, pain, sickness, hurt; become painful (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-anto hurt (PWMP: *sakit-an) *sakit

sakóbcover, lid; to cover (PPH: *sakúb)

sakóblid, cover (Also Kankanaey sakkúb 'to cover with one's blanket, so as to have one blanket for two persons') (ROOT)

saksákto stab with any pointed object (PAN: *saksak₁)

saláksaka bird with red breast and green feathers, sometimes considered a bird of ill omen (PWMP: *salaksak)

Pangasinan (760 / 927)

salambáwa specially constructed large fishing net (PWMP: *salambaw)

salásacrossbeam supporting the floor (NOISE)

s<al>áysayto examine, investigate (PPH: *s<al>áysay) *sáysay

salétto put between (PPH: *salét)

salét-salétto intersperse (PPH: *salét-salét) *salét

salínoccupy one’s place against another’s will (PWMP: *salin)

saliŋsíŋto prune the new shoots from a tree (PPH: *saliŋsíŋ)

saloksókto skewer meat; insert stick, etc. into chink or crack (PPH: *saluksuk₂)

salópa ganta (three liters dry measure) (PPH: *salúp)

sa-m-póloten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

samsámsamsám (PPH: *samsám)

sandé-ruatwo by two; two each (PMP: *duha) *duSa

san-pi-pitóseven each (PAN: *pi-pitu) *pitu

saŋábranch of a tree, stalk of a plant, stem (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋgáto parry a blow (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

saŋímouth (PPH: *saŋi)

sapáŋtree used in dyeing and staining; dye (PWMP: *sapaŋ)

sapátplace something on top of table, roof, etc. (PPH: *sapat)

sápinsaddle cloth (PPH: *sapín)

sapínshoes (PPH: *sapín)

Pangasinan (780 / 927)

sapnótnot slippery, slightly sticky (of a surface) (PPH: *sap(e)nut)

sapókatom; fine dust carried by the wind (PMP: *sapuk)

sapókatom; fine dust carried by the wind (ROOT)

sapótspiderweb (PPH: *sapút)

sapsápto chip off, rasp; splinter, chip produced by rasping or adzing wood (PWMP: *sapsap)

sapsápkind of edible fish with flat, circular body (PPH: *sapsáp)

sawácloyed, tired of; become tired of, boring (PWMP: *saweqaq)

sawáliflattened bamboo made into mat-like panels serving as walling for traditional-type houses (PWMP: *sawaliq)

sawsáwdip in liquid (general term); dunk (PPH: *sawsáw)

sawsaw-ánsauce (PPH: *sawsáw)

sáyathis (NOISE)

sedsércompact; to compress (PPH: *sedsed₂)

simarker preceding [singular] personal nouns when the latter are subjects of a sentence, in apposition, etc.; also functions as a personal article before such nouns (PAN: *si₁)

siámnine (PPH: *siám)

sibáinordinate appetite, gluttony, voracity (PPH: *sibáq)

sígaycowrie shell (PWMP: *sigay)

sígiexpression equivalent to ‘O.K.’, ‘go ahead!’, ‘all right’ (LOAN)

siítarrowhead, thorn, spine on fish, etc. (PWMP: *siqit)

sikáŋto stretch to the limit, take a very wide stride (PWMP: *sikaŋ)

sikápcunning; to spy on (PPH: *sikap₁)

Pangasinan (800 / 927)

síkatbrilliance, glitter, splendor (PPH: *sikát)

síkatbrush-like instrument for polishing floors, etc., made from halved coconut husk (PWMP: *sikat)

sikóelbow (PAN: *sikux)

síloŋunder, underneath, space under house; ground floor; to put under (PPH: *siluŋ)

simótto gather food particles left on one’s plate by scraping plate with finger and eating every morsel; person having barely enough to eat (PPH: *simut)

símsimto try, taste (PPH: *simsím)

sínagsunbeam, moonbeam, glow (of light), to beam (of the sun); to rise (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sinam-púsoheart-shaped (PMP: *pusuq₁)

siŋílto collect a debt (PWMP: *siŋir)

siŋíntwin (PPH: *síŋin)

siŋítnotch at upper end of pillars or posts (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

siŋsíŋring (for finger) (LOAN)

sipátto aim at something thrown up or flying in the air (PWMP: *sipat)

sipíto break twigs or branches off a tree with the hand (PPH: *sipíq)

sipíŋtwin (PPH: *sípiŋ)

sípitpincers, tongs; pincers of a crab (PAN: *sipit)

sipsípto pluck off feathers; cut grass close to the ground; close shaven (PPH: *sipsíp)

sirafish, food, viand; to eat meat or fish (PPh: *sidáq)

sírato be cracked, split (of objects); wounded (PMP: *siraq₁)

siráfish, food, viand (PPH: *siraq₂)

Pangasinan (820 / 927)

síriturine; to urinate (PPH: *tiq(e)ris)

siwáŋcrack, space between (PMP: *siwaŋ)

siwsíwchick (PAN: *siwsiw)

sonominative case marker for common nouns (PAN: *su)

sobóput something into an opening (e.g. food into the mouth, the hand into a hole, etc.) (PPH: *súbuq)

sóbokto test, try, prove for oneself (PPH: *subuk₂)

soksókto sheathe bolo or knife (PAN: *suksuk)

solámbicoquette (PWMP: *surambiq)

soŋóspike-like projection from the head of shrimp (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

soŋótmouth, upper lip (PMP: *suŋut₂)

soŋsóŋto contradict; to go against wind, current or tide (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

sopsópsuck, take repeated big sips (PMP: *cupcup)

sorsórcarpenter’s plane (PPH: *sudsud₂)

sosóbreast; to drink from the breast; to milk (PAN: *susu₁)

suálpole or stake with iron point used for digging (PMP: *sual)

súbato go upstream, against the current (PPH: *súbaq)

subsúbto root with the snout (pig); fall on one’s face (PWMP: *subsub)

sugáprong, spike; to placed spikes on the way (to deter intruders, etc.) (PMP: *suja)

sugátcut, hurt, wound (PWMP: *suRat)

sugígitoothbrush (PWMP: *sugi)

Pangasinan (840 / 927)

súkatarea, size; to measure, fit (PWMP: *sukat)

súkiregular and favored customer; vendor or merchant whom one patronizes regularly (LOAN)

súlatletter (LOAN)

sulítcruelty, perversity, tyranny (PWMP: *sulit₁)

súmandelicacy made from sticky rice, sugar and coconut milk; wrapped and cooked in banana leaf (LOAN)

sumpáamulet, antidote; oppose, resist (PWMP: *sumpaq)

súpotbag, sack (PPH: *súput)

tawe two (topic pronoun; includes only speaker and single addressee) (PAN: *ta-₁)

tabecause (PPH: *taq₁)

taparticle marking interrogative sentences (PPH: *taq₂)

tabáfat, grease or oil for cooking; fatness, health; become fat (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabáka large and long variety of bolo (machete) (PPH: *tabák)

tabákotobacco (LOAN)

tabáŋtasteless (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tábascut (of dress, etc.), style (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tábladraw, tie (in a game) (LOAN)

tabon-ánto cover (PPh: *tabún-an) *tabun₂

tadtar-énto chop up (PPH: *tadtad-én) *tadtad

taéwmiddle of river; ocean, deep sea (PMP: *tahaw) *CaSaw

tagá-from (a place or point of origin) (PPH: *taga-)

Pangasinan (860 / 927)

tagátype of fishhook (LOAN)

tagláŋrib, frame (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

taíexcrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takbáto fall forward (PPH: *tak(e)bá)

takéwsteal (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

takótfear (PAN: *takut)

takot-ento frighten (PWMP: *takut-en) *takut

talagásurely, indeed, truly, really, certainly (PPH: *talagá)

talár-anto wait, stand watch (PPH: *taRad-an) *taRad

talóthree (PAN: *telu)

talóneggplant (LOAN)

tálsiksplash (PPH: *tal(e)sík)

tanémto plant, sow (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanólloud sound, explosion; to set off an explosion, make an exploding sound (PPH: *tanúR)

tantáncalm, become calm, slow down (PPH: *tantán)

taŋástupid (PPH: *taŋaq₁)

taŋánthumb, big toe (PMP: *taŋan)

táopeople, persons (ka-) (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

taólbark (of dog) (PPH: *taqul) *taqúl

taónage, year (PMP: *taqun)

Pangasinan (880 / 927)

tapákto step on, tread on; go barefoot (PWMP: *tapak₁)

tapak-ánslippers, sandals (PWMP: *tapak₁)

tápayto knead dough (PWMP: *tapay)

tarémblade, edge (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tárispur of rooster, blades added to spur for cockfight (LOAN)

táwasperformance of ritual designed to cure sickness (LOAN)

tawa-tawaa tree: Dysoxylum sp., Meliaceae (Madulid) (PWMP: *tawa₂) *tawa

tawáyflavor, taste (PWMP: *taway)

tawtáwlost in a crowd, misplaced (PWMP: *tawtaw)

taytáybridge (PMP: *taytay)

tebágcrumbling, eroded (PPH: *tebág)

tebelFicus nota (Blco.) Merr., Moraceae (Madulid 2001) (PPH: *tebéR)

tegtégsever or divide with a sharp instrument (PMP: *tegteg) *CegCeg

temékto crush (ROOT)

tepeta question; to ask a question (PPH: *tepet₂)

tig-si-siámnine each (PPH: *siám)

tikléb(<M) be upside-down, lie on one's stomach (ROOT)

timélflea (PWMP: *timel)

timírchin (PMP: *timid) *timij

t<in>aónannual (PMP: *taqun)

Pangasinan (900 / 927)

t-in-apásmoked fish (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa

t<in>ápaybread (PWMP: *tapay)

tíntaink (LOAN)

típonassembly, gathering; savings; to collect, gather up (PPH: *típun)

tobógrowth; to sprout, grow, increase (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tobóŋa length of bamboo hollowed out to serve as a container for carrying water, etc. (PWMP: *tubuŋ)

toékbow the head (ROOT)

tógtogplay a musical instrument (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

tóksotemptation (LOAN)

tóloŋhelp, aid, assistance (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tolóyto be able to proceed; to go immediately (PMP: *tuluy₁)

tomábody louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tombalíkinverted order (PPH: *tumbalik)

tóŋkabto force open with any instrument (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kab)

toonto put on or over something, pass or fly over, etc.; to put pot on stove to cook (PPH: *tuqun₁)

topágto match, pair (PPH: *tupáj)

to eject from the mouth; poke out one’s tongue (PMP: *luaq)

ubíyam (PMP: *qubi)

uhácry of newborn baby (PWMP: *uhaq)

unássugarcane (LOAN)

Pangasinan (920 / 927)

únibird song; to sing (birds only) (PMP: *huni) *Suni

wagwágshake out a sack, empty a container (PPh: *wagwág₂)

waisíksprinkle (ROOT)

walábeing in existence (often translatable by English 'to have' when referring to possessions, etc.) (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

walóeight (PAN: *walu)

yakétsap (ROOT)

ʔabétto meet (NOISE)

541. Pango (1) OC

ka-tulthree (POC: *ka-tolu) *telu

542. Papapana (25) OC

amu2pl.,, you (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

anito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

au1sg. object, me (PAN: *aku)

bolopig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

maihither (POC: *maRi) *aRi

matauto know (PMP: *ma-taqu₁) *Caqu

meatongue (POC: *maya)

mu-ate-naliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

na atosun (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

na-ianafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

na-susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

na-uviyam (PMP: *qubi)

na-vatustone (POC: *patu) *batux

nimahand (PAN: *qalima)

nuatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ŋisi-natooth (PMP: *ŋisi)

patu-nahead (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

sinonihusband (PEMP: *tinoni)

tananaʔpath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

taŋina-naear (PMP: *taŋila) *Caŋila

Papapana (20 / 25)

tau-tonuthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tau-vasifour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

tovusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

vavine-naelder sister (man speaking) (POC: *papine) *bahi

vunu-nahair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

Papar Murut (4) WMP. see: Murut (Papar)

543. Papitalai (31) OC [pat] Papua New Guinea

aŋo-anyellow (POC: *aŋo)

asa-ninner gills (red substance) (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

asugall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

brui-vulva, vagina (PAN: *puki)

brurbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

bruta shore tree: Barringtonia asiatica (POC: *putun₁) *butun

calpath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

cihircockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

deliŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

draya-blood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

drui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

ehetsago grub (PMP: *qabateR)

episago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

kamalmen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

kandrahcloud, sky (POC: *kadapuR)

kayacoutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

keytree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

kulbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

kurclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Papitalai (20 / 31)

mara-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mo-ruahtwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

mʷa-talahthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

nammosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nduhsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

ŋucu-lip (PAN: *ŋusuq)

parbroad-leaved pandanus sp. (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

patstone (POC: *patu) *batux

penathief; to steal (POC: *panako) *Cakaw

sa--ŋatone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

wumhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

544. Papora (24) Form. [ppu] (Papora-Hoanya) Taiwan

yes (PAN: *au₂)

balahcharcoal (PAN: *baRah)

bulato give (PAN: *bula₂)

ddapchest (PAN: *debdeb)

ddesforehead (PAN: *daqiS)

domwater (PAN: *daNum)

huci ~ kucivulva (PAN: *kuti)

limahand (PAN: *qalima)

lipintooth (PAN: *lipen)

loanbuffalo (PAN: *qaNuaŋ)

ludúhrabbit (PAN: *lutuk₁)

masaeye (PAN: *maCa)

(me)-siyanine (PAN: *Siwa)

na-patfour (PAN: *Sepat)

ne-nomsix (PAN: *enem)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pudanavel (PAN: *puja)

person, human being (PAN: *Cau)

sulideaf (PAN: *Culi)

timoreast (PAN: *timuR)

Papora (20 / 24)

tuluthree (PAN: *telu)

valistusk of wild boar (PAN: *waNiS)

variwind (PAN: *bali₃)

vushair of the head (PAN: *bukeS)

545. Papuma (15) SHWNG

aefoot (PAN: *qaqay)

aitree, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

bo-afour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

bo-ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

bo-onasix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

bo-riŋfive (PAN: *lima)

enasleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

mietaŋblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qetem) *qitem

rawalk (PMP: *lakaw)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

-u1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

ubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

unuŋto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

wavuash (PMP: *qabu)

546. Patep (11) OC (Hooley 1971, Adams and Lauck 1975) [ptp] Papua New Guinea

bwɔkpig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

-gmy (POC: *-gu) *-ku

γam2pl., you (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

γumakhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

inaplaugh (Hooley 1971) (POC: *inap)

inumto drink (PMP: *inum)

lato go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lagsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

mafather (PAN: *amax)

mεnakbird (POC: *manuk)

yi3sg., he (PAN: *ia₁)

547. Patpatar (25) OC [gfk] Papua New Guinea

amatularge green fish (POC: *amatu)

haliaraa vine: Merremia peltata (POC: *paliaRua)

ha-usurto teach (POC: *paka-usuri) *usuri

hidito plait (POC: *pijir, pijir-i)

kado-neck (POC: *kadro)

kakanew coconut frond that has not opened yet (POC: *kaka₃)

karaguoseaweed (POC: *karagwam)

kokaMacaranga quadriglandulosa (POC: *koka)

kuhurground dove (POC: *kupuR)

kukūtto hang oneself (POC: *kukut)

kur-kuruowl (POC: *kururu₂)

maand (PAN: *maS)

matauaxe? (POC: *matau)

ŋarcanarium almond: Canarium indicum (POC: *kaŋaRi)

paŋaŋaopen the mouth in wonder; yawn (POC: *paŋaŋap)

pasarslap; beat a drum (POC: *pwasa(r,R))

posato appear, stick out (POC: *pwosa)

purukspit with a lot of air (POC: *puRuk)

puso-pusoheart (POC: *puso₃) *puso₂

sēkcuckoo (POC: *seke)

