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Updated: 7/20/2018


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)

Raluana (Nodup)
Raluana (Nokon)
Raluana (Duke of York)
Raluana (Matupit)

Rembong (Wangka)
Rembong (Waru-Kia)
Rembong (Wue)

Riau Malay
Rikavong Puyuma

Rukai (Budai)
Rukai (Labuan)
Rukai (Maga)
Rukai (Mantauran)
Rukai (Tanan)
Rukai (Tona)
Rungus Dusun

Rade (79) WMP. see: Rhade

578. Raga (80) OC [lml] (Hano) Vanuatu

ahoa-husband (PAN: *qasawa)

ahusmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

alosun (POC: *qalo₁)

aŋainative almond; kidney (POC: *kaŋaRi)

ate-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

busofoam (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

-da1pl. incl. possessive suffix (POC: *-da₂) *-ta

enolie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

fafinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

fasifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

ga-marker of edible possession (POC: *kana-)

ga-garuto swim; to float by moving arms and legs; to take a bath (POC: *kaRu)

garicockle shell; used as a scraper (POC: *kaRi₂)

gatpihermit crab (POC: *katou)

gavegeneric for marine and land crabs (POC: *kape₂)

geha-gablue-green (POC: *keja)

giinstrumental: with, by; reference to, concerning (Pawley 1972:85) (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

γidawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

govuclouded (POC: *kopu)

hamaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

Raga (20 / 80)

ha-ŋ-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

heiwho? (PMP: *sei)

hibapeel with knife (POC: *siba)

huhubreasts (PAN: *susu₁)

hui-bone (POC: *suRi₁)

iha-name (POC: *isa₂)

i-nau1sg. (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

ixefish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

kimiu2pl. focal and object pronoun (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

lahadrinking cup made from coconut shell (POC: *lasa₂)

lalaTrochus stellatus; shell armlet, ring (PMP: *lalak)

laŋiwind (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laxoto walk (POC: *lako) *lakaw

limafive (PAN: *lima)

liwo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mataxufear (POC: *matakut) *takut

matedie; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

maturuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

Raga (40 / 80)

mbituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

meatongue (POC: *maya)

me-meared (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *ma-iRaq

-miu2pl. genitive, your (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

mwatuaright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

nafowave (PAN: *Nabek)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ndaxa-blood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

onesand (POC: *qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

rauleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

sifonine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sine-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

siviLorius, Trichoglossus haematodus (POC: *sipi)

so-so--belaka bird, the Golden Whistler (POC: *sau)

tapreposition: from (a place) (PCEMP: *ta₁)

tagerea bird: Rhipidura fuliginosa (POC: *takere)

tahisea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

tamafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

Raga (60 / 80)

tarereto crow (rooster) (NOISE)

tavolaflat, wide, smooth (POC: *tapola)

te-excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

toafowl (POC: *toqa)

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tuaiold (POC: *tuaRi)

turaplace a prop under (POC: *tura)

tura-turaouter sideposts of house (POC: *tura)

usi-penis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

varastep (POC: *paRas)

varah-istep heavily, stamp (in dance, etc.); tread on, step in, straddle (POC: *paRas)

vau-hito tie, bind (PCEMP: *paqus₂)

vihoSaccharum edule (POC: *pijo)

vinu-skin, bark, husk, rind (POC: *pinut)

walauguide, steer, direct (POC: *pa-laur) *lahud

xaitree (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

xai-fihahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

xamalimen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

xitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

xutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Raluana (352) OC. see: Tolai

Raluana (Nodup) (3) OC. see: Tolai (Nodup)

Raluana (Nokon) (1) OC. see: Tolai (Nokon)

Raluana (Duke of York) (29) OC. see: Duke of York

Raluana (Matupit) (1) OC. see: Tolai (Matupit)

Ramoaaina (29) OC. see: Duke of York

579. Rano (1) OC

metuo-mother’s brother (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

580. Rapanui (8) OC [rap] (Rapa Nui) Chile

a-ŋa-huruten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

e/a-ŋa-huruten (PMP: *ŋa)

e-a-ŋa-huruten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

kauto swim (POC: *kaRu)

kia-kiawhite sea bird (POC: *kiRa)

meand (PMP: *mai)

mona-monasweet (food) (POC: *moña-moñak) *meñak

ninispin, roll (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

581. Rarotongan (311) OC (Savage 1980) [rar] Cook Islands

arelative pronoun used before personal pronouns and before proper nouns (PMP: *a₁)

āfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

aasea eel (NOISE)

aiparticle used after a verb to denote cause, means, etc. of event, or to connect an intransitive verb with a transitive verb (POC: *ai₁)

aitugod, deity, spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

akaroot (PMP: *akaR)

aka-a causative prefix; to make to, to cause something to be done; by the addition of the prefix aka- many nouns, adjectives and neuter verbs become active verbs (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

aka-aŋicause to blow air upon or into (POC: *paka-aŋin) *haŋin

aka-kauto make or cause to swim or float (POC: *kaRu)

aka-kē-iaestranged, alienated (PCEMP: *kese)

aka-roŋoto hear, to listen, to obey, to yield to, to pay attention to, to heed; obedience; obedient (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

aka-taeto let any fluid into or out of a vessel through a leak; to make to flow or run out, as water through a pipe, or as in turning on a tap to allow water to flow or run (POC: *tape₁)

aka-taŋataassume human shape or form, to attain adult age; to act like a man; to be or become manly (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

akeakea tree which is common at high altitudes --- it attains from 12 to 15 feet in height, Xylosma gracile (POC: *ake)

amathe outrigger of a canoe; is also the name of the lesser canoe in a double one; the larger canoe of the combination is called katea; the ama is always on the windward side of the combination (POC: *saman) *saRman

anathe word used by itself means movement, and is used only in reference to mankind': the exact meaning if fixed by the word following: ana mai 'come (or move) here (towards the speaker)', anáatu 'go (or move) away (away from the speaker); go ahead, pass on, etc. (POC: *pana)

anewhite ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

anoa native tree: Guettarda speciosa; wild pigeons feed on the berries, and the seasoned wood is used in the northern islands of the Cook group for making furniture and house building (POC: *pwano-pwano)

aŋiblow, waft, as the wind: to produce, as a current of air; movement, oscillation (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-aŋiblow or waft mildly, in a continuous manner, blow in a gentle manner, as the wind; pulsation, the act of throbbing or oscillating (POC: *aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

Rarotongan (20 / 311)

aothe earth world, the earth region (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

aoaa banyan tree: Ficus indicus (PEMP: *qayawan)

arapineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

araroad, path, way, track (POC: *salan) *zalan

arasin, wilful violation of law, neglect of duty or the laws of morality and religion; wickedness, iniquity, offense, crime, fault; to commit sin; to do wrong; to offend or commit a crime; to be at fault, to commit an offense (PMP: *salaq₁)

arothat which faces toward the front: the front of the body; the main visible sides when turned to view; the foremost part, such as the bow of a canoe (POC: *qarop) *qadep

aro-arothe front of anything; the right side of an article, such as cloth (POC: *qarop) *qadep

ataan elevated staging erected especially for storing food and for other purposes (PMP: *pataR₁)

ateliver of man or animals or birds (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate mamalungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-nui(lit. 'big liver') term used to denote a brave, stout-heared and courageous person: also used when referring to or speaking of a person who is arrogant, cheeky or impudent (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

atoto thatch or cover, as a roof with prepared leaves of the pandanus (POC: *qatop) *qatep

atufish sp., the bonito: Gymnosarda palanys (POC: *qatun)

atustone or kernel of fruit; core of a boil or abscess (POC: *patu) *batux

atucorrelative to mai, used with verbs, etc. to indicate a direction away from the speaker in reference to either time or space; away from, away, forth: used to emphasize future time (PMP: *atu)

audew (PCEMP: *au)

aua current, as of a river or of the ocean; the wake of a boat or ship (PMP: *qaRus)

authe gall of animals (POC: *qasu₂)

aueexclamation which may express almost any shade of emotion: a cry, wail, scream; any loud sound, especially of grief or pain; to cry, weep, lament, bawl; utter a shrill loud sound especially as of one in pain or who has received a sudden shock or fright (PCEMP: *qaué)

aʔifire, light: that which burns or sheds a light or heat (POC: *api) *Sapuy

Rarotongan (40 / 311)

aʔiaʔiafternoon, after 1:00 p.m. (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

aʔiaʔi pōjust as darkness sets in (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

aʔofishing line, cord, string (POC: *apon) *hapen

eindefinite article (PAN: *esa)

e tama!interjection, exclamation which denotes 'I say!', 'oh dear!', 'bother'; sometimes used as an exclamation of surprise or annoyance (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

iparticle used with verbs or adjectives in forming indefinite past tenses or aorists; when used before the verb it is coupled with and after the verb (NOISE)

iian interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat (PMP: *ihi)

iian interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat (PMP: *iqi)

ikafish (generic) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

ikuthe tail of any animal, fish or bird; the end of any object (the tail end) (POC: *siku)

iku-kikauthe end portion of a coconut leaf; this portion of the leaf was, in ancient times, placed on the stomach of a deceased person, being symbolic (POC: *siku)

inainterjection: there! behold! I told you so!; let me see!; move to one side!; show it to me! (PMP: *qina)

iodown, downwards, from above; to cause to come down upon (POC: *sipo)

ipugeneric for articles that serve as a basin, cup, etc., made in ancient days from coconut shells or a calabash (POC: *ibu) *ibu₃

irito select, to choose, to pick out, to name; used figuratively to denote: to recite, to disclose (PAN: *piliq)

iroa mark, a visible sign, that by which anything is known (NOISE)

itaannoyance, anger; a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury; restlessness (PMP: *qitaq)

itismall (PAN: *qitik₁)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ivibone (POC: *suRi₁)

Rarotongan (60 / 311)

iʔithe chestnut tree and its fruit: Inocarpus edulis (POC: *ipi₂)

kaito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

kaɁikathe Malay apple: Eugenia malaccensis, an indigenous fruit tree which bears a beautiful purplish colored fruit, when fully ripe, which is very juicy and pleasant to eat (POC: *kapika)

kakathe textile-like stipule at the base of the coconut leaf or frond, which was formerly used as a coarse kind of clothing; it was also used for straining expressed oil, in the preparation of arrowroot, and as a wrapper for fish nets and other articles of value (POC: *kaka₃)

kapato flap, to flutter, as the wings of a bird; to palpitate, to move, as wings (POC: *kabak) *kapak

kapa-kapato flap repeatedly, to flutter repeatedly, as the wings of birds (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

katito bite; to hold or engage, as something that has been fastened to another thing and it does not slip loose; to seize or tear with the teeth (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

kauto swim, to float, to paddle, as in the water (POC: *kaRu)

kauileft, on the left side (POC: *kauRi) *wiRi

kau-kauto swim or float about or around, to bathe or take a bath; swimming, bathing (POC: *kaRu)

kavabitterness, sourness, etc.; to be bitter, sour or acrid, to be biting to the taste (LOAN)

ka-varueighth (ordinal) (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

enmity, hostility; strange, different, not the same; hostile, adverse (PCEMP: *kese)

kipreposition: to, as of place; ki Avarua ‘to Avarua’; raro ‘below’, ki raro ‘to below’, ruŋa ‘above’, ki ruŋa ‘to above’, etc.); at, in; into; on, to, upon; towards, at; concerning, respecting, with (the ablative of instrument); in consequence of, according to; simply transitive, connecting the verb with its object (POC: *ki₁)

kipreposition: to, as of place (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

kiatothe cross-beams of wood used to connect the ama or outrigger or lesser canoe to the main canoe (POC: *kiajo)

kiriskin, hide, as of man or beast; bark, as of trees; leather (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kiteknowledge, assured belief, that which is known; instruction, enlightenment, information, learning, practical skill; to see, to perceive, as by the eye; to recognize, to know, to be informed of, to discover, to observe; to be wise, to have knowledge or perception, to find (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kite-aknown, understood, found, discovered, etc. (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kite-mataan eye-witness; one who has seen, as of anything done or performed (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

Rarotongan (80 / 311)

kite-vekaa flash of knowledge, an inspiration; to see anything pass in a rapid manner, or to flash by (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

general name applied to anything that is used to dig or poke or thrust with, such as a spade or fork which is used for digging the ground, a spear, a pointed instrument used as a lever, or that which is used to poke, prod or stab with; a pointed stake used in the process of removing the husk from a coconut; to dig or plant with a ; to spear or stab; to prod, poke, thrust or pierce with an implement that is pointed (POC: *kojom)

koe2sg., you, thee, thou (POC: *koe)

kokaa native tree: Bischofia javanica or Allophylus vitiensis (POC: *koka)

kokilame, lamish (POC: *koki)

koki-kokito exhibit lameness (POC: *koki)

kopia fold, a pleat in cloth, a hem; to hem; doubled together, as of anything hinged or jointed (POC: *kobit₁) *kepit

kukuedible mussel: Mytilus edulis (POC: *kukur) *kuDkuD

kuririthe sandpiper, a sea wading bird the frequents the sandy stretches near the lagoons (LOAN)

kuruthe breadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

kutulouse, weevil, any small insect injurious to food (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu moafowl or chicken lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu papabody lice, the crab louse, phthirius pubis (‘flat louse’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lanuthe liquor amnii, amniotic fluid (POC: *ranum) *daNum

loant (POC: *loRo)

maconjunction: and: used to connect persons or numerals, and in many instances, place or thing (PAN: *maS)

maihither, here; correlative of atu; used with verbs, adjectives and local nouns to indicate direction or action towards the speaker (POC: *mai) *ai₃

makigeneral term for disease, sickness or illness of any nature: the word with which it is joined denotes the particular disease or illness; sick, affected by disease, ill (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maki-makibe indisposed; be ill or feel ill; be suffering from some complaint (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maki pivafevers of any kind (POC: *masakit) *sakit

Rarotongan (100 / 311)

maki vainemenses (lit. ‘woman’s sickness’) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mamato prepare, as kava, by chewing (PMP: *mamaq)

manapower, might, authority, influence, sanctification, infused with magic, potency, control, prestige; effectual, binding, authoritative; having influence or power (POC: *mana₂)

mana-manapowerful, having great power, might; having extensive authority or influence or prestige; to be possesses of great magical powers, etc. (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

manavamythology: one of the senses of human intelligence, said to be the seat of human emotions, affections, etc., bestowed by the supreme deity I’o on the creation of man; the heart; courage, bravery, spirit, endurance, long-winded, as of a person of exceptional staying power (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manava roalong-lived, full vitality, physical vigor, etc. (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manugeneral name for any living thing living on the earth or through the air; the term is frequently applied to human beings in a figurative sense (POC: *manuk)

manu-manuall small insects (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

ma-ramamoon, month (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

mā-ramalight, daylight; that which shines or is brilliant; light, bright, clear, as to sight, sound or hearing; transparent, as of water; easy to understand; to understand, comprehend; to have intellectual faculties (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

maroa waist girdle, the ancient loincloth or waist wrap; various kinds were used in ancient days (PCEMP: *malaw)

maro kurathe sacred crimson girdle, generally worn by the ariki or members of an ariki family (PCEMP: *malaw)

maro totospecial waist cloth or girdle worn only by women during the period of menses --- a menstrual girdle (PCEMP: *malaw)

marushelter, protection; shade (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru aʔothe shadows of light of day, the faint light of dawn (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru-marushady, sheltered from light or heat (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

maru-matethe shadow of death (PEMP: *maluRu)

matathe eye or eyes of human beings, animals, birds and insects; the face of a human being or an animal; used to denote the presence (before the face of); the edge of a blade, tool or weapon; the eye of a needle; the point of a needle or other sharp instrument (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata araa path, track, way, road, method, manner, system, manner of how to do or accomplish an end in view (POC: *mata ni salan) *maCa

mata ikaa term used to indicate the first victim slain in a fight, meaning the first fish (POC: *mata ni ikan) *maCa

Rarotongan (120 / 311)

mata ioa fishhook (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kailiterally means the principal food; denotes food offering (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kitea witness, the eyes that saw; one who has seen or did actually see an offense committed; to divine, foresee, foretell; be on the lookout, beware, be watchful (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kokethe cutting edge of a sword (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matakufear, dread, terror; afraid, timid, struck with fear; undecided; to be afraid, timid or doubtful (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataku-takuto be in the state or condition of being afraid, timid; to entertain fear; to be possessed of forebodings; to hesitate (POC: *matakut) *takut

mata-matathe edge of anything, such as the edge of a cliff, the banks of a stream (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata nuthe eye of the coconut; the small opening at the base end of the coconut which is pierced in order to drink the fluid (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataŋigeneral name for wind, breeze (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata punasource of a spring of water, the springhead, fountainhead (POC: *mata ni waiR) *maCa

mata tapuaa director or a supervisor or a chief fisherman: one who directs fishing operations, more especially in regard to fishing with a net or nets; the main or leading end of a fishing net (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata taupothe core or head of a carbuncle (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata tipithe cutting edge of a knife (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata tokithe cutting edge of an axe (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matauaccustomed, customary, habitual, familiar practice; formed or acquired by frequent use; to have a knowledge of, to know how a thing is done, observed or performed, etc. (PMP: *ma-taqu₁) *Caqu

mata urathe leading row of dancers, the leaders of a dance (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mā-tau-tauto have a familiar knowledge of, to be perfectly used to certain procedures or ways (PMP: *taqu₁) *taqu

mategeneral term for death: disaster, calamity, danger, defeat, ruin, oppression, hurt, injury, adversity, unconsciousness, subsidence, desire; out, as of a person being caught out when playing cricket; defeat, as in playing a game of cards or other game; a funeral burial; dead, oppressed, unconscious; extinguished, as a light; in lack of, in want of; loss of, as of vitality or vigor overcome with any emotions; overcome in a contest; deep emotion, as of a person or persons being deeply in love; calmed down, subsided; moving slowly or slack, as of the tide, slack water; beaten, as in any contest; benumbed, deadened, paralyzed; dried up, as the water of a stream; withered, as the foliage of trees; die, lose life, perish (POC: *mate) *aCay

mātoruthick; thickness, the thick part of anything (POC: *matolu) *təlu

mātoru-toruto be thick, to be on many layers, as of timber; to be thick or strong, as of a beverage (POC: *matolu-tolu) *təlu

Rarotongan (140 / 311)

matua ~ metuaparent, elder; an expert, one who is skilled in any art or science; a master, as the navigator of a ship, etc. (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mauileft, on the left side or hand (PEMP: *mauRi) *wiRi

ma-urithe soul, or life principle of man; the spirit of a deceased person; the source of emotions, not to be confused with the material seat of the same in ngakau as of a person who has received a sudden fright (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

ma-ʔanaheat, warmth; warm (PMP: *ma-panas) *panas₁

ma-ʔana-ʔanawarmness, warmth; a heating (POC: *ma-panas-panas) *panas₁

mimiurine; to urinate (PMP: *mimi)

mitia sharp sound, as the sound of a kiss (POC: *miti)

miti-mitidenotes the hissing sound made with the lips in making amorous overtures to a woman (POC: *miti-miti) *miti

mugeneral name for an oven (PMP: *qumun)

mututo be at an end, to be parted, to end suddenly, to conclude or terminate finally, to cut short; to be cut, to be severed; cut off, severed; parted, ended (PEMP: *mutu₂)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ninivertigo, a sensation of giddiness, dizziness; giddy, dizzy, unsteady’ (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

niʔotooth, teeth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

nonoa native tree: the Morinda citrifolia (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

noʔoto stay or stop moving, to cease from moving; sit down, remain, stop, settle, dwell, live or stay or remain at or upon, inhabit a place (POC: *nofo)

ŋaruwave, ocean swell (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋurua murmuring, snarling sound, as of an angry dog or other animal; the rumbling of thunder; a deep moaning sound of distress; a sound showing disapprobation; groaning, as a deep moan of pain; to rumble, snarl, growl (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

ŋutulip, rim, edge, entrance, orifice (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu area household, members of a family; a doorway (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu avathe entrace of a harbor (PAN: *ŋusuq)

Rarotongan (160 / 311)

ŋutu pāa door, the entrance to a house, gateway (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu roasymbolically, the turtle; in the ancient chants the turtle was seldom referred to or spoken of as ‘onu, but as ŋutu roa (PAN: *ŋusuq)

okaa pointed stake, a stick or stake used to pierce and detach the husk of the matured or green coconut; an implement used for stabbing or piercing, husking or stripping of husks; to husk or remove the outer integument from certain fruit, as to husk a coconut (POC: *soka)

okarafter of a house, a beam (POC: *sokar) *seŋkar

oko-ituseventy doubled, denotes one hundred and forty (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

onegeneral name for soil, earth, sand, gravel (POC: *qone) *qenay

one-onesandy, dirty, gritty (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

ori-origo about here and there, move about, walk about; ramble, stroll; wave, flutter in the wind (POC: *oliq oliq) *uliq₁

oroto swallow, to engulf (POC: *polon) *belen

oroa slide, as a landslide, an avalanche; to slide, to slip, to avalanche (POC: *solo₃)

otaany raw flesh such as raw fish; raw, green, uncooked (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

otithat which finishes or completes; to finish, end, complete (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

pa-anudrift, a drifting, leeway, floatage or flotsam, the floating capacity of a thing; anything that floats or drifts; to float or swim on liquid, be buoyed up, drift about aimlessly, float or drift away (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud

patuto smite, strike, dash (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

pirito stick, to adhere, to remain fixed or attached to or on, to close, to come together, to grapple, to be congested, to be overcrowded; to draw together and unite; to be jammed or stuck; close, shut up, with no opening, confined; near, in time or place; intimate, compact; crowded; hidden, secret (PMP: *pilit₁)

piri-kokito be affected with lameness (POC: *koki)

pitonavel, umbilical cord; young sprouts that spring from grain (POC: *bito)

pito-pitosmall round objects; used to denote a button or buttons (POC: *bito)

pu kurubreadfruit tree, Artocarpus incisa. There are several kinds of breadfruit, as kuru atu or kuru maori, sacred to Tangiianui Ariki, and kuru-ua ‘the seeded breadfruit; known as the soursop or jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia); this kind was introduced from Samoa. (PMP: *kuluR)

puruadherence; compress, any soft or suitable material used as a compress; clingy, sticky, adhesive, apt to adhere (POC: *bulut) *pulut

Rarotongan (180 / 311)

purut-iabe plugged or stopped with a plug (POC: *bulut) *pulut

the name of the ancient mat-sail that was used on ocean-going canoes (PAN: *layaR)

raeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

ra-kaugeneral name for trees or shrubs or plants; general name for wood of any kind; a pole, a rod, a stick; a weapon (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

ra-kau kavaa poisonous tree, a bitter herb; also used to denote a gun (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

ramaa torch of any kind; to catch fish by torchlight (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

raŋimyth: the ethereal space, the not-earth region; sky, firmament (this definition was a meaning quite unknown to the ancient people); the sky sphere; supreme in authority, a crown, supremacy, the paramount high chief, highest authority or power, etc.; an emblem of arikiship worn on the head of chiefs (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

raŋogeneral name for flies (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

rarobeneath, under, below; down; the under or lower part or portion; west, westward, towards sunset, to leeward (POC: *ralom) *dalem

rauleaf (in composition) (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

raʔotesticle; the scrotum and its contents (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

reovoice; tone; speech; utterance; language; dialect; form of words (POC: *leqo)

rereto fly, to move swiftly, as a bird; to leap, to move with bounds, to spring upward or forward; to hop, to leap on one leg; to swing, as to swing in the ancient Maori swing (POC: *rere₂)

rianit, the egg or eggs of a louse or lice or other small insects (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

ria-rianitty, to be infested with nits (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

rikilittle, small; little or small in quantity, degree or size, not great; unimportant, petty, of little worth; a little, partially (POC: *rikit) *dikit

rimafive (PAN: *lima)

rimumoss, sponge, seaweed; orchid (PMP: *limut)

rimu-āto cover or be covered with moss; used figuratively to denote: for all time, eternity, forever (PMP: *limut)

rimu pinespecies of fern which hangs from trees: Lycopodium phlegmaria (PMP: *limut)

Rarotongan (200 / 311)

riŋito pour out or into, to cause to flow or fall in streams or drops, as water or other fluids; to flow, to issue forth, to rush out or down (PCEMP: *liŋi)

ririanger; a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury or wrong and involving a desire for retaliation or revenge (POC: *lilim)

ri-riŋito pour out, to tip out, to empty out, to cause to flow or fall in a stream or in streams or drops (PCEMP: *liŋi)

roalong, as of time; delayed; length, as of time; delay; length, as of measurement; duration, extent, etc. (POC: *loan)

romito squeeze, to massage, to knead (POC: *lomiq) *lemiq₂

roŋoto apprehend by the senses, except sight; to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste; news, tidings, a report or a rumor, fame, a flying report, a current story, notoriety (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-nuigreatness, great fame, celebrated; renown, a great name or reputation; famed, renowned, illustrious (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋohearing (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋo-ānotorious, of ill report, infamous (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

rotoin, within, the inner part, inside; inwardness, internal state, inner meaning or significance, intimacy, familiarity, etc.; internally seated in the mind or soul; not perceptable to the sense of sight, as hidden or suppressed anger or any hidden or suppressed emotion (POC: *loto)

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruahole, excavation, grave, abyss, cavity, pit, opening, chasm, etc. (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

rua-kivomit, matter ejected from the stomach; to vomit, to throw up the contents of the stomach by the mouth; to spew (POC: *lua-ki) *luaq

to kill, to put to death, to slay, to overcome, to destroy, to slaughter; an assault, sudden attack; to beat or dash out, as in bailing a canoe; to pound or beat, as in washing clothes with a stick or stone on a flat surface (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taeto leak, to melt, to flow, to ooze, to trickle, to discharge (POC: *tape₁)

taithe sea, sea or salt water; the coast or land bordering the sea, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave or waves, as of the sea (PMP: *tasik)

tai-namuliterally means, the entangler of mosquitoes, or, that which catches mosquitoes; a mosquito net (POC: *tai ñamuk)

taka-ninito whirl around giddily (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

taki-itusevenfold, in sevens, multiplied seven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

tā-ku, tō-ku1sg possessive pronoun: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

Rarotongan (220 / 311)

tamaterm used as a respectful manner of address to a man, being equivalent to the English word, sir (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tamanuthe native mahogany: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *tamanu)

tanuthe act or art of cultivating; to plant, to put into the ground for growth, to bury underground; to set shoots in the ground; to cultivate (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tanu-kaito plant food, to cultivate food crops (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tanu-miaplanted, buried, cultivated (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋatageneral name for mankind (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taŋiany noise or sound, peculiar quality of tone, report, empty or meaningless noise; any sound or noise, such as crying in grief or pain; a fit of weeping; the particular cry or call uttered by birds or beasts; to cry, to lament, to weep, to bawl; to sympathize with (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋi-taŋito cry, to lament, weep or bawl in a continuous manner, etc. (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

taoan ancient short-throwing spear (POC: *jaot) *saet

tapathe margin, the edge, fringe, border of anything; the brink or edge, as of a cliff; a piece, portion or slice of anything (POC: *taba₂)

tarasomething that is sharp-pointed, such as a thorn, spike, the point or points of horns, a barb of any kind; bristling, etc. (POC: *salaŋ)

tarasomething that is sharp-pointed, such as a thorn, spike, or the points of horns, a barb of any kind; bristling, etc. (PEMP: *sala)

tara-tararough, prickly, thorny, serrated (POC: *salaŋ)

tariŋa turithe condition of being deaf or hard of hearing; obstinacy, stubbornness (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

taroan esculent tuber which is much cultivated for food purposes and of which there are several varieties: Colocasia esculenta (POC: *talos) *tales

ta-ruato make double, to duplicate, to pair (POC: *rua) *duSa

taru-taruweeds that have been cut down and laid about on the ground (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

ta-toufirst person plural inclusive pronoun (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

taua season or period (PMP: *taqun)

tau-ruaduplex, twofold, double, duplicate (POC: *rua) *duSa

Rarotongan (240 / 311)

taʔathe act of floating, soaring, skimming or flocking, as birds in the air with outstretched wings, soaring and dipping (POC: *tapa₃) *tapa₂

tiato bind or lash, such as in binding or lashing the lugs of the mouth of a sack filled with copra (POC: *tia)

tiathat which is used to hold or make fast, such as a peg, a stake, a spike, a solemn promise, etc.; to drive in a peg, stake, spike or nail (NOISE)

tia-tiabound, lashed (POC: *tia)

tina-naa female parent: used only in respect of animals, birds, etc.; is sometimes used or applied in respect of a woman in a joking manner (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tiothe oyster (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

tiparestiveness, restlessness, turbulence, resistance; the act of plunging about in a restless manner (POC: *tibaŋ) *timpaŋ

tipa-tipato be restless or restive, or to act in a restive manner; to plunge about or jib, as a restless horse (POC: *tibaŋ) *timpaŋ

tiramast of canoe, boat or ship; the dorsal fin of a fish; a vernacular euphemism for the phallus; that which stands erect (POC: *jila)

tirolook; to view, to survey (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tiro-tiro moethat which is seen whilst asleep or during slumber; a vision, a dream (POC: *tiro-tiro) *tindaw

tiuone of the wind quarters --- west by southwest (PMP: *tiup)

toathe ironwood tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (POC: *toRas) *teRas

tokacongealment, anything congealed, frozen, etc.; to pass from fluid to solid, to coagulate, to curdle; a general term or name for stone or stones or rock of any description (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tokacongealment; anything congealed, frozen, etc.; to congeal, to freeze, to become hard or firm or solid, to solidity, as by cold; to pass from fluid to solid (POC: *toka₂)

tokeraunorthwest wind (POC: *tokalaur)

tokoa pole or rake used for propelling; to propel with a pole, as a canoe; to support or strut with a pole, to prop up; to push or force to a distance, by using a pole to give the required impelling force (POC: *tokon) *teken

toko-tokoto prop up or strut or support extensively with several or many props or struts, etc.; to keep on pushing or poling with a pole; the act of propping or strutting, etc.; a walking stick, that which is used as a support, such as a staff or walking staff; to walk with a stick or staff (POC: *tokon-tokon) *teken

totoblood (POC: *toto)

totoblood (NOISE)

Rarotongan (260 / 311)

totunumeral three (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

toua tree: Cordia subcordata (POC: *toRu)

tuathe back, the rear, a portion; a side, as of a house or building; the back, as of persons; the hindermost part or portion of anything, as of an army or fleet of canoes; behind, as at the back or rear; secret, hidden (POC: *tuqa₁)

tuato separate, to partition; to divide, as of any property; to divide into equal or unequal shares, to apportion out (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tua-(a)ŋaseparation, division; the act of partitioning or dividing (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuaithe ancient hand-grater or shredding (POC: *tuaRi)

tua-iaseparated, partitioned, divided (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuito sew, join or fasten together with a needle or thread; thread a wreath; thread shells into a neck or head ornament; thread or join up candlenut kernels on the mid-rib of the coconut frond; to pierce (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

tui-tuithe candlenut tree: Aleurites triloba; the flesh of the nut of this tree is similar in taste to a walnut, but exercises a powerful purgative effect (PEMP: *tuRi₂) *tuRi

tuk-ia pounder, that which is used for pounding, or beating or mashing; a bumper, such as the bumper of a car; the act of pounding or beating to a mass or fine pieces; the act of slamming, the act of striking; a thump, a blow, a loud knock, a bump; to pound, to beat into fine pieces, to mash, to bruise; to slam or bang, as a door; to hammer, to ram, thrust or stike with anything impelled end-wise (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tunageneral term for eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tunuto cook as in cooking food; to boil, as in boiling a kettle of water; to roast or bake (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tunu pakato roast on fire embers (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupageneral name for crab, more especially the edible species of the land crab (POC: *tubaRa)

tupugrowth of any kind; a growth, a gradual increase; progress or development; a product, as of the earth; a sprout or growing shoot, a germ inception, a beginning, etc.; occurrence, that which happens, etc.; to grow, to become enlarged by natural process, to advance towards maturity; to produce, as the earth; to sprout forth or to germinate; to occur or to happen (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

t-upu-naancestor; grandparent (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

turideafness, the state or condition of being deaf; deaf, dull of hearing or unable to hear at all (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

turuto leak or drip (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tu-taeoffal, excrement, feces, dung (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tu-tae atuaa species of fungi, the puff-ball (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

Rarotongan (280 / 311)

tututo beat, to strike repeatedly, to break, to bruise; to thresh, as wheat (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

tutuk-ito bump or collide, or strike against; to pound or bruise, etc.; to slam or bang; to hammer, etc. (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tuʔithe act of writing, drawing or delineating; to delineate or draw; to write (modern); to adorn, as with designs (PCEMP: *tusi)

tuʔithe act of writing or drawing, or delineating; to delineate or draw; to write (modern meaning); to adorn, as with designs (POC: *dusiq)

ūnoisy expulsion of wind, fart (PMP: *uu)

umammary gland, breast, udder; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

ua-uasinews; tendons; muscles; ligaments; rubber (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

uiyam (generic) (PMP: *qubi)

uiralightning (POC: *qusila)

umefish sp.: leather-jacket (PMP: *qumay)

uŋōto low, as cattle, to bray, as an ass (NOISE)

uremembrum virile; used figuratively to denote a man or a male (POC: *ule)

uriturn round or turn about; to translate, as one language into another (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

uria young shoot, or sprout or tuber; seed of any kind (PMP: *suli₁)

uri-kurua young shooting up (branch) breadfruit tree, that generally grows from the spreading roots of the breadfruit tree (PMP: *suli₁)

uruto enter into, to penetrate, to form part of, to pass into, to indwell, to abide or dwell in; to regain, as a person recovering from an illness; to clamber or climb among, as a person among the fronds of a coconut tree; to enter, to come or go into; to possess, as a familiar spirit; to participate in; to arrive at or reach a place (PMP: *surup₁)

uruafish sp. (POC: *qulua)

utainland, as opposed to tai, seaward; the interior part of a country (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utato convey; to carry, as from one place to another; to load, to burden; to load up, as a canoe (PMP: *ujan)

uta-utaconveying, carrying, loading up (PMP: *ujan)

Rarotongan (300 / 311)

uta-uta-ŋiato overburden over-much; to be heavily weighed down, to be followed by different events in succession, etc. (PMP: *ujan)

utococonut that has germinated; kernel or white spongy substance found inside a spongy coconut (POC: *quto)

vaeto divide, part, separate (POC: *wa(n)se)

vakacanoe; tribe, clan, nation (POC: *waŋka)

varueight (PAN: *walu)

vaʔiefirewood (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

vaʔinewoman; female; wife (POC: *papine) *bahi

virithe motion of turning or twisting or twirling; a drill, a bit, an auger or anything that is used to drill or bore a hole with; turn or twist something around (PMP: *wirit)

waiwater (general term) (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

ʔāhoarse, husky (POC: *paRak) *paRaek

ʔinegeneral term applied to females; sometimes denotes respect or kind regard, but is (or was) mostly used towards young women and those of adult age; in some cases used as a term of endearment by a lover towards his sweetheart; it is extensively used in love songs (POC: *pine) *bahi

ʔoafriend, mate, companion; spouse, husband, wife; one of a pair (POC: *soRa)

582. Ratagnon (1) WMP

kioblique case marker for singular personal nouns (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

Ratahan (16) WMP. see: Toratán

583. Rejang (272) WMP (Jaspan 1984, Blust 1984, McGinn 2005) [rej] Indonesia (Sumatra)

agaʔabout, approximately (LOAN)

ai-aiejaculation of astonishment or appreciation (PAN: *ai₂)

akeutadopted; senior, older (PWMP: *aŋkat)

akut-akutstinging wasp-like insect (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

aleaʔdefeated (PWMP: *alaq₂)

aliaʔmove, transfer (of an individual or group) (PMP: *aliq)

ambeatasteless, as food that lacks salt or some other spice; ineffectual medicine, medicine that has lost its therapeutic power (PMP: *qambaR)

ambinshawl for carrying infant on back or at waist (PWMP: *hambin)

aney aneyants, termites (PAN: *aNay)

anoʔchild, offspring (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anoʔ apaŋillegitimate child, bastard (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anoʔ apaŋbastard, child born out of wedlock (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

ʌnoʔ Dalamroyal family and dynasty of Bencoolen before British occupation in 1685 (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anoʔ mateypupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

anoʔ tuwai suʔaŋoldest child in family (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

aŋan-aŋanideal, hope, idle thoughts, daydream (LOAN)

aŋinwind, breeze, air (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋin-aŋina rumor (PMP: *haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

apaŋillegitimate sexual union (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

apas(fibrous) waste (LOAN)

Rejang (20 / 272)

apeamemorize, study (LOAN)

apunpardon, mercy (PMP: *ampun)

apun tuaninitial salutation to ancestral spirits in propitiation rites (PMP: *ampun)

aseaʔsharpen (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asepsmoke (PWMP: *asep)

aseumtamarind acid, vinegar; sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

aseum jawaitamarind (PWMP: *qalesem)

aseyfeel, pretend, make believe, imagine (PWMP: *asih)

ateproof, roofing, thatch made of leaves of palm (Calamus casteneus) (PMP: *qatep)

ateui paneushot-tempered (PWMP: *panes)

ateup mbaithatch made of leaves of sago palm (PMP: *qatep)

atinot yet (PMP: *ati₁)

auyes (PAN: *auʔ)

awaŋ-awaŋatmosphere, outer space (PMP: *awaŋ)

awoʔbody, abdomen, trunk (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

ayoʔrice sieve (PWMP: *ayak₂)

babaʔskin (PMP: *bakbak₁)

badaʔRhinoceros sumatrensis (LOAN)

baletroot (PMP: *waRej)

balunshroud (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

Rejang (40 / 272)

bataŋriver (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bateapillow, cushion (PWMP: *bantal)

batea guliŋbolster, Dutch wife (PWMP: *bantal)

bdéarifle, shotgun (LOAN)

bedoʔface powder (LOAN)

bekoʔswelling, lump; swollen; a boil (PMP: *beŋkak)

be-layeato sail (PAN: *layaR)

belewnew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

beneatrue, correct, honest, just, valid, right (PMP: *bener)

beseyiron (LOAN)

be-supeaʔto swear, to take an oath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

betisforeleg, shin (PAN: *beties)

beʔeutheavy, onerous; weighty, profound; difficult (PMP: *beReqat)

biaʔcompleted, drained (glass or cup) (NOISE)

bibialip, lips (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bidaŋ bewshoulder blade (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidiŋedge, bank, littoral; hem (PMP: *bidiŋ)

biduʔcanoe bark (LOAN)

bikewapical clan ancestor (LOAN)

bikeyframe (PWMP: *biŋkay)

Rejang (60 / 272)

bileabeadle, lowest ranked mosque official (LOAN)

bileyday, daytime (PAN: *waRi₁)

bilisvariety of river fish (PWMP: *bilis)

bineybrave, courageous; forward (PMP: *baRani)

biniaʔseed (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bioawater (PMP: *wahiR)

bisanrelationship of parents whose children are married to each other (PWMP: *baisan)

bisewdumb (LOAN)

biseyinsect bite, poison injected through a wound (LOAN)

bisiʔspeaking in a whisper (PWMP: *bisik₃)

bitaŋstar (LOAN)

bitaŋ tlewthe Pleiades, the stars that signal the start of rice planting (LOAN)

biʔiŋbright yellow or reddish-feathered bird, red-skinned goat or cow (PMP: *biRiŋ₁)

blaŋcolored (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

blaŋ duaispotted, bicolored, piebald (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

blasrice (husked but uncooked) (PMP: *beRas)

bleaʔsevered; split (PAN: *belaq)

bleya woman married belékét with the result that her lineage affiliated with her parents is ended (PMP: *beli)

buaŋ-ana miscarriage of the fetus before it is three months old (PWMP: *buaŋ-an) *buqaŋ

buaʔfruit; kidneys (of animals); testicles; calf muscle, biceps (PMP: *buaq)

Rejang (80 / 272)

buaʔ betiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

buaʔ betiscalf muscles (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

bubuaporridge, gruel (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bubuenfontanelle (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

bubuen nu gi lembiʔyour fontanelle is still soft (a sarcastic remark implying that you are still young and inexperienced) (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

budoʔservant, slave (LOAN)

bujaŋunmarried man, bachelor (LOAN)

bukastorn open, ripped open (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

bukeaʔchip, fragment, piece (PWMP: *buŋkaq)

buketthick, viscous (PMP: *buket)

bukewknuckle, joint (as of the fingers), node (as of bamboo) (PMP: *buku)

bukitmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukusparcel, package (PWMP: *buŋkus)

bulenmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buletround, circular (PWMP: *buled₂)

bulewbody hair, feathers (PMP: *bulu₁)

buluaʔbamboo (generic) (PAN: *buluq₂)

bunuta forest tree: Calophyllum spp. (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buŋeyflower, flowers, embellishment (PMP: *buŋa)

buoyswinging cradle (PMP: *buqay)

Rejang (100 / 272)

burewto hunt (NOISE)

buritbuttocks (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

buritbuttocks (PMP: *burit₁)

buruŋbird (LOAN)

butəwstone (PMP: *batu) *batux

butew aseaʔgrindstone (for chillies); whetstone (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

butew isutmortar (for grinding food) (PWMP: *isut₂)

butiŋpregnant (LOAN)

butuaʔpenis (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

bututbuttocks, rear, hindquarters (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

buʔhair (of head) (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buʔusloose stool, diarrhoea (PWMP: *buhus)

dadochest (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

daleaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

daleaʔ dagiŋkinsmen, blood relatives; flesh and blood (PAN: *daRaq)

daleunroad, path, street (PMP: *zalan)

daleun tikusfootpath, jungle path (lit. ‘rat path’) (PMP: *zalan)

daneuwlake (PAN: *danaw)

dileaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

doloma needle (PAN: *zaRum)

Rejang (120 / 272)

dua-itwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dukueta weed, a grass, an herb (PMP: *dukut₂)

gaduŋa variety of cassava, poisonous if not soaked before cooking (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

garaŋevil, malicious (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

gasiŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gautto scratch (PWMP: *gaut)

geneupfull, complete; enough, sufficient (PWMP: *genep)

giloinsane, mad (PMP: *gila)

ibutwind, breeze, air (PWMP: *ibut₂)

ijuʔsugar palm fibres, used to make roofing and twine (PWMP: *izuk)

ika, ikeacurled, curly (PWMP: *ikel)

ikoatail (PAN: *ikuR)

iloʔtortuous, windy (NEAR)

iloʔtortuous, winding (ROOT)

imbuaʔincrement, increase, addition (PWMP: *imbuq)

indoʔmother, matrix, dam (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

iŋeutremember (PWMP: *iŋet)

ipitget close to something; touch; near (PMP: *ipit)

ipit-ipittight together, close together (PMP: *ipit)

ipuaʔa forest tree used to make barkcloth; a potent poison made from the root or sap of this tree, mixed with bait in squirrel and bird traps (PWMP: *qipuq)

Rejang (140 / 272)

ipuncollect, gather (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

irisshred, chop finely (PMP: *qiris)

iseycontents (PAN: *isi₅)

jamaystubble, rice stubble; last season’s ricefield (PWMP: *zaRami)

jileutto lick (PWMP: *dilat)

ka-to, towards (PAN: *ka₃)

kabeungroup, party, crowd (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kabuetfog, mist, low-lying cloud (PMP: *kabut)

k-akeutlift, adopt, take up (imperative) (PWMP: *ka-aŋkat) *aŋkat

k-akewacknowledge (imperative) (PAN: *k-aku) *aku

kako-Ɂolder brother or sister (actual or classificatory) (PMP: *kaka₂)

kaluŋnecklace (PWMP: *kaluŋ)

kaseuwceiling support, beam (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kempitcarry under the armpit (PMP: *kepit)

kenohit, strike (PMP: *kena₁)

kepewgrandchild (PMP: *maki-empu) *empu

keteaviscous, thick (LOAN)

kéwéa puluŋthe reel of a fishing rod (PAN: *puluŋ)

kno supeaʔto suffer supernatural punishment for having made a false oath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

koyou (used for persons of similar or lower rank, actual, putative or fictional) (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

Rejang (160 / 272)

-ku1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

kutoa fortified place, a stronghold, a rampart (LOAN)

kutuʔan oath, a vow (PWMP: *kutuk₁)

kuyatortoise: Testudo elongata (LOAN)

laibig, large (PAN: *Raya)

lakəyman, husband (PMP: *laki₁)

laŋeuwa bluebottle fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laweaspider (PWMP: *lawa₂)

layeasail (PAN: *layaR)

lemofive (PAN: *lima)

lepawfoodstall, coffee shop (PMP: *lepaw₂) *lepaw₁

likawa bend, a curve (as in a road) (PAN: *likaw)

likeutthick, viscous (PMP: *liket)

lipətfold; to fold (PAN: *lipet)

lipeuncentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

lumuetmoss (PMP: *lumut)

mamafather’s elder brother, mother’s elder brother (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mama-ŋfather’s younger brother; mother’s younger brother (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mata-ieye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata i bileysun (PAN: *waRi₁)

Rejang (180 / 272)

mata-i susəwnipple of the breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mata-i taŋənwrist bone (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mataa spy (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mateuidie (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mateui bilaisunset (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

matey budoʔdie in childbirth (LOAN)

meŋ-akeutadopt (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

meŋ-akewacknowledging (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

naneaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nateutthe village square, an open space in the center of the village (PMP: *natad) *NataD

nibuŋtree sp. (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

nitastake a shortcut (ROOT)

ñuŋnose (PWMP: *e(ŋ)juŋ)

padeumextinguished, put out (a light or fire) (PWMP: *padem)

pakeutrank, station, status, position (LOAN)

pakuaa hoe (LOAN)

paleuwa river fish (PWMP: *palaw)

paleuwa hammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

paneushot, warm, feverish (PWMP: *panes)

paneuwgo, walk (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

Rejang (200 / 272)

papeunwooden board, plank (PMP: *papan)

pasoʔnail (metal) (PAN: *pasek)

pedeusginger (PMP: *hapejes)

pejeumto close the eyes (PWMP: *pezem)

pitaʔearth, soil (PMP: *pitak₁)

pudaypraise, laud, extol (LOAN)

pukeuwhypnotised, put to sleep by magical means (the work of a thief in order to disarm his intended victim) (PWMP: *pukaw₂)

pukeʔa large fishing net (PMP: *puket₁)

puluŋa reel (PAN: *puluŋ)

pun/puentree (PMP: *puqun)

Rejangsisiʔ (PMP: *siksik₂)

sabita sickle (PMP: *saqebit)

sabita sickle (PWMP: *sabit)

saleaʔincorrect, mistaken, wrong (PMP: *salaq₁)

saleaʔ kembuʔindigestion (kembuʔ = ‘eat’) (PMP: *salaq₁)

sapeuito, til, until (PMP: *sampay₂) *sampay

sateuncoconut sauce made of grated and crushed coconut soaked in water and sieved (a basic ingredient for the cooking of most side dishes) (LOAN)

sənaŋpleased, happy, glad (LOAN)

sileysalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

sipaŋa crossing, a turning (PMP: *simpaŋ)

Rejang (220 / 272)

sipaŋ patcrossroads, a crossing of paths (PMP: *simpaŋ)

sipitthe epicanthic eyefold, which most highland Rejang have, in common with Chinese (PAN: *sipit)

snai buruŋcollar bone (LOAN)

s-teŋeəʔhalf (PMP: *teŋaq)

sugaya wad of tobacco with which to rub one’s teeth and stop one’s mouth (PWMP: *sugi)

suluaʔtorch (PMP: *suluq)

sumbaŋincest (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

sumbaŋ kécéɁa breach of sexual etiquette by speaking to a person of a prohibited degree of relationship (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

sumbaŋ mata-ito make eyes with a person of the opposite sex with whom a sexual relationship is taboo (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

sumbaŋ taŋeunto touch a person of the opposite sex with whom a sexual relationship is taboo (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

supeaʔoath, vow (PWMP: *sumpaq)

susawfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tajeumsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

takeupcatch, seize, hold (LOAN)

taleusa root crop: Colocasia antiquorum (PMP: *tales)

taŋeaʔto look up, to lift one’s head (PWMP: *taŋaq₂)

taweun ~ tawunyear (PMP: *taqun)

tebuʔa hole, a cavity (as thorugh the ear), nostril, anus (LOAN)

teduŋa snake (PWMP: *teduŋ₂)

tekeunpress! (PMP: *teken)