Patpatar (20 / 25)

takefeces, excrement (POC: *take₂) *take

taragauwhistling kite: Haliaster sphenurus (POC: *taragau)

tatafather (PAN: *tata₁)

tuncorrect (POC: *tuna)

vasaraa plant: Vitex cofassus (POC: *pasa(rR))

Pattani Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Pattani)

548. Paulohi (117) CMP (Stresemann 1918) [plh] Indonesia (Maluku)

afa-iwhat? (PMP: *apa-i) *apa₁

afufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-ka-kilawild; shy (of domesticated animals) (PMP: *gila)

alachin, jaw (PMP: *qazay)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anato plait, weave (PMP: *añam)

aninewind (PMP: *haŋin)

asa-ewhet, sharpen (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asa-iits gills (PEMP: *asaŋ-i) *hasaŋ

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asu huru-ifur of a dog (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

ateroof thatch made of palm leaves (PMP: *qatep)

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

e-laufar, distant (PMP: *zauq)

fa-matakill (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

hahaupper side (PAN: *babaw₃)

hahacarry on the back (PMP: *baba₁)

hahupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

hakato open (intr.) (PMP: *bakas)

Paulohi (20 / 117)

haluanswer (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

halu (< *baluy)answer (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

hanuwake up, get up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

hanu-eawaken someone (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

hariturn over (PMP: *balik₂)

hari-harilie, deceive (PMP: *bali₄)

hari-hari-neliar (PMP: *bali₄)

haruwidow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

harua shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

hata-itree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

hatelelarva of the beetle Euchirus longimanus L. which lives in the trunks of sago palms and is eaten as a delicacy (PMP: *qabateR)

hatele ina-isago beetle (PMP: *qabateR)

hau-odor (PMP: *bahu)

heri-niits purchase price (PMP: *beli)

herubent; to bend (PMP: *beluk)

hihilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

hisato split in fragments (trans.), of glass, bamboo, etc. (PCEMP: *bisak) *biseqak

hisasplit to pieces (glass, bamboo) (ROOT)

hiticarry a child clutched to the breast; carry off; lift from the ground (PMP: *bintiŋ)

hua-iits fruit; numeral classifier for people, boats, cigarettes, mountains (PMP: *buaq)

Paulohi (40 / 117)

huaycrocodile: Crocodilus porosus Schneid. (PCEMP: *buqaya)

huhufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

huhu-ridge of roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

hulanemoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

hulawanegold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

hun-eneridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-en) *bubuŋ₁

huri-niits cluster of fruit (used of stalks of bananas) (PMP: *buliR)

huru-iits feathers, its fur, his/her hair (but not as human head hair!) (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

husedrive awat, drive off (an animal) (PMP: *busay)

husulehunting bow (PMP: *busuR₂)

hututie the hair into a knot (PMP: *butequl)

hutuaentrails, intestines, used in the sense of Malay hati (seat of the emotions) (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

hutu-iswarm, troop, abundance (PCEMP: *butu₂) *butu

ikewind a thread on a spool (PMP: *i(ŋ)kes)

imapandanus sp. (PCEMP: *ima₂)

imiyou (pl.) (PCEMP: *imi) *Simu

inaM (PCEMP: *ina)

isi-niflesh; contents (PAN: *isi₅)

kosashatter (egg) (ROOT)

kurusummon (chickens or the wind) with a clucking sound (PMP: *kuru₁)

Paulohi (60 / 117)

laal-esail of a boat (PAN: *layaR)

lahan-efriend, companion (PMP: *laban₂)

laibody dirt (PMP: *daki)

lalablood (PAN: *daRaq)

lamut-ismall roots (PMP: *Ramut₁)

latalelevel land, plain (PAN: *dataR)

latuking (PMP: *datu)

lauleaf (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

lautoward the sea (PCEMP: *laur) *lahud

lehuto mix, blend (PMP: *rembur)

leteabove (PCMP: *letay₁)

lohonehole in the ground (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

maito come; hither (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-laharat, mouse (PAN: *labaw₁)

ma-malato dry up, evaporate (PWMP: *la(m)bug₂)

ma-nahuto fall (PMP: *nabuq)

ma-ninishudder, shiver (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

manu-elet something go adrift (as a boat on water) (PMP: *ma-qañud) *qañud

manu-ebird (PMP: *manuk)

manu-e huru-ibird feather (PMP: *bulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

Paulohi (80 / 117)

matadead; die (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mata-edie of something (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mata-e lalableed to death (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

meteblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qetem) *qitem

minafat (PMP: *miñak)

mi-ni-nifito dream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

mu-turulie down, sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

nalaname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nalaa tree: Pterocarpus indica (PMP: *naRah)

nifasnake (PMP: *nipay)

nifa nitucentipede, millipede (PMP: *nipay)

nituspirit of the dead (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

nuelecoconut palm, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

rihut-estorm (PMP: *ribut)

rima ina-ithumb (PMP: *ina ni lima) *ina

ririhouse post (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

ririfan-ecentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

silethey, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

susufemale breast; suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susu wair-imilk (breast water) (PAN: *susu₁)

Paulohi (100 / 117)

suɁunebreadfruit tree: Artocarpus incisa L. (PMP: *sukun)

ta ~ ta-mano, not (PMP: *taq₃)

teruregg (PMP: *qateluR)

tetecut through meat or bone with a cleaver (PAN: *tektek₁)

tetuto peck (PCMP: *tetu)

tia-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tihaledrum (PCMP: *tibal)

tihulake (PCMP: *tibu₁) *tibu

tunuroast, burn; shoot with a weapon', tunu 'to burn; to shoot (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

turuto descend, go down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

una-irefuse of, scrapings of (PCEMP: *qunap₁) *quSeNap

unuto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

unu-unu-adrink, beverage (PMP: *inum-inum-an) *inum

utanepea, bean (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

waeleg, foot (PAN: *waqay)

walet-eliana; rope (PMP: *waRej)

wariyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

549. Pazeh (366) Form. (Ferrell 1968) [uun] (Kulon-Pazeh) Taiwan (dialects: Kahabu 11)

aco-ordinate particle (links head and attribute) (PAN: *a₅)

abaxa-nshoulder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

abuashes (PAN: *qabu)

ai-tuduʔ-anclassroom, place for instruction (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

alaytermite, white ant (PAN: *aNay)

ami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *ami)

apuzugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapejux)

arato take, get, obtain; marry (PAN: *ala)

araʔ-enbe received, accepted (PAN: *alaq-en) *alaq₁

araʔ-itake it! (PAN: *alaq₁)

axempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

babaŋutthe whole area around the mouth and the nose (ROOT)

ba-baŋutthe whole area around the mouth and the nose (NOISE)

babawabove, up, on (PAN: *babaw₃)

bahahcharcoal (expected **baxah) (PAN: *baRah)

balasmale, of animals and fowls (PAN: *baNaS)

bariwind (PAN: *bali₃)

bariwind (LOAN)

bariw-ibuy it! (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

batustone (PAN: *batux)

Pazeh (20 / 366)

batu lasutesticle (PAN: *batux)

batu pataruchicken egg (PAN: *batux)

baxalung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

baxatcucumber (PAN: *baRat₂)

baxudpigeon (PAN: *baRuj) Kahabu

baxutrock dove: Columba livia (PAN: *baRuj)

baza-know, understand (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

bazuto wash (clothes) (PAN: *basuq)

belebelbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

benandeer with white spots on the body, (thus the Formosan sika deer: Cervus nippon taiouanus Blyth) (PAN: *benan)

bintunstar (PAN: *bituqen)

buhutsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

bukatrelease a trap intentionally (PAN: *bukas)

bukul ~ bukunback (anat.) (PAN: *bukuN)

buna-bunatsandy beach (PAN: *bunaj)

bunadsand (PAN: *bunaj) Kahabu

bunatsand (PAN: *bunaj)

bunatsand (LOAN)

bunuxswell (PAN: *bunuR₁)

buruspecies of slender bamboo (has the tastiest shoots, stems used for smoking pipes, etc.) (PAN: *buluq₂)

Pazeh (40 / 366)

buzuxarrow (PAN: *busuR₂)

daa-pia-tudu ~ saa-pia-tuduindex finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

dadadakstep on dung by mistake (ROOT)

dadaŋwarm (body); broil (PAN: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

da-dapalsole of the foot (PAN: *dapaN)

da-diusspoon, ladle (PAN: *qidus)

daisface (PAN: *daqiS)

dakescamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS)

dakidirt, garbage, waste; dandruff (PAN: *daki)

daki-anget dirty (PAN: *daki)

dali, dali-anday (PAN: *daqaNi)

dalumwater (PAN: *daNum)

dalum-anpond; well water (PAN: *daNum)

dalum-anpond, well water (PAN: *danum-an) *daNum

damublood (PAN: *damuq)

daranroad, trail (PAN: *zalan)

daxaFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana (PAN: *daRa₁)

daxamaccustomed to (PAN: *dajam)

daxemneedle (PAN: *zaRem)

daxəʔearth, land (PAN: *daReq) Kahabu

Pazeh (60 / 366)

dayaeast (PAN: *daya)

demekrotten (as a log) (ROOT)

dilocative or directional case marker (Li 1978:573 (PAN: *di)

diadi-duato move there (PAN: *dua)

di-nihere (PAN: *di-ni) *-ni

duato go; that yonder (PAN: *dua)

du-dusasecond (PAN: *du-duSa) *duSa

dukudukginger: Zingiber officinale (PAN: *dukduk₁)

dusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

-ənpassive suffix; e.g. sulih-ən be baked, kan-ən be eaten, ʔutaʔ-ən be vomited, ʔalaw kan-ən inaki lia The fish was already eaten by me; (Li 1978:570) Rubaŋ-en ni saw lia ki wazuʔ The dog was already buried by some person (Li 1978:574) (PAN: *-en)

hapwi, hapuyfire (PAN: *Sapuy)

huhasvein, blood vessel (PAN: *huRaC)

ilasmoon, month (PAN: *qiNaS)

imawho? (PAN: *ima)

im-inithis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inamother (PAN: *ina)

inino, not (negator of verbs and adjectives) (PAN: *ini)

in-umaspickled; pickles (PAN: *umaS)

itawe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ita-anwe (incl.), locative (PAN: *ita₁)

Pazeh (80 / 366)

ituktop of the head (ROOT)

iʔ-imawho? (plural) (PAN: *ima)

katopic marker (PAN: *ka₃)

ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-udan-an ‘be soaked with rain, be caught in the rain’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); ka-akux-an ‘heatstroke; be overcome by heat’ (cf. paka-akux ‘to warm up, to heat’); ka-bari-an ‘be blown about by the wind’ (cf. bari ‘wind’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ka-baretto borrow (PAN: *bales₁)

ka-bazato know (PAN: *ka-bajaq) *bajaq

kabithook (PAN: *kabit₁)

kahoy saŋiraspecies of flat, thin, black mushroom (lit. 'wood ear') (PAN: *Caliŋa nu kaSiw) *Caliŋa

kahu-kahuy-anforest (PAN: *kaSi-kaSiw) *kaSiw

kahuytree, wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

kakaka crow (PAN: *kakak)

ka-kan-andining table (PAN: *ka-kaen-an) *kaen

ka-kan-aywill eat, shall eat (PAN: *kaen-ay) *kaen

ka-kan-ento eat (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ka-kapita button (PAN: *kapit)

kakasuspider (PAN: *kakaCu)

ka-kaxawto scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

ka-lamik-ancatarrh, cold, flu (PAN: *ramig)

kalima-kawastalkative (PAN: *kawaS₂)

ka-malaŋsharp (blade) (PAN: *maNaŋ)

Pazeh (100 / 366)

kan-ieat (imper.) (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

kapuablanket, coverlet, quilt; sleeping mattress; cotton (PAN: *kapua)

kaukupto brood eggs; to cover chicks with its wings (of a hen) (ROOT)

kawasyear; sky, heaven (PAN: *kawaS₁)

kawasword, language; speech (PAN: *kawaS₂)

kaway- ~ ta-kawaya bag (made of string) carried on a man’s back (PAN: *kaway₃)

kaxaŋsmall crab found in streams (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

kemer-enbe held tightly, be squeezed (PAN: *gemel)

kexet-enbe hurt, grazed, abraded (as with miscanthus leaves) (PAN: *keRet-en) *keRet

k<in>a-mala-malaŋvery sharp (PAN: *maNaŋ)

k<in>an sawwas eaten by a person (someone) (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

k<in>-ulato have had someone lead (PAN: *(q)uNah)

kitaLook! (imperative) (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kita-anto be seen (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kita-ʔen-iato have been discovered (PAN: *kita-en) *kita

kixiwhemp fiber (PAN: *keRiw)

kizexstep up on (a rock, table, etc.) (ROOT)

kukusa'to work in the field' (not: 'to work in general') (PAN: *kuSa)

kulukunbamboo partridge (PAN: *kuNkuN)

kusuhead louse (PAN: *kuCux)

Pazeh (120 / 366)

laalready (PAN: *Na₂)

laaziboundary (PAN: *Naqeji)

lalaycicada (LOAN)

lamikcold (of weather, water) (PAN: *ramig)

lawata step (NEAR)

lizaxsun (PAN: *siNaR)

luzuŋmortar (PAN: *Nusuŋ)

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

maa-dusato be forked (bifurcation of a path) (PAN: *duSa)

maaka-kitato meet for the first time (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

maa-kitato look at each other (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

ma-bariblow, of the wind (PAN: *ma-bali₁) *bali₃

ma-bazato know, understand; able, can (PAN: *ma-bajaq) *bajaq

ma-bunuxto swell; swollen (of a boil or tumor); to boast (PAN: *ma-bunuR) *bunuR₁

ma-busukdrunk (PAN: *ma-buSuk) *buSuk

ma-kuri-kurisvery skinny (PAN: *ma-kuliC) *kuliC

ma-kurisskinny, lean, thin (PAN: *ma-kuliC) *kuliC

mali-tituto give birth (of animals) (PAN: *titu)

mamaholder brother of a man or woman, wife’s elder brother (PAN: *mamah)

m-apacarry on one’s back (PAN: *apa₂)

Pazeh (140 / 366)

ma-paŋabranching (PAN: *paŋa₁)

ma-punustupid (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

m-arato take (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

ma-raremhave poor sight (because of age, etc.) (ROOT)

ma-raxiwflee, escape, run away (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

ma- reberepfoggy, misty; cloudy and misty (PAN: *ma-lebleb) *lebleb₁

m-arepbeckon (PAN: *qalep)

ma-sakawsteal, rob (PAN: *Cakaw)

ma-sakawto steal (PAN: *ma-Cakaw) *Cakaw

masa-ulahto go first, to leave first; to proceed, go forward (PAN: *(q)uNah)

ma-sikatashamed; shy; reserved, modest (PAN: *ma-Sikad) *Sikad

masi-rukuswear or put on trousers or pants (LOAN)

masi-saikdefecate (PAN: *Caki)

ma-suawto yawn (PAN: *ma-Suaw) *Suaw

mata-dusasecond time; twice (PAN: *duSa)

ma-taŋato open (a door, case) (PAN: *ma-taŋa) *taŋa₁

ma-tuduto educate, bring up children, instruct (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

matu-xumato build a house (PAN: *Rumaq)

ma-udaƚto rain (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

ma-umasto pickle; to rub and crumble (PAN: *umaS)

Pazeh (160 / 366)

ma-usa-yto go, to leave (PAN: *uSa)

maxa-kitato see each other (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

maxa-reseto shed tears (PAN: *maR-luSeq) *luSeq

maxa-xaidaŋto have smallpox (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