Rejang (240 / 272)

tekoto come, arrive (PMP: *teka₁)

telasthe center and hardest part of a tree trunk (PMP: *teRas)

temanaŋsterile, barren, childless (PWMP: *tamanaŋ)

tenaŋeuwa paddy stalk-borer (PWMP: *tanaŋaw)

teŋeəʔmiddle, center, central (PMP: *teŋaq)

teŋitan expression of pain on the face; a mouth distorted with pain (PAN: *teŋiC)

te-pejeumeyes closed tight, eyes screwed tight, as a reaction to a sour taste (PWMP: *pezem)

teʔep bunutbarkcloth, used especially for the manufacture of blankets and as writing material (PWMP: *bunut₂)

tian dadobreast-bone (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

tik+ttree with milky sap used for bird lime (ROOT)

timboa bucket, a bathing bucket (PMP: *timba)

timeaʔtin (PWMP: *timeRaq)

titiʔsmall, little; infant (PMP: *titiq)

tlan usuʔribs (PAN: *Rusuk)

tlasa hardwood timber, used for house piles and posts, the heart of a tree trunk, the hardest and strongest timber (PMP: *teRas)

tujuaʔseven (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁

tujuaʔseven (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tumeya bug, found usually in unclean clothes (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumitheel (PWMP: *tumid)

tuneusa bud, a shoot (PWMP: *tunas)

Rejang (260 / 272)

ubeaʔchange, alter (LOAN)

ubeutmedicine, drugs (LOAN)

ucuʔipipe, cigarette-holder (LOAN)

uku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

ulewhead; upland, headstream; handle, as of a dagger (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

umboʔwave (PWMP: *humbak)

upanbait, food, fodder (PMP: *qumpan)

upeaʔremuneration, wages, fee (PMP: *upaq)

upiaʔbase of the areca leaf used for wrapping rice, and as a cover for dishes of cooked food (PMP: *hupiq) *Supiq

usuŋcarry or bear on the shoulders (PMP: *qusuŋ)

waʔFeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ (PMP: *uaʔ)

woʔparent’s elder brother (PWMP: *uaq)

584. Rembong (358) CMP (Verheijen 1977a) [reb] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) (dialects: Waru-Kia 1, Wue 1, Wangka [reb] 2)

aexclamation: ah! (PMP: *a₃)

aguand, with, together with (PMP: *agu)

akalwits, intelligence; deceive, lie to (LOAN)

alafetch, get, take (PAN: *alaq₁)

alasforest, jungle (PMP: *halas) *Salas

alupestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

ambaŋrestrain, hold back with extended hands; to catch (a horse) with lasso (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

anakchild; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); sprout of plant; interest (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak atachild (of someone else) (PMP: *qaRta)

anak ranawife-givers (PMP: *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki) *aNak

anak ulufirstborn child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anak warababy (lit. 'red child') (PMP: *anak a ma-iRaq) *aNak

anak winawife-takers (PMP: *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi) *aNak

anitsubcutaneous tissue between the skin and muscles (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

aŋsurbudge a little at a time (LOAN)

apawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

apa apasomething (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁ Wangka

apoʔlime, calcium (PAN: *qapuR)

arakgin (LOAN)

araksip, dram, liqueur (LOAN)

Rembong (20 / 358)

asukblackened by smoke (PMP: *asuk)

ataperson, human being; relative pronoun (PMP: *qaRta)

ata ŋaŋaperson who talks a lot (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

atiliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ati-rak(lit. 'liver-lungs') brain, mind, thoughts (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

aurkind of bamboo: Gigantochloa spp. (PMP: *qauR)

awakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awosspark, ashes (PMP: *abus)

azoŋswing, sway, rock (PMP: *ayuŋ₂)

babarexpansion, spreading out (as a carpet, or a net to dry) (PMP: *barbar)

bagusfine; handsome (LOAN)

balaktree sp.: Pithecellobium angulatum (NOISE)

balikgo home, turn round (PMP: *balik₂)

balospotted, having two colors (LOAN)

baluktrade, sell, exchange (PMP: *baluk₂)

bambujacket (LOAN)

bantiŋto dash down, fling against (PMP: *bantiŋ)

baraŋsuppose; perhaps; possible (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baraŋpossessions, property, equipment (LOAN)

baraʔswollen (PAN: *baReq)

Rembong (40 / 358)

barisrow, line (LOAN)

basaʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

batokcough (PMP: *batuk₁)

béatax, tribute (LOAN)

bébékduck (LOAN)

bedakface powder (LOAN)

bedilrifle, weapon (LOAN)

bekakgrow, increase, flourish (plants, animals, people) (PMP: *beŋkak)

bekarto bloom, blossom (of flowers) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

belaŋkind of bamboo: Schizostachyum sp. (PMP: *belaŋ₁)

belaŋspotted, variegated (of color) (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

bensiʔhate (LOAN)

benturfull of milk (PMP: *be(n)tuR)

benturfull of milk (PMP: *be(n)tur)

beŋkarsplit open, blossom, grow (of teeth) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

béŋkascome loose (of something securely attached); split (of stitches) (PMP: *biŋkas)

beŋkoŋbent, curved (like a bow) (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

béŋkoŋcurve, curved (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

beratheavy; pregnant (PMP: *beReqat)

berkakblessing (LOAN)

Rembong (60 / 358)

besiiron (LOAN)

betoŋkind of large bamboo: Dendrocalamus asper (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

biasaaccustomed, used to (LOAN)

bibitrice seedlings ready for transplanting (LOAN)

bikuŋhoe (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

bilaŋcount, reckon (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilikroom (PMP: *bilik)

binéseed for planting, seed-rice (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

biolaviolin (LOAN)

biriŋside (of road), edge (of beach); point, extremity; near, around (PMP: *bidiŋ)

biriŋside (of road), edge (of beach); point, extremity; near, around (PMP: *biriŋ₁)

bisacan, able (LOAN)

bisarato speak; (of a ruler) to speak (LOAN)

bisaʔwash the anus after defecating (PMP: *biseq)

biʔileaning, inclining, at an angle (PAN: *biqiR)

boallevered up (PCEMP: *buqal)

boalto lever up (NOISE)

bodokstupid (LOAN)

bosolswollen, as from a snake bite (LOAN)

buaŋdiscard, throw away (PMP: *buqaŋ)

Rembong (80 / 358)

buatdeed, action, work (PMP: *buhat₂)

bubardisperse, break up (LOAN)

bubuŋroof thatch of sword grass; ridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

buburrice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

buijail (LOAN)

buluŋgreen, marine blue (PMP: *buluŋ₁)

bunsisEuropean bean (LOAN)

buntaŋfor water to appear, gush out (from below) (PMP: *buntaŋ)

buntiŋpregnant (of animals) (LOAN)

buntuʔbloated (of the belly), stuffed, glutted (PMP: *buntuʔ)

bura-nspray medication from the mouth onto a sick person (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

burukrotten, bad, ugly (PAN: *buRuk)

busaʔto foam, esp. of the mouths of animals (PMP: *buseq)

butkind of Polyporus fungus (NOISE)

butastupid (PCEMP: *buta₂) *buCa

but-ipluck (feathers) (PMP: *butbut-i) *buCbuC

butiproof, evidence (LOAN)

daraʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

daʔatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

depafathom (PAN: *depa)

Rembong (100 / 358)

deroŋa tree: Trema orientalis (PMP: *deRuŋ₂)

dirihousepost (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

dodokpierce (PCMP: *dodok)

dupusfinish (ROOT)

esound indicating agreement (PMP: *heqe)

elakalternating, at intervals; variation (PMP: *elak)

emasgold (LOAN)

ema-ʔmother; father; MZH, HF (PMP: *ema-ʔ) *ema₁

embo-ʔgrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *empu-q) *empu

emboʔgrandparent/grandchild (NOISE)

emposstump, fag-end of anything stiff, as a smouldering log (PMP: *epus)

epo-ʔgrandchild (PMP: *empu-q) *empu

gékto cry (PMP: *egik)

gilatscar (ROOT)

giliŋto crush (PMP: *giliŋ)

guntiŋscissors; to cut with scissors (LOAN)

iaexclamation: yes! come on!; exclamation or interjection to drive off a wild pig (PAN: *qia)

iaʔover there (PMP: *ieq)

ibakpiece of a beehive; piece cut or split off (PMP: *ibak)

idabeautiful (clothes), tasty (food) (LOAN)

Rembong (120 / 358)

ikoʔtail, rear; extremity (PAN: *ikuR)

ikutto follow (PMP: *ikut)

inathat (2p); then (PMP: *i-na) *-na

ineM (PMP: *iná-i) *ina

intikspy on (LOAN)

iŋatremember! don't forget! (PMP: *iŋat)

iparHZ (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipo-ʔgrandparent (PMP: *impu₂)

ipunfingerling of the ikan mua (eel sp.) (PMP: *hipun₁)

isinpermission (LOAN)

kabusgone, used up (PMP: *kabus₁)

kaŋsound of a dog in pain (PMP: *kaŋ)

kaputto tie (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput Wue

kau2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

kawu-kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra (PMP: *kabu-kabu) Wangka

kazuwood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

keksound made by a frog, croak (PMP: *kek)

kembuksound of splashing about in the water (ROOT)

kempitmousetrap (PMP: *kepit)

Rembong (140 / 358)

kepitnipped, caught between pincers (PMP: *kepit)

keraŋvoice of a frog (PMP: *keRaŋ₁)

ketuksound of the teeth chattering (PMP: *ketuk)

kilatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kiŋgi-koeʔlittle finger (PMP: *kiŋkiŋ₃)

kiokto peep, cheep (PMP: *kiuk)

kiputclosed (of a hole) (PMP: *kiput)

kitawe (plural incl.); also polite address for 2nd pers. sg. (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

kotafortress; to stack up stones or earth (LOAN)

kukufingernail, toenail, claw (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kukuna tree: Schoutenia ovata (PMP: *kukun)

kunisturmeric: Curcuma longa (PMP: *kunij)

kutuhead louse, Pediculus capitis (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ladiŋkind of small knife (PMP: *ladiŋ)

laluŋmale (of birds) (PMP: *laluŋ)

lantoŋstinging nettle tree: Laportea; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

laŋaŋsurprised, startled (ROOT)

laŋgato roast; anything fried (PMP: *la(ŋ)gaʔ)

lasoʔpenis of an animal (PMP: *lasuq₂)

lawe ~ lawithe two long feathers in the tail of a rooster (PMP: *lawi₁)

Rembong (160 / 358)

lazarsail (of a boat) (PAN: *layaR)

leboq kentia plant, ranti: Solanum nigrum (leboq = ‘leaf’) (LOAN)

legurthunder (PMP: *le(ŋ)gur)

legurthunder (ROOT)

léŋkaʔto open (a door); opened (ROOT)

liaŋcave; hole in the ground (PMP: *liaŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lipancentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

loaŋa tree: Litsea sp. (NEAR)

lukutBird’s nest fern (PAN: *lukuC)

maito come; Come on! Let’s go! (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

mamahusband’s father, wife’s father; mother’s brother; father’s sister’s husband (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mamaʔto chew (PMP: *mamaq)

mamaʔ-ŋto premasticate food to feed to a baby (PMP: *mamaq)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata dalaŋdoor(way) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ikancorn, callus on foot (PMP: *mata nu hikan) *maCa

mata lezoqsun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata-mataa spy (< Malay?) (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-nspring, source (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Rembong (180 / 358)

mata pusuqheart (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata waeqspring, source (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

matokleech (PAN: *-matek)

m-eticatch fish at neap tide (PMP: *qeti₂)

mímisshoot, sprouts of Imperata cylindrica (PMP: *mimis₁)

minakcoconut oil; tasty, delicious (PMP: *miñak)

mutaʔto vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

narabrother (used by his sister); expression used by a woman to her sweetheart or husband; expression used by a man to his father-in-law (PMP: *ñaRa)

natarvillage; yard around a house; field (PMP: *natad) *NataD

nawabreath; soul; conscience (PCEMP: *ñawa) *NiSawa

nensix (PAN: *enem)

nilatree species: Micropos and Grewia (PMP: *qanilaw)

nilusour sensation (in teeth, bones) (PMP: *nilu)

niniʔa plant: Donax canniformis (PMP: *niniq)

nintuʔkind of fern: Lygodium circinnatum (PMP: *ni(n)tuq)

nioʔthe coconut palm, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

nipisthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

nitunature spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

nunaŋtree sp.: Cordia dichotoma and Cordia subcordata (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ)

nusaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

Rembong (200 / 358)

ŋaŋamouth; chatter (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaŋa-n waeʔmouth of a river, estuary (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

pakslap, pat (PMP: *pak)

paketo use (LOAN)

pake wekiclothing (LOAN)

paliside (as of the head) (PCEMP: *pali₁) *pali

panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

panastuberous plant; fam. Zingiberaceae (PMP: *panas₂)

panashot; fever; peevish; jealous (PMP: *panas₁)

paniŋbait; to bait (PCEMP: *paniŋ)

panoskin disease, tinea (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

paŋabranch, fork of a branch; forked (PAN: *paŋa₁)

paramutual, reciprocal (PCEMP: *paRa-) *paRa-₂

parauppermost floor of a house (PAN: *paRa₁)

parakdrive off, drive away (NOISE)

paraŋmachete (LOAN)

para-parauppermost floor of a house (PMP: *paRa paRa) *paRa₁ Waru-Kia

parutto grate (as coconuts) (PMP: *parud)

pasaŋto match; a pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

patfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

Rembong (220 / 358)

pauʔmango: Mangifera indica (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pazun ~ pazuŋparasol, umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

paʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

penoʔfull (PMP: *penuq)

pesuto break wind, to fart (PCMP: *pesu₂)

piléto choose (PAN: *piliq)

piŋkulsit with legs folded back (of women) (PMP: *pikul)

punitree fern, Cyathea sp. (PMP: *apuni)

puntianakevil spirit (LOAN)

pusornavel (PMP: *pusej)

pusuʔheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

puʔuntree; tree trunk; beginning; since (PMP: *puqun)

rakisscratch with the nails (ROOT)

ranalake (PAN: *danaw)

ranibrave, angry; to attack, be angry with (PMP: *baRani)

raŋkitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

rapetpinched between two objects (PMP: *dapet)

ratushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rawukashes, dust (PMP: *Rabuk)

reaginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia)

Rembong (240 / 358)

ritaʔa tree: Alstonia scholaris (PMP: *ditaq₁)

ruduŋcover or veil with a cloth (PMP: *ru(n)duŋ)

ruzuŋdugong: Halicore dugong (PCEMP: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

sabitreaping hook, sickle (PMP: *saqebit)

samathe same, with no difference (PWMP: *sama)

sapubroom; to sweep; to finish off (PMP: *sapu)

sepiɁa bunch (of bananas); break off a bunch of bananas (PAN: *sepiq)

se-wuaʔnumeral classifier used in counting people, etc. (PMP: *buaq)

se-wuaʔone (PMP: *sa-buaq) *buaq

sikuelbow; an ell, distance from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow; carpenter’s square (PAN: *sikux)

silatshine, flash, sparkle (ROOT)

siŋaŋstartled, alarmed (PMP: *ciŋaŋ)

siŋaŋstartled, alarmed (ROOT)

sipitnarrow, of the eyes (PAN: *sipit)

sisikturtle shell; bracelet made of turtle shell; fish scale; to skin (as a goat); to debark (a tree) (PMP: *siksik₂)

sukulineage (PMP: *suku)

sulishoot, sprout (of banana plant) (PMP: *suli₁)

suliɁgo home, return; again, also (PMP: *suliq)

suluʔtorch (PMP: *suluq)

surakletter; book; writing (LOAN)

Rembong (260 / 358)

susubreast; suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susulfollowing and overtaking (PMP: *sulsul₁)

susutthin (of the body), skinny (PMP: *sutsut₁)

talirope (for a horse) (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tanaask, inquire; request (PMP: *utaña)

tanaʔearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

tapato roast (a pig), to burn (a field) (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tarato hew (wood) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tasiksea (PMP: *tasik)

tawato laugh, laugh at (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

taʔifeces, filth (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tebaŋto fell trees (PMP: *tebaŋ)

teloʔegg; testicle (PMP: *qateluR)

teloʔtesticle; scrotum (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

teloʔ manukchicken egg (PMP: *qateluR)

teloʔ manukchicken egg (PMP: *qiteluR ni manuk) *qiCeluR

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

timuncucumber: Cucumis sativa L. (PMP: *qatimun)

titikdrip, leak (PMP: *tiktik)

tosokto point out, explain (PMP: *tuzuk)

Rembong (280 / 358)

tukthump (PMP: *tuk)

tulusstraightaway; moving further on (PMP: *tulus)

tunuto roast (young corn) in the husk (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tuŋAsian narrowmouth toad (with deep booming voice) (PMP: *tuŋ)

tuŋ-teŋsound produced by the Asian narrowmouth toad (PMP: *tuŋ)

tupusend, finish (PMP: *tu(m)pus)

turto string beads (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

turikscratch a line with a sharp object (PMP: *turik)

tusukto pierce, skewer, as meat on a stick (PMP: *tusuk)

tutuŋlight (a torch, cigarette) (PMP: *tutuŋ)

tuwaplant which yields a poison used to stun fish: Croton tiglium (PAN: *tuba)

tuʔaparent-in-law; old; hard (as kernels of corn, or seeds of Job’s tears) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuʔa ranahusband’s parents (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuʔa winawife’s parents (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuʔutrue (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuʔurdry (of wood) (PMP: *tuquR)

uhuʔsound of a cough (NOISE)

ulargeneric for non-venomous snakes (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ular isiʔrat snake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulu watustubborn (PMP: *qulu ni batu) *quluh

Rembong (300 / 358)

umurage (LOAN)

uratvein, vessel (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

utiŋhilt, as of a sword (PMP: *utiŋ)

wagaʔsplit (PMP: *wakaq)

walirepay, reply (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

wananright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

wania bee: Apis dorsata (PMP: *wani)

waŋkaboat (PCEMP: *waŋka)

waŋkuŋa plant: Crinum asiaticum L. (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

waraember; red (PMP: *baRah)

waraember; red; small (babies) (NOISE)

waratwest monsoon (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

waridry in the sun (PAN: *waRi₁)

wari puanday before yesterday (PAN: *waRi₁)

warujust now; the foregoing (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

warua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

wataŋfallen tree; bridge (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

wauodor; to smell, stink; rotten (PMP: *bahu)

wau mbohave a rotten smell (PMP: *bahu)

waʔato flow; be carried off by a current (PCEMP: *baaq) *baSaq

Rembong (320 / 358)

wekukcurved; bow (for shooting) (PMP: *bekug)

wekukcurved; bow (for shooting) (PMP: *bekuk)

welakslit open (as the stomach of a fish) (PMP: *belak)

welibuy (PMP: *beli)

wenanto sneeze (PMP: *beñan)

wentaŋspreading out (LOAN)

weŋkarsplit open (of dry ground), to blossom (of a flower), split open (of a plank) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

weŋkutlower the head in fear; curl up in sleep (PMP: *bekut) *bekuC

wetasister (man speaking); refined term used by a man toward a woman (sweetheart or wife) (PMP: *betaw)

wetikcarve; embroider (cloth) (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

wetiscalf of the leg (PCEMP: *betis) *beties

wiartiny worm in the stomach (PMP: *biaR₁)

wikuksit cross-legged (PMP: *biŋkuk)

wikul(of women) sit with legs folded to the side (ROOT)

wiŋisgrin, show the teeth (PMP: *biŋis)

wiŋisgrin, show the teeth (PMP: *wiŋis)

wiraʔwild taro: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PMP: *biRaq₁)

wisulboil, abscess (PMP: *bisul)

wiwirlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

wiʔakto split (fish, bamboo) with the hand (PMP: *biqak)

Rembong (340 / 358)

wuaŋdiscarded, not used any longer (road, house) (PMP: *buqaŋ)

wuatfetch, get, clutch to the breast or hold in the lap (PMP: *buhat₃)

wuaʔfruit; kidneys (PMP: *buaq)

wuaʔ pusuʔheart of banana (PMP: *pusuq₁)

wue, wue-klong beans (PMP: *buay₁)

wukhair of the head; tasseled, of a young ear of corn (PCEMP: *buek) *bukeS

wukabegin, do for the first time (of dogs that are beginning to bark) (PMP: *buka)

wulanmoon; month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulaŋ ŋuzamenses (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulubody hair, fur, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

wuŋtypes of terrestrial mushrooms (NOISE)

wuŋaflower, blossom (which results in a fruit), as that of the mango, citrus fruits, or Malay apple; to flower, blossom (of a mango tree), bear grains (of a rice stalk) (PMP: *buŋa)

wuŋa wéwoʔeldest or firstborn child (PMP: *buŋa)

wusurinstrument for twisting fibers into cordage (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

wutaʔkind of poisonous tree: Ternstroemia sp. (PMP: *butaq₂)

wuwufontanelle (PMP: *bubu₄)

wuwura tall forest tree: Sterculia foetida (PMP: *bubuR₃)

wuzaʔfoam, froth, spume (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

wuzaʔ wáeʔfoam on the surface of water (PMP: *bujeq ni wahiR) *bujeq

Rembong (Wue) (1) CMP

kaputto tie (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput Wue

Rembong (Wangka) (2) CMP [reb] (Rembong) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

apa apasomething (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁ Wangka

kawu-kawukapok tree: Ceiba pentandra (PMP: *kabu-kabu) Wangka

Rembong (Waru-Kia) (1) CMP

para-parauppermost floor of a house (PMP: *paRa paRa) *paRa₁ Waru-Kia

585. Remontado (37) WMP [aka: Sinauna]

alímahand (PAN: *qalima)

anípasnake (PMP: *anipa)

átaperson (PMP: *qaRta)

aydáwday (PMP: *qalejaw)

aʔduŋnose (PWMP: *e(ŋ)juŋ)

bakáʔperhaps, maybe (PPH: *bakáq)

baláyhouse (PMP: *balay)

báʔyunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

búlanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bussuyoungest child (PWMP: *buŋsu)

dakápto hold (PAN: *dakep)

datáŋarrive (PMP: *dateŋ)

hantíkbig red ant (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

hidámborrow (PWMP: *hinzam)

káyispeech, language (PAN: *kaRi₁)

man (PMP: *laki₁)

lútaʔearth (PPH: *lutáq)

ma-baʔyátheavy (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

ma-tíkasstrong (PMP: *ti(ŋ)kas)

mi-úhawthirsty (PMP: *quhaw) *quSaw

Remontado (20 / 37)

naalready, now (PAN: *Na₂)

naŋkáʔjackfruit (PWMP: *naŋkaq)

ŋáranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

pastill, more, yet (PAN: *pa₁)

píliʔchoose (PAN: *piliq)

putíʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

s-aku1sg., I (PAN: *aku)

sá-ŋ-pu ʔten (PMP: *ŋa)

si-kami1pl., excl., we (exclusive) (PAN: *ami)

si-kamu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

sira3pl., they (PMP: *si ida) *ida

tabʔáŋbland, tasteless (PPH: *tabeqaŋ)

tamʔissweet (PMP: *taq(e)mis)

uránrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utákbrain (PMP: *hutek)

uyátvein, tendon (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

yamúkmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

586. Rennellese (556) OC (Elbert 1975) [mnv] (Rennell-Belona) Solomon Islands

-asuffix with passive, transitivizing, and multiplicative meanings, in close juncture (PMP: *-a₂)

agapath, trail, track, road, street; doorway, door; way, method (POC: *salan) *zalan

agigeneral name for flat fishes: flounders, soles, etc. (POC: *alali)

ahaastorm (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

ahifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

ahi-ahilate afternoon and evening until about 10 or 11; to be such time (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

ahocord, line, thong, string; be on a line or string, as fish; to troll or fish with line on the reef (POC: *apon) *hapen

aicommon anaphoric particle usually closing a verb phrase and liking it to a preceding noun, often with meaning there, thereby, thus, at, in, it, him, her (POC: *ai₁)

aiinterrogative pronoun, who? (PMP: *sai)

akaroot (PMP: *akaR)

akaa bush vine, Pueraria triloba (Lour.) Makina, with long roots eaten baked or roasted during food shortages (NOISE)

amaoutrigger float; side of a canoe with the float; port hull of a double canoe in which the captain does not sit; log to be made into a float (POC: *saman) *saRman

anenest of white grubs, the grubs (sometimes fed to chickens); termite nest, the termites (POC: *ane) *aNay

ane-ato be many ane; moth-eaten (POC: *ane) *aNay

aŋa-huguten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

aŋa-huguten (PMP: *ŋa)

aŋito blow, of wind; be breeze-swept, windy (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-aŋito blow, of wind; to stir; breezy or windy spot (POC: *aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-nablow, as wind; be breeze-swept, windy, blown upon; be blown away (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋoturmeric plant: Curcuma longa (POC: *aŋo)