(maxu)-taxato wait (PAN: *taRah)

me-kemerto hold tightly, squeeze in the hand (PAN: *gemel)

me-kento eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

me-pepetto massage, to grasp (PAN: *p<um>espes) *pespes

mə-səkədto rest (PAN: *Ceked) Kahabu

mə-sənawwash utensils (PAN: *Señaw)

mia-dayatowards the east; go east (PAN: *daya)

mia-duato go over there (far away); that yonder, opposite side of the river or the mountain (PAN: *dua)

mia-dusasecond (PAN: *duSa)

mia-rahutgo west, go downstream (PAN: *lahud)

mi-kitato see, to look at (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

m-in-a-busukwas drunk (PAN: *ma-buSuk) *buSuk

mohakemembrace (ROOT)

mo-honito chirp, to crow (roosters) (PAN: *Suni)

mu-bariwto buy (PAN: *b<um>aliw) *baliw₃

mu-bazuto wash (clothes) (PAN: *b<um>asuq) *basuq

Pazeh (180 / 366)

mu-bilishold in the hand (PAN: *biNiC)

mu-dakedakremove millet grains by trampling or stamping with the feet (ROOT)

mu-dakisto ascend, to climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.) (PAN: *dakiS)

mu-dakisascend, climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.) (PAN: *d<um>akiS) *dakiS

mu-damubleed (PAN: *damuq)

mu-diusto scoop out with a spoon or ladle (PAN: *qidus)

mu-dusadivide into two (PAN: *duSa)

mu-kabitto hook (PAN: *kabit₁)

mu-kapitto button (PAN: *kapit)

mu-kawasto speak, say, talk (PAN: *kawaS₂)

mu-kaxawto scratch (oneself) (PAN: *k<um>aRaw) *kaRaw₁

mu-kexetto cut (to hurt); cut a piece; cut grass (PAN: *keRet)

muk-usato leave (PAN: *uSa)

mu-kusukusroll up something light or thin such as paper, or sleeves (PAN: *kuCkuC)

m-ulato lead, to do first (PAN: *(q)<um>uNah) *(q)uNah

mu-laŋuyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

mu-lezekto plant into ground or something (NEAR)

mu-ŋawŋawto chirp (as a bird, insect) (PAN: *ŋawŋaw)

mu-panathrow at, to hit (as when throwing a stone at a dog to drive it away) (PAN: *p<um>anaq) *panaq

mu-pirito choose (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

Pazeh (200 / 366)

mu-rahutto flow, as water (PAN: *lahud)

mu-rubaŋto bury (in general, including a dead person or animal) (PAN: *l<um>ubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

mu-saisto sew (PAN: *C<um>aqiS) *CaqiS

mu-sapuhsweep (PAN: *C<um>apu) *Capuh

mu-seketto rest, to stop (PAN: *Seked)

mu-seketto rest, to stop (PAN: *Ceked)

mu-taketakto chatter, of the teeth; to make a crunching sound, of the teeth in chewing something hard (PAN: *taktak₂)

mu-talamto try, taste (PAN: *tañam)

mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice) (PAN: *t<um>aNek) *taNek

mu-tapesto winnow (PAN: *tapeS)

mu-taxato cut wood or bamboo into small pieces (PAN: *t<um>aRaq) *taRaq₁

m-utaʔto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

mu-tenepto drown, submerge, inundate (PAN: *tenep)

mu-tenepto drown, submerge, inundate (as a river inundating a house) (PAN: *teneb)

mu-tubato catch fish with Derris poison (PAN: *t<um>uba) *tuba

muxi-bariwto sell (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

mu-xuratto open one's eyes (ROOT)

mu-xusuxusto plane (a board) (PAN: *RuSRuS)

mu-zakayto walk (PAN: *s<um>akay) *sakay₂

mu-zezepto suck (milk, shells, etc.) (PAN: *s<um>epsep) *sepsep

Pazeh (220 / 366)

muziŋface (PAN: *mujiŋ)

mu-zupayto whet (a knife), to grate (as a radish) with a grater having sharp notches (PAN: *s<um>upay) *supay

nigenitive marker, possessive marker (appears to be restricted to human referents) (PAN: *ni)

n-imawhose? (PAN: *ni-ima) *ima

n-itaour, ours (PAN: *n-ita) *ita₁

nugenitive marker (rare) (PAN: *nu₃)

núaŋbuffalo (PAN: *qaNuaŋ)

nunuhbreast (of woman); milk (PAN: *nunuh)

ŋawŋawsound of a bird, insect; voice (PAN: *ŋawŋaw)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-baretto answer (PAN: *bales₁)

pa-bazacause to know; teach (PAN: *pa-bajaq) *bajaq

paka-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

pa-kanto feed (as a mother feeding her young child) (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-kawasSay it! (PAN: *kawaS₂)

pa-kitato show (PAN: *pa-kita) *kita

paliŋwall (PAN: *paNiŋ)

paŋabranch (PAN: *paŋa₁)

pa-palitwing (PAN: *paNid)

pa-panashoot with a bow; throw at (with a stone) (PAN: *panaq)

Pazeh (240 / 366)

pa-surusurto masturbate (PAN: *SulSul)

pa-taŋato open (a door, case) (PAN: *taŋa₂) *taŋa₁

patukto strike against (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

pa-tumalato make someone listen (PAN: *pa-tumaNa) *tumaNa

pazayglutinous rice (PAN: *pajay)

pee-pederis squeezing (wringing out) clothes (PAN: *pedel)

pepetmassage (PAN: *pespes)

pia-tuduto point at (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

pii-piribe choosing (as when picking up pebbles from rice grain) (PAN: *piliq)

pilasilver; silver coin (LOAN)

pineŋbetel nut, areca nut (loan Taiwanese pin neng) (LOAN)

piri-ʔichoose it! (PAN: *piliq-i) *piliq

pi-sipi, pai-sipidream (PAN: *Sipi)

pukakuruŋto rattle, to clatter (the sound of a cart running) (ROOT)

pula-lilakshining (NEAR)

punuhead (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

puzanavel (PAN: *puja)

rahuddownstream; toward the sea (PAN: *lahud) Kahabu

rahutwest; downstream, lower part of a river (PAN: *lahud)

raŋaraŋclouded leopard (Tsuchida gives this as 'tiger, lynx') (ROOT)

Pazeh (260 / 366)

raŋawa fly (big or small) (PAN: *laŋaw)

raŋaw nuaŋhorsefly (PAN: *laŋaw)

reberepfoggy, misty weather (PAN: *lebleb₁)

resetears (PAN: *luSeq)

r<in>ubaŋ a sawgrave, tomb, graveyard (PAN: *lubaŋ₁)

rukuspants, trousers, shorts (LOAN)

ruluŋcloud (PAN: *luNuŋ)

saa-kabita hook (PAN: *kabit₁)

saa-karidigging stick (PAN: *kalih)

saa-laŋuybuoy; fins (PAN: *Naŋuy)

saa-pa-taŋaa key (PAN: *taŋa₂) *taŋa₁

saikexcreta (PAN: *Caki)

samaa plant: Sonchus oleraceus Linn. (PAN: *Samaq)

sama binayua plant, Lactuca indica, used to reduce fever (binayu = ‘mountain, forest’) (PAN: *Samaq)

saŋiraear (PAN: *Caŋila)

sarisrope, cord, string; bowstring (PAN: *CaliS)

sa-sapuhbroom (PAN: *Ca-Capuh) *Capuh

sa-sazekto smell, perceive odor (PAN: *Sajek)

sawperson, human being (PAN: *Cau)

seked-iTake a rest! (PAN: *Ceked)

Pazeh (280 / 366)

semergrass (just beginning to grow) (PAN: *Cemel)

seme-semergrassland (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel

sepatfour (PAN: *Sepat)

sə-səkədto be resting (PAN: *Ceked) Kahabu

si-duato go there (PAN: *dua)

sikatashamed, shy (PAN: *Sikad)

siŋas-en a lepeŋto get in (of food particles) between the teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

sisilomen bird, Gray-eyed Nun Babbler, Alcippe morrisonia (PAN: *SiSiN)

si-sinawwash utensils (PAN: *Siñaw)

suadi, suaziyounger sibling (PAN: *Suaji)

suawyawn (PAN: *Suaw)

sumaycooked rice (PAN: *Semay)

tawe (inclusive, hortative) (PAN: *ta-₁)

ta-we (inclusive, genitive, hortative) (PAN: *-ta)

taa-tatakis cutting down tall grass or shrubs with a scythe or a machete by holding in aloft and swinging down (PAN: *tatak)

tadawknife (for fighting, hunting) (PAN: *tadaw)

ta-kan-ilet’s eat! (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

takaxaŋribs (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

talamto taste (PAN: *taNam)

talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked (PAN: *taNek-en) *taNek

Pazeh (300 / 366)

talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice) (PAN: *taNek)

tamakutobacco (LOAN)

tanaa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq)

tapes-iwinnow it! (PAN: *tapeS)

ta-sakawthief (PAN: *Cakaw)

ta-seked-i na!Let’s rest (PAN: *Seked)

tataaunt (mother’s brother’s wife; mother’s elder sister) (PAN: *tata₁)

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak)

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak) Kahabu

ta-tubaDerris poison (a type of vine whose roots are beaten and its poisonous sap is let flow in the stream to catch paralyzed fishes) (PAN: *tuba)

ta-tuduinstruction; finger ring (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

taxaʔ-iCut it! (PAN: *taRaq-i) *taRaq₁

taxuanhut, shack, shelter (PAN: *taRuqan)

teketek-to mince, to chop into small pieces (as vegetables) (PAN: *tektek₁)

tialbelly, abdomen (PAN: *tiaN)

tibukulcrooked, curved (*/l/ > /l/ regular?) (ROOT)

tilikattrap, snare in general (ROOT)

titulittle animal (puppy, kitten, piglet, calf, etc.) (PAN: *titu)

tixepesto spit (PAN: *tiR(e)peS)

tixepes-iSpit! (PAN: *tiR(e)peS)

Pazeh (320 / 366)

tu-baŋerrotten (PAN: *baŋ(e)qeR₁) *baŋ(e)qeR

tubussugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

tul ~ tunpine tree (PAN: *tuquN)

tulabig eel; bum, idler (PAN: *tuNa)

tu-lamikaloof (PAN: *ramig)

tumalato hear, to listen (PAN: *tumaNa)

turuthree (PAN: *telu)

ula siwYou first! (PAN: *(q)uNah)

urudpillar, post (PAN: *qelud) Kahabu

urutpillar (PAN: *qelud)

usago! (PAN: *uSa)

usa ulaGo first! (PAN: *(q)uNah)

uxuŋhorn of deer, cow or goat (PAN: *uReŋ)

waliscanine tooth; tusk of animal (PAN: *waNiS)

waluhoneybee (PAN: *waNu)

waraythread, hemp yarn for weaving (PAN: *walay)

xaidaŋbeans (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

xamessmall roots (PAN: *RameC)

x<a>usuxusto scrape bamboo knots (PAN: *RuSRuS)

xinua large winnowing basket used for ladling rice (PAN: *Rinu)

Pazeh (340 / 366)

xi-talamto taste (PAN: *tañam)

xubunest (of bird); sheath (of sword) (PAN: *Rubu)

xumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

y-aku1sg. topic and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *i-ami) *ami

zakaywalk (PAN: *sakay₂)

za-zupay-enwhetstone (PAN: *sa-supay-an) *supay

zəbəzəbchest (PAN: *debdeb) Kahabu

zebezepchest (PAN: *debdeb)

zezeb-enis sucked (PAN: *sepsep-en) *sepsep

zezeb-isuck it! (PAN: *sepsep)

zihikaymaggot (PAN: *sihikay)

zikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

z<in>akaybehavior (PAN: *sakay₂)

z<in>akay-anfootprints, traces (PAN: *sakay₂)

zupaywhet (a knife) (PAN: *supay)

ʔabaxaʔshoulder (Ferrell 1968) (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

ʔaiambird (PAN: *qayam₁)

ʔaƚebdoor, gate (PAN: *qaNeb)

ʔaƚebdoor, gate (ROOT)

Pazeh (360 / 366)

ʔaləbdoor (PAN: *qaNeb) Kahabu

ʔaləb-ənclosed (PAN: *qaNeb) Kahabu

ʔamisannorth; winter (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

ʔasayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

ʔuayrattan (PAN: *quay)

ʔudaƚrain (PAN: *quzaN)

Pazeh (Kahabu) (11) Form.

baxudpigeon (PAN: *baRuj) Kahabu

bunadsand (PAN: *bunaj) Kahabu

daxəʔearth, land (PAN: *daReq) Kahabu

mə-səkədto rest (PAN: *Ceked) Kahabu

rahuddownstream; toward the sea (PAN: *lahud) Kahabu

sə-səkədto be resting (PAN: *Ceked) Kahabu

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak) Kahabu

urudpillar, post (PAN: *qelud) Kahabu

zəbəzəbchest (PAN: *debdeb) Kahabu

ʔaləbdoor (PAN: *qaNeb) Kahabu

ʔaləb-ənclosed (PAN: *qaNeb) Kahabu

550. Pelipowai (3) OC [rak] (Tulu-Bohuai) Papua New Guinea

alsun (POC: *qalo₁)

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

pukbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

551. Penan (41) WMP [pez] (Penan, Eastern) Malaysia (Sarawak) (dialects: Long Merigam 3, Long Lamai 18, Long Labid [ttw] 19)

ahampangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem) Long Lamai

akəuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku) Long Labid

ameɁ tələwwe three, excl. (PAN: *ami) Long Labid

atayliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay Long Lamai

baheʔto swell; swollen (PAN: *baReq) Long Labid

baʔoʔodor (PMP: *bahuq) Long Lamai

bəsosatiated, full (after eating) (PAN: *besuR) Long Lamai

bokhead hair (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS Long Lamai

dahablood (PAN: *daRaq) Long Lamai

daniʔnear (PMP: *adani) Long Labid

duəhtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Long Lamai

iap laluŋcock, rooster (PMP: *laluŋ) Long Labid

ibəwthousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Labid

ita-mwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁) Long Labid

jalanpath, road (PMP: *zalan) Long Lamai

jəh ibəwone thousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Labid

juʔfar (PMP: *zauq) Long Labid

kapanthick (PWMP: *kapal) Long Labid

kauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Merigam

kaʔauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Labid

Penan (20 / 41)

k-ivanparent-in-law, child-in-law (PWMP: *ka-ibah-an) *ibaS

kulitskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC Long Lamai

lakawto walk (PMP: *lakaw) Long Labid

lakawwalk (PMP: *lakaw) Long Lamai

lakaw kakapgrope, feel one’s way along in walking (PAN: *kapkap) Long Labid

ləməhfive (PAN: *lima) Long Lamai

likutback (PAN: *likud) Long Lamai

meremnight; dark (PWMP: *medem) Long Labid

m-esepdrink (PAN: *q<um>esep) *qesep Long Labid

mətəkto cut, chop (PAN: *t<um>əktək) *tektek₁ Long Merigam

m-osorub, wipe (PMP: *usuq) Long Labid

nəmsix (PAN: *enem) Long Lamai

patfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat Long Lamai

pə-səreto lean on (PMP: *sendiR) Long Lamai

sanamant (PWMP: *sanam) Long Labid

sayawdance (PWMP: *sayaw) Long Labid

sohoɁto order, command (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq Long Labid

suhatwound; wounded (PWMP: *suRat) Long Lamai

tələuʔthree (PAN: *telu) Long Lamai

tepu-ngrandparent (ref.) (PMP: *t-empu) *empu Long Merigam

Penan (40 / 41)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ) Long Lamai

Penan (Long Labid) (19) WMP [ttw] (Long Wat) Malaysia (Sarawak)

akəuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku) Long Labid

ameɁ tələwwe three, excl. (PAN: *ami) Long Labid

baheʔto swell; swollen (PAN: *baReq) Long Labid

daniʔnear (PMP: *adani) Long Labid

iap laluŋcock, rooster (PMP: *laluŋ) Long Labid

ibəwthousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Labid

ita-mwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁) Long Labid

jəh ibəwone thousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Labid

juʔfar (PMP: *zauq) Long Labid

kapanthick (PWMP: *kapal) Long Labid

kaʔauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Labid

lakawto walk (PMP: *lakaw) Long Labid

lakaw kakapgrope, feel one’s way along in walking (PAN: *kapkap) Long Labid

meremnight; dark (PWMP: *medem) Long Labid

m-esepdrink (PAN: *q<um>esep) *qesep Long Labid

m-osorub, wipe (PMP: *usuq) Long Labid

sanamant (PWMP: *sanam) Long Labid

sayawdance (PWMP: *sayaw) Long Labid

sohoɁto order, command (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq Long Labid

Penan (Long Merigam) (3) WMP

kauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Merigam

mətəkto cut, chop (PAN: *t<um>əktək) *tektek₁ Long Merigam

tepu-ngrandparent (ref.) (PMP: *t-empu) *empu Long Merigam

Penang Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Penang)

552. Penchal (71) OC [pek] Papua New Guinea

alitthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

aulwind (generic) (POC: *aura)

cuŋhungry (POC: *soŋe)

elt-ito caulk (POC: *qarita)

haŋínto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

into drink (PMP: *inum)

kahItsago grub (PMP: *qabatiR)

kahu-nstomach of an animal (POC: *kabuŋ) *kampuŋ

kalaprain cloud (POC: *kadapuR)

kanin kɨwfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kare-heart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

kasugall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

kasu-nsmoke (POC: *kasu)

kemmɨŋmangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

kɨlthick-bodied barracuda sp. (PMP: *qalu)

kɨplime (PAN: *qapuR)

kɨplime for betel chew (PMP: *kapuR)

kotaycuscus, phalanger (POC: *kadoRa) *kandoRa

kulfreshwater shrimp (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

kulbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

Penchal (20 / 71)

kuplong yam, brown on the outside, white on the inside (PMP: *qubi)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kwitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

laiginger (PMP: *laqia)

lallaŋ (< *laŋlaŋ)housefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lamdeep sea beyond the reef (POC: *laman)

lotboil, abscess (POC: *loto₂)

loy-loyred tree ant (POC: *loRo)

lullummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

matam-putnavel (POC: *buto)

meto come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mommonbird (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

monlog canoe without outrigger, used near shore (POC: *mona)

mwanoyunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

mwatsnake (POC: *qumata)

-n3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

ñɨttall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

pacalrabbitfish (POC: *palaja)

pa-leysail (PCEMP: *pa-layaR) *layaR

pati-ñawwidow (POC: *ñaRo)

Penchal (40 / 71)

pehinwoman; wife (POC: *papine) *bahi

po-ñawwidower (POC: *ñaRo)

pupbasket trap for fish and eels (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

rahuyconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

ralip < *ndalipacanarium almond (NEAR)

ralisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

randown (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

rapundon’t! (POC: *tabuna)

rat rapu-ntaboo (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

reliŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

ria-nbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

rīlstring, rope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

ropunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

rolaweast wind (POC: *tokalaur)

roñto swallow (POC: *toñom)

rowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (black inside) (POC: *toRas) *teRas

runfreshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

rupsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *ŋa)

Penchal (60 / 71)

sa-ŋ-ɨt100 (PMP: *ŋa)

sinsun (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

soto shoot (with an arrow) (POC: *soka)

tantan-lawspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

tɨnfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

tɨŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tɨpto slap (POC: *tapik)

tui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

tulu-pthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

553. Pendau (65) WMP (Quick and Quick 2005) [ums] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

Ɂami1pl. excl., we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

avu-avukind of ocean fish (PWMP: *qabu qabu)

bataŋfallen log; corpse (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ-anbody (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

batustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

bayarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

boostink, smell bad (PMP: *bahu)

bunaground batfish, shaded batfish, tailfin batfish (PMP: *bunaR)

dagatsea (PMP: *daRat)

do-ruotwo (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

giurpull (something) (PWMP: *Ruyud)

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

kabirito castrate (LOAN)

kukus-ansteam (PWMP: *kuskus-an₂) *kuskus₁

lalehousefly (PMP: *lalej)

laŋkayman, male; male animal (PWMP: *laŋkay)

laŋudrunk, intoxicated (PAN: *laŋu)

lapasto pass; late, as in to miss a meeting (PWMP: *lapas)

le-limafive (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

ligisto rub, press; run over with a vehicle (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

Pendau (20 / 65)

lindugearthquake (PMP: *linduR)

lupiɁto fold (PWMP: *lupiq)

m-ami1pl. excl. genitive, our (PMP: *m-ami) *ami

maŋibanshark (NEAR)

mata nu ogospring (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

me-lampato walk (PMP: *lampaq)

mimis-ito taste (PMP: *mismis₂)

nipaa swamp palm: Nipa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

niucoconut (PMP: *niuR)

n-tuuŋdescend, go down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

Ɂoo2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

pada-padaeach, together; same (PWMP: *pada pada) *pada

pe-pituseven (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

pom-bayupound rice (PAN: *bayu)

ponufull, as a container (PMP: *penuq)

punebuff-bellied fruit dove (PAN: *punay)

rakanto boil (food) (PMP: *zakan)

ren-daavirgin, young girl (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

sa-gatusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

salugcreek, small stream (PWMP: *saluR)

Pendau (40 / 65)

sandegleaning back to rest on something (PMP: *sandeR)

saputwhite burial cloth used on a corpse (PMP: *saput₁)

se-sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sintaɁto grab, rob (PWMP: *sintak)

so-m-puluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

soput-anblowgun (PWMP: *seput-an) *seput

soyomkind of small ant (PWMP: *sejem)

taabhigh tide (PWMP: *taeb)

tambato increase, add to (PWMP: *tambaq)

tanoearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

tantaducaterpillar (moth) (PWMP: *tatadu)

taŋkubto close or cover something (PMP: *takub)

taŋkubto close or cover something (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kub)

tapito filter; threshing, winnowing (PMP: *tapi)

taruscontinue (PWMP: *tarus)

tauniplacenta (PMP: *tabuni₁)

ter-kaŋkaŋspreading open the legs or feet (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

tinte-ana bridge (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

toboŋto fell a tree (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

tojaʔto step on (PWMP: *tuzak)

Pendau (60 / 65)

tu-tuutrue, correct (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuutto follow, come with (PWMP: *tuRut)

tuʔuknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

utoʔbrain (PMP: *hutek)

ʔayuwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

554. Penudjaq (1) WMP

ndéʔno, not (PWMP: *hediq)

Perak Malay (2) WMP. see: Malay (Perak)

555. Petapa Taje (6) WMP

me-tambunito hide (PWMP: *tabuni₂)

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

salag-ito fry (PMP: *saŋelaR)

siɁoo2sg., you (PWMP: *s-ikaw) *kaSu

tasi/tasiksea (PMP: *tasik)

upabait (PWMP: *umpan)

556. Petats (26) OC (Allen and Beaso1975)

alimaarm (PAN: *qalima)

boŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

hahinehead woman (POC: *papine) *bahi

hanato shoot an arrow (PAN: *panaq)

huluhair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

ka-karutcoconut containing liquid before flesh appears (POC: *karut₂)

kirasmall white sea bird which dives for small fish (POC: *kiRa)

lato go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

la-lato walk (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lioneck (POC: *liqoR) *liqeR

ma-murbehind (POC: *muri) *udehi

marahcalm (POC: *marapu)

matto die (PMP: *atay) *aCay

nunearthquake (POC: *nunu₁)

ŋukpig grunt (POC: *ŋuŋuk) *ŋukŋuk

palhalf (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

poutto feel cold (person) (POC: *pout)

putto cut (POC: *butun₂) *putun

susfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

Petats (20 / 26)

to-hitseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

to-nomsix (POC: *onom) *enem

to-sienine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

to-tola tree: Cordia subcordata (POC: *toRu)

tulpost (POC: *turus)

tutto punch (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

557. Peterara (9) OC (Blackwood 1935)

manif-nifithin (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

-ŋgu1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

raniday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

riŋgismall (POC: *rikit) *dikit

suluto burn (POC: *sulu₁)

tasisea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

tinae-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tuluto stand (POC: *turu₂)

xa-xaruto swim (POC: *kaRu₁)

Peterara (19) OC. see: Central Maewo

558. Piamatsina (29) OC

ese-chin (POC: *qase) *qazay

hamalimen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

hautree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

huitasquid (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

humi-beard (PMP: *kumi)

hutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

imahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

laŋohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laso-testicles (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

mata-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mʷanubird (POC: *manuk)

mʷatasnake (POC: *mwata)

natu-child (PEMP: *natu)

nraliŋaear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

otoliegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

pʷito-navel (POC: *bito)

rauleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

susu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

Piamatsina (20 / 29)

taun-iyear (PMP: *taqun)

te-excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tina-mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tovusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

uracrayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

usarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

varistingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

vulu-vulubody hair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

Piching (1) WMP. see: Piching Land Dayak

559. Piching Land Dayak (1) WMP [aka: Piching]

bi-doŋoito swim (PWMP: *daŋuy)

560. Pileni (2) OC

lapadeep phosphorescent light, distinct from surface phosphorescence, occurring from a depth of from about 1 to 6 feet (POC: *LapaR₂) *lapaR₂

viliparrot (POC: *pwirip)

Pinan Puyuma (2) Form.. see: Puyuma (Pinan)

561. Piva (31) OC

agha-itawe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

a tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

a tsina-mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

boŋinight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

e-vatifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

e-vaununew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

evi-ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

evi-sufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

e-vunu-hair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

garavurain (POC: *kadapuR)

ghuni-skin (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

ghutsulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kanatato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

manughubird (POC: *manuk)

mata-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matau-right side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

mateto die (POC: *mate) *aCay

mea-tongue (POC: *maya)

nanitsisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

niimafive (PAN: *lima)

Piva (20 / 31)

noŋonoto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

nu-maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

nuumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

sianine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

taghunu-back (POC: *takuRu)

tagina-ear (PMP: *taŋila) *Caŋila

tagisisea (PMP: *tasik)

tanisito cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

to-nuatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

tubuto swell (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

vi-mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

Poeng (6) OC. see: Mengen (Poeng)

562. Pohnpeian (175) OC (Rehg and Sohl 1979) [pon] Micronesia

aconjunction: however, and (PMP: *a₂)

adahdsharpen, put an edge on something (intransitive) (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

ahdname; noun (POC: *acan) *ajan

ahifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

ahlroad, street, trail, path, line (POC: *salan) *zalan

ahŋair, wind (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

ahumouth (POC: *qawa₂)

aiaubanyan tree: Ficus carolinensis, used in the treatment of tetanus and as a hemostatic in menstruation (PEMP: *qayawan)

amasraw, uncooked (PAN: *qamataq)

aŋiaŋi-hbe angry at, scold (POC: *aŋit) *haŋit

asisneeze (NOISE)

da:interrogative, what? (PMP: *sapa)

da:moutrigger of a canoe (POC: *saman) *saRman

dahkneedlefish (PMP: *saku₂)

dakto rise, of the sun and moon (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

dakeride in or on a vehicle (PMP: *sakay₁)

dekilahrswordfish, sailfish, blue marlin (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

-didownwards; used with verbs of confining or securing to indicate the action has been carried through to its logical conclusion (POC: *sipo)

dihdibreast, baby bottle; to suckle, to nurse (PAN: *susu₁)

dihldried palm frond, torch (PMP: *suluq)

Pohnpeian (20 / 175)

dipgrain, of wood; chip or slice, as of breadfruit or taro; numeral classifier used in counting chips, slicings, or shavings (POC: *siba)

dipeto slice, as breadfruit or taro (POC: *siba)

dipe-n rasarassawdust (POC: *siba)

doolsmall mountain, hill (POC: *solos)

edegills (PEMP: *asaŋ-i) *hasaŋ

edesharpen, put an edge on something (transitive) (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

edibile, of the liver (POC: *qasu₂)

ehliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

e-isseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

elimoaŋmangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

enighost, usually considered malicious (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

eni aramasancestral ghost (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

eŋieŋangry (honorific) (POC: *aŋit) *haŋit

iawhere? what? (POC: *pia) *pia₁

ih3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ihmwbuilding, house, home, dwelling (PAN: *Rumaq)

ihnmother; any person one's mother or father would call sister (PCEMP: *ina)

ikitail, end, extreme (PAN: *ikuR)

imwe-possessive classifier used for buildings (PAN: *Rumaq)

ir-ihrto fan (intr.) (POC: *irir) *irid₁

Pohnpeian (40 / 175)

iri-pto fan (tr.) (POC: *irir) *irid₁

iro-irto look or peer in the distance; to see one’s own reflection; to inspect one’s own appearance; positioned to have a beautiful view (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

isihhiss at (POC: *isi₃)

isihhiss at (NOISE)

isoua shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

ka-mairto put to sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

ka-ria-usecond (POC: *ka-rua) *duSa

kasapfrigate bird (POC: *katapa)

kenemarker of edible possession (POC: *kana-)

kɛrɛnnear, close (POC: *karani)

kiea possessive classifer for things to sleep on (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kihknail, as a finger or toenail (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kihsoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kihtwe (excl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

-kitus (excl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kodo-kodto husk with a stick; to gore; to engage in sexual intercourse in a female superior position (POC: *kojom)

kodomto husk with a stick; to gore; to engage in sexual intercourse in a female superior position (POC: *kojom-i) *kojom

komʷyou (honorific) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

lahdfish sp., jack: Atule mate (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

lahŋsky, heaven; bad weather (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

Pohnpeian (60 / 175)

laŋi-laŋi-hhonorific: to give a title, to crown; to wear a garland (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laplarge in stature; important or physically large (POC: *lapa) *laba

liimbailer (PMP: *limas)

lima-five (with attached classifier) (PAN: *lima)

lima-kto bail (something) (PMP: *limas)

lima-limto be bailing (PMP: *limas)

loaldeep (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-einside (him, her, it) (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-eidmiss a person or place, be homesick (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-ekeŋintelligent, smart (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-lapdaring, reckless, bold, adventurous (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-mwahugood-hearted (POC: *ralom) *dalem

maasface; first (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madreef; large coral head; to be dry (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mahnanimal, insect (POC: *manuk)

mantake hold, stick, be effective (POC: *mana₂)

manamanmagical, mysterious, spiritual; official; magic, mysterious or spiritual power; miracle; authority (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

masakbe afraid of, to fear (POC: *matakut) *takut

masa-masbeloved, favorite (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

masa-mwahugood-looking, pretty, handsome (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Pohnpeian (80 / 175)

medto be full, after eating (POC: *masuR)

medekto hurt; to be painful; to ache (POC: *masakit) *sakit

memsweet (POC: *mamis) *hemis

mennumeral classifier used in counting animate beings (POC: *manuk)

menipi-nipthin, of flat objects as paper (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

metik, mitikto kiss (PMP: *misik)

mihksuck; absorb (POC: *misi)

mmwusvomit; to vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

mmʷusto vomit; vomitus (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

mosulthick (POC: *matolu) *təlu

mo-urlife; alive, raw; undried or green, of wood; fresh (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mpwulflame; burn with a flame (POC: *bula₁)