Rennellese (20 / 556)

asafish gills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

ata-apossessive (a-class, plural possessed objects). Ours, of ours (dual, inclusive) (PAN: *ata₁)

atucommon directional particle indicating distance away from (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

atudirectional particle indicating distance away from speaker and addressee (PMP: *atu)

autattooing needle, with a point made of ibis (taghoa) or chicken bone (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

bagueight (PAN: *walu)

baiwater (usually fresh, although salt water found inland may be called bai, as may the lake in the center of Rennell Island); juice, sauce, liquid (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

baicoconut-shell bottle (PEMP: *waip)

bakacanoe; vehicle or receptacle of any kind (bicycle, airplane, automobile, truck, tractor, train, tramway); crew or passengers in a vehicle; log or tree to be made into a canoe (POC: *waŋka)

baoforest, forest area; deeply forested (POC: *wao)

basafar, deep ocean (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

baʔeleg, foot; lower edge of a seine where stone weights are fastened; tire or wheel, as of a car or bicycle (PAN: *waqay)

epreposed numeral marker (POC: *e)

gaasail (PAN: *layaR)

gabalarge (POC: *lapat)

gagato smoke, as fish on a fire; to warm, as hands on a fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

gagobelow, under, underneath, alongside; bottom; west, western; to go down or westward; below in rank (POC: *ralom) *dalem

gahaa fungus disease that kills trees; a skin disease known in the Solomons as bakua, named for the fungus (POC: *lapa₂)

gakato step; to move, as to another district (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

gakato step; to move, as to another district (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

Rennellese (40 / 556)

gaka-gakato step or move on, as with long steps; to step off, as to measure (POC: *lakar-lakar) *lakaj

gaka tooto step and fall, as of an infant learning to walk; to tumble; an age classification for infants (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

gaka-uŋacrossing, as of a street; bridge (PMP: *laŋkaq₁)

gakithe west or southwest wind; to blow, of this wind (PCEMP: *raki)

gamalong torch made of dried coconut leaves (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

gama meakind of tree (Aglaia sapindina) with inedible berries; its light-weight pink wood, split and dried, is used for torches, mallets, and formerly for handles of tattooing needles (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

ganolake; fetal water (POC: *rano) *danaw

ganuto be full of liquid, as the stomach; to be rich and oily, as with coconut oil; to be saturated; to rise, as tide (POC: *ranum) *daNum

ganum-iato be full of liquid; to be quenched, as thirst, or satisfied with food (POC: *ranum) *daNum

gaŋisky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

gaŋohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

gasea kind of common branching coral in the sea, Hexacorallia, not ashore (POC: *laje)

gasoscrotum (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

gatato be tame, unafraid, as a pet or child (POC: *lasa₁)

gauleaf; bark, as of hibiscus or Gnetum latifolium; count with classifier (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

gaʔa-inato have many branches (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

gaʔa-kaugeneral name for any kind of log, stick, or plant (tree, bush, shrub); canoe log; shark tail; fighting club (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan₁

gaʔa-kaugeneral name for any kind of log, stick, or plant (tree, bush, shrub); canoe log; shark tail; fighting club (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

gaʔa-kau tuʔutisacred staff of a priest, scepter (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

gegeto jump, fly, leap, swing; a sling, swing (POC: *rere₂)

Rennellese (60 / 556)

gege-gegeto hop, bounce (POC: *rere₂)

geʔovoice, sound; noise; pronunciation; accent (POC: *leqo)

gi-gikito be small (of plural objects) (POC: *rikit) *dikit

gi-giŋito pour, as in or out; to flow, of tears (poetic) (PCEMP: *liŋi)

gikito be small (POC: *rikit) *dikit

gimafive (PAN: *lima)

gimukinds of seaweed, some being eaten (PMP: *limut)

gipito break, fold (PMP: *liq(e)pit)

gipi-gipito fold, as a mat, tapa, net, clothes, paper; to break, as a wave (PMP: *liq(e)pit)

ant (POC: *loRo)

goaold, long ago; common, often, again and again, already (POC: *loan)

goagoaa while ago (POC: *loan)

gohafathoms of line or distances; to be such (POC: *ropa) *depa

gomito press a little (POC: *lomiq) *lemiq₂

gomi-gomito massage, press repeatedly (POC: *lomiq) *lemiq₂

goŋonews, report, message, account, story, fame, reputation, invitation, messenger; to hear, listen, feel, taste, to go in order to hear, as news (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

goŋo-aʔato be irritated by noise; to be nervous, nerve-racking (of noise) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

gotointerior, thought, intelligence (POC: *loto)

gotoinside, interior, center; lagoon inside the reef; thought, intelligence; to think, want, desire (NOISE)

guatwo; second; twice (POC: *rua) *duSa

Rennellese (80 / 556)

guato throw up, vomit, emit sexually, have an orgasm (PMP: *luaq)

gua-guadouble canoe, with hulls connected by booms; no longer made after 1938 (POC: *rua rua₁) *duSa

gua-ŋato be second; two (POC: *rua) *duSa

gugucalm, sheltered, to leeward (PMP: *duŋduŋ)

gugubarn owl, Tylo alba (POC: *druru)

gugubarn owl, Tyto alba; formerly considered the embodiment of nonworshipped gods and not eaten, believed hostile and harmful (NEAR)

haafour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

haa-gatato tame (POC: *lasa₁)

haa-hogoto give to swallow; to force to swallow (POC: *polon) *belen

haa-mata ~ baa-matato be partially cooked; raw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

haa-mimito take to urinate, as a child (PMP: *mimi)

haa-utato take aboard or into a car; to yield well, as a harvest (PMP: *ujan)

hagapandanus, of great value for thatch and mats (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

hagagaslanting, leaning, bent; lean against (POC: *(bp)alalan)

ha-haʔaa slice, cut off, sever, split; to crack, as a coconut (POC: *paqas) *baqas

hahinewoman; female; to be feminine (POC: *papine) *bahi

hahooutside (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

haigeneral for rays and skate-like fishes (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

hai-tama-naclassificatory father in relation to his children; to be such (POC: *paRi-tama) *amax

haka-causative prefix (meanings are usually causative or transitive, but sometimes similitude) (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

Rennellese (100 / 556)

haka-agatake food on a trail, as to a ritual feast; the food so taken (POC: *salan) *zalan

haka-amato have a float; to serve as a float (POC: *saman) *saRman

haka-bagueighth, eight times; to do eight times; a month name, about August; to be such (PMP: *paka-walu) *walu

haka-ganuto fill with liquid (POC: *ranum) *daNum

haka-gaŋito put up a flat ceiling (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

haka-gimato do five times; the third and 17th nights of the moon (POC: *paka-lima₂) *lima

haka-goŋoto hear, listen, obey, feel, taste (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

haka-guato do twice; to cook over, or for a second time; to cut into two; dissection (POC: *paka-rua) *duSa

haka-guguprotect; seek shelter; blocked, closed, shut off (PMP: *duŋduŋ)

haka-haado four times; second and sixteenth nights of the month (POC: *paka-pat) *Sepat

haka-hanarecook or warm over (PMP: *panas₁)

haka-hiahow many times?, what day of the lunar month?, how many thatch panels (POC: *paka-pica) *pijax

haka-higi-higiwrap, lash, plait, as dolls for kuba (magic) (POC: *piri-piri) *pirit

haka-hituto do seven times; the 5th and 19th nights of the moon; to be a month of the year, from June to July; this month (PMP: *paka-pitu) *pitu

haka-huato press into shape, as turmeric (POC: *puaq) *buaq

haka-ihoto lower, drop; to request peace ceremonially, as by presenting a gift; to exorcise, as the forest deity Mata’u, from a newly cut canoe log (POC: *paka-sipo) *sipo

haka-kaito enlarge, as a hole in the ear (POC: *kani) *kaen

haka-kiatoto attach booms (POC: *kiajo)

haka-kiteto point out, show (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

haka-magushelter, protector, protection, cover; to find shelter; to cover, as a canoe, to protect from the sun (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

Rennellese (120 / 556)

haka-masato dry, as tears, to empty (PMP: *maja)

haka-masakito cause sickness (POC: *masakit) *sakit

haka-matato look at, visualize (PMP: *mata) *maCa

haka-matakuto frighten, scare; to be amazing, terrifying, dangerous, surprising (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

haka-matecommit suicide or attempt to (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

haka-nihomake a fringe; be fringed, as a mat; saw (tool); to saw (POC: *nipon) *nipen

haka-ŋututo eat a great deal, overeat (PAN: *ŋusuq)

haka-onodo six times (POC: *paka-onom) *enem

haka-pigito stay with or near; to put in with or alongside, add (PMP: *pilit₁)

haka-putu-putucollect, assemble, gather together (as people) (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

haka-sagato complain, as of stinginess (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

haka-saŋato stand or sit with legs spread (improper for women): to bend (POC: *saŋa₁)

haka-saoprotect, remove from danger, safeguard, save (POC: *saRop) *saRep

haka-sikuto bring to an end; to add, as a final verse to a song (POC: *siku)

haka-soato place with, as part of an offering (POC: *soRa)

haka-taŋito complain; to feel bitter, peeved, or angry; to tease, torment; a type of chant or lament, formerly popular (PMP: *paka-taŋis) *Caŋis

haka-taputo make taboo; to dedicate, as a church (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

haka-toguto do three times, third; 15th night of the moon; to be this night (POC: *paka-tolu) *telu

haka-tonuto approve, agree; to be clear, understandable; to conduct a temple ritual (POC: *tonuq)

haka-tuputo make a sprout or life principle thrive (POC: *paka-tupuq) *Cubuq

Rennellese (140 / 556)

haka-tuʔuto raise, lift up, elevate (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

haka-ʔatube in a line or row, or in succession (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

hanashoot, as arrow, spear gun, gun, rocket, slingshot (PAN: *panaq)

hanogo (sg.); depending on, according to; on and on; little by little; one by one (POC: *pano) *paNaw

hataplatform, canoe platform, perch, shelf; raised floors of present-day houses; the ancient traditional house and its platform; perch formerly used in netting doves (PMP: *pataR₁)

hatustone, rock, coral, any hard metal; seed; pandanus key; fighting club with a stone head (POC: *patu) *batux

hatu-hatustony, rocky (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux

haua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus L. The fibre is used for rope, and the wood (on Bellona) for house posts (POC: *paRu) *baRu

haʔastalk, as of taro, banana, papaya; stem, as of flowers (PMP: *paqa₂)

haʔaoto take, capture, snatch, rob (POC: *paqaRok)

haʔa(-sia)cracked (POC: *paqas) *baqas

haʔochisel; to chisel; holes for lashings in a canoe (POC: *paqot) *paqet

haʔuto tie, lash, as sennit (PCEMP: *paqus₂)

heindefinite article: a, an, any (PAN: *esa)

he-...ʔakicommon affix indicating reciprocal or plural action (PEMP: *paRi-)

heawhich?, what?, where? (POC: *pea)

he-ama-ʔakito have side-by-side canoe floats (POC: *saman) *saRman

he-gata-ʔakibe congenial, accustomed to one another (POC: *lasa₁)

he-gi-giŋi-ʔakito pour back and forth (PCEMP: *liŋi)

henualand, as opposed to water; island; unknown land (poetic); people of the land; afterbirth (POC: *panua) *banua

Rennellese (160 / 556)

he-piko-piko-ʔakiwinding, branching, as a crooked path (POC: *biko)

hetaʔua large tree, Calophyllum inophyllum L., used for canoes, bowls, curved house rafters, slit drums; its roots used for fishhooks; its flowers as adornments (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

hetuʔustar, constellation (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

hiahow many?, how much? (POC: *pica) *pijax

higito braid, lash, twist; construct, build a nest (PMP: *pirit)

higito choose, select, vote; to be choosy, selective (PAN: *piliq)

higi-ŋachoice, selection, preference; plants selected for planting (PAN: *piliq)

higoto coil, braid; to mix, as food, or as persons with others unlike himself (POC: *piro)

higo-higoto mix, connect; be mixed (as a person's ancestry); area between shallow and deep blue sea (POC: *piro)

hihivagina (NOISE)

hiti-hitileap about, squirm, wiggle; to flap, as caught fish, spring up and down (POC: *pitik-pitik) *bitik₁

hiti-hiti gau ŋutuJew's harp (POC: *pitik-pitik) *bitik₁

hi-tiko-ʔithe defecating place (usually for males) (POC: *tiko)

hiti-poito jump rope, usually with the bae vine or ue rattan cane; to jump (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

hituseven, seventh, seven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hitu aŋa huguseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hoato crack, as nuts of tagie (Terminalia) or baga (Barringtonia) trees; to cut or lacerate the forehead, as with axe, stone, or knife in mourning; to break or hatch, as an egg; to bump, as the head; to smash; to drive fish into a seine, as by beating the sea with sticks or by throwing stones (POC: *posaq) *peceq

hoa-ʔakito split, as wood (POC: *posaq) *peceq

hoepaddle; to paddle (less common than áago); to follow, as a leader, or as a small fish after a large fish; chase after (POC: *pose) *beRsay

hoe-hoeto paddle; to accompany (POC: *pose pose) *beRsay

Rennellese (180 / 556)

hogato spread, as mats; dub evenly, as the surface of a canoe log before final deepening (POC: *polac) *bekelaj

hogas-iabe spread (POC: *polac) *bekelaj

hogoswallow whole without chewing; take bait; swallowed thing (POC: *polon) *belen

hogoto swallow whole without chewing; to take bait; swallowed thing (POC: *polon) *belen

honorituals; priest-chiefs performing these rituals; sorcery (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

honugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas; formerly considered the gift (tonu) of Tehainga’atua (one of the most important sky gods), and offered as angatonu (food offering). The honu was believed to have been first a culture hero (kakai) and now is considered a fish (kaui, ika) (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honuto be full of liquid; to be flooded or full of puddles; to rise, of the tide; to be juicy, as a fruit or shredded coconut; to be watery, as some rice; to be shipping water, as a canoe (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

hotobarb, as on a sting ray's tail; thorn, spur; sharp fin, as of certain fish; spine, as of sea urchin; prickly root hairs, as of some yams; weapon of protection, as club, axe, sacred object (masahu); prong, as on a spear; horn of a goat; be armed or protected (POC: *potok) *beRtek

hoto-hotobarbed, thorny, bony, rough-skinned; to have spines, thorns; thorn, barb (POC: *potok) *beRtek

hoʔounew, fresh; recently, for the first time (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

huafruit, nut, seed, bulbil, berry; egg, as of bird or fish; ear, as of corn; to have fruits, nuts, berries; to have or lay eggs; size, shape; to be of a size; counting classifier for coconuts and round objects; song; to sing a song; counting classifier for coconuts and round objects (POC: *puaq) *buaq

huasong; sing a song (NOISE)

hua-a boocartridge, bullet (lit. 'traveling fruit') (POC: *puaq) *buaq

huebeach creeper: Ipomoea pes-caprae (POC: *puRe₂)

hugi, hugis-iapush, shove, roll, throw, hurl, turn over; to drop, as heavy objects (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

hugi-hugiturn over, roll; put down, as a burden (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

hugubody hair, feathers, fur; prickly root hairs, as of some yams; spikes, as of the sea urchin; nail; to anoint or rub, as with perfume, vasoline, or turmeric; to dye, as hair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hugu-huguhairy; to grow, as hair or feathers; be tattered, as an unfinished mat; have spines, as a balloon fish (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

huhugaswell up, be swollen (as face, eye with epicanthic fold) (POC: *pupula)

huhut-ito pull, as on a fishing line; catch a fish on a line (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

Rennellese (200 / 556)

huhut-i-ʔakipull one another (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

huibunch or cluster, as of Barringtonia nuts or Pandanus keys; string, as of fish; fruit, as of pandanus (POC: *pui₁) *pui

huketo open, as an oven; to dig out, as a canoe log (POC: *puke) *buka

huŋason-in-law, daughter-in-law (classificatory daughter's husband, classificatory son's wife, brother's daughter's husband, brother's son's wife, sister's son's wife) (POC: *puŋao)

huŋa-baihusband's parents, wife's parents, husband's parents' classificatory siblings, wife's parents' classificatory siblings, father-in-law, mother-in-law (POC: *puŋao)

hut-ipull out, pluck, pick; to pull, as taro leaves or gray hairs (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

hutibanana or plantain (either a single fruit or a bunch) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

hutua large tree, Barringtonia asiatic (L.) Kurz; fish and baked or boiled greens are wrapped in its leaves. Leaves are also heated and rubbed on sores such as are due to yaws or tinea. Tapa was made from the bark. Certain kinds of Barringtonia, papaya, and betel are named for the tree because of a resemblance to the fruits (POC: *putun₁) *butun

huʔi-huʔidiminutive of hu-huʔi; to dip, as into water (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

ilocative and temporal preposition: in, at, on, from, when, while (PAN: *i₂)

i-causative, instrumental, locative, ablative, and temporal preposition, and causative conjunction (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

i-causative (NOISE)

-iapassive or transitive suffix (POC: *-ia)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

iademonstrative: this, that, there, another, different (PMP: *ia₂)

ibibone; hard core, as of wood (POC: *suRi₁)

igifan, as of coconut leaves; to fan (PMP: *irid₁)

igi igito complete final polishing of a canoe (NOISE)

igo-igolook, esp. at a reflection (PMP: *ilaw)

ihodirectional particle and verb: downward, seaward; northward or westward; to go or come fishing (since this is always downward); to have an incline (as the sun dropping in the west) (POC: *sipo)

Rennellese (220 / 556)

ikafish, turtle (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

isito scoop, scrape, as coconut meat from a shell (POC: *isi₄)

isu-nose, beak, swelling on top of beak of doves; axe handle top, beneath the butt end of the blade (PMP: *ijuŋ)

kaito eat, be eaten; to erode, as a sore; to smoke, as tobacco; food (rare) (POC: *kani) *kaen

kai gasoscrotum eater (a curse) (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

ka-kabeto escort, accompany, take, as in a canoe; to be escorted, taken; to continue, go on (POC: *kawe)

ka-kanocore of wood; to have a core (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

ka-kauto swim (POC: *kaRu)

kanokernel, as of a nut; flesh, as of a coconut, fish, or bivalve; genitalia, labia (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kano[gloss] (POC: *kanoŋ)

kano sonivagina (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kano ugepenis (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kapa-kapaflippers, as of turtle, stingray, whale; base of fish fins (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

kapit-iato be caught, stuck, enmeshed, as a snake in a tight place; to be pressed close, as in a crowd (PMP: *kapit)

kasovertical rafters of a house to which thatch panels are bound (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kasokind of reed or small tree, Amaranthus sp. (POC: *kaso₁) *kasaw₂

katahafrigate bird or least man-o’-war bird: Fregata ariel ariel Gray, appreciated as food, formerly believed the embodiment of Tehainga’atua (one of the most prominent sky gods), and his offspring (POC: *katapa)

keasmall turtles (PCEMP: *keRa)

kemoto flash, as lightning, a bright light or fast-moving paddles (PMP: *kimet)

kesevaried, strange; unprincipled, uninvited, deceitful (PCEMP: *kese)

Rennellese (240 / 556)

kese-kesebe different, opposite, varied (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

kese-kese-ʔaŋadifference, opposite; be different (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

kicommon object and locative (place to) preposition emphasizing distance: at, to, as far as, belonging to, destined for, of (POC: *ki₁)

kiobject and locative (place to) preposition emphasizing distance: at, to, as far as, belonging to, destined for, of (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

kiatooutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

kigabe pulled back, of the foreskin; be clearly seen, in plain sight; to look (said when angry) (PMP: *kilat₂) *kilat

kigiskin, bark, peel; cover, covering; leather; feather; color; to have as skin; to be born as (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kita-touwe, us (plural, inclusive) (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

kiteto look, see, find (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

kite-ato be discovered, seen, found (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

koeyou (sg.) (POC: *koe)

kokato darken wood (as spears) or bleach hair with grated guna (Morinda) root and coral lime; to dye red, as hair (POC: *koka)

kom-iclasp firmly (PMP: *gem)

komito clasp firmly; to hold, as in the mouth; to close, as sides of a Tridacna; to insert in a small opening (POC: *kokom-i) *gemgem

kosodigging stick; pickaxe (POC: *kojom)

kugato be reddish, as breast of the fruit dove (POC: *gurat)

kutulouse, bird louse, mite, leech, tiny insects of various kinds, Mallophaga (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu-abe lousy, infested with lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu-inabe lousy, infested with lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu meaa large leech (‘red leech’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Rennellese (260 / 556)

macomitative preposition: with, and, for, in behalf of (PAN: *maS)

ma-gamagamato be fairly light, as at twilight (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

magoto put on or wear, as a sarong; sarong (PCEMP: *malaw)

m-agushade, shelter, protection; to shade, shelter, protect (PMP: *aluŋ)

magushade, shelter, protection, fine looks, splendor; to shade, shelter, protect, cover (PEMP: *maluRu)

magu hahinehandsome woman, female beauty (PEMP: *maluRu)

maidirectional particle and verb indicating direction towards the speaker; this way, here; me, us; give me; look here; preposition, from (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mamato chew without swallowing, as mothers do for infants; matter so masticated, as betel; to be soft, as wood (PMP: *mamaq)

mamifat, as fish or fowl (POC: *mamis) *hemis

manato thunder (poetic) (POC: *mana₂)

manabaabdomen, navel, navel cord; breath; fontanel (rare); center of emotions; to breathe; to answer calls of nature; to derive life or substance (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manaba goato hold one’s breath a long time; to hold a breath-holding contest, either on land or under water, as done by children (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manihi-nihitemple (above cheeks) (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

manoŋiyoung edible ghaapoli (Ficus) shoots (POC: *manoŋi)

masato be empty or nearly empty of liquid; to be shallow or low, as the tide (PMP: *maja)

masakisickness; sick person, patient; to be sick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

masaki-aʔarascal, scamp, nasty supernatural (POC: *masakit) *sakit

masaki kege-kegewoman’s monthly period; to have such a period (lit. ‘dirty sickness’) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

masipudding, as of taro, bananas or geemugi (tree with fruits that are pounded into pudding, with a nutritional oil that may last five years; the seeds are also eaten) (NOISE)

mataeye, face (with pl.); tears (poetic); to look at, watch, spy on; tiny aperture or hole, as in the top of a can; coconut eye or end of coconut containing eyes; ‘closure’ or lid of a shell; mesh; drop, as of rain; head of a boil; lid, top, as of a bottle; sharp point, as on a rock; blade, as of adze or axe; top or cap, as of a tuber (taro, giant taro) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Rennellese (280 / 556)

mata-a kupeŋanet mesh (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mata-a-poloend of a coconut with the eyes (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-a tokiadze blade; mark made by cutting with an adze (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-a-uunipple, teat (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mata-gikiPleiades (POC: *mata riki) *maCa

mata haʔoopenings along canoe gunwales through which thwarts and gunwale poles are lashed (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matakuto be afraid, cowardly; to fear (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataku-takuto be afraid, cowardly (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataku-tiato be dangerous, feared (POC: *matakut) *takut

mata-matato look at or for (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mataŋiEast, eastern; position of the wind, wind, weather (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata ʔagigiclosure of an ʔagigi shell, cat’s eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ʔi tagiŋahammerhead shark (‘eye of ears’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ʔuaraindrop (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedead, dying, unconscious, faint, exhausted, paralyzed; be low tide; be killed or dead, as an engine; be extinguished or out, as a fire; to have stopped, as a clock; to be the dark of the moon; death, sorrow, sound of weeping (poetic) (POC: *mate) *aCay

mate mateweak, exhausted, as from sickness or grief; be nearly out, as a fire (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

mate-ʔaŋadeath (POC: *mate-qaŋa) *aCay

matogukind of vine, Hoya sp., with thick leaves that are heated and placed on sores (POC: *matolu) *təlu

matuʔahusband, family head, landholder, worshipper, especially the priest-chief; to be or grow old; to be or become mature, as fruit fully formed but not ripe (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

matuʔa-ʔakito act as head of household or a group of travellers (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