-nconstruct suffix: of; this suffix is written together with the preceding word if that word is one syllable long or ends in a vowel; otherwise, it is written as the separate word en (PAN: *ni)

nahmwdeep place within the barrier reef; lagoon (POC: *namo) *namaw

nihcoconut palm, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

ntablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

ŋaapfathom, the distance between outstretched arms, approximately six feet (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋihtooth (POC: *ŋipon) *ŋipen

oahsivory nut palm: Coelococcus amicarum; roof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ohdtaro (NOISE)

Pohnpeian (100 / 175)

onemend or repair, used principally with native objects (tran.) (POC: *one-a) *one

onohnbe mended or repaired, used principally with native objects (intr.) (POC: *one one) *one

pasince (contrary to expectations) (POC: *ba₁)

pah-four (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

pahnbait, lure (POC: *baniŋ) *paniŋ

pahpafather, any person one's father would call brother (POC: *baba₆) *baba₂

pahrspongy center of a sprouting coconut; par to sprout, of coconuts (PMP: *para)

palapalfish sp., rabbitfish, Siganus punctatus (POC: *(bp)ala(bp)ala)

pala-palgold-spotted spinefoot: Siganus punctatus (POC: *palaja)

parok (< *paqaRok-i)to catch something animate; to arrest (POC: *paqaRok)

pehria bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris (PMP: *periŋ)

pekto defecate (POC: *bekas₄)

pelbe in a taboo relationship with someone or something (POC: *pali₂) *paliSi

pihksand (POC: *pika)

pika-piksandy (POC: *pika)

pilto choose, to pick out, to select (PAN: *piliq)

pili-pilto choose, to pick out, to select; election, selection (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

piŋconfused, disordered, messy (LOAN)

piŋconfused, disordered, messy (NOISE)

pirturn, spin, twist (PMP: *pirit)

Pohnpeian (120 / 175)

pitspring back (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

pɔdto be planted (POC: *pasok) *pasek

pɔdokto plant (something) (POC: *pasok) *pasek

posexplode (POC: *botu) *betu₂

pwahlahla fish, the snapper: Lutjanus gibbus (NOISE)

pwilicowrie, any species of sea shell (POC: *buliq₁)

pwohŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwohŋ sili-pwoŋthree nights (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwoŋnumeral classifier used in counting nights (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwudo-pwudfoam, scum (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

pwuhbetel nut, Areca catechu (POC: *buaq)

pwuhnfish sp. (POC: *buna)

pwuhsnavel (POC: *buto)

pwuupwtrigger fish: Rhinecanthus aculeatus (POC: *bubu₇)

rahnday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

ria-two (POC: *rua) *duSa

roahswhale (POC: *rato)

rohtdarkness (POC: *rodrom₁) *demdem₂

roŋhear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

rooŋnews (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

Pohnpeian (140 / 175)

rotdark (POC: *rodrom₁) *demdem₂

sahlrope, cord, line, string (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

sahmfather, any person one's father would call brother (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

sa-kaukava: Piper methysticum; any intoxicating beverage; to be intoxicated, to be drunk (LOAN)

salgather rope, haul in a line (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

sarasquirrelfish: Adoryx spinifer (PMP: *taRaqan)

se:docean, sea (PMP: *tasik)

sehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

seiporcupine fish; soursop, Annona muricata (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

seŋto cry, to weep, to moan (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

sili- ~ silūthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

sisshiver (PAN: *tirtir₁)

suhrto sink in mud; to wade in mud (POC: *tuRu₁)

suhrebarracuda (Sphyraena sp.) (NOISE)

tahmwforehead (POC: *damwa)

tehleaf, sheet, page (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

udukmeat, flesh, muscle (POC: *pijiko)

uhmwa traditional Ponapean oven made of loose stones which are heated and placed around the food to be baked (PMP: *qumun)

uhpwdrinking coconut (POC: *ubu) *upu

Pohnpeian (160 / 175)

uhrlobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uhsfloat, as for a fishing net (PEMP: *uton)

ul-uhlpillow; small hill; use a pillow (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

uluŋuse a pillow (trans.) (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

umwto bake in an uhmw (intr.) (PMP: *qumun)

umwunbake in an uhmw (trans.) (POC: *qumun-i) *qumun

usustar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

ūt ~ uti-banana (many varieties) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

uufish trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

uuknet (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

wato flower, bear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wacarry (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

wahfruit, flower; offspring; result (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wah-kahkcall or cackle loudly, of a hen (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak

wehisea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

563. Pokau (37) OC (Capell 1943) [aka: Nara, Lala]

adechin (POC: *qase) *qazay

akoiegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

anito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

ara-rato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

autree, wood (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

avulime (PAN: *qapuR)

aʔaelder brother (PMP: *kaka₂)

dararoad (POC: *salan) *zalan

enolie down to sleep (PAN: *qinep)

ia3sg., he, she (PAN: *ia₁)

i-au1sg., I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

idunose; cape of land (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ikato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

iutail (PAN: *ikuR)

lamudew (PAN: *lamuR)

mainopeaceful (POC: *ma-lino) *linaw

makaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

makauto fear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

manu-manubird (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

Pokau (20 / 37)

maratongue (POC: *maya)

maurialive; be born (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

nakuoffspring (PEMP: *natu)

nutumouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

rasail (PAN: *layaR)

rarablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

rovoto fly (POC: *Ropok) *Rebek

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ukulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

vanualand (POC: *panua) *banua

vodecanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

voigardening (generally); clear garden in grassland after burning (POC: *poki)

voninight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

vuafruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vuaracrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

vuihair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

vuyamoon, month (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

564. Pom (20) SHWNG [pmo] Indonesia (Papua)

aifoot (PAN: *qaqay)

aitree, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

au2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

-bofruit (PMP: *buaq)

enasleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

huhubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

metablack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qetem) *qitem

rawalk (PMP: *lakaw)

rauleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rayanway, path (PMP: *zalan)

rinfive (PAN: *lima)

siunine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

unuto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

ura-ruavein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

warueight (PAN: *walu)

wa-wariroot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

wonasix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

565. Ponam (34) OC

are-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

batstone (POC: *patu) *batux

batu-head (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

biŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

damafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

dinemother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

fa:-ffour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

gwawater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

haliŋe-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

hamatperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

hassea (PMP: *tasik)

hui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

ihe. she (PAN: *ia₁)

ja1sg, I, me (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

jaffire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

laŋa-name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

life-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

lime-hand (PAN: *qalima)

loin, inside (POC: *lom) *lem

luo-ftwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

Ponam (20 / 34)

maito come (POC: *maRi) *aRi

mara-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

metdie, dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

mifdream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

onsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

ono-fsix (POC: *onom) *enem

ou2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

paanchovy (PMP: *paya) Ponam

sawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

saŋatone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

saŋuften (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

seiwho? (PMP: *sai)

sus-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

umhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

566. Ponosakan (4) WMP

kompoŋintestines (PWMP: *kempuŋ) *kempeŋ

pastill, more, yet (before doing something else) (PAN: *pa₁)

saluhto travel along a river (PWMP: *saluR)

tauʔto put away (PMP: *taRuq)

567. Popalia (41) WMP

alaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asaone (PAN: *asa₁) *asa

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

fatustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

hoko-matekill (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ikutail (PAN: *ikuR)

inamother (PMP: *ina)

kahato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

kahoto scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

kawstick; wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

komiu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

kuliskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

laŋisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laroin, inside (PMP: *dalem)

limahand (PAN: *qalima)

ma-hutewhite (PWMP: *ma-mutiq) *putiq

matedie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

Popalia (20 / 41)

maturuto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

mehared (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

mu-nihithin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

naŋu-naŋuto sport in the water (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

ŋaname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋusumouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

onesand (PAN: *qenay)

panato shoot (PAN: *panaq)

paŋabranch (PAN: *paŋa₁)

pilito choose (PAN: *piliq)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

rahablood (PAN: *daRaq)

roʔoleaf (PMP: *dahun)

sapohouse (PAN: *sapaw)

saʔasnake (PMP: *sawa)

taʔuyear (PMP: *taqun)

titifemale breast (PMP: *titiq)

toluthree (PAN: *telu)

tuliear (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

uloearthworm (PMP: *qulej)

Popalia (40 / 41)

vulufeather (PMP: *bulu₁)

568. Poro (3) OC

nap-rafuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR₁

tasaone (POC: *tasa)

thiʔa-ñabelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

569. Port Sandwich (1) OC

na-ranearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

570. Proto-Trukic (1) OC (Jackson 1983)

kaúto say, tell (Jackson 1983:184) (POC: *kaRu₂)

Proto-Western Micronesian (1) OC

ka(a)mami1pl. excl., we, us (POC: *kamami) *ami

Provincial Malagasy (8) WMP. see: Malagasy (Provincial)

571. Pulo Annian (1) OC

θatareto walk around (POC: *pajale)

572. Puluwat (175) OC (Elbert 1972) [puw] (Puluwatese) Micronesia [aka: Puluwatese]

ccablood; red; be bloody (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

fáálto worship (POC: *pali₂) *paliSi

fáán piŋorhard palate (NOISE)

faarpandanus, used for mats and thatch (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

fáári-yápkind of large but harmless ray fish (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

faateyebrow (POC: *paju)

fára-walungs (POC: *paRaq₂) *baRaq₁

fátilgeneral name for grasses (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

fátilgeneral name for grasses (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

fáyiray fish (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

young as plants; new (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

fili-to choose, select (PAN: *piliq)

fitehow many? (more than ten) (POC: *pica) *pijax

fite-fayhow many? (round objects) (POC: *pica) *pijax

fite-rayhow many? (animate) (POC: *pica) *pijax

fitikflesh of any kind, meat; flesh and blood, blood relative (POC: *pijiko)

fótto plant, insert, pick out, select; to be inserted, selected (POC: *pasok) *pasek

fúústar, point of the compass, canoe course plotted by the stars (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

fúússeven (sequential) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

háát, heti-nsea, ocean, tide; salt (PMP: *tasik)

Puluwat (20 / 175)

hakúŕback (anatomical) (POC: *takuRu)

háliŋear, earlobe (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

hánifanchovy (POC: *tanipa)

háŋto cry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

háŋiryellowfin tuna, sometimes more than a fathom in length (PMP: *taŋiRi)

hapcheek; fish gill (POC: *tabal)

hápiybowl, calabash, wash basin, plate, dish (POC: *tabiRa)

hápiyá-n mwéngéfood bowl (POC: *tabiRa)

har'akind of red fish (PMP: *taRaqan)

ha-ŕamlight, daylight; to be light (POC: *ramaR) *damaR₁

hawiconch trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

hiim, himá-nkind of fairly large edible tridacna (PMP: *kima)

hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans) (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

kiirwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kiy-possessive classifer for pandanus mats (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kiye-kipandanus mat; to use such (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kiye-kiyFairy tern: Gygas alba (often fly gracefully in pairs) (POC: *kiRa)

kiye-yto lie on, as a mat (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kkúúnails, claws, foot (of chicken), leg (of centipede) (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

Puluwat (40 / 175)

korpubic hair, hair in armpits (vulgar) (POC: *koRo)

kúúh, kúhá-nsquid, octopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kúúwlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

láŋrain; sky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láŋi-láŋrain with symbolic portent, as of a canoe coming, death, birth, bad weather; to have portent, of rain (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lapbe large, big, old, important (POC: *lapa) *laba

likáhenwanecho; to echo (PAN: *qali-)

lima-five (in combination forms) (PAN: *lima)

limo-owfive (general) (PAN: *lima)

luumwmoss, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

die, be dead, dying, stricken, paralyzed, very sick; be killed; stop working, as a machine; death (POC: *mate) *aCay

maaheye, face, point, as of a pencil or spear; end, as of a house; the two smallest eyes of a coconut; canoe end-piece; raised outer border of lee planked platform; to wake up, be awake (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maanto drift, as a becalmed canoe; dance with rotating hips (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

maancreature, being, animal, insect, bird, person (POC: *manuk)

mámkind of large fish -- perhaps a wrasse (PMP: *mamin)

manamandivine, supernatural, or miraculous power; to have such (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

mánawlife, life span, salvation; to be alive; to function, as a machine; to be saved, cured; to survive, recover, live (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manawe-táto come to life again, resuscitate; to recover, be cured (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

ma-ŕammonth, moon (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

matto be full or satisfied after eating (POC: *masuR)

Puluwat (60 / 175)

mawúŕto sleep, go to bed; to pass the night, as a ship in the lagoon (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mefrom (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mepreposition: from, all (with numbers), and (PMP: *mai)

mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome (POC: *matakut) *takut

mellaugh, giggle a little, smile (PCEMP: *malip)

memsweet (POC: *mamis) *hemis

metákto hurt, pain; pain (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mmwuhto vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

muun, muun-ontwo kinds of caterpillars (POC: *muno)

niimcanoe bailer (POC: *nimas)

nime-yto bail water out of a canoe (POC: *nimas)

wave, to be many waves, as in a strong sea (POC: *napok) *Nabek

wave; to be many waves, as in a strong sea (POC: *ñoro)

nónnóto be big with waves (POC: *ñoro)

nóómwmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ŋaaffathom (POC: *ŋapa)

paapboard, lumber, timber; canoe planks (POC: *baban) *papan

paar, pera-nhandle, as of knife or saw (POC: *paRara) *paRada

paatswamp (POC: *pasa)

palto be bald (POC: *palala)

Puluwat (80 / 175)

páliy, peliyside, as in a game or war; half-section (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

pápá-n limwhouse board (POC: *baban) *papan

paŕ, paŕapaŕred (NOISE)

peta-nits swamp (POC: *pasa)

pírcoconut sponge beginning to form; to form such; growth or lump under the skin; to have such (POC: *piri)

piŕ(o)coconut sponge beginning to form; to form such; growth or lump under the skin; to have such (POC: *piras)

puwbetel nut, as on Palau (none on Puluwat) (POC: *buaq)

pʷaŋhole (in counting holes) (POC: *pwaŋa)

pwiilcowrie shell scraper, as for green breadfruit (POC: *buliq₁)

pwitto let wind (vulgar) (POC: *pisi₂)

-pwoŋcounting classifier for nights (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwooŋnight; day of the month; be night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwukato boil, as bananas (POC: *bukal₂) *bukal

pwuka háátto boil in sea water (POC: *bukal₂) *bukal

pwúlto burn (POC: *bula₁)

pwupwSouthern Cross (POC: *bubu₁)

pwupwa fish, perhaps a trigger fish (POC: *bubu₇)

raan, liquid of any kind, pond (POC: *ranum) *daNum

ŕawwhale; porpoise (POC: *rato)

rééleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

Puluwat (100 / 175)

roŋhear, listen, obey (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ŕuwoownumeral, two (general) (POC: *rua) *duSa

sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

taakneedlefish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

taakneedlefish (PMP: *saku₂)

taakúlaar'sailfish, swordfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

taamoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

táá-táto rise, as star or sun (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

tááyvehicle, ride in a vehicle (PMP: *sakay₁)

tááye-lóride, as in a canoe or on a horse (PMP: *sakay₁)

teme-noutrigger float (construct form) (POC: *saman) *saRman

tiipto slice, as breadfruit or taro; to cut off leaves, as of pandanus for thatch or mats (POC: *siba)

-tiwdirection suffix: down, west (POC: *sipo)

toŋotoŋto burn, itch, sting (POC: *soŋot) *seŋet₂

tool, tolo-ntop section of mast, with holes at the top for insertion of halyard (POC: *solos)

tównómwmosquito net, formerly of loomed cloth (POC: *tau ñamuk)

ttowto spear (POC: *jaot) *saet

túúl ~ tééltorch (PMP: *suluq)

túútbreast, nipple (PAN: *susu₁)

waacanoe, vehicle of any kind, bicycle, container, people in a canoe; possessive classifier for vehicles (POC: *waŋka)

Puluwat (120 / 175)

wene-wendirectly above; straight, direct, honest, exactly, greatly (POC: *wane wane)

woonsix (POC: *onom) *enem

wootColocasia taro (NOISE)

woowsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

wor-possessive classifier for raw food; raw seafood, meat (cooked or raw), eggs (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

wow2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

wúlbudding leaf, tree top (POC: *qulu) *quluh

wúlú-nfoliage; head hair (POC: *qulu) *quluh

wúlúŋpossessive classifier for pillows (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

wúlúúlpillow (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

wúnhair, feathers, fish scale, fur (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

wúnúm-drink, beverage, smoke; possessive classifier for anything drunk, tobacco smoked, medicine taken; to drink, smoke, take medicine (PCEMP: *unum)

wútrain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

wútáncargo, load; to be loaded (POC: *ucan) *ujan

wuufish trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

wuukseine; to seine (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

wuulmaggot (PMP: *qulej)

wuur ~ wurú-nbanana, the tree and fruit (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

wuuwa, wuwá-nfruit, flower, bur; bear fruit, flowers (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wuwahburden, as of breadfruit, copra, boxes, taro; carried object, food package, baggage, canoe load, cargo (POC: *puat-an₁) *buat₁

Puluwat (140 / 175)

wuwahburden, as of breadfruit, copra, boxes, taro; carried object, food package, baggage, canoe load, cargo (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

wuwayto carry, transport, take by canoe; to obtain (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

yaalroad, path, street (POC: *salan) *zalan

yááŋwind, air (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

yáátspleen, gall bladder; formerly the human spleen was cooked and used to poison a foe (POC: *qasu₂)

yaatsmoke, as of a fire; foam, as of the sea (PMP: *qasu₃)

yáátchin, especially its bottom (POC: *qase) *qazay

yáhtall, high, upper, easterly (PMP: *atas) *aCas

yahamdoor, doorway, window (PMP: *kataman)

yamwuŕ-e-ni-pwoŋdew; to fall, of dew (PAN: *ñamuR)

yanúancient god (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

yaŕawaŕawvarious shades of light green (as grass or the wura parrot fish) or of light blue (as European eyes or the sky) (POC: *kara-karawa)

yár'iksmall edible crab (PMP: *kaRuki)

ya-tip(a)to slice, as breadfruit (POC: *siba)

yátú-nsmoke of, foam of (PMP: *qasu₃)

yátúyátto smoke, as fire; to foam, as the sea (PMP: *qasu qasu) *qasu₃

yawúúlunidentified large fish caught by trolling (PMP: *qatulay)

yayéfar'shoulder, load carried on the shoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

yéélthree (sequential) (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

yee-tone (sequential) (PAN: *esa)

Puluwat (160 / 175)

yeluuqthree (general) (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

yemahraw, uncooked; raw or uncooked food (PAN: *qamataq)

ye-ŋafone fathom (POC: *ŋapa)

yew-mouth, bill of a bird, largest eye of a coconut (POC: *qawa₂)

yewa-nhis mouth (POC: *qawa₂)

yiimwhouse, building of any kind (PAN: *Rumaq)

yiitname, kind (as of a plant) (POC: *isa₂)

yiiy3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

yiiydemonstrative: this (PMP: *ia₂)

yiiyinterjection: oh, no! don't! (PAN: *qia)

yimwa-nhis/her house (PAN: *Rumaq)

yinathere, that's right, that's okay, fine (PMP: *qina)

yiŕo- ŋiyto look for, at (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

yóóhthatch, thatch panel, roof of any kind (POC: *qatop) *qatep

yóótvertical house rafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

Puluwatese (175) OC. see: Puluwat

573. Punan Busang (Bukitan) (1) WMP (Ellis 1972) [aka: Bukitan]

kiawtalking myna (PAN: *kiaw)

574. Punan Kelai (2) WMP

lehjindurian (PWMP: *duRi-an) *duRi

wehguŋbear (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

575. Punan Tuvu' (17) WMP

nanokto cook (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

navunto shut, close (PMP: *tabun₂)

nepapto slap (PWMP: *tepap)

nevoŋto fell trees (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

puliʔmedicine (PWMP: *puliq)

tabahmedicine (PWMP: *tabaR)

tamanattaining to; reaching as far as (PWMP: *taman)

tanihhere (PMP: *tani₂)

tanokcooked (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

taŋaʔhalf (PWMP: *taŋaq₄)

tavunshut, closed (PMP: *tabun₂)

temaha tree: Memecylon paniculatum (LOAN)

tepapa slap (PWMP: *tepap)

tevoŋfelling of trees (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

toŋdrum (PMP: *teŋ)

tumohlouse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tuŋkind of musical instrument in which the sound is produced by blowing (PMP: *tuŋ)

tuʔahstrong (LOAN)

upuhyoungest (last) child; finally, at last (PMP: *upus)

576. Puyuma (652) Form. (Cauquelin 1991) [pyu] Taiwan (dialects: Chihpen 1, Rikavong 1, Pinan 2, Tamalakaw (Tsuchida 1980) 217) [aka: Puyuma (Nanwang)]

a-stative prefix (PAN: *Sa-)

a-apatfour (humans) (PAN: *Sa-Sepat) *Sepat Tamalakaw

a-dawilfar (PAN: *dawiN)

a-dawilfar (PAN: *Sa-)

aɖinegation (PAN: *adi)

a-kan-anfood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

a kaŋkaŋa plough (LOAN)

akuTtransport (PAN: *SakuC)

alakchild, son, daughter (PAN: *aNak) Tamalakaw

a-ɭikuɖ-ana person behind (PAN: *likud)

a-lmeksoft, flexible, as of rice-cake, calf of the leg (PAN: *lemek₁) Tamalakaw

alvukhit with a large stick (ROOT)

amafather, uncle (PAN: *amax) Tamalakaw

apuapgrope (in a bag, or in the dark) (PAN: *SapuSap) Tamalakaw

apuRchew betel nut with lime (PAN: *apuR) Tamalakaw

apuyfire (PAN: *Sapuy) Tamalakaw

ar-arasforest (PAN: *Salas) Tamalakaw

ariHa man’s male friend (NEAR) Tamalakaw

aRlainvite, ask to go out (NEAR) Tamalakaw

a-Tashigh (PAN: *aCas) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (20 / 652)

aTava cover (in general) (PAN: *aCab) Tamalakaw

a-Tebuŋto find (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

atez-anescort a sick person or a drunk home (imperative) (PAN: *SateD-an) *SateD Tamalakaw

avala cover and the belt for carrying a baby on the back (PAN: *SabaN) Tamalakaw

ayantermite (PAN: *SayaN)

a-ydanwhen? (PAN: *ijan) Tamalakaw

aʔ-nemsix (of persons, but not animals or objects) (PAN: *a-enem) *enem Tamalakaw

ba-bay-anwoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

baliwsmall mushroom that grows in the fields; Puyuma say that it is delicious (PAN: *bajiw)

belbelbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

b-en-uaŋmake a hole in (clothing, etc.) (PAN: *buhaŋ)

berayto give (PAN: *beRay)

betuŋkind of large bamboo (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

biniseed of grains (PAN: *bineSiq)

birbirlips (PAN: *biRbiR)

biTukastomach (PAN: *biCuka)

buafruit (PAN: *buaq)

buaŋhole (PAN: *buhaŋ)

buayashark (PAN: *buqaya)

buLanmoon; month (PAN: *bulaN) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (40 / 652)

bulbulfontanelle (PAN: *buNbuN)

buƚukind of very slender bamboo: Thyrsostachys siamensis (PAN: *buluq₂)

buluthrow a small object (PAN: *buNuq₂)

bureqfoam, lather; gas (PAN: *bujeq₁) *bujeq

butsquirrel? (PAN: *buhet)

buTutesticles (PAN: *buCuq)

buʔurgoiter (NOISE)

daconstruction marker for common nouns, oblique (PAN: *da) *da₁

da-dirus-anwashing water, water to wash with; bathroom (PAN: *diRus)

daHusoapberry tree: Sapindus mukrossi (PAN: *daqu₂) Tamalakaw

daɭanroad (PAN: *zalan)

danawhole filled with water (which will evaporate) (PAN: *danaw)

ɖaŋɖaŋhot; warm (from sun, fire); dry in the sun or by the fire (PAN: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

ɖaŋɖaŋ-anWarm it! Dry it by the fire! (PAN: *daŋdaŋ-an) *daŋdaŋ

dapalfoot (PAN: *dapaN)

dapurpile up stones to build a wall (PAN: *dapuR₂)

daRami-anrice straw (PAN: *zaRami) Tamalakaw

darami-enrice straw (PAN: *zaRami)

daReHearth, soil (PAN: *daReq) Tamalakaw

darusslippery because of mud ( < *-lus?) (ROOT)

Puyuma (60 / 652)

datarvillage (ritual term) (PAN: *dataR)

dawamillet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. (PAN: *zawa₂)

dawil-awbe far from (PAN: *Sa-)

Daʔusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Pinan

d-em-a-dekiŋ(of deer) to cry "eking, eking" (PAN: *dekiŋ) Tamalakaw

d-em-a-durempitch-dark (ROOT)

ɖ<əm>ikəTto stick; adhere (PAN: *dikeC)

d<əm>irusto wash oneself (PAN: *diRus)

ɖəŋərname; sound (ritual term) (PAN: *deŋeR)

dəpameasure of two arms stretched wide (PAN: *depah)

deruŋthunder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *deRuŋ₁) Chihpen

ɖikəTstick; adhere (PAN: *dikeC)

ɖikəT-ansticky rice (generic for types of sticky rice) (PAN: *dikeC)

d<in>apal-anfootprints (PAN: *dapaN)

diruswash (PAN: *diRus)

disdiscut many times, giving slight wounds (PAN: *disdis) Tamalakaw

ɖuatwo (PAN: *duSa)

ɖumaother (PAN: *duma)

ɖuma-ɖumaevery (PAN: *duma)

əkaneat (PAN: *kaen)

Puyuma (80 / 652)

əkan-ayto eat (locative focus) (PAN: *kaen-ay) *kaen

-em-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>) *-um- Tamalakaw

enemsix (PAN: *enem) Tamalakaw

əŋadbreathe (PAN: *Seŋad)

garaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

garuTa comb (PAN: *garuC)

gaTeɭitch (PAN: *gaCel)

g<əm>aruTto comb (PAN: *g<um>aruC) *garuC

g<əm>ətiɭpick off a small piece of meat, as to taste it (PAN: *getil)

gətiɭpinch with one’s nails (only for meat) (PAN: *getil)

gətiɭ-anaybe pinched, as someone’s arm (PAN: *getil)

giŋgiŋtremble, shake (PAN: *giŋgiŋ)

gisgisshave with a razor (PAN: *gisgis₁)

gumulfeather; body hair (PAN: *gumuN)

gutgutincisor teeth (PAN: *gutgut₁) *gutgut

Hali-vaŋbaŋbutterfly, moth (PAN: *baŋbaŋ₂) Tamalakaw

Halivaŋvaŋbutterfly (PAN: *qaNi-) Tamalakaw

Hali-wazaŋ-anclavicle, collarbone (PAN: *-wadaŋ) Tamalakaw

Halt'-andoor (ROOT)

HalTuowl (PAN: *qaNiCu) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (100 / 652)

Haluphunting ground (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup Tamalakaw

Halv-andoor (PAN: *qaNeb-an) *qaNeb Tamalakaw

Haminorth; year, age (PAN: *qamiS) Tamalakaw

-Hanito harvest (PAN: *qaniS) Tamalakaw

HaŋHaŋbarking of a dog (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ) Tamalakaw

HaŋRuodor of salted meat and vegetables in ferment (PAN: *qaŋeRu) Tamalakaw

HaŋseRstinking, of urine or fermented eggs (PAN: *qaŋeseR) Tamalakaw

Hapedugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapejux) Tamalakaw

HaRaw-isnatch it! (PAN: *qaRaw) Tamalakaw

Harazfence (PAN: *qalad) Tamalakaw

HaRempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem) Tamalakaw

Hari-pudu-anhair whorl (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju Tamalakaw

HaRsemsour (PAN: *qaRsem) Tamalakaw

Hasevsmoky (PAN: *qaseb) Tamalakaw

Hasilsalty (PAN: *qasiN) Tamalakaw

Haspaastringent, puckery (the taste of green bananas, the kernel of areca nut, persimmon, etc.) (PAN: *qasepa) Tamalakaw

Hasv-ansmoke (PAN: *qaseb) Tamalakaw

HaTayliver (PAN: *qaCay) Tamalakaw

Hatimraflea (PAN: *qatimela) Tamalakaw

Hati-muRmuRgargle (PAN: *qaCi-) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (120 / 652)

Hauthirsty (NOISE)

-Hauŋof a dog, to howl (PAN: *qauŋ) Tamalakaw

Havuashes (PAN: *qabu) Tamalakaw

Havu-anhearth (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu Tamalakaw

Hayambird (PAN: *qayam₁) Tamalakaw

Hazinot (negating a verb or adjective) (PAN: *qazi) Tamalakaw

Helusheartwood of trees (NOISE)

H<em>a-Halevto close (PAN: *qaNeb) Tamalakaw

H-em-a-Halupto hunt (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup Tamalakaw

H-em-a-HaRawtake by force, snatch away (PAN: *qaRaw) Tamalakaw

H-em-aminorth wind blows (PAN: *qamiS) Tamalakaw

H-em-aŋHaŋ(of a dog) to bark, as a dog which is kept on a leash or shut up in a room (PAN: *q<um>aŋqaŋ) *qaŋqaŋ Tamalakaw

h-əm-aruŋsnore (Ting 1978) (PAN: *SaRuŋ) Tamalakaw

Hemuflour (PAN: *qemu)

HerHerchew, masticate (PAN: *qelqel) Tamalakaw

Hesepto chew (for the juice, as sugarcane, chewing gum, etc.) (PAN: *qesep) Tamalakaw

HeTarice husk and bran (PAN: *qeCah) Tamalakaw

HeTuRscrotum (PAN: *qeCuR) Tamalakaw

Hevutextinguish a fire (NOISE)

Hiruto wipe (after defecating) (PAN: *qiluS) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (140 / 652)

HisaHisof animals, to rub the back (NOISE)

HiTHiTgnaw through meat from a bone, or as a rat gnawing off a pillar or a wooden box (PAN: *qiCqiC) Tamalakaw

Hizusspoon (PAN: *qidus) Tamalakaw

Hudalrain (PAN: *quzaN) Tamalakaw

Humacultivated field (wet or dry) (PAN: *qumah) Tamalakaw

HumuRcram the mouth full with food or water; suckle in the mouth (Also Paiwan qumu 'water held in the mouth (not saliva)') (ROOT)

HumuRcram mouth with food or water (PAN: *qumuR) Tamalakaw

Huŋtuysmoking pipe (from Min hun-chhui) (LOAN)

Hupizplait rattan or bamboo (Also Amis ʔopir 'braid of hair or rope') (ROOT)

Huredworm, insect (not caterpillar, earthworm, intestinal worm or tapeworm) (PAN: *qulej) Tamalakaw