Rennellese (300 / 556)

maʔanuto float, drift, soar; to leap, as in a dance (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

ma-ʔugilife principle or spark; way of life; life, soul, skull, fontanel; be alive, brought back to life, cured, healed, in good health; grow well or thrive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

meabe red or reddish; be very angry (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

me-meato flush, as with anger (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *ma-iRaq

mimito urinate, piss (PMP: *mimi)

misito sip (POC: *misi)

(mo-)monato be fat, as fish or animals; greasy (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

m-ugifollow, be or go behind or after; rear end, esp. lower or western end (POC: *muri) *udehi

mugi baʔeheel (POC: *m-uri qaqe, m-uri waqe) *udehi

mutugeneral name for sergeant majors and pullers (damsel fish), e.g. six-banded sergeant major, Abedefduf curacao (Bloch) (PMP: *mutu₁)

muularge-eyed sea bream: Monotaxis grandoculis (Forskål) (PMP: *muquŋ)

muʔafront, before; those before, ancestors, predecessors; first, to be first, ahead; to go ahead or first (POC: *muqa)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nihotooth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niho maŋooshark tooth razor (a shark tooth was lashed by hibiscus fiber to a twig, and one man shaved another with a rapid downward stroke) (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niuthe coconut tree, Cocos nucifera; libations of fresh water or water squeezed from a banana stalk … and poured ceremonially from a coconut shell with ritual formulas, so as to cure sickness or cleanse a garden of evil gods (PMP: *niuR)

nohoresting place, home, grave, residence, chair, pew; staying (POC: *nofo)

nonokind of small fly, as on rotten bananas (PMP: *neknek)

ŋaguwave; to form waves (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋa-ŋahato measure distance in approximate fathoms (distance between fingertips, arms extended) (POC: *ŋapa)

Rennellese (320 / 556)

ŋataPacific boa: Enygrus carinatus (Schneider); general name for snakes, loathed and considered the embodient of non-worshipped deities (POC: *qumata)

ŋatageneral name for snakes, loathed and considered the embodiment of non-worshipped deities (POC: *mwata)

ŋauto chew, as pandanus, sugarcane, betel husks; to bite (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋiito peep, squeak, squeal; be hoarse (PMP: *ŋik)

ŋū-ŋūspeak quietly, hum (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋutumouth, beak, breath (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu-ato be heard of; to spread, as news or fame (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu agaside of a trail, roadside (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋuuŋuu (length unexplained)speak quietly; hum (PMP: *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ)

ogomountain, hill, slope (POC: *oro)

o-napossessive (o-class, pl. possessed objects), his, her, its (POC: *o₂)

oneonea tree, Cananga odorata, with white trunk and large buttresses (LOAN)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

oŋehunger (POC: *soŋe)

oŋe-abe hungry (POC: *soŋe)

oŋe-saufamine time; to be short of food, starving (POC: *soŋe)

oŋe taŋatato be few people, not enough to carry out a ritual (poetic) (POC: *soŋe)

o-ʔoupossessive (o-class, redup.), one or some of yours (sg.) (POC: *o₂)

pagaikind of wild yam (POC: *balai₂)

pagaŋikind of surgeonfish, perhaps ring-tail surgeonfish: Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes (POC: *balaŋi)

Rennellese (340 / 556)

pagu (NG)to scrape, as with a shell away from oneself; to scratch (POC: *palus)

pagupagublue-finned triggerfish (NOISE)

panito anoint, as the head with turmeric (POC: *pani₂)

papasounding board, beater of the papa, dancer to the papa; to be flat, flattened; to flatten (POC: *baban) *papan

papato be flat, flattened; to flatten (NOISE)

peguto fold, as a loincloth about oneself; to wrap, as in a folded package; to wear, as a loincloth; to turn over (POC: *belu)

pekaflying fox: Pteropus tonganus geddei MacGillivray. Formerly important for teeth and food, and for the sport of snaring (POC: *bweka)

peka-pekaglossy swiftlet: Collocalia esculenta desiderata Mayr, Wolff; to go fast here and there (POC: *bweka)

penushell, as of Tridacna; hard inedible part of a key, as of pandanus; bone (POC: *benu)

pepebutterflies, moths (POC: *bebe)

piagrease of turtle (poetic) (POC: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₂

piagrease of turtle (poetic) (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

pia-piabe defiled, as with excrement; be mucus-laden, as penis or vagina; filth, excreta (POC: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₂

pia-piabe defiled, as with excrement; be mucus-laden, as penis or vagina; filth, excreta (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

pigito stick, touch, climb, embrace, remain fast (PMP: *pilit₁)

pikobent (POC: *biko)

piko-pikobent (diminutive) (POC: *biko)

pipilucines (circular bivalves); a common kind is used as a scraper, but is not eaten (POC: *bibi₂) *bibi

pisik-iabe drenched, soaked; to wet, soak, splash; receive a spurt of liquid, as lime juice in the eye; to cry, of eyes filled with onion scent (POC: *bisik) *bicik

pisi-kiabe drenched, soaked; to wet, soak, splash; receive a spurt of a liquid, as lime juice in the eye (PMP: *picik)

Rennellese (360 / 556)

pisipisito splash, to wet, stir up, as waves (PMP: *picik)

pitonavel, umbilical cord (POC: *bito)

poŋi-abe overtaken by night; become night (POC: *boŋi-a) *beRŋi

poporotten, as wood or teeth (POC: *popok) *bekbek₁

posu-posu-abe tired or bored, as with work or eating the same thing, esp. oily food (POC: *bosuR) *besuR

puabetel nut: Areca catechu L.; bud, papaya flower; tip, as of a spear; to bud (POC: *buaq)

puaa tree that sometimes grows on hetaʔu trees; its fragrant flowers are used in leis; its leaves and flowers resemble those of plumeria (NOISE)

puabud; papaya flower (NOISE)

pua-banoa large tree: Guettarda speciosa L. (NOISE)

pua ʔatuaplant with small yellow flowers: Fagraea berteriana (NOISE)

pugato shine, as a lantern (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

puga-pugato shine, make a faint light (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pugecowries, including American and Indo-Pacific ones; spotted, dotted, or checkered, esp. with large multi-colored spots (POC: *buliq₁)

puguresin as used for tattooing or torches; candle, torch; glow, as of sunset (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pugut-iato be ordered, invoked, requested; to order, request (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pukuknot, as in a tree (POC: *buku)

punageneral name for Moorish idols, batfish, and some high, flat coral fish with extended fins, e.g. Moorish idol, Zanctus canescens (L.), round-faced batfish, Platax teira (Forskal); pennant coral fish, Heniochus acuminatus (L.). Puna were considered sisters of Ekeitehua (great district god of the Iho clan) and were taboo to members of the Taupongi clan (PMP: *bunaR)

punageneral name for Moorish idols, batfish, and some high, flat coral fish with extended fins, e.g. Moorish idol, Zanctus canescens (L.), round-faced batfish, Platax teira (Forskal); pennant coral fish, Heniochus acuminatus (L.). Puna were considered sisters of Ekeitehua (great district god of the Iho clan) and were taboo to members of the Taupongi clan (POC: *bunaₐ) *buna

puŋageneral name for flat or round sharp coral (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

pusito blow, as a flute or as the wind; to blow out (POC: *pusi)

Rennellese (380 / 556)

putu-putuin close proximity (as coconut trees) (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

sābakia common sea urchin with white tendrils, rarely eaten (POC: *saRawaki)

saeto tear; to strip, as bark; to split, as a torch (POC: *saRe)

sagato be mistaken, incorrect; to err (PMP: *salaq₁)

sahuto drip, flow, as water or blood; to cause to fill with water; to place to catch rain water (POC: *sabu)

saosafe, healthy, well, unhurt (POC: *saRop) *saRep

sao-hakiescape, as from war or sickness (POC: *saRop) *saRep

saubone, esp. leg bone (POC: *saRu) *saRu₃

sikoto catch, as a ball or wave (PMP: *cikep)

sikutail of animal or fish, but not of a bird; end, as of a word, or of the Lake; ending, suffix, sequel; to end, form a tail or end (POC: *siku)

sisiedible Nerita shells, found on the reef edge (PMP: *sisi₁)

sisito slice, as meat, papayas, bread; to flay, as human skin to get bones for spear or arrow points; to pry off, as bark with a stick for tapa (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

soacompanion; to act as companion (POC: *soRa)

sokato punch, hit, spear, inject, knock holes in, pierce; to bore, as a termite; to knock from a tree, as coconuts or papayas; to touch a person lightly with the fingers, perhaps as a sexual invitation; to plant, as bananas (POC: *soka)

suaceremonial paddle with a wide blade (PEMP: *suak)

suguinsert, as a flower in the hair, a fan in the back, a stick in thatch; go or fall down; set, as the sun (PMP: *surup₁)

sukito plant, as seeds, or cuttings; to set a stake in the earth, as to hold the sounding board; to insert, as a spear; to sting, as a bee; to pierce, puncture, as a sea urchin, balloon fish, or spear; to swoop down or claw, as a hawk; to snatch in its talons, as an osprey (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

suk-ito plant, as seeds, or cuttings; to set a stake in the earth, as to hold the sounding board; to insert, as a spear; to sting, as a bee; to pierce, puncture, as a sea urchin, balloon fish or spear; to swoop down or claw, as a hawk; to snatch in its talons, as an osprey (PAN: *suksuk)

sukito plant, as seeds or cuttings; to set a stake in the earth, as to hold the sounding board; to insert, as a spear; to sting, as a bee; to pierce, puncture, as a sea urchin, baloon fish or spear; to swoop down or claw, as a hawk (PMP: *suŋkit)

suki-sukito set up, as by tamping; to put in place (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

Rennellese (400 / 556)

sumuto lash (general term, as rattan cane or sennit; general name for triggerfish (POC: *sumu)

suuto be wet, damp, moist (as fleshy food; contrasting with vegetables) (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

taato hit, strike, cut, kill, murder; tattoo; to carve or make, as a canoe; to tap, as to soften bii fruit; to strike, as birds dive down for fish; to beat, as the sounding board; to net, as flying fish; to scoop up, as swarms of ... fish in seine or net (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taainclusive (first person dual pronouns and possessives) (POC: *da₂) *ita₁

-tagisennit noose for snaring sharks (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

tagito wait (POC: *tari)

tagiea tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

tagiea land crab: Cardisoma hirtipes Dana (POC: *talise₂) *talise

tagiŋaear; side fins of fish, whale flippers; to hear, lend ear, listen (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tagi-sakito wait (POC: *tari)

tagotaro, Colocasia esculenta (one of the most important foods, the gift of the god Tupuimatangi) (POC: *talos) *tales

taheto float, drift; current, especially where offshore waves meet sea waves; to have blood in saliva, especially of persons with tuberculosis (POC: *tape₁)

tahe-ato soar (POC: *tape-a) *tape₁

tahe-ʔaŋableeding in saliva (POC: *tape₁)

taiocean, lake, salt water; seafood (poetic) (PMP: *tasik)

tai maaŋagobrackish sea water, especially the Lake [in the middle of Rennell] (PMP: *tasik)

ta-ku, to-kumy, mine (POC: *-gu) *-ku

takuaa very rare kind of porpoise or fish, (POC: *takua)

tama-naclassificatory father; to have a classificatory father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tamitaste (PMP: *tamis)

Rennellese (420 / 556)

tamitaste (PMP: *tamiq)

tami-tamitaste a little, as to try (PMP: *tamis)

tami-tamitaste a little, as to try (PMP: *tamiq)

tanuto plant, as coconuts, yams, taro, bananas, corn; to bury; to insert, as lime in grooves in an arrow; to sink, as feet in a swamp (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tanu-maŋaanything set aside for planting (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋaa container of any kind: basket, bag, suitcase, pocket; to put into a container (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋahaa large deep-sea fish (POC: *taŋapa)

taŋataman, male, person; to be a man, male or person (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taŋito cry, weep, sound, ring, bark; tears (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋi-taŋito sound empty (as a coconut that has no liquid); to cry, weep (especially of children) (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

taospear, dart, as for fighting, fishing, or spearing birds (POC: *jaot) *saet

taputaboo, forbidden, sacred, hallowed, restricted; sacredness, forbidden or sacred place; to observe taboos, as on the Sabbath (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tapu-tapudiminutive of tapu; small sacredness (POC: *tapu-tapu) *tambu

ta-tautattooing (POC: *sau₃)

tauto pray, chant, sing, as to honor or thank a worker, or in certain rituals (PMP: *saRup₂)

tauto hang, as clothes; to wear or put on, as a necklace or loincloth (POC: *saur₁)

tauto hang, as clothes; to wear or put on, as a necklace or loincloth; to swarm, as pogo or manini fish (POC: *tau₂) *tau

tau-namumosquito net; to sleep under a mosquito net (POC: *tau ñamuk)

tautugeneral name for balloon fish (porcupine fish) (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

taʔa-hinehonor, term of reference, esp. for a sister, daughter, niece (POC: *pine) *bahi

Rennellese (440 / 556)

taʔefeces, dung, excreta of various kinds (ear wax, octopus ink, sea-slug eggs); fragments as of turmeric or Derris; suds; also an endearing and demeaning term, and used as an insult as in ‘I am your feces’ (I respect and love you and humiliate myself before you) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

taʔobake in the oven, boil in a saucepan, cook in any way except over an open fire (POC: *taqo)

taʔuseason (PMP: *taqun)

taʔu ikafish season, late July until January, especially for flying fish and large fish caught on lines at night after catching flying fish that are used as bait (PMP: *taqun)

Te ganoeastern district of Re and village (lit. ‘The Lake’) (POC: *rano) *danaw

tigaship’s boom (POC: *jila)

tigoto see (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tikadart, spear; the ancient and obsolete sport of casting darts; to cast, as a spear (POC: *tika)

tike-tiketo crouch or squat, as on the heels; to perch (POC: *tike)

timuto rile, devastate, as by wind and storm (PMP: *timuR)

tina-naclassificatory mother; to have a classificatory mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tinaʔebelly, abdomen, womb; bulging portion of a flying fish torch; breast of a bird (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

tinobody; trunk, stem (as of tree or plant); hull, as of canoe; wooden shaft of a spear (LOAN)

toaironwood (none on Bellona, and on Rennell only on cliffs; in ancient times ceremonial paddles were placed at the bases of cliffs, and with proper incantations toa branches were said to have fallen down); reddish, finely-branching coral on the sea bottom; when taken ashore toa turns black; named for the ironwood (POC: *toRas) *teRas

toguthree, third, three times; to be three in number, third, three times (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tohito hew, as a sounding board; divisions within a single garden (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

tohi guato break in two (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

tohi-tohibreak into pieces, as sticks or bones (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

tokato be or get well; to be in good health, cured of sickness, recovered; to be calm, quiet, of persons or the sea; to recover (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tokato be or get well; to be in good health, cured of sickness, recovered; to be calm, quiet, of persons or the sea; to recover (POC: *toka₂)

Rennellese (460 / 556)

tokegaunorthwest wind, north wind; to blow, of this wind (POC: *tokalaur)

tokopole, as for a canoe; to pole, as a canoe; to use as a pole or support (POC: *tokon) *teken

tonuto be correct, satisfactory, right, excellent; to be fulfilled (POC: *tonuq)

toŋomangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk.; its wood is used for fuel and posts; its seeds are eaten at the Lake with fish soup (PMP: *teŋeR)

tosiwrite, draw; outline a tattooing pattern (PEMP: *tosi)

totoblood; sap, as of banana trunk or fruit; to bleed, emit sap (POC: *toto)

totoblood; sap, as of banana trunk or fruit; to bleed, emit sap (NOISE)

toʔastrength, authority; to be strong, to win (POC: *toqa)

toʔastrength, authority; to be strong; to win; to bully, mistreat (LOAN)

tuaito be ancient, very old; ancient times; to be late or tardy (POC: *tuaRi)

tugibe deaf, hard of hearing (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

tugi-aŋadeafness (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

tuguto leak, drip; leak, dripping (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tuguʔ-ito drip, as a boil; to drip sap, of various vines (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tuhato divide, distribute; to deal, as cards (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuha-tuhato divide or distribute, as between four or more persons; to deal, as cards; to be divided, distributed (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuhunatural saltwater ponds connected underground with the sea, where large fish and sharks are sometimes speared (POC: *tupuR) *tubuR

tuibone, as of whale; awl or stick used as an awl; to string together, as fish, beads, coconuts; to sew, as a bugho seine or baghu mat; eat with a coconut-leaf midrib; fork; to be sharp; to insert, stick in or through (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

tuk-ito beat, strike, pound, smash, destroy, blow down; to knock, as on a door; beater, pounder, as for sogo (grated taro and coconut) pudding or for putting out a fire (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tunakind of lake eel; turmeric (ango) tuber; the eel is said to be named for this because of its color (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

Rennellese (480 / 556)

tunuto cook, roast on hot coals (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tunu kapekapecook directly on a fire, as fish, birds; barbecue (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupusprout, as of yams, panna, coconuts; life principle and growth, of children; to sprout, grow; to rise, as a boil, cooked rice or a tidal wave; to sprout forth (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

t-upu-naclassificatory grandfather or grandmother; term of address used by classificatory grandchild (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

-tupuʔaan element occurring in the names of two of the most sacred gods, GuatupuɁa and TetupuɁa; a possible meaning would be ‘sacred’ (POC: *tupuqa)

tusito mark, as the skin with turmeric … or face with betel spit; tattooing marks (PCEMP: *tusi)

tusito be appointed, elected, as to an office; to be awarded, as a food share; to be chosen; be pointed at (POC: *dusiq)

tututo ignite, set on fire, kindle, light; to burn, as iodine on a wound; to burn sick persons, as on head or back with a hot stone to thin tapa rope to cure illnesses or in mourning; to wound feelings (PMP: *tutuŋ)

tututo tap, as to make the sound of beating a tapa anvil or a sounding board (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

tutu-atapa-beating anvil (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

tutuŋ-aburning (PMP: *tutuŋ-an) *tutuŋ

tutuŋ-aburning (PMP: *tutuŋ-an) *tutuŋ

tuʔaback (POC: *tuqa₁)

tuʔuto stand, go, come, arrive, start, stop, represent (as in the Council), land (as a canoe), set (as a net), alight (as a bird), hit (as an arrow) (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

tuʔu matato stand close to a person, as in defiance (tuʔu = ‘stand’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

uaartery; pulse (POC: *uRat) *huRaC

ugepenis (POC: *ule)

ukacord, line, rope (POC: *uka₂) *uka₁

unuto shed, as snake skin (POC: *uñus) *huñus

unutake off, remove, pull out, peel (POC: *unus) *SuNus

Rennellese (500 / 556)

usoheart, seat of affections, soul; inside, center, middle, interior (POC: *uso)

usuto push, as a canoe into water (POC: *usu)

utato put aboard a canoe or ship, to go or have aboard; to bear nuts, as a coconut; to assume a role (PMP: *ujan)

Ɂutua large fish with a long body, probably green jobfish: Aprion virescens (PMP: *qutun)

uʔaneck, throat (POC: *Ruqa)

ʔagigiTurban shells: Turbo petholatus L. (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

ʔagi-tofirefly, seen inland, a rare phenomenon; believed to be the embodiment of the goddess Sikingimoemoe, and might not be killed (POC: *totop) *teptep

ʔagofront, coastline; front of the human chest (POC: *qarop) *qadep

ʔahagisurgeonfish: Acanthurus sp. (PMP: *qapaliR)

ʔaituworshipped deity, god, esp. the district gods; Lord, Jesus; worship a deity (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ʔalofront; coastline; front of the human chest; interior; to face towards or come to (POC: *qarop) *qadep

ʔanokind, nature, character, type, likeness, resemblance, image, color, moral quality, meaning (POC: *kanoŋ)

ʔaoaa tree, Ficus benjamini L. (PEMP: *qayawan)

ʔasotime, day, season (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

ʔasofood offering (POC: *qaso)

ʔasuto scoop; to bail, as a canoe (POC: *qasu) *qasu₁

ʔateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔate baʔecalf of leg, esp. back side of the calf (POC: *qate qate) *qaCay

ʔatothatch; to thatch, as house or grave house (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ʔatuprobably bonito, but usually called sau (POC: *qatun)

Rennellese (520 / 556)

ʔatugeneration; be of the same generation; row, column, group, as of islands, stones, posts, people (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

ʔatuaGod, spirit, deity; to worship, as a god (PMP: *qatuan)

ʔaubile, gall bladder; bitter meat, as of an ʔagigi turban shell (POC: *qasu₂)

ʔaueexclamation: oh! (PCEMP: *qaué)

ʔiaexclamation: here! here it is! take it now! (PAN: *qia)

ʔigabirthmark (PMP: *qila)

ʔigo-ʔigoknow, understand, be aware of; be wise, informed, intelligent (NOISE)

ʔitajealous, jealousy (PMP: *qitaq)

ʔiti-ʔitibe small, not much, not many (PAN: *qitik₁)

ʔonesand, sand or rubble beach; to be plentiful as sands (poetic) (POC: *qone) *qenay

ʔone-ʔonesandy, dry, crumbling, powdery, as over-dry grated coconuts (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

ʔooyes; to say yes, assent, agree (POC: *qo)

ʔosorations of tobacco as for workers (provided by the employer), or for a sea trip (POC: *qoso)

ʔotadregs of expressed grated coconut; residue of turmeric (LOAN)

ʔota matato eat raw, as Tridacna (haasua), fish, or birds; to eat partially cooked food (fish are not eaten raw; anyone doing so is said to be crazy, or possessed by gods (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

ʔotifinished, completed, over; to complete, finish; to quit, resign (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

ʔuarain; to rain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

ʔua ghaeghaesunshower; rain while the sun is shining (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

ʔua hatuhail; to hail (POC: *qusan patu₂) *quzaN

ʔua-inabe rained on, be wet or soaked in the rain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

Rennellese (540 / 556)

ʔugalobster, crayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ʔuguhead, hair of the head, head person (POC: *qulu) *quluh

ʔuguageneric name for some crevalles (or trevalles), e.g. plumed trevally, mirrorfish, Alectis indica (Rüppell) (POC: *qulua)

ʔuguŋ-awooden headrest; pillow (it was taboo to sit on either headrest or pillow even in 1972) (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

ʔuhithe yam, usually Dioscorea alata Linn. (PMP: *qubi)

ʔukuto shoot, as an arrow, to spear (POC: *quku)

ʔuma-ŋagarden, as for yams or taro (PMP: *quma) *qumah

ʔumekind of large fish, similar to punongi, perhaps a unicorn fish or parrot fish (PMP: *qumay)

ʔume kanua unicorn fish (PMP: *qumay)

ʔumuground oven, food cooked in the oven or saucepan (PMP: *qumun)

ʔunaouter shell, as of turtle, formerly used for fishhooks, earrings and nose rings (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

ʔunah-iscales of fish; to scale a fish (POC: *qunap-i) *quSeNap

ʔuŋahermit crab: Coenobita olivieri (POC: *qumwaŋ) *qumaŋ

ʔutaashore; seashore (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

ʔutosponge, as of coconut, ivory nut (POC: *quto)

ʔuto ʔugubrains ( = "head sponge") (POC: *quto)

ʔutufill with liquid, draw (POC: *qutub)

ʔutularge fish with a long body, probably green Job fish, Aprion virescens (Valenciennes) (PMP: *qutud)

587. Rerep (3) OC

mesexsick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

ne-tanearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

xambe-nwing (POC: *kabe₂)

588. Rhade (79) WMP (Tharp and Ƀuôn-yă 1980) [rad] (Rade) Viet Nam [aka: Rade]

(a)kiʔraft (PMP: *Rakit)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anakdaughter, son; nephew, niece: one's brother's child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak khuafirstborn, oldest child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anak khuafirstborn, eldest child (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

aŋinair, wind (PMP: *haŋin)

arănbear down or strain in defeating or giving birth (PMP: *maŋ-qezen) *qezen

asapsmoke (PWMP: *asep)

atamto curse (NOISE)

atamto curse (NOISE)

atătto accompany, escort, guide (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

atieliver; plant pith (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atŭkto cook (NOISE)

ayuʔto blow across (musical instrument, as a flute) (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

biambird's craw, crop; goiter (NOISE)

bi blahchop, split (plural). Fight, make war against (plural) (PAN: *belaq)

bi khuato make mature, to ripen (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

blahto split; classifier for cloth, clothing (PAN: *belaq)

bleybuy (PMP: *beli)

blittwist, as in string-making (PMP: *belit₂)

Rhade (20 / 79)

bohfruit, egg, round object; classifier for round objects; found in names of many fruits (PMP: *buaq)

boh phaoammunition, bullet, shot (PMP: *buaq)

boh piaword (PMP: *buaq)

boh plêtesticle (PMP: *buaq)

boh tâorock, stone (PMP: *buaq na batu) *buaq

boh tihcalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

braihhusked rice (PMP: *beRas)

breyto give (PMP: *beRay)

bruʔrotten, spoiled (PAN: *buRuk)

ɓukhair of the head (PMP: *buhek) *bukeS

buk bukexpressive: describes foaming or boiling of liquids (PMP: *bukbuk₁)

burrice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

əbehexcessive, extra (PWMP: *lebiq)

əŋasesame seed (PMP: *leŋa)

əpafathom, span of outstretched arms (PAN: *depa)

êseicooked rice (PWMP: *asiʔ)

gălcall, summon (LOAN)

hdaŋcharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

həapyawn (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

hrasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

Rhade (40 / 79)

hrahred (note: Rhade c.d. < *siRaq) (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

hruêday (PAN: *waRi₁)

hwiẽrattan (PAN: *quay)

kəbəwsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

kəsiʔsea, ocean (PMP: *tasik)

kəwI, me (PAN: *aku)

khuamature; ripe; old; master, owner, chief, official (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

kleyrope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

kmuncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

knamblack cloud; cloudy (PWMP: *kunem)

kŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

krŭmdye made from indigo plant (PMP: *taRum)

k-saʔripe; cooked (PAN: *qesak)

mafather (children's speech) (PAN: *amax)

mahgold (LOAN)

mcahbroken (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

mədierice plant, rice in the field (PAN: *pajay)

məmahto chew (PMP: *mamaq)

məteybanana (PAN: *punti₁)

mhaothirsty (LOAN)

Rhade (60 / 79)

mlamnight (PWMP: *malem)

mleitaboo (PAN: *paliSi)

ḿmihsweet (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

m-ñamto weave (PWMP: *ma-añam) *añam

mrashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₁)

msamsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

msinsalty (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

m-tahgreen, unripe; raw, uncooked (PAN: *ma-qetaq) *qetaq

mtâoghost, spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

mtukcough (PMP: *batuk₁)

phatto chisel (PMP: *paqet)

phiʔbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

phunbase of plant stem, base of tree trunk; noun classifier (PMP: *puqun)

taihdistant, far (PMP: *atas) *aCas

thəwto know (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

thunyear (PMP: *taqun)

tləwthree (PAN: *telu)

trunto descend, go down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

yaŋ hruêsun (PAN: *waRi₁)

Riau Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Riau)

Rikavong Puyuma (1) Form.. see: Puyuma (Rikavong)

589. Ririo (13) OC

kujrat (POC: *kusupe)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

luato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

mateye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

meto come (POC: *maRi) *aRi

mécsea; salt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

saʔatbad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

susbreast (PAN: *susu₁)

vanto shoot, throw (PAN: *panaq)

vécfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

vɔnɔmsix (POC: *onom) *enem

zianine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

z-itawe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

590. Riung (5) CMP [riu] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

amefather (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

daʔatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

ŋizuŋnose (PMP: *ŋijuŋ)

pizanwhen? (PCMP: *pijan) *ijan

risword grass: Imperata cylindrica L. (PAN: *eRiq)

591. Roglai (1) WMP [rog] (Roglai, Northern) Viet Nam

lupātcentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

592. Roinji (1) OC

aro-tua-neck (POC: *kadro)

593. Roma (22) CMP (Jonker 1932) [rmm] Indonesia (Maluku)

ahannagills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

ahudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ana-child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

callapath, road (PMP: *zalan)

huhufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

ilihill (PCEMP: *qili) *qilih

ina-mother (PCEMP: *ina)

irun-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ma-hanahot (Jonker) (PMP: *ma-panas) *panas₁

manubird (PMP: *manuk)

mat-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mwanaman (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

na-malito laugh (PCEMP: *malip)

na-mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

nanito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

naran-name (PMP: *ŋajan)

nihə-tooth (PAN: *nipen)

rur-nibone (PMP: *duRi)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tlin-ear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

Roma (20 / 22)

ulit-skin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

wahalanswer (PAN: *bales₁)

594. Romblomanon (141) WMP [aka: Bikol Romblomanon]

bāgaysomething is appropriate or fit for a particular situation or use; someone tunes a musical instrument (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bágaya thing with which or to which something is done; a thing done, i.e. an act (PPH: *bagay₂)

bantugsomeone is popular or well-known (PPH: *bantug)

dagāmirice stubble (PWMP: *zaRami)

dalāga ~ darāgaan unmarried woman, beginning at puberty until marriage; usually a young unmarried woman; a spinster (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dalag-ītayoung unmarried girl, an adolescent female from about 12 to 17 years (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dāwapearl millet grass or seed: Pennisetum glaucum (seed grain is cooked as a staple food) (PAN: *zawa₂)

gabukdecayed (vegetable matter, including lumber) (PMP: *Rabuk)

gamutthe root of a plant or tree (PMP: *Ramut)

gi-nhāwasomeone’s physical condition; someone’s breathing (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gīʔuksomeone’s treading out unhulled rice from the stalks (PAN: *Riqek)

guntiŋa pair of scissors (LOAN)

guntiŋ-unsomeone cuts something with scissors (LOAN)

gūsuka rib of an animal or person (PAN: *Rusuk)

gūyudsomeone leads (usually forcibly) someone else, something; someone drags or tows something (PWMP: *guyud₃)

hugutsomething, as a roll of buri (palm leaf) strips, a jar lid, a piece of clothing on the body, a weaving is firm or tight (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

i-bābawa position above; the top of someone, something, of two or more things piled one on top of the other (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

íka-tluthird (action, person, situation, thing, time, unit of measurement) (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

í-kawyou sg. predicate pronoun (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

kayou (sg.); occurs as sentence topic following the predicate; for the topic pronoun preceding the predicate see íkaw (PMP: *ka₄)

Romblomanon (20 / 141)

kahita fish-trap hook (PMP: *kaqit)

kamātis ~ tamātisa tomato plant or fruit: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (LOAN)

ka-nipisthin (as the shell of a mollusk) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ka-nipis-nīpisvery thin (as the shell of a mollusk) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

kanʔ-uncooked rice (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

ka-pituseven times (PMP: *ka-pitu) *pitu

ka-putíʔwhite (PWMP: *ka-putiq) *putiq

k-arisomeone comes to a particular place towards the speaker (PWMP: *ari)

ka-sakīt-ansomeone is afflicted with pain in a part of the body which aches (PWMP: *ka-sakit-an) *sakit

ka-salʔā-nana grievance against someone (PWMP: *ka-salaq-an) *salaq₁

kasiŋ-anan all-wood playing top, used by children in play (identified as having a wooden spindle at the top around which a string is wrapped for spinning) (PWMP: *gasiŋ-an) *gasiŋ

ka-ta-tlúthree times (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

kātigbamboo outrigger of a boat; boats with outriggers (PMP: *katiR)

kāʔunsomeone or something eats something (PAN: *kaen)

kaʔūn-anplace from which something is eaten (as a plate); an eating place (any area where one eats – a table, the floor, a beach) (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

kaʔún-unwill be eaten by someone; something to eat (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

-kumy person or thing; a person or thing of mine; my doing something (post-noun or post-gerund possessive adjective pronoun; genitive pronoun, something is done by me (PAN: *-ku)

kutib-kutibsomeone murmurs (PPH: *kútib)

lakatanlacatan eating banana plant or fruit, Musa sapientum var. lacatan (commonly eaten raw as a snack food) (PPH: *lakatan)

laŋuysomeone swims (PWMP: *laŋuy)

Romblomanon (40 / 141)

laŋūy-ana swimming place (PWMP: *laŋuy)

lāwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

likúʔsomeone or something turns, going in a different direction (PMP: *likuq)

lūbussomething is entirely a particular color (PPH: *lubus)

l<um>aŋuyto swim (PWMP: *l<um>aŋuy) *laŋuy

luwaŋthe bilge of a boat or ship, the inner space at its widest point (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

luwasa position outside an object, either the outside surface or a position nearby; certain objects are specified except for one or more which are not included (PMP: *luas₁)

mā-babawthe depth of something is shallow; something is in a shallow place (PWMP: *babaw₂)

maga-sakita part of the body aches (PMP: *sakit)

mag-kāʔunto eat (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen

mag-pīlíʔto choose someone, something (PWMP: *maR-piliq) *piliq

maka-kāʔunable to eat (PPh: *maka-kaen) *kaen

ma-kāʔunwill eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-luwatan area is spacious (PMP: *luqaR)

mamaʔa betel nut masticatory; betel nut chewing is restricted to herbalists and older people (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-nipisthin (as the shell of a pearl oyster) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-putíʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

ma-sabsábwill feed or graze on vegetation (PAN: *sabsab)

ma-sakitsomeone or something suffers pain; a part of the body is painful; someone becomes sick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

matathe eye of a living being; a fishnet mesh; i.e., an opening between the cords of a fishnet (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Romblomanon (60 / 141)

ma-tūnawfood is digested by someone; something, as a metal, melts with heat (PPH: *túnaw)

nanow, already (PAN: *Na₂)

naga-ŋaŋáthe mouth of a mollusk opens (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

(nag)-k<in>āʔunwas eaten (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

na-pīlíʔhappened to be chosen (PWMP: *na-piliq) *piliq

nithe action, state, possession of someone; a particular action is performed by a named person (ni is followed by a personal noun) (PAN: *ni)

pasomeone does something first, before something else is done; someone still does something, has something; something is also done; a situation also exists (PAN: *pa₁)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pag-laŋuysomeone’s swimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

pag-pīlíʔsomeone’s or something’s choosing someone, something, a particular object, place or time (PPH: *paR-piliq) *piliq

pag-tudluʔ-ansomeone or something should or must be pointed out to someone else (PPh: *tulduq)

pag-tūgutsomeone’s permission for someone else to do something (PWMP: *tuRut)

pa-kāʔunfood is allowed by someone to be eaten by someone else; an eating event, as at the reception of a baptism or wedding (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-matasomething is observed by someone (PPH: *pa-matá) *maCa

pa-múkutsomeone goes net fishing (PWMP: *pa-muket) *puket₁

pa-nāguʔsomeone’s hiding or taking shelter in a given location (PMP: *taRuq)

pa-numpaʔtake an oat or solemnly attest that a particular situation exists or will exist, or action occurs or will occur (PWMP: *sumpaq)

pa-sakitsomeone is caused to experience pain by a part of the body which pains (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pa-sākitsuffering (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pa-sandigsomething is leaned against something else by someone (PMP: *sandiR)

Romblomanon (80 / 141)

pa-tāwadforgiveness; someone is forgiven (PWMP: *tawaD)

patiŋ sudsúdarmed guitarfish or white-spotted shovel-nosed ray fish (presumably from the shape of the face, which pushes up the sand in shallow water (PPH: *sudsud₂)

pa-ʔi-bābawsomeone’s or somethings’s going to the top, going up (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

paʔunbait used for catching fish, mollusks, octopuses (PAN: *paen)

pilahow many (people)?, how much (substance)?; several (actions, people, situations, things) (PAN: *pijax)

pīlíʔsomeone or something chooses something else, something else, a particular object, place or time (PAN: *piliq)

p<in>īlíʔwere chosen (PWMP: *p<in>iliq) *piliq

pituseven (actions, people, pieces of something, situations, things, times, units of measurement) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pūkuta fishnet (PMP: *puket₁)

pūsudumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

pūsuʔthe heart of a person or animal; a banana heart, i.e., the inflorescence of a banana plant (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusuʔan unshucked ear of corn; a bulb of garlic (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusúʔa pusu sticky-rice cake (made from either white sticky rice matagkit or black sticky rice tapuy. The rice is soaked in coconut milk extract until somewhat tender, wrapped in young coconut fronts hanig and boiled in coconut milk extract. (PMP: *pusuq₂)

putíʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

pūtua steamed cake; steamed cassava cake, steamed rice cake (eaten as a breakfast food, for snacks, and as a dessert) (LOAN)

sabsábanimals feed or graze on vegetation (PAN: *sabsab)

sabútpubic hair (PWMP: *sabut)

sāgubody fluid, especially of a dead person after about 24 hours following death (PWMP: *sagu₂)

sakitan illness, internal or external, including extensive skin infections (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-anbe afflicted with pain in a body part (as the stomach) (PWMP: *sakit-an) *sakit

Romblomanon (100 / 141)

sakit sa babāyia venereal disease (PMP: *sakit)

saláʔa mistake, wrongdoing; be mistaken or wrong in an action, a situation (PMP: *salaq₁)

sandigsomeone leans backwards (PMP: *sandiR)

saŋaa main branch of a bush, plant, tree, which branches from the trunk or main stalk (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sāpadhand of bananas (PPH: *sápad)

sawasnake (PMP: *sawa)

sawāliʔwoven bamboo walling (LOAN)

sideterminer identifying a person by name as the topic of a clause (PAN: *si₁)

sigáya gold-ringed cowry mollusk, genus Monetaria (PWMP: *sígay)

sikithe foot and/or leg of an animal, bird, person; the leg of a bench, chair, table (PPH: *sikí)

sīkusomeone’s elbow (PAN: *sikux)

siŋkamasa vine (Pachyrrhizus erosus); its turnip-like roots are commonly eaten raw as a snack food (LOAN)

sudsúdbrown carpet shark: Chiloscyllium griseum (Müller and Henle), found in shallow sandy and rocky coastal waters (PPH: *sudsud₂)

suliga painted coral trout fish or lunar-tailed grouper, Variola louti (Forsskål); it is reddish-orange and covered with dark red and pink spots, with a yellow pectoral fin; frequents coral reefs (PMP: *sulig)

sulig mabūyusyellow-striped Caesio fish, or black-tipped fusilier fish, Pterocaesio chrysozonus (Cuvier); it is silvery gray above and whitish to pink below, with a straight yellow stripe from the eye along the flank to the caudal peduncle; swims in schools around coral reefs and midwater areas to 50 meters; a slender fusilier fish, Pterocaesio pisang (Bleeker); it is bluish-green across the back and whitish to pink below, with a median, lateral, golden band; swims in schools around coral reefs and midwater areas to 60 meters (PMP: *sulig)

sumpaʔan attestation or oath that a particular situation exists/will exist or action occurs/will occur; a curse placed on someone to cause evil to befall that person (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpitbamboo blowgun; a toy used by children for shooting seeds such as mung beans (PMP: *sumpit)

sundaŋa cutting bolo (LOAN)

suŋsuŋa bottle stopper, as a cork, rolled paper or any suitable material used to stop a bottle neck; a plug to stop up an opening; to cork or stop up an opening (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

tadtadsomething is cut into pieces by someone (PWMP: *tadtád)

Romblomanon (120 / 141)

tadtar-unbe cut into pieces (PPH: *tadtad-én) *tadtád

tāguman indigo plant, Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) or Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.) (PMP: *taRum)

tāguʔsomeone or something hides or takes shelter in a given location (PMP: *taRuq)

tambaksomething is covered over by someone with soil, stones, the shallow ocean (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambāk-ana shallow-sea fish trap (PWMP: *tambak-an) *tambak₂

ta-tluthree (actions, people, pieces of something, situations, things, times, units of measurement (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tāwadsomething is bargained for by someone for a particular price (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawagsomeone calls someone else, or calls the name of someone; someone calls a gathering of people; the name by which someone or something is called (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

tíŋgilclitoris (PPH: *tuŋgíl)

tiyánthe abdomen, stomach or womb of a person or animal; the inner surface of bamboo (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tūbaa tuba shrub or seed, Croton tiglium (Linn.); oil from the seeds is used medicinally and as a fish poison (PAN: *tuba)

tubusugarcane plant or stalk, Saccharum officinarum (Linn.) (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

túdluʔfinger or toe (excluding the big toe); the index finger; advice, information, teaching given to someone; someone advises, informs or teaches something to someone else (PPh: *tulduq)

tūgunadvice given to someone (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

tūgutsomeone permits someone else to do something (PWMP: *tuRut)

tugūt-anbe permitted, be allowed (PWMP: *tuRut)

tuktuksomething is chopped or cut into pieces (as coconut) (PAN: *tektek₁)

tulaya bridge (PPH: *tuláy)

tuwayan ocean quahog mollusk, Arctica islandica (PMP: *tuay)

ʔātisa sugar apple tree or fruit (fruit is eaten raw as a snack food; root is used as a medicine) (LOAN)

Romblomanon (140 / 141)

ʔika-pituseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

595. Ron (32) SHWNG

aferchalk, lime (PAN: *qapuR)

aitree, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

au2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

barawangold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

fakfour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

fararto run (PAN: *laRiw)

fasrice (PAN: *pajay)

fikseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

infish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

inemto drink (PMP: *inum)

kama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

knaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

korthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

korthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

makaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

manbird (PMP: *manuk)

mekemblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

monuvillage (PMP: *banua)

nasanname (PMP: *ŋajan)

onemsix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

Ron (20 / 32)

raneksky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

rikblood (PMP: *liteq)

rimfive (PAN: *lima)

robnight (PMP: *Rabiqi)

safurten (PAN: *sa-puluq) *puluq

senaabdomen, belly (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

siwnine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

uklouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

wacanoe (PEMP: *waŋka)

wareight (PAN: *walu)

wefoot (PAN: *waqay)

ya1sg., I (PAN: *i-aku) *aku

596. Roro (12) OC (Capell 1943) [rro] (Waima) Papua New Guinea

ahicanoe hull (PMP: *katiR)

ahoiegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

ako-throat, neck (POC: *kadro)

ata-name (PMP: *ajan)

atawa-spouse (PAN: *qasawa)

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

hama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

isu-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

nibidream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

or-ormango (POC: *koRa)

veinaosteal (POC: *painako) *Cakaw

watedistribute (POC: *wa(n)se)

597. Rotinese (452) CMP (Jonker 1908, Fox 1993) [bpz] (Bilba) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

afa-afaodorless, tasteless, insipid (cooked rice, meat, sirih leaf with betel chew, etc.) (PMP: *qambaR)

afuash, dust; in combining forms: ash-colored, gray (PMP: *qabu)

aitree, stalk, wood (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ai anakyoung tree (PMP: *anak i kahiw) *aNak

ai buna-kflower, blossom (PMP: *buŋa na kahiw) *buŋa

ai hu-ktree (PCEMP: *kayu) *kaSiw

ai ma-tuaa heavy, thick piece of wood; a thick post (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

-alafetch, get, take, capture (PAN: *alaq₁)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

ami1pl. excl., we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

anachild, in comparison with adult; young of animals; small (used as both predicate and attributive adjective (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana-ataata-anaslave child (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

ana ulu-kfirstborn child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anebraid, plait, twine, weave (baskets, mats, but not cloth) (PMP: *añem)

asudog (only in ritual language) (PAN: *asu₁)

atathe heavens, the top (of); above, on top of (PMP: *atas) *aCas

atanon-emphatic form of the 1pl. incl. personal pronoun (PAN: *ata₁)

ataslave; also used to call a serf who is not a slave, and as a humilific form of the first person singular pronoun when addressing a prince (PMP: *qaRta)

ate-kliver, or figuratively heart of man or animal (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-lasikind of epiphytic plant, said to exude liquid (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

Rotinese (20 / 452)

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

au-éexclamation of joy or of grief, as in mourning for the dead (PCEMP: *qaué)

au(s)dew (PCEMP: *au)

balung (linked to the liver in formal dyadic language, or ritual parallelism; cf. Fox, J. 1993.) (PAN: *baRaq₁)

balie crosswise, as a log across the road (PAN: *baRat₁)

balie crosswise, as a log across the road (PAN: *barat₁)

bacry intended to frighten someone (PMP: *ba₂)

bafamouth, beak, orifice, opening; word, to say (metaphorical) (PMP: *baqbaq)

bafa-kupper surface of a liquid (PAN: *babaw₃)

bafipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

balasrequite, repay (LOAN)

bali(k)mix, blend, add something to something else (PAN: *babuy₃)

bali(k)to mix, blend, add something to something else (PCMP: *balik₁)

balilaŋsulphur (said to be a Malay loan) (LOAN)

balucover (as with a blanket), enshroud (PCEMP: *balun₃) *baluN

balukone-or two-masted boat without outriggers (PMP: *baluk₁)

beatax, toll (LOAN)

bebetremble, shiver (from cold, fear) (PMP: *berber₂)

bébeduck (LOAN)

beke-dua-ktwo each (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Rotinese (40 / 452)

belaspread out, as a mat, cover something with something else that is spread out (PMP: *bekelaj)

belicost, price, value (PMP: *beli)

beli-na matethe price is fixed (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

beli-sthat which must be paid for a woman when the marriage arrangements are settled, either in goods or in money (PMP: *beli)

beŋainform, explain, speak; voice, speech, word (PCMP: *beŋa₂)

beŋainform, explain, speak; voice, speech, word (NOISE)

besiiron; made of iron (LOAN)

betatop a tree, trim off branches (PMP: *bentas)

beta aitop a tree or trim the branches, to prune (PMP: *beta₂)

bètetense, tight, taut (as a bulging sack, a sail full of the wind) (PMP: *benteŋ)

bete(k)millet (PMP: *beteŋ₁) *beCeŋ

betucurved (used especially of the fingers); bent inward, curved (as the back, a rafter, a plank) (PMP: *bentuk)

biasplit, cleave (as a piece of wood into two); cut or chop into pieces (PMP: *biqak)

bia-kpieces of cut meat, chunks of fish flesh (PMP: *biqak)

binakind of shellfish; also its shell or a part of its shell (PCEMP: *bina)

biniseed for planting (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bisusore, ulcer, boil, pimple, pustule (PMP: *bisul)

bisu mata-nacore of a boil (PMP: *mata nu bisul) *maCa

bitispring up suddenly, as a shrimp (PMP: *bitik₁)

biti boa-kcalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

Rotinese (60 / 452)

biʔigoat, sheep (LOAN)

biʔi inaewe (LOAN)

biʔi maneram (LOAN)

biʔitlift by the fingers (PCMP: *biqit)

biʔit tabakutake a pinch of tobacco (PCMP: *biqit)

boafruit; as an independent word used especially when the fruit of a tree has already been named (PMP: *buaq)

boamangrove which grows along the beaches (NOISE)

boʔoto cough (LOAN)

boʔoto cough (NOISE)

buinflated, as the cheeks when blowing (NOISE)

bua tasi-fudeterm for foreign goods (as cotton, linen) which arrive from overseas (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

bubububbling up, of boiling water (PMP: *bukbuk₁)

bufufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

buirear part, hind part, backside; bottom (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

bui ana-kthe very last part (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

bui ana-nathe last bit of rice, sago flour, etc. (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

bukusprout out, get new shoots, as cuttings of plants (PCEMP: *buku)

bula-bulawide open (of the eyes) (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

bula-kmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buluhair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