Hurucut off the head, behead (PAN: *quluh) Tamalakaw

Husigums (PAN: *gusi) Tamalakaw

Hutilpenis (PAN: *qutiN) Tamalakaw

Huvalgray hair (PAN: *qubaN) Tamalakaw

Huwayrattan (PAN: *quay) Tamalakaw

Huz-Huzemblack (PAN: *qudem) Tamalakaw

idapbroom (Ting 1978) (PAN: *Sijap)

ikuRtail (PAN: *ikuR) Tamalakaw

ilibcave (Ting 1978); a cliff notch where human beings can rest (Cauquelin 2011) (PAN: *Nihib)

imaRgrease, fat (PAN: *SimaR) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (160 / 652)

inamother, MZ, FZ (ref) (PAN: *ina) Tamalakaw

iŋiŋwhining of a dog (ROOT)

isimeat, flesh (PAN: *isi₅) Tamalakaw

isiHurine (PAN: *iSiq) Tamalakaw

i-Tasup, above (PAN: *i aCas) *aCas Tamalakaw

iupto blow with breath (PAN: *Seyup) Tamalakaw

ivaelder sibling, elder sibling's spouse, spouse's elder sibling (PAN: *ibaS) Rikavong

iwanine (PAN: *Siwa)

kabkabscratch, scrape (NEAR)

kabuŋhat (LOAN)

kabusshrrimp (PAN: *kabus₂)

ka-datar-anspirits of the true village in Puyuma (PAN: *dataR)

ka-iwaninth (PAN: *Sika-Siwa) *Siwa

kakakquack of the duck and honk of the goose (PAN: *kakak)

ka-kudawhat? (PAN: *kuja)

ka-kuria rake (PAN: *ka-kuRi) *kuRi

ka-ŋayaw-anheadhunting festival (Cauquelin 2011) (PAN: *ŋayaw)

kaŋkaŋnoisy (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

ka-pitu-anthe seventh (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

kara-iwanine objects each (PAN: *Siwa)

Puyuma (180 / 652)

kara-pitu-kar-pitu-pitu-anseven objects per person (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

karaTto nibble, bite (insect) (PAN: *kaRaC)

kaR-Havu-Havuashy (of color) (PAN: *qabu) Tamalakaw

karicanal, an artificial small waterway for irrigation (PAN: *kali₁) *kali Tamalakaw

kar-mi-ɖua-ɖua-yantwo by two (PAN: *duSa duSa) *duSa

katawa-tawaʔaycastor bean: Ricinus communis (PAN: *katawa)

kawayangeneric term for bamboo without thorns (PAN: *kawayan)

kawiwood, tree (PAN: *kaSiw)

kawi-kawiforest, a lot of wood (PAN: *kaSi-kaSiw) *kaSiw

kawiɭfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁)

k<əm>akakto quack (PAN: *kakak)

k<em>a-keRaŋto roast right on the fire, to broil (PAN: *keRaŋ₃) Tamalakaw

k-em-a-kiRus, kiRus-icarve out, as a spoon; scrape out, as rice in the bottom of the pot in a digging motion; to clean out, as a ditch or water-pool (PAN: *kiRus) Tamalakaw

k<əm>aŋkaŋto use a plough (LOAN)

k<əm>araTto bite (as in a dog biting a person) (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

k<əm>əRaŋto grill quickly directly over the fire (meat, fish, boar skin) (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

k<əm>ərətcut something into thin slices, as meat (PAN: *k<um>eRet) *keRet

k<əm>iskisto scrape off something hard, such as bark (PAN: *kiSkiS)

k<em>uda-kudahow to do? what do do? what kind of? (PAN: *kuja) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (200 / 652)

k<em>uda ziwhy? (PAN: *kuja) Tamalakaw

k<əm>ukuTroll into a ball to sleep (PAN: *kuCkuC)

k<em>urito rake (PAN: *k<um>uRi) *kuRi

kərətcut, as a rope, or the flesh; cut into thin slices (as meat); slash with a small knife (PAN: *keRet)

keReTcut or slice meat by holding it with one hand (PAN: *gereC) Tamalakaw

keripto blink (once) (PAN: *kelip) Tamalakaw

keriwwhite ramie: Boehmeria frustescens. keriw is used in rituals, in particular those dedicated to humans; in effect, ramie is the symbol of life (PAN: *keRiw)

kəsərstrong (PAN: *keseR)

ki-to get, obtain (kuraw ‘fish’, ki-kuraw ‘to fish’, ləŋaw ‘sound’, ki-ləŋaw ‘to hear, listen’, rami ‘root’, ki-rami ‘get a root’, səpad ‘share (of something)’, ki-səpad ‘get a share’). (PAN: *ki-)

ki<a>ŋeRto listen to (PAN: *kiŋeR) Tamalakaw

ki-a-putunget a fracture (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

ki-lasuʔget a burn (as from a cigarette) (PAN: *lasuq₁)

ki-n-aTay(imp) die (PAN: *aCay) Tamalakaw

kiŋeRhear, listen (ROOT)

kiŋR-ilisten! (PAN: *kiŋeR) Tamalakaw

kir-Tebuŋto meet with one person (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

kiR-va-vulihide oneself (PAN: *buNi) Tamalakaw

ki-Tebuŋto meet; to welcome (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

ki-tukuɖget something to support (PAN: *tukud)

k<m>uda-kudahow? (PAN: *kuja)

Puyuma (220 / 652)

kudado (occupation) (PAN: *kuja)

kukuTroll up, curl up in the fetal position (PAN: *kuCkuC)

ku-ɭabawrat (generic term) (PAN: *labaw₁)

kuɭaTPolyporus sulfurus, bracket fungus (PAN: *kulaC)

kurapskin illness due to a dry skin (not itching); ringworm, only in the hair (PAN: *kurap)

kurirake (PAN: *kuRi)

kuR-kiŋR-anto be audible (PAN: *kiŋeR) Tamalakaw

kuTemcloud (PAN: *kudem) Tamalakaw

kuTuheadlouse (PAN: *kuCux)

K) vuHeRgoiter (NOISE)

ɭadamfamiliar with, accustomed to (PAN: *lajam)

la-lakplural of alak (PAN: *aNak) Tamalakaw

ɭaŋiTsky (PAN: *laŋiC)

laŋsistinking, of over-cooked (burnt) rice (PAN: *laŋ(e)si) Tamalakaw

laŋuyswim (according to some informants it is breaststroke) (PAN: *Naŋuy)

ɭapaʔloss of skin from abrasion or burn (PAN: *lapaq)

lasuʔburn (badly) (PAN: *lasuq₁)

ɭawasbamboo to carry water (PAN: *lawas₃)

lawlawlamp (NOISE)

ɭəbɭəbvery heavy fog (PAN: *lebleb₁)

Puyuma (240 / 652)

ɭəɖəpto sink (PAN: *ledep)

ɭəɖɭəɖrub one’s eyes or nose with a circular movement (PAN: *ledled)

ləkabpeel off (as skin of a fruit, skin of sugarcane) (PAN: *lekab)

ɭidamtongue (PAN: *lidam)

ɭikawcurve, bend, winding (PAN: *likaw)

ɭikuɖbehind (PAN: *likud)

ɭikuɖ-anback (anatomical) (PAN: *likud-an) *likud

ɭimafive (ɭima is only used to refer to the number five; in counting objects or any derivations the base for five is luaʈ) (PAN: *lima)

ɭipasto pass, overtake (as someone walking) (PAN: *lipas)

ɭipuʈcarry in a piece of cloth or paper; wrap up (PAN: *lipuC)

litaHmud (ROOT)

ɭuɭuncurl up (e.g. a mat) (PAN: *luluN)

ɭupaspeach, apricot (PAN: *lupas₁)

lusuŋa deep mortar used for husking rice grains (PAN: *Nusuŋ) Tamalakaw

ɭutuŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

ɭuʔtears (PAN: *luSeq)

-lvit-to whip (ROOT)

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-a-aRlainvite, ask to go out (NEAR) Tamalakaw

ma a ŋayaw(of many people) to go headhunting (Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *ŋayaw) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (260 / 652)

m-a-Ha-Hiutto have sexual intercourse, of human beings (vulgar) (PAN: *qiut) Tamalakaw

m-a-HaRa-HaRawto fight for (as for the ground) (PAN: *qaRaw) Tamalakaw

ma-huwamto have thrush (disease caused by a parasitic fungus that causes whitish spots and ulcers on the membranes of the mouth, the cavity at the back of the mouth, etc.) (PAN: *guSam)

m-a-iRik, iRik-uscrape off with feet, thresh with feet (as millet) (PAN: *iRik) Tamalakaw

maka-nm-ensixty (PAN: *maka-enem) *enem Tamalakaw

maka-pt-elforty (PAN: *maka-Sepat) *Sepat Tamalakaw

maka-ptu-lseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Tamalakaw

maka-Tason (PAN: *aCas) Tamalakaw

maka-waru-n80 (PAN: *maka-walu) *walu Tamalakaw

ma-kəsəris strong (PAN: *ma-keseR) *keseR

ma-kudawhy? how? (PAN: *ma-kuja) *kuja

ma-kurapget or have ichthyosis (PAN: *kurap)

ma-laŋusurfeit (with food) (PAN: *ma-laŋu) *laŋu Tamalakaw

maɭi-pusapus na baɭitornado (‘whirling of the wind’) (PAN: *qali-puspus)

ma-nadamaccustomed (= tamed) (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam Tamalakaw

ma-nəmawhat? (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *nema)

ma-ŋerŋerto growl, of a dog (PAN: *ŋerŋer)

ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath (PAN: *ŋesŋes)

ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath (NOISE)

ma-piɭukcrippled (as from a twisted foot) (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

Puyuma (280 / 652)

ma-putunhas a break (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

mar-buasprout or grow naturally (PAN: *maR-buaq) *buaq

maR-Ha-Hanito harvest (PAN: *maR-qani) *qaniS Tamalakaw

ma-riʔipregnant (PAN: *maliqi) Tamalakaw

m-aR-ki-vu-a-li-vuliplay hide-and-seek (PAN: *buNi) Tamalakaw

mar-kuda-kudadifferent, varied (PAN: *kuja)

mar-sa-suruɁto call one another (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

mar-siwaɁtwo things split (PAN: *siwaq)

maR-tamafather and child (PAN: *maR-amax) *amax Tamalakaw

maR-taynamother and son or daughter (< ta-yna 'mother, aunt') (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina Tamalakaw

mar-Tebuŋtwo people meet (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

mar-Tebuŋ-anmeetings (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

mar-Tebuŋ-Tebuŋseveral people meet (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

ma-sa-suludpush each other (two people only) (PAN: *sulud₂)

ma-suŋato do the opposite of what you are told to do (PAN: *suŋa)

maTaeyes (PAN: *maCa)

ma-Taŋisto weep (PAN: *ma-Caŋis) *Caŋis

ma-tuku-tukuɖmutual aid (PAN: *tukud)

ma-Tumek(of trees and bamboos) crumbling, falling to pieces (PAN: *Cumek) Tamalakaw

ma-veŋveŋmake a noise, as of fire bursting into flames, of bees or flies buzzing (PAN: *beŋbeŋ₂) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (300 / 652)

ma-w-wiRileft-handed (PAN: *wiRi) Tamalakaw

may waʔitharpoon (PAN: *waqit)

ma-ʔaləbto close (PAN: *qaNeb)

ma-ʔatəɖaccompany someone to a destination (as in taking a child to school, or delivering goods) (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD

m-a-ʔatezescort a sick person or a drunk home (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD Tamalakaw

maʔawan alder, Alnus formosana (PAN: *maqaw) Pinan

mə-kanto eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

mə- laŋuyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

meLaTiLaTto sparkle, glitter (ROOT)

mə-ɭəbɭəbvery heavy fog (the horizon is completely obscured; the weather is gloomy and promises rain, which will clear the sky and enable good weather to return) (PAN: *ma-lebleb) *lebleb₁

m-əŋadto breathe (PAN: *S<um>eŋad) *Seŋad

mə-ŋətŋətto nibble (PAN: *ŋetŋet)

me-Ra-Ramesrub and crumble without much force (PAN: *Rames) Tamalakaw

mi-prefix marking possession of some object (lemak ‘job’ : mi-lemak ‘have a job’, paysu ‘money’ : mi-paysu ‘have money’, walak ‘child’ : mi-walak ‘have a child’) (PAN: *mi-)

mi-a-daɭanspirits of the road (PAN: *zalan)

mi-a-ɖuatwo people (PAN: *duSa)

mi-a-n-aTaydie (PAN: *aCay) Tamalakaw

mia-pituseven people (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

mi-buLanfor months (PAN: *bulaN) Tamalakaw

mi-ɖa-ɖuatwo people together (PAN: *mi-da-duSa) *duSa

Puyuma (320 / 652)

mi-kabuŋto wear a hat (LOAN)

mi-ɭuʔto have tears (PAN: *luSeq)

mi-pakpakto have wings (PAN: *pakpak₁)

mi-pasekhave a nail in (PAN: *pacek)

mi-pasekhave a nail in (PAN: *pasek)

mi-samaɁto have remnants (PAN: *samaq)

mi-ta-teɭuthree (people) together (PAN: *telu)

mu-movement prefix (darəʔ ‘earth, soil’, mu-darəʔ ‘go down, descend’, ənay ‘water’, mu-ənay ‘go to the water’, rumaʔ ‘house’, mu-rumaʔ ‘go home (PAN: *mu-)

m-u-a-laHudto flow (of water), be adrift (PAN: *qañud) Tamalakaw

mudiŋ-anface (PAN: *mujiŋ-an) *mujiŋ

mu-liu-liusturn round (thing) (PAN: *liuS) Tamalakaw

mu-liústurn round (person) (PAN: *liuS) Tamalakaw

mu-ɭuɭunto curl (roll) something up (PAN: *luluN)

mu-palTukexplode (ROOT)

mu-palTukexplode (ROOT)

mu-peseʔbe broken, as a bottle or calabash (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

mu-pisəɭto pinch between the fingers (PAN: *pisel)

mu-pitpitto whip and make fall (as lychees by typhoon winds); whip a child’s bottom (PAN: *pitpit₃)

muR-TaTaweyeball (PAN: *CaCaw) Tamalakaw

mu-siwaɁto fork, of a road (PAN: *siwaq)

Puyuma (340 / 652)

mu-Taʔito defecate (PAN: *C<um>aqi) *Caqi

mutpesdeflated (balloon, belly of dead animal) (ROOT)

naparticle linking nominal heads and attributes (PAN: *na₂)

nan-kumy, mine (PAN: *-ku)

nanumwater (ritual term). Only used by male practitioners, as bru is used by female shamans (cf.ənay ‘water’) (PAN: *daNum)

nigenitive case marker for singular personal nouns (PAN: *ni)

ni-ɭuɭun-ana curly thing (as a pangolin rolled into a ball) (PAN: *luluN)

ŋayawheadhunting (PAN: *ŋayaw)

ŋerŋergrowl of a dog (PAN: *ŋerŋer)

ŋəsŋəsbreathless; to pant (PAN: *ŋesŋes)

ŋəsŋəsbreathless, pant (NOISE)

ŋətŋətgnash one’s teeth; bite without letting go (PAN: *ŋetŋet)

ŋeTŋeT-ito bite severely (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC) Tamalakaw

ŋisŋisbeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS)

ŋitŋitbite slowly with the front teeth; gnaw (as rats do) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-a-laHudset adrift (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud Tamalakaw

pa-da-ɖikəTsticky paper (PAN: *dikeC)

pa-ɖikəTstick something on a surface (PAN: *dikeC)

pa-ɖuma-ɖumachange for something else (PAN: *duma)

Puyuma (360 / 652)

pa-ka-ɖikəTanchor (PAN: *dikeC)

pa-ka-ma-kəsərmake someone strong (PAN: *pa-ka-keseR) *keseR

pa-kanto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

paka-ra-a-ri-keriH(of a monkey) to cry "keriH keriH" (PAN: *keriq) Tamalakaw

pa-kawi-an ~ pu-(a)-kawi-anwoodshed (PAN: *kaSiw)

pakpakwing; flap wings (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pa-la-laŋuymake something swim, let something swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

palTukto explode (PAN: *paleCuk) Tamalakaw

paLukapsensitive with the touch; to feel, finger something (ROOT)

panaHshoot with a bow (PAN: *panaq) Tamalakaw

panaʔarrow; shoot an arrow (PAN: *panaq)

paŋaLudŋutmumble, mutter, grumble (ROOT)

pa-pakpakto make wings flap (as when frightening a chicken) (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pa-pat-afour (animals and objects) (PAN: *pat-a) *Sepat Tamalakaw

pa-pəspəsto massage (PAN: *pespes)

pa-pəspəsto massage (PAN: *pa-pespes) *pespes

pa-pituseven (people) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu Tamalakaw

paR-asa-nto do once (PAN: *paR-isa-an) *isa₁ Tamalakaw

parisito pray (PAN: *paliSi) Tamalakaw

par-ka-ɖuain two, half (PAN: *duSa)

Puyuma (380 / 652)

paR-nem-endo six times (PAN: *paR-enem-en) *enem Tamalakaw

parpartwo-ended pestle for shelling (remove seeds from a stalk) (LOAN)

paR-pat-endo four times (PAN: *paR-Sepat-en) *Sepat Tamalakaw

paR-waru-ndo eight times (PAN: *paR-walu-en) *walu Tamalakaw

paR- X -(en)do X times (X = numeral) (PAN: *paR-₂) Tamalakaw

pa-s<al>iwsiwnoise made by cheeping (as by baby chicks looking for their mother) (PAN: *siwsiw)

paseknail; hammer in a nail (PAN: *pacek)

paseknail; hammer in a nail (PAN: *pasek)

pasucheek bone (PAN: *pasu₁)

pa-ʃuʃuto breast feed (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

patfour (cardinal) (PAN: *Sepat) Tamalakaw

pa-Taŋisto make someone cry (PAN: *pa-Caŋis) *Caŋis

pa-Tu<a>ŋTuŋ-andrum (PAN: *CuŋCuŋ) Tamalakaw

pa-tuɖuʔto point out, indicate by pointing (PAN: *pa-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

pa-TuŋTuŋ-ito beat a drum (PAN: *CuŋCuŋ) Tamalakaw

pa-va-vekasto run (PAN: *bekas₂) Tamalakaw

paʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

pa-ʔatəɖto send (as a letter) (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD

pa-ʔatezsend (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD Tamalakaw

pəɖəɭto squeeze, extract from (PAN: *pedel)

Puyuma (400 / 652)

p-en-arisitaboo (PAN: *paliSi) Tamalakaw

p-<ən>əspəswas massaged (PAN: *p<in>espes) *pespes

p<ən>iɭukto twist, as the ankle (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

p<ən>pəspəsto massage (PAN: *pespes)

pənuturtle (Ting 1978) (PAN: *peñu)

p<ən>ukpukwas hit by someone (as a child being beaten) (PAN: *pukpuk)

pərəssqueeze out the contents from (as in squeezing a tube of glue) (PAN: *peRes)

pərəʔto strangle; to wring (as laundry) (PAN: *peReq)

peseʔbreak (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

pəspəsmassage (PAN: *pespes)

pəspəs-imassage (imperative) (PAN: *pespes-i) *pespes

piaɖa shallow wooden plate (obsolete term, undeciphered; used in translating the Gospels) (PAN: *piad)

pia-ɭikuɖturn one’s back (PAN: *likud)

pi-a-n-aTaykill (PAN: *aCay) Tamalakaw

piɭuktwist and cripple (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

p<in>a-kan-anwas fed with something (PAN: *p<in>a-kaen) *kaen

p<in>ar-Tebuŋbe reunited (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

p<in>u-daɭan-anplace where a road has been made (PAN: *zalan)

pisəɭ-ipinch it! (PAN: *pisel)

pispistear into many pieces (LOAN)

Puyuma (420 / 652)

pitpitbeat; make (something) move (PAN: *pitpit₃)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Tamalakaw

pitu-aseven (animals/objects) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Tamalakaw

pitu-pitu-aseven things (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

pi-ʔalabecome an enemy (PAN: *qaNa)

pu-prefix marking the causative of motion verbs; pu-dare ‘throw or put on the ground’, pu-enai ‘to water, put water on’, pu-Taqi ‘spread manure on the fields’ (PAN: *pu-)

pudeknavel; umbilical cord (PAN: *pujek)

pu-ɖəŋərgive a name (PAN: *deŋeR)

puduwild betel root that grows in the mountains (its leaves are narrow and long, smells good when chewed) (PAN: *pudu)

puka-ɖa-ɖuasecond (PAN: *duSa)

pu-kawito put wood (on the fire) (PAN: *kaSiw)

pukpukhurt; beat; to shell with a flail (as millet) (PAN: *pukpuk)

pukpuk-anaywill beat (PAN: *pukpuk)

puɭuʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

puna-punaygreen dove: Chalcophaps indica? (PAN: *puna-punay) *punay Tamalakaw

punaygreen dove: Chalcophaps indica? (PAN: *punay)

punuHbrain (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq Tamalakaw

puR-a-uRehto shed tears (PAN: *luSeq) Tamalakaw

puruTa plant: Urena lobata, var. tomentosa (PAN: *puluC) Tamalakaw

pu-Taqito spread manure on the fields (PAN: *pu-Caqi) *Caqi

Puyuma (440 / 652)

putunbreak (body parts) (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

qubipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS)

ra-gumu-gumulhairy, fluffy, furry (PAN: *gumuN)

ra-gumulfur (PAN: *gumuN)

ramisubterranean root (PAN: *RamiS)

RaRsukposts of a fence (ROOT)

ra-ʃuʃu-anhaving big breasts (PAN: *susu₁)

Rauŋlie in wait for an enemy or animal (PAN: *RaSuŋ) Tamalakaw

RawaRflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR) Tamalakaw

rawaswide, broad (PAN: *lawas₁) Tamalakaw

Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan (PAN: *Reken) Tamalakaw

Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan (PAN: *reken) Tamalakaw

rekepfalcon, hawk (ROOT)

rekestie together (sheaves, bundles, packages) (ROOT)

Resukfix a stick or post in the ground (ROOT)

Rivasdemolish (PAN: *RibaS) Tamalakaw

rubunest (PAN: *Rubu)

rukuTAsplenium nidus (PAN: *lukuC) Tamalakaw

rumaʔhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

ruvaŋa hole (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (460 / 652)

sa-clitic form of ‘one’ (PAN: *sa₃)

saɖumany (objects, animals; but not human beings) (PAN: *Sadu)

sa-kawi-anone (a unit for trees) (PAN: *kaSiw)

saksakcut in pieces (as bamboo) (PAN: *saksak₁)

samaɁremnant (as of soil being used for a job, food left for someone) (PAN: *samaq)

sapayhang astride, across (PAN: *sapay)

sapay-anayto hang, as clothes over a man’s shoulder (PAN: *sapay)

sa-puŋul-anone cluster of areca-nuts (PAN: *puŋuN) Tamalakaw

sapuTto pick up (as chicken feces) (PAN: *saput₂)

sa-sirup-ana straw (for drinking) (PAN: *siRup)

sa-supay-anwhetstone (PAN: *sa-supay-an) *supay

sazumany, much (of non-human) (Tsuchida 1980) (PAN: *Sadu) Tamalakaw

səbuput water on the fire (PAN: *sebuS)

səbubladder (PAN: *sebu)

sekuʈbend (knee, elbow), flex (PAN: *SekuC)

s<əm>apayto hang, as clothes across a bar (PAN: *sapay)

s<əm>əbuto sprinkle water on fire (PAN: *s<um>ebuS) *sebuS

s<em>enaysing (LOAN)

s<əm>ipsipto suck (as a child sucking his thumb) (PAN: *sipsip)

s<əm>iwaɁto take a fork in the road; to have a slit in a traditional skirt (PAN: *siwaq)

Puyuma (480 / 652)

s<əm>uludto push (PAN: *s<um>ulud) *sulud₂

s<əm>upayto sharpen in water (PAN: *s<um>upay) *supay

s<əm>uruɁgo to fetch someone (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

səpiɁbreak off unnecessary branches; lose a limb (PAN: *sepiq)

si-ɖuma-(y)another people, outsiders (PAN: *duma)

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

si-kuda-[y]anmanners, traditions (PAN: *kuja)

silaɁcut in two, tear apart (as cloth) (PAN: *silaq)

s<in>uluda pushed thing (PAN: *sulud₂)

sipsipsuck; lick (PAN: *sipsip)

sirigoat (PAN: *Sidi)

sirupdrink with a straw; suck; sniff (PAN: *siRup)

siwaɁfork; split; slit (PAN: *siwaq)

siwsiwto cheep (PAN: *siwsiw)

siwsiw-anchicks, small birds (PAN: *siwsiw)

ʃ<m>uʃuto suckle, to nurse (of a child) (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

su<a>ksukkey (PAN: *suksuk)

suHaRthorn (in general) (PAN: *suqaR) Tamalakaw

suksuklock (PAN: *suksuk)

suksuk-ayto lock (as a door) (PAN: *suksuk)

Puyuma (500 / 652)

suludpush (PAN: *sulud₂)

sulud-anPush it! (imperative) (PAN: *sulud₂)

suŋaupstream; do wrong (PAN: *suŋa)

supaysharpen in water (PAN: *supay)

ʃuʃubreasts (PAN: *susu₁)

ta-we, 1st person plural incl. nominative bound pronoun (PAN: *ita₁)

ta-bound pronoun, 1pl incl. nominative, we (PAN: *ta-₁)

-ta1pl. incl. genitive pronoun, our (PAN: *-ta)

tabukulfishing net; web (for some men kariɖ and tabukul are used in the sea; tiɭuɁ is used in the mountains; the tabukul is a casting net) (PAN: *tabukul)

taɖawa large knife, single-edged knife with a wooden handle (PAN: *tadaw)

tageraŋchest (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tahraŋchest, breast (PAN: *tageRaŋ) Tamalakaw

Takaw-animperative of the instrumental focus: help to steal (PAN: *Cakaw-an) *Cakaw

talamtry; participate; taste in swallowing (PAN: *taNam)

ta-laŋuy-anraft (PAN: *Naŋuy)

Taliline of the gardener (used to measure garden plots) (PAN: *CaliS)

Taƚungrass; waste (PAN: *CaluN)

Taƚun i ƚaƚiabanedible seaweed (T) (PAN: *CaluN)

Taƚu-Taƚunforest, woods (PAN: *CaluN)

tamakutobacco (LOAN)

Puyuma (520 / 652)

Taŋiƚaear (PAN: *Caŋila)

Taŋila-ŋila-yanthe Jew's ear fungus, Auricularia-Auricula Judae (PAN: *Caliŋa)

Taŋiƚa-ŋiƚa-yanJew's ear fungus (PAN: *Caŋila)

Taŋisweep (PAN: *Caŋis)

Taparoast from a distance, roast gently (as meat over a fire) (PAN: *Capa)

Tapaŋpatchwork; to patch up (PAN: *Capaŋ)

Tap-iwinnow (PAN: *tapeS-i) *tapeS

taRa-walanright (side) (PAN: *waNan) Tamalakaw

taRa-wiRileft (side) (PAN: *wiRi) Tamalakaw

ta-tənun-anframe of the weaving loom (PAN: *ta-tenun-an) *tenun

Tawto be human (PAN: *Cau)

ta-ynaM (ref., respectful) (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina Tamalakaw

Taʔimend, repair, darn, sew (PAN: *CaqiS)

Taʔifeces, excrement (PAN: *Caqi)

taʔurisscratch, leave a scratch mark (ROOT)

təktəkgecko (PAN: *tektek₂)

teɭuthree (PAN: *telu)

T-em-aliprepare a field (by measuring off) (PAN: *C<um>aliS) *CaliS

T-em-ap-ito winnow (PAN: *tapeS-i) *tapeS

T-em-a-Takawsteal (PAN: *Cakaw) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (540 / 652)

t<əm>ənunto weave (PAN: *t<um>enun) *tenun

T-em-erabto belch (PAN: *CeRab)

t<əm>iktikto tattoo (someone) (PAN: *t<um>iktik) *tiktik₅

t<em>uɖuʔto point at with the index finger (PAN: *t<um>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

t<em>ukuɖto strengthen, shore up (as a ruined house) (PAN: *tukud)

tenemexpanse of water (by extension, in the south, where one finds the sea the shamans employ the archaisms bayan, teber (PAN: *tenem)

tenempond, marsh (PAN: *tenem)

tenepsubmerge (LOAN)

tenepsubmerge (PAN: *tenep) Tamalakaw

tənunweave (PAN: *tenun)

təpukto hit (PAN: *tepuk)

Teraba belch (PAN: *CeRab)

teRukukchicken (ROOT)

tialbelly (PAN: *tiaN)

tikerbend (PAN: *tikel) Tamalakaw

tiktika tattoo (PAN: *tiktik₅)

timizchin (PAN: *timij) Tamalakaw

timuɭsouth, meaning on the side of the sea, the bottom (PAN: *timuR)

TimuRmuRrinse one’s mouth and spit (PAN: *timuRmuR)

T-in-aHi-yana seam (PAN: *C<in>aqiS) *CaqiS Tamalakaw

Puyuma (560 / 652)

T-in-apawhat is grilled or roasted; smoked millet (used against hemorrhages for women in childbirth) (PAN: *C<in>apa) *Capa

T-in-a-Taƚun-anluxuriant vegetation (PAN: *CaluN)

T<in>aʔiintestines (PAN: *C<in>aqi) *Caqi

t<in>ənun-anwoven material (PAN: *t<in>enun-an) *tenun

t<in>ukuɖ-ana strengthened thing (PAN: *tukud)

T-in-u-Ta-Tawstatue, mannequin, scarecrow (PAN: *Cau)

Tiŋafood particles stuck between teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

tu<a>ktuka hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tu-ɖəŋərsong, as of a bird (PAN: *deŋeR)

tuɖuknee (Katipul dialect, used in ritual context) (PAN: *tuduS)

tuɖuʔto point at with the index finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tuHezold stump which is getting rotten (PAN: *tuqed) Tamalakaw

tuktukto hit with a hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tukuɖstrengthen; buttress; support (as a stick in helping someone to walk) (PAN: *tukud)

ʈukulhunchbacked; bent (PAN: *Cukul)

tulaan eel (PAN: *tuNa)

Tumaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

turukukfowl, poultry (PAN: *tuRukuk)

tutuRdove, pigeon (PAN: *tuRtuR) Tamalakaw

Tuwatwo (serial counting) (PAN: *duSa) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (580 / 652)

tuzuknee (PAN: *tuduS) Tamalakaw

uago (PAN: *uSa)

u-dawilGo away! (PAN: *Sa-)

uDeDemblack (ROOT)

ulubeads (PAN: *quNuq) Tamalakaw

uŋaythe monkey-friend (the monkey killed at the annual festival maŋayaw is called uŋay. Everyday term is ɭuʈung); cf. Kaʈipul dialect uŋay ‘monkey’ (PAN: *uŋay)

-uRaswash one's hands or feet (PAN: *SuRas) Tamalakaw

uRaTblood vessel, vein (PAN: *huRaC) Tamalakaw

uReHtears (PAN: *luSeq) Tamalakaw

urlasnow (PAN: *SuReNa)

uRlasnow (PAN: *SuReNa) Tamalakaw

-utaHvomit (from the stomach) (PAN: *utaq) Tamalakaw

utaH-anvomit (imperative) (PAN: *utaq-an) *utaq Tamalakaw

-uvuTpull out without much effort one by one, something small and rooted (PAN: *ubuC) Tamalakaw

vaRaglowing embe