Rotinese (80 / 452)

bunakkind of marine fish which inflates when touched even slightly (NOISE)

buniskin disease, ringworm (PMP: *buqeni)

bunihardwood tree the leaves of which are used as medicine in treating ringworm (NOISE)

busuclean cotton with a bow-like instrument (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

da(k)blood; plant sap (PAN: *daRaq)

dala(k)row; path, road (PMP: *zalan)

dala mata-namesh of a net (< Malay) (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

dale(k)inside, within; insides of something (particularly a person); heart, the inner person (PMP: *dalem)

danolake, pool (PAN: *danaw)

delathe dedap, Erythrina spp. (PMP: *dedap)

dela-sshade tree, Erythrina spp. (PMP: *depdep)

delekind of millet that is especially important as a foodstuff in eastern Roti (PMP: *zelay)

dipost, pole, pillar, upright (for supporting a house) (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

dikufold (ROOT)

dilubend over, turn down, bend down (ROOT)

ditesticky; sap; bird lime (PAN: *diteq)

ditesticky; sap, bird lime (Also Kambera ritu 'gum') (ROOT)

dodocut the throat of an animal, slaughter, kill (PCMP: *dodok)

do-kleaf, leaf of a tree; classifier used in counting hairs, strings of beads (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

do-klong; distant, far (PMP: *zauq)

Rotinese (100 / 452)

dope mata-nablade of a knife (PMP: *mata) *maCa

duatwo; both (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-duatwo by two, two at a time (PMP: *enem enem) *enem

dua-duatwo by two, two at a time (PMP: *walu walu) *walu

dua-duatwo by two, two each (PCEMP: *dua-dua) *duSa

dui(k)bone, fish bone (PMP: *duRi)

d-ulueast (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

edasomething used to climb up something else (Jonker 1908); ladder of house (Fox 1993) (PMP: *haRezan)

eda-ksteps, ladder; clamps on a tree to make it easier to climb (PMP: *haRezan)

eketwist, coil (of hair bound in a bun, or of a snake) (NOISE)

ekiscream, shriek, shout at the top of one's voice; laugh, make noise (out of pleasure or anger); a shriek, cry, shout (PMP: *ekit)

ekiscream, shriek, shout at the top of one's voice; laugh, make noise (out of pleasure or anger); a shriek, cry, shout (PMP: *e(ŋ)kik)

enesubmerge something in or under water, soak in water (PMP: *eñep)

enoway, path, road (PMP: *qenuR) *qeNuR

esaone (in serial counting) (PAN: *esa)

esa esaone by one, each in its turn (PMP: *esa esa) *esa

faa stream; to flow, stream, flood (PCEMP: *baaq) *baSaq

fadaspeak, say, name, mention, tell (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

fadiyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

fa-faimorning (PAN: *waRi₁)

Rotinese (120 / 452)

fafalekkind of jellyfish (NOISE)

faiday, in the sense of time in general (PAN: *waRi₁)

fai hidawhen (future) (PCMP: *pijan) *ijan

fai-narecently, the other day (PAN: *waRi₁)

fa-kseawind, west wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

falihelp, stand beside (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

falireturn, go back (PMP: *balik₂)

falireturn, go back (PMP: *bali₅)

falumourn the dead; mourners at a funeral (PMP: *baluq)

faluorphan; widow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

falueight (PAN: *walu)

fanibee, honeybee; honey (PMP: *wani)

fegive, allow; make, originate; indicate for whom something is intended (PMP: *beRay)

fe-fe-kgift (PMP: *beRay)

fe-feluknoose trap used to catch birds; the noose is fastened to a curved piece of wood (PMP: *beluk)

felaspread out, as growing plants (PMP: *bekelaj)

fela(s)machete, bush knife (PCMP: *belas)

fetafeast, celebration (LOAN)

fetosister, female cousin (man speaking) (PMP: *betaw)

fiakind of tuberous water plant, yam; icon for a male person (Fox, J. 1993) (PMP: *biRaq₁)

Rotinese (140 / 452)

fiŋaopen the mouth with force, as the mouth of a sick person in order to give him medicine (ROOT)

fitito kick, give a kick; extend the leg sideways (of horses as well as people) (PMP: *bintiq)

fitipull up with a jerk, as a fishing rod (PMP: *bitik₁)

fiʔipinch with the fingertips or nails; hold firmly with the fingertips (PCMP: *biqit)

fupuffed up, as the cheeks when blowing (PCEMP: *buu₁)

fublow, whistle, fill with air (PMP: *qembus)

fukind of fish that puffs up its belly when it comes onto dry land (NOISE)

fualay on something, to load, have as a cargo or burden, carry (PMP: *buhat₃)

fudesponge (PCEMP: *budeq)

fudefoam, froth, bubbles, scum (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

fu-fudeto foam, to bubble (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

fu-fuegeneric for beans, legumes (PMP: *buay₁)

fufue deək mata-nadibble holes for planting seeds (PMP: *mata) *maCa

fufukrice worm, wood worm; mouldering (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

fu-funi-khiding place, in particular of someone who hunts at night (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

fuipour water on, douse with water, extinguish a fire with water (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

fuiwash the hands (PMP: *buRiq)

fulawhite (PMP: *bulan₂)

fulabe, become white (PMP: *bulaR₂)

fula-fulawhitish (PMP: *bulaR₂)

Rotinese (160 / 452)

fula-kwhite (PMP: *bulaR₂)

fulikind of shell; shells or bits of lead used as sinkers for a fishnet (PMP: *buliq₁)

fuli-haʔatree sp. (NOISE)

funiconceal oneself, as behind a tree in order to shoot at game or at an enemy; more particularly, to go hunting at night; to hide (something) (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

fuʔadig up the earth around a plant (PCEMP: *buqal)

fuʔadig up the earth around a plant (NOISE)

hafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

haderice plant, unhusked rice grain (PAN: *pajay)

haistingray (PCEMP: *paRi) *paRiS

hala (li) ma-tuaa loud voice (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

hala ma-tuaa deep sound (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

haliwipe off, wipe away, rub away, brush away (esp. of tears, but also of dirt) (NOISE)

hanawarm, hot, of water and of anything that can be heated, as well as of the body; warmth; fig.: taboo (Jonker 1908); heat; hot, warm (in a physical and ritual sense); become hot, become ritually charged (Fox, J. 1993) (PMP: *panas₁)

hana-hanasomewhat warm (PCEMP: *panas-panas) *panas₁

hana-hanasomewhat warm (PMP: *panas₁)

hanitrough for feeding pigs; domestic animal, a cared-for animal (Fox, J. 1993) (PCEMP: *paniŋ)

hani-kbait for fishing (Jonker 1908) (PCEMP: *paniŋ)

hanospots of a lighter color on the skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

(hataholi) mate nulakone who dies young (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

hedi ma-tuaa heavy, serious sickness (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

Rotinese (180 / 452)

hedi(s)pain, sickness; painful (PMP: *hapejis)

hedugall, bile; bitter (PAN: *qapejux)

henuto fill; full, as a house full of people, a river in full stream (PMP: *penuq)

heubind together; roof of a house (tying lontar leaves or bundles or alang-alang grass to the slats of the roof) (PCMP: *peu)

hikalaugh loudly (PMP: *pikak)

hikalaugh loudly (ROOT)

hituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

huterm suffixed “to the terms for the mother’s brother and the mother’s mother’s brother to signify these men as the “origin” of their sister’s children, who are described as their “plants” (Fox 1971, Fox 1980:14) (PMP: *puqun)

hu(k)trunk; root; origin; cause, reason; counter term for trees (PMP: *puqun)

hukato open (ROOT)

hunibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

iathis (PMP: *ia₂)

idunose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ifahold in the lap (PMP: *iwaq)

ifahold in the lap (PMP: *iwa)

ifoshellfish sp. (PMP: *qibaw₁)

ikotail (of mammal, fish, etc.) (PAN: *ikuR)

ilafreckle, birthmark (PMP: *qila)

ina beli-táka woman for whom the brideprice has not been paid at the time of marriage; an illegally married woman (PMP: *beli)

ina(k)woman; mother; mother's sister; wife; female (animal); large (PCEMP: *ina)

Rotinese (200 / 452)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

inu inuhang together in great quantities, in clusters (as fruits that are tied together) (PMP: *hinuq) *SiNuq

isito peel, as an onion; to scale a fish (PCEMP: *isi₂)

isiinsides, content; flesh, pulp; what is loaded into a gun; an arrow to a bow (PAN: *isi₅)

isito peel (an onion), to scale (fish) (NOISE)

iushark (PAN: *qiSu)

iʔa(k)fish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

iʔa tufafish that are caught by tufa-fishing (PAN: *tuba)

kato bite, to chew with the teeth (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

ka-anakhave a child (PMP: *ka-anak) *aNak

ka-bu-bulato open the eyes wide (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

ka-bui-kbring up the rear, be last (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

ka-bulu-shairy, hirsute, covered with hair (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

ka-dua-kboth; twins (PCEMP: *ka-dua) *duSa

ka-falu-keighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

ka-isi-khave contents, flesh, muscles (PMP: *ka-isiʔ) *isi₅

kalito scratch, dig in the earth (of a dog, chicken); to dig a hole (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kalito scratch, dig in the earth (of a dog, chicken); to dig (a hole) (PMP: *garis)

ka-lima-kfifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

ka-matereach a firm agreement about something; keep still (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

Rotinese (220 / 452)

ka-ne-ksixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

kapa-a ate-ba-nheart and lungs of a carabao together (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ka-telu-kthe third (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

katito call a dog (esp. while hunting) (PCMP: *kati₁)

ka-tu-tuathe spoiling of children (lit. ‘making big’) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

keaturtle (PCEMP: *keRa)

ketuto break off; to pluck, harvest (PMP: *ketuq)

kinorth; left (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kilito cut or trim a piece of wood or leaf-stalk into long, lengthwise strips (NOISE)

kilubent, crooked, curved (PMP: *kiluq)

kímakind of large clam shell; occasionally this seashell half is placed in the space before a house and used … as a feeding trough (PMP: *kima)

konasouth; right side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kukufinger (PMP: *kukuh) *kuSkuS₁

kuluto ripple, to wave; to be curled, to be wrinkled (PMP: *kuluŋ)

lathe sail of a boat (PAN: *layaR)

lairun away, flee (PAN: *laRiw)

lamukind of seaweed (PMP: *lamu₁)

lamukind of seaweed (PMP: *lamut)

laŋulangu-dizziness: term in ritual language for serious illness (Fox, J. 1993) (PAN: *laŋu)

latukind of edible seaweed (PMP: *latuq)

Rotinese (240 / 452)

laʔoto go, depart, go away (by land or sea) (PMP: *lakaw)

laʔuscoop up with cupped hands (PMP: *ra(ŋ)kup)

leak-a bui ana-nathe backmost part of a cave (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

ledosun (PMP: *qalejaw)

ledo mata-nasun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

le-lesudoor, entrance (PCMP: *lesu₂)

lepacarry with a shoulder pole (of one person or two in tandem) (LOAN)

lesucome out (of a hole); become visible (PCMP: *lesu₂)

leteto bridge; to walk a narrow path; to cross over (PCMP: *letay₂)

lisound (PMP: *liŋ₂)

limake a sound; the sound of drum or gong; the report of a rifle; the sound of a human voice singing (PCEMP: *liqə)

limake a sound; the sound of a drum or gong; the report of a rifle (PCMP: *liRi)

liaginger; spew with (chewed) ginger to make more effective, as a dog to make it bite, a cat to make it a more ferocious mouser, or a net to make it catch more fish (PMP: *laqia)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima kuʔu anaklittle finger, pinkie (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

lima ula-klines in the palm of the hand (PMP: *uRat i lima) *huRaC

linotree sp. (PMP: *qanilaw)

liticause a creaking sound when walking over a floor of soft laths, etc. (PMP: *li(n)tik)

lolacut meat into strips (PCMP: *lolan)

luaboil over, run over, froth at the top (PMP: *luab)

Rotinese (260 / 452)

lua(k)cave, cavern, grotto, hole (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

lui-ksea cow, dugong (PCEMP: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

lu (mata)tear, tears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lumuknead something soft (PMP: *lumu₂)

lunuroll something up (PCMP: *lunu₁)

maand (PAN: *maS)

matongue (PMP: *hema) *Sema

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-anasmall, become smaller (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ma-anakhave a child (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

ma-beli-kvaluable, costly (PMP: *beli)

ma-bui-kthe workmen who work at the back in the construction of a house (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

maeashamed, to feel shamed; bashful (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

maito come; to arrive (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-isi-khave contents, flesh or muscles (PMP: *ma-isiʔ) *isi₅

ma-ktongue (PCEMP: *maya)

maka-du-dua-kdo something twice (PCEMP: *maka-dua) *duSa

maka-he-hedubitterish (as taste in mouth of sick person) (PAN: *qapejux)

ma-lairun away, flee (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

mamato chew, especially to chew betel nut (PMP: *mamaq)

Rotinese (280 / 452)

ma-matelooking half dead; deathly sick (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

mamiinsipid, sweetish, tasteless (as water) (PCEMP: *ma-emis) *hemis

ma-minafatty, greasy; tasty, delicious (PMP: *miñak)

ma-neneto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

ma-niibecome thin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

manu-anachick (PMP: *anak i manuk) *aNak

manu lalu-kcock (PMP: *laluŋ)

masibrackish, salty (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

masi-ksalt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

masusmoke, steam; to smoke, to steam; to roast over a fire (PMP: *ma-qasu) *qasu₃

masusmoke (PCMP: *masu)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ana-(n)favorite, ‘apple of the eye’ (PMP: *anak nu mata) *maCa

mata bulu(k)eyebrow (cp. mata buʔuk 'eyelash') (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

mata iko-kouter corner of the eye (PMP: *ikuR ni mata) *ikuR

mata-kcountenance, face; appearance; sort, kind (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mata-kof all kinds (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

matedie; dead; go out (of a light); still (of the sea when becalmed); eclipse of the sun or moon (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mate-kbe dead, be overcome (in a game) (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mate laʔasdie of hunger (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

Rotinese (300 / 452)

mate mateabsolute, thorough, complete (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

ma-tuabig, grown up (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ma-une-kscaled (PCEMP: *qunep)

méared (PCEMP: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

m-etitide, particularly ebb-tide; to ebb; the part of the shore left dry by the ebbing tide (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

minaoil, melted fat; coconut oil; fat, especially of animals (as a pig) (PMP: *miñak)

m-olilive, grow, come up (of plants), to wax (of the moon) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

m-uliwest; youngest child, last-born (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

m-uli-kyoung, of people, animals and plants (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

mumuhold in the mouth and suck (PMP: *mulmul)

mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

muta-svomitus (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

na-3sg. subject pronoun (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

natree with red wood: Pterocarpus indica (PMP: *naRah)

na-anahave a child; accept or consider as a child; develop shoots, of a plant (PMP: *anak) *aNak

na-ana-kcall someone 'child' (PMP: *anak) *aNak

na-(k)brother (woman speaking) (PMP: *ñaRa)

nakosteal (PMP: *nakaw)

na-matekill (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

nasuboil in water, cook (PMP: *nasu) *Nasu

Rotinese (320 / 452)

natu-kovary, roe, spawn (PMP: *natuq)

nebe still, keep quiet (PMP: *qeneŋ)

nene-neneto listen (PMP: *deŋeR)

niithin, fine, sheer, small; often a predicate of cloth (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ninikmosquito (PMP: *ñikñik)

ni-nilusour, as a tamarind fruit (PAN: *ŋilu)

nita-stree with resinous fruit (PAN: *Niteq)

nituancestral spirits; evil spirit; forest spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

nococonut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

no mata-nasprout of a coconut (PMP: *mata) *maCa

no nituksago palm (PMP: *niuR)

no oecoconut water (PMP: *niuR)

nunu(k)kind of waringin or banyan (PMP: *nunuk)

nusoctopus, squid (PMP: *nus)

nusoctopus, squid (PMP: *nues)

nusa-kisland; state, domain; court-village, court (PMP: *nusa₁)

nusak-a isi-n(a)the inhabitants of a country (PAN: *isi₅)

ŋguteto cut with scissors (as hair) (LOAN)

obamboo (PMP: *qauR)

o2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

Rotinese (340 / 452)

oe fudebubble (PMP: *bujeq ni wahiR) *bujeq

oe mataspring of water (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

okaroot, tendril (PMP: *wakaR)

palaspeak in irritation or anger, snarl at (PMP: *palak)

palo-lola-kstrips of meat (PCMP: *lolan)

paluwrap a cloth around the body; cloth for wrapping dead person, shroud (PCEMP: *balun₃) *baluN

paluto strike dead, slaughter, used especially of chickens and dogs (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

paluto grate (coconuts) (PMP: *parud)

pauboat, ship (PMP: *paraqu)

paʔato fence, a fence (PMP: *pager)

pela fufukworm-eaten maize (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

pinumucus, snot (PMP: *piŋus)

pinumucus, snot (PMP: *piŋ(e)qut)

pinumucus, snot (of nose, etc.) (ROOT)

pisisprinkle, spray (water) (PMP: *picik)

pukuhunched, bent, of the back (< *-kug?) (ROOT)

safaseize with mouth or beak; bite, mouthful (PMP: *sa(m)bar)

sakaprop up with something (ROOT)

sala(k)wrong, in error, mistaken, miss (a target, as in shooting); to differ, vary; fault, error, guilt (PMP: *salaq₁)

sala sala faik esaon one day or another (PMP: *salaq salaq) *salaq₁

Rotinese (360 / 452)

salito overflow, pour out; overflowing (PMP: *saliR)

samaalike, similar (PWMP: *sama)

sa-na-huluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

saomarry; spouse: husband, wife (PAN: *qasawa)

sauto comb (PMP: *saut)

sewho? (PMP: *sei)

se-senato fry or roast (meat or fish); to dry roast in a pan (corn, rice, millet, etc. (PMP: *saŋelaR)

se-sena-kbaking, frying, roasting (PMP: *saŋelaR)

se-sena noroast or bake grated coconut with sweet syrup (PMP: *saŋelaR)

sikato open something wide; to hold something open (PMP: *siŋkab)

sikaopen something wide, hold something open (ROOT)

silathey, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

sila, sileto swallow (ROOT)

siluto lift, raise, uncover, bare (PCMP: *silu₁)

sofustrew, scatter (as powder) (ROOT)

suakind of haircomb worn by Timorese men and women (PMP: *suat₁)

sulahorns (of buffalo or deer) (PCMP: *sula)

sulahorn of a carabao, antler of a deer (PCMP: *sulan)

sulestop up (PMP: *sulen) *suleN

sulestop up (PMP: *suled)

Rotinese (380 / 452)

suluseek shelter; cover, shade, protect (PMP: *suluŋ₁)

sulucover, shade, protect (ROOT)

suʔufemale breast, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

ta(k)not present, not exist; no, not (PMP: *taq₃)

talaadze (carpenter’s tool); to work with an adze (PAN: *taRaq₁)

talekind of water plant with large leaves (Jonker 1908) (PMP: *tales)

taletaro; icon for a male person (Fox 1993) (PMP: *tales)

talirope (different types are distinguished by the material from which they are made) (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tamafit together well (as planks that are joined) (PMP: *tamaq₁)

tamafit together well (as planks that are joined) (PAN: *tama₁)

tamumake a smacking sound while eating, as a pig does (PCEMP: *tamu₁)

taneto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanemud (PMP: *taneq)

tanito cry, whine (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

tasi-a na fu-fudethe sea is foaming (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

tasi-fudesea foam; sponge (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

tasi oesaltwater, seawater (PMP: *tasik)

tatasplit, chop (wood) (PAN: *CabCab)

tatai mata-kmeasuring marks on a scale (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Rotinese (400 / 452)

ta-taleskind of water plant with large leaves; Dengka dialect (Jonker 1908) (PMP: *tales)

ta-talito make rope by rolling fibers together on a flat surface, esp. the thigh (PMP: *ta-talih) *CaliS

tatao ma-tuaan important work (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

tau isi-kindigo dye (PMP: *taRum)

tau-kthe indigo plant, indigo; dark blue (PMP: *taRum)

tau-taublue-black (as rain clouds) (PMP: *taRum)

tea(k)hard, strong, firm (said of wood, stone, steel, teeth, the heart, the will); the inner core of a tree, especially the lontar palm (PMP: *teRas)

teek bufuset a fish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

tékecall, sound produced by the gecko (PMP: *tikek)

teli(k)large, rude sort of bamboo, used for bow and arrow (PMP: *teriŋ)

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

telu huluthirty (PAN: *telu)

telu-teluthree at a time, three by three (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

tenasink, set (of the sun) (PMP: *teñej)

tilavagina (PMP: *tila)

timichin, jaw (PMP: *timid) *timij

timueast, the direction of dawn; east monsoon (PMP: *timuR)

tiokind of small, but ritually important fish (PMP: *tiqaw₂) *Ciqaw

tiokind of small but ritually important fish (PMP: *tiqaw₁) *tiqaw

titidrip, flow (PMP: *titis)

Rotinese (420 / 452)

tua-fudefoam of the lontar sap (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

tua-inakadult, of persons, male as well as female (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuduto show, to point out, to indicate (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tufaa certain plant the roots of which are used to stupefy fish; to use this plant to stun fish and thereby catch them (PAN: *tuba)

tuilarge tree that grows beside rivers and lakes (PMP: *tui₁)

tulito stop (and visit) when passing by (PMP: *tuluy₂)

tumaclothes louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tunaeel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tuna busakkind of eel that bites when caught (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tunuroast, bake, cook without fat (meat, fish, corn, etc.); singe off the fur of a pig, goat, etc. in making a sacrificial offering (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

uavein; tendon; sinew; muscle; metaphorically also: fate, destiny, lot (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

udarain; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uda lèdoksunshower ( = rain + sun) (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uerattan; whip (usually made of rattan) (PAN: *quay)

ufivarious types of yams (PMP: *qubi)

ukumeasure with some measurement of capacity, both liquid and dry goods (LOAN)

ule-kworm, caterpillar in general; intestinal worms, maggots (PMP: *qulej)

ule ka-bulu-shairy caterpillar (PMP: *qulej bulu-an) *bulu₁

ulirudder of a boat; steer with a rudder (PMP: *qulin)

uluhead hair (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

Rotinese (440 / 452)

ulu-kin front, earlier, formerly (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

umahouse, home (PAN: *Rumaq)

uma bui-kthe rear of a house (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

uma-isimembers of a household; the servants, taken as a whole; point of an arrow; point, sharp part of a lance (PAN: *isi₅)

unescale of a fish or a snake; scales on the feet of a chicken (PCEMP: *qunep)

upugrandchild (PMP: *umpu)

usichase, pursue (as when setting dogs after a deer) (PAN: *qusiR)

uta-kall sorts of vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utipenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uusound of a pig while rooting for food (PMP: *uu)

wé, wiexclamation (PMP: *huy)

598. Rotuman (224) OC (Churchward 1940) [rtm] Rotuman

äevabanyan tree (PEMP: *qayawan)

äfeliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

afuaway, hence (Pawley 1972) (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

afulekind of fish (silver bream?) (PMP: *qatulay)

alahisurgeonfish: Acanthurus sp. (PMP: *qapaliR)

ao(k)body, torso (of man or animal); person, self (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

asaname; reputation, honor (PMP: *ajan)

asoto kiss (POC: *acok) *Sajek

asusmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

au(of a dog) to bark; (of a person) to jeer (PAN: *qauŋ)

faicut or chop down (a tree or branch) (POC: *paRi₃) *paRi

faisnare, trap; to ensnare, catch in a trap (PMP: *taRin)

fak-asuplace in smoke (PMP: *pa(ka)-qasu) *qasu₃

faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear" (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

faliŋapectoral fins (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

fanashoot with bow or gun (PAN: *panaq)

fạŋito cry aloud; to announce what is going to happen (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

fauyear; crop, harvest: of crops that are produced annually, such as oranges, yams, pineapples, and sometimes (Spondias dulcis) (PMP: *taqun)

faufufish which inflates itself when caught: covered with spikes like a porcupine (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

favaa tree: Pometia pinnata; fruit nearly globular with green rind, edible slightly sweet jelly-like flesh and a large stone (PMP: *tawan)

Rotuman (20 / 224)

fiato weave or make (a net or web) (POC: *tia)

fitispring or move suddenly, especially from a curved position to a straight one; (of a trap) to go off; (of flower) to open out (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

fol-aŋ-huluthirty (POC: *tolu-ŋa-puluq) *telu

foluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

fonoto place a taboo or prohibition on (land, nuts, sea) in order that the copra or fish so reserved may afterwards be used for a specific purpose (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

foŋomangrove (PMP: *teŋeR)

fɔt-manavaheart (in the physical sense only) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

foʔato place the foot down; to land, come ashore; (of birds) to alight, settle, roost; (of fish) to be stranded, left high and dry on the beach; (of canoe) to be beached (POC: *toka₂)

fœʔereFiji shrikebill: Clytorhynchus vitiensis (POC: *takere)

knee (PCEMP: *turu₁)

knee (POC: *tur) *tuduS

fufuto light, kindle; to burn (lime) (PMP: *tutuŋ)

fuhaa creeper whose stems and leaves are used for stupefying fish ... Another kind of creeper, said to have been brought from New Guinea and known as fuah ne Niu Kini, is used for the same purpose with better results; another fish poison is made from the fruit of the hufu (Barringtonia) tree (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

fuisingle piece of Rotuman necklace or garland (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

fui-ʔakito string together, make a necklace or garland (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

fulito be deaf (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

fun-to cook (esp. by boiling) (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

funafreshwater eel (fuan ne rano); similar kind of saltwater eel (fuan ne sɔsi) (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

fupasmall land crab (POC: *tubaRa)

fuputo grow, to increase; growth, increase; interest (on money lent, etc.); persons of the same or about the same age (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

Rotuman (40 / 224)

fupuŋacrown of the head (POC: *tubuŋa)

fup-ʔakito cause to spring up or grow; to originate or create; to propose, move (a resolution) (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

fur-furuhaving nap or pile (of dog, etc.), shaggy (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hahocoral reef (POC: *papo₃) *papo

haistingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

hai-prefix forming reciprocal verbs (PEMP: *paRi-)

hanaʔosteal; cheat (at school); do surreptitiously; by stealth, without permission, surreptitiously (POC: *panako) *Cakaw

hanualand, country, place; native land or place, home. Special uses: (a) it (when referring to conditions of light and darkness), (b) people, as in kei tei hanue? 'Where are the people?' (POC: *panua) *banua

hanua he poŋit is getting late (or night is coming on) (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

haŋato feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

harato sprout (coconut) (PMP: *para)

hatakind of pandanus bearing fruit in compact, rouhly spherical masses (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

haua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (POC: *paRu) *baRu

hefaukind of tree (the calophyllum) which grows to a very large size, with thick spreading branches; wood, reddish; fruit, round, size of golf-balls (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

hefustar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

heŋublow the nose (ROOT)

hifuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hilito pick out, choose, select, elect; to pick and choose, to show either discrimination or favoritism (PAN: *piliq)

hirito plait three strands of sennit, hair, etc., and the "tail" of a basket or floor-mat made of coconut-leaf, this tail itself being called a hiri (PMP: *pirit)

hös ulisteer-oar, rudder (PMP: *qulin)

Rotuman (60 / 224)

hua lātake a step, make a stride (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

huefruit (lit. and fig.); pill; bear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hueʔ-akibear fruit (lit. and fig.) (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hufafloat on fishing net (POC: *puta)

hufafloat on fishing net (PMP: *putat)

hufuthe Barringtonia, non-edible variety, the fruit being used for making fish-poison. The tree is large with a strong characteristic smell. Fruit about four inches long, almost pyramidal in form with a base and four triangular sides (POC: *putun₁) *butun

huhupull up, pull out; (of one's eyes) to take off, withdraw (POC: *puput) *buCbuC

huhulato swell (esp. through disease, etc.) (POC: *pupula)

huhuŋacoconut leaves laid on ridge of house above the roof proper (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

huhuŋen-aplace such leaves on ridge of house (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

hulamoon, month (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

hulasea slug (POC: *pula₃)

huliturn something over; turn oneself over (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

hunilower end, end of origin, fixture or support; (of tree) root and lower part of trunk; (of tooth) root; (of district) capital, principal village (where the chief resides); origin, cause; be about or concerning (< *puqun ni ‘foundation of’, with fossilized genitive marker) (PMP: *puqun)

huniflowering bush with dark green leaves, petioles often reddish. Fruit about the size of marbles (NOISE)

huʔeto open up (native oven, sack, bundle, etc.) (POC: *puke) *buka

ībewail, fret about (PMP: *iqi)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ial-ila {ila-ila ??}marked with birth-marks or natural patches of color; blotched, mottled, piebald (PMP: *qila-qila) *qila

ifi(of bananas) hand, row or group forming part of bunch (PMP: *qitiŋ)

Rotuman (80 / 224)

ilablotch, patch of color, birthmark (PMP: *qila)

irito fan; to blow (wind) (PMP: *irid₁)

isihissing noise to attract attention, or as a request to keep silent (POC: *isi₃)

isu-nose; projection, cape of land; point, tip, head of match (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iʔafish: including also turtles, whales, alligators, etc., but not crabs, shellfish, etc. (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

jaojavelin, spear (POC: *jaot) *saet

plant with ornamental leaves and a sweet root: Cordyline terminalis (PMP: *siRi)

jilasquint, be crossed (eyes) (PMP: *zilak)

jop-joputo keep on bending forward or half falling as one walks, lit. to go divingly (POC: *sobu) *sombu

joputo dive, to swim under water (POC: *sobu) *sombu

joputo dive, swim under water (NOISE)

kiasqueak; chirp (PMP: *kiak)

kia-kiakind of pandanus whose leaves are used for making ordinary mats (POC: *kiRe-kiRe) *kiRay

kiforabbit-faced spinefoot: Siganus rostratus (POC: *kitoŋ) *kiteŋ

korofortified place, fortress (POC: *koro₂)

läesail; canvas (PAN: *layaR)

la ne lɔŋihorizon (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋaa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋ foraubluebottle (lit’ ‘foreign, or introduced fly’) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

limafive (PAN: *lima)

Rotuman (100 / 224)

liovoice; (of a meeting) vote, decision (POC: *liqo) *liqə

lio-liolarge leatherjacket (POC: *lio-lio)

lɔŋisky, heaven; wind, air, weather (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

luato spit or cast out of the mouth, often sed as a euphemism for mumufa (to vomit) (PMP: *luaq)

luahole (PMP: *luaŋ₁)

lumuseaweed, moss (PMP: *lumut)

maand (PAN: *maS)

mafaraw, uncooked; green, undried (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mafaraw, uncooked; green, undried (POC: *mataq) *hataq

mafaeyes or face; spectacles; hole, opening, aperture --- in certain connections only (a crab’s hole, the ‘eyes’ of a coconut, mesh of a net); sharp edge --- of knife, axe, cut tin, broken glass, etc.; leader, head, ruler (in imitation of Fijian mata, of similar meaning) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mafilow-tide water as containing fish; tide in general (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maf ne papula(of taro plant) top, including the stem and a small piece of the tuber (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maf ne pukuletter of the alphabet (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mafuafull-grown, of adult age; old, as opposed to young; to die (euphemistic); man appointed to act as spokesman for a district chief, to announce the kava, act as master of ceremonies, etc. (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

maho(of a sore) to heal up (POC: *mapo)

mamato chew; chewed food (PMP: *mamaq)

mamfuaplural of mafua (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mamisweet (opposite taviri 'sour'); of water, fresh; non-intoxicating (POC: *mamis) *hemis

mamikind of blue-green fish (PMP: *mamin)

ma-mosacooked, ripe (POC: *maosak) *esak

Rotuman (120 / 224)

masisalt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

ma-urilive, be alive; (of clock, engine, etc.) to be going, working; (of fire, torch, lamp) be alight; living; life (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mɔn-mɔnuto float (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

mɔn-mɔnubird, insect, or animal, etc., including all land and air creatures but no sea creatures (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

mɔnuto float (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

niucoconut, copra (PMP: *niuR)

nohoto sit; to dwell, live, reside, stay, remain, etc. (POC: *nofo)

ŋāsqueal, squawk; neigh (PMP: *ŋak)

ŋīwhimper (PMP: *ŋik)

ŋūgrumble, complain, grunt (PMP: *ŋuk)

ōmake a rumbling, rushing or roaring noise (POC: *oRoŋ) *heReŋ

ōgo or come (POC: *oRo)

ofifinished, used up, consumed, all gone (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

ɔfunumber of things in a line, row, series (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

ɔfu-ta row (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

ɔnusito spit (POC: *qanus-i) *qanus₂

otasago palm (NOISE)

wall, fence, enclosure (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

papafloor, or deck, if made of boards (POC: *baban) *papan

Rotuman (140 / 224)

parafamid-rib of coconut leaf (POC: *balapaq) *palaqpaq

paraikind of hard yam (POC: *balai₂)

pepemoth or butterfly (of any kind) (POC: *bebe)

pisachewed sugarcane (NOISE)

poŋinight, night-time; be night or evening or late in the day (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

popo(of wood, cloth, etc.) rotten, decayed; (of cloth, rope, string, paper, etc.) weak, very easily torn or broken (POC: *popok) *bekbek₁

puatree bearing white flowers: the frangipani or Plumeria acutifolia (NOISE)

pula(of the eyes) to open, be open (POC: *bulat₂) *bulat

pulaof fuel, fire, lamp, stars, etc., to catch alight, be alight, burn, shine, give light; (of lightning) to flash (POC: *bula₁)

puŋasmooth roundish pieces of coral or limestone (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

bough, branch (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

ranoswamp, marsh, low-lying ground that is often swampy (POC: *rano) *danaw

rarato warm by the fire (oneself, a child); to fumigate; to toast or roast before an open fire; of leaves, etc., to place on the fire for a few seconds (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

rauleaf, (of grass) blade; tobacco; sheet or leaf of paper (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rimugreyish lichen growing on tree trunks, esp. of coconut; used for making medicine for high fever and convulsions (PMP: *limut)

rɔmumosquito (PMP: *lamuk₂)

roŋoto be reported, heard of, generally known; to be notorious or famous; report, news, repute, reputation, fame (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

rɔriprojecting portion of tree trunk, as of the ‘ifi (Tahitian Chestnut) tree (POC: *ralic) *dalij

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruruowl (POC: *druru)

Rotuman (160 / 224)

salapath, road, street; route; way, method; (of words) method of using or applying, usage, application, meaning; (of thing to be obtained) condition, stipulation, what must be done in order to obtain it; journey, distance; to go, come, or originate (POC: *salan) *zalan

samaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

saŋathigh (of human being) (POC: *saŋa₁)

sa-ŋ-huluten (PMP: *ŋa)

saputukind of fish (POC: *sabutu)

sarato fail to hit its mark, to miss; to fail to attain one’s object; to make a mistake, to err, to do wrong; to slip out of position, or out of joint (as one’s shoulder) (PMP: *salaq₁)

sasivablack spot seaperch: Lutjanus fulviflamma (POC: *tasiwa)

savapassage or opening (in a coral reef) (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

sei-ainterrogative pronoun, who?, whom? (PMP: *sei)

to pass wind through the back passage quietly (POC: *si₂)

sinalight, lamp, star (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

siodown, downwards, etc. (POC: *sipo)

sisismall shellfish, the periwinkle (PMP: *sisi₁)

sisito peel or strip off, as bark or skin; to take up (flooring) (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

sivanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

soapair, two things (rare) (POC: *soRa)

soloto sink (but is generally used of canoes, ships, etc.); (of a swelling) to sink, go down: (of sun and moon) to set (POC: *solo₃)

soŋestarve, be afflicted with famine (POC: *soŋe)

juice of a ripe coconut (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

suato scull, paddle, row; (of a vessel) to tack about, change from one tack to another (PEMP: *suak)

Rotuman (180 / 224)

suato stir (as in stirring milk) (PEMP: *sua₂)

suibone; needle (POC: *suRi₁)

sulucoconut spathe; torch made of a coconut spathe (PMP: *suluq)

susubreast, udder; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

susuto sew (PAN: *suksuk)

susu-ato suckle (PAN: *susu₁)

susu-ŋasewing, stitch, hem, seam (PAN: *suksuk)

tusito dot, mark with a dot or dots (PCEMP: *tusi)

uas-usabe wet, rainy (POC: *qusan qusan) *quzaN

ufa(from the sea) land; (from the coast) the interior, part further from the coast (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

ufupull apart, pull in two, sever (lit. and fig.), esp to break (string, rope, net, etc.) or to divorce (PMP: *utus₁)

ukathick, strong string, cord, esp. thick fishing-line (POC: *uka₂) *uka₁

ulito steer (PMP: *qulin)

ulu-ŋatop, summit -- of anything high (tree, house, hill, etc.) (POC: *qulu) *quluh

unascale (of fish), shell (of turtle) (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

uneh-ito scale (fish) (PCEMP: *qunep)

uralobster, crayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

usarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

usa-g-i(of roof or house) to let the rain in; (of weather) to be wet, to rain (PMP: *quzan-i) *quzaN

vaiwater; natural water-hole or bathing pool; well (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

Rotuman (200 / 224)

vaicask (PEMP: *waip)

vakacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

valueight (PAN: *walu)

vaogrove, forest, large number of trees or big plants growing together (POC: *wao)

vao-vaostrongly growing creeper (POC: *waRoc waRoc) *waRej

vaʔaroots (fibrous) (PMP: *wakaR)

ʔāto eat; to use up, go through, consume (PAN: *kaen)

ʔafahafrigate bird; kite (toy) (POC: *katapa)

ʔæhekind of reef crab, reddish with very flat back (POC: *kape₂)

ʔani-ato eat (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

ʔaoto scratch, scrape; to scrape or rake together (ashes, rubbish, etc.); to scrape off, scrape or scratch up, etc. (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

ʔejuback of the head (POC: *keju)

ʔej-ʔejuto turn the back of the head towards (esp. when going away) (POC: *keju)

ʔɔitree, plant; wood, timber, piece of wood; box, chest, safe, thing made (or usually made) of wood) (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

ʔɔitu(PN loan) god, object or worship; shark, stingray or other creature regarded as the habitat of a god; God (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ʔɔsicockle shell, much used for scraping (POC: *kasi)

ʔɔtmot ɔfu-trow or chain of islands (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

ʔūbang loudly, of a gun, a nut falling on the roof, etc.’. (PMP: *kuŋ)

ʔufahen (of domestic fowls only) (PMP: *qupa)

ʔufulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Rotuman (220 / 224)

ʔuliskin, peel, bark, crust; leather; rubber tire (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

ʔulubreadfruit (many varieties) (PMP: *kuluR)

ʔuobonefish: Albula sp. (POC: *kuRo) *kuRaw

ʔurɔMorinda citrifolia (POC: *kurat)

599. Roviana (249) OC (Waterhouse 1949) [rug] Solomon Islands

-aobjective suffix (PMP: *-a₂)

(a)-goiyou, thou (POC: *koe)

-anasuffix of location (e.g. huhuve 'bathe' : huhuve-ana 'bathing place, bath') (PAN: *-an)

arosogeneral name for vines and creepers (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

asa-iato grind, as an axe if very blunt; grate, like luzu (sweet yam or potato), taro, etc. (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

asamaa trailing fern much used for lashing canoes, etc.: Lygodium trifurcatum Baker (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

asaŋa-nagills of a fish (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

ase-najaw (POC: *qase) *qazay

atuan expletive implying movement away of speaker or those addressed (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

atuan expletive implying movement away of speaker or those addressed (PMP: *atu)

atu-atugo on! (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

atu-atuGo on! Move on! (PMP: *atu)

avara-nashoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

avisitwins, when of same sex (PMP: *apij)

avisitwins, when of same sex (POC: *apic) *Sabij

babut, although, however, or (POC: *ba₁)

barafence or wall, a fenced pen (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

barafence or wall, a fenced pen (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

bara-bokopig fence (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

bara-bokopig fence (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

Roviana (20 / 249)

baroŋoto snore (ROOT)

batu-nahead (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

bilasascorched by the sun or fire (POC: *bilac) *bilaj

bilas-iabe scorched (POC: *bilac) *bilaj

bira-nathe hard roe of fish (POC: *piRa₁) *biRaS

bira-nathe hard roe of fish (POC: *biRa) *piRaS

botu-botumounds for planting yams, etc; hillocks (POC: *potu₂) *potu

bualalarge kind of bow (POC: *bual bual)

bulecalm, peaceful, fine (as weather) (NOISE)

bunaa littoral vine; macerated and thrown into water in rock holes it stupefies fish (POC: *punat) *bunat

buruŋuto roar or howl, as the wind (ROOT)

e seiwho? (PMP: *sei)

gailifishhook made from pearl shell (kile), and turtle shell (kapa), used in trolling (PAN: *kawil₁)

gami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

gamu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

gani-ato eat (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

gani-ganito eat (POC: *kani kani) *kaen

garatato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

garat-iato bite (trans.) (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

gaso-narafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

Roviana (40 / 249)

geli-ato dig (as in digging up yams) (PCEMP: *keli)

gilato know, to understand; a beacon (PAN: *kilala)

gila-niabe known, understood (PAN: *kilala)

gili-ato tickle gently (PMP: *kilik₁)

g<in>anifood (POC: *k<in>an) *kaen

gitawe (plural incl.), absolutive and ergative/neutral pronoun (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

goropubic hair (POC: *koRo)

gurataa tree (Morinda citrifolia); the roots furnish a splendid red stain or dye (POC: *gurat)

gurataa tree with fruit eaten when soft and roots that furnish a splendid red stain or dye: Morinda citrifolia (POC: *kurat)

gutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

-i, -iaforms of the objective suffix (POC: *-ia)

ibosmall sea-worm, much used for bait in Koqa fishing (POC: *ibo)

iganafish (generic) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

(-)in-a prefix or infix used to form nouns from verbs and adjectives (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

in-umaa garden (PMP: *q<in>uma) *qumah

isuface (PCEMP: *ijuŋ mata) *ijuŋ

itiŋi-naa 'hand' of bananas (PMP: *qitiŋ)

ivilia tree: Afzelia bijuga, yields a valuable timber -- very hard and yellow (PMP: *qipil)

jilatoŋokind of nettle (POC: *silatoŋ) *zilateŋ

kakaskin disease (Leucoderma) which causes white patches on hands and feet (POC: *kaka₁)

Roviana (60 / 249)

kanaan enemy, a foe (POC: *kana₂)

kanu-kanuto shake, as water in a vessel or bottle (POC: *kañu-kañu)

kanu-kanuto shake, as water in a vessel or bottle (POC: *kañul-kañul) *kañul

karathe general name for parrots (POC: *kaRa)

ka-ruatwo (POC: *ka-rua) *duSa

kata-nabunch or cluster of fruit (POC: *kada)

ka-visahow many?, how much?, what price? (POC: *ga-pica) *pijax

kavurudust (POC: *kapuru)

kikioa bird, the largest of the three kingfishers (PAN: *kiaw)

kirascar (PMP: *kiras)

kisoshark (NOISE)

kobahermit crab (POC: *koba)

koŋafish similar to garfish, but doesn’t swim on surface (POC: *koŋa)

kotidot, spot, something very small (PMP: *getik)

lamanathe ocean; deep, of water (POC: *laman)

lavata-nagreat, large (POC: *lapat)

leo-nathroat (POC: *leqo)

likohoencompass or encircle a thing (POC: *likos) *likes

liliuturn around with the same movement, as clock hands (POC: *liliu)

li-liuturn around with the same movement, as clock hands (POC: *li-liu) *liu₂

Roviana (80 / 249)

lilowhirlpool, eddy (POC: *liloq) *lileq

limafive (PAN: *lima)

luato vomit; to emit semen (PMP: *luaq)

lumu-aanoint (PMP: *lumuk)

lumu-lumutua variety of moss; a marine alga (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

luŋanapieces of wood used to keep a canoe off the ground when drawn up on land, boat or canoe rollers (POC: *luŋan)

mamaa childish word for father (POC: *mama) *mamah

manapotent, effectual (POC: *mana₂)

manivisithin in texture (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

masurufertile, bring forth plentifully (POC: *masuR)

matagutuafraid, fearful (POC: *matakut) *takut

mata-mataa leader (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-nathe eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedie; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

mate-analarge meteor (universally associated with the death of a leader) (POC: *mate-an) *aCay

mate-nadie; dead (POC: *mate-na) *aCay

ma-vato yawn, breathe upon (*mawava > maava > mava) (POC: *mawap) *Suab

meatongue (POC: *maya)

mimiurinate (PMP: *miqmiq)

m-in-atedeath (POC: *m<in>ate) *aCay

Roviana (100 / 249)

monana-nathe brain; marrow of bone (POC: *moñan)

monosqueeze (POC: *mo(nn)o)

munomunogeneric for caterpillars and grubs (POC: *muno)

nathe (na vetu ‘the house’) (PMP: *na₁)

natupart of a female crab or turtle, the ovum (PMP: *natuq)

nonopoto suck (POC: *ñoñop) *ñopñop

novurockfish: Synanceja horrida, dreaded on account of its poisonous spikes (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nu-nusaislands (PMP: *nusa₁)

nusaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

ŋarathe wild duck (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

ŋavafathom (POC: *ŋapa)

-ŋgu1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ŋuzumouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

odato eat fish without baso (relish) or vegetables, etc.; to eat garden produce, of pigs (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

omomolong grass-like variety of sponge (NOISE)

onomosix (POC: *onom) *enem

ononesand (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

pain, at, on, from, to (POC: *pa₂) *ba₃

paŋafish spear with several prongs (PAN: *paŋa₁)

papacarry a child on one's back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

Roviana (120 / 249)

papara (OG)side of face, cheek (POC: *babaR) *papaR

paturock, stone (POC: *patu) *batux

patu-patustony (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux

p-in-isito break wind (POC: *pisi₂)

pirahasprouting coconut (Ross 2008:375) (POC: *piras)

pivivia small nonedible variety of sand snipe (POC: *pwipipi)

pukuto tie or knot (POC: *buku)

puku-aa knot (POC: *buku-an) *buku

puku-naa knot (POC: *buku)

p-uleagain, once more; to return (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

pulu-puluhairy (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

punidew (NOISE)

putato sleep (POC: *buta₃) *buCa

rabutupull out by the roots (POC: *Raput) *RabuC

rarata-nasea coast (POC: *raRat) *daRat

rarocooking pot (PAN: *daReq)

rua-nathe neck (POC: *Ruqa)

ru-rurua species of owl (POC: *druru)

saburuthrow or cast with a fishing rod (PMP: *sabuR)

sagarureef; Milky Way (PMP: *sakaRu)

Roviana (140 / 249)

sanua term used instead of a particular name--- So-and-so (PMP: *sanu) *-nu

sa-saburubamboo fishing rod (PMP: *sabuR)

saurufasten or lace tightly (POC: *sau(rR))

savaŋa ~ saŋavaa strait between two islands (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

sianine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

siburuto flap, as a sail; to sprinkle (water), to shake down or off (POC: *sibuR) *simbuR

s<in>uluthe spot where a fire has been (PMP: *suluq)

s<in>uluthe spot where a fire has been (POC: *sulu₁)

sirato tear cloth (NOISE)

sirired parakeet (POC: *siri)

sisirik.o. cicada (Diceropyga obtecta) (POC: *sisi(rR))

solosoinland, away from the beach; hills seen from a distance (POC: *solos)

soŋescarcity of food, famine (POC: *soŋe)

soŋgocatch one’s foot in roots, vine loops, etc., as when going through jungle; become entangled, as animals (POC: *sogo)

suluto burn (PMP: *suluq)

sulu-ato burn (something) (POC: *sulu₁)

suri-nasplinter (POC: *suRi₁)

susu-nathe breasts; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

su-suri-nabone (POC: *suRi₁)

tapreposition marking possession (PCEMP: *ta₁)

Roviana (160 / 249)

tabaikatobacco (LOAN)

tabuput a taboo (under certain circumstances) on food; perhaps an introduced term (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tabu-ni-aput a taboo on food (POC: *tabu-ni-a) *tambu

taburuto throw about, scatter, as grain (POC: *tabuR₁)

taeexcreta (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tailifishline formerly made from the bark of the pusi (Lyonsia sp.) (POC: *tail)

tama-nafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

ta-mana-iblessed (POC: *mana₂)

tanihere (PMP: *tani₂)

taŋiria fish generally got by trolling, a species of kingfish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tasaone, especially in counting (POC: *tasa)

tataclose, near; almost (POC: *tata₂)

ta-talisea tree that bears a fine almond-like edible nut: ‘Terminalia catappa’ (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

ta-talisea variety of crab (dark carapace with 6 or 7 white spots) (POC: *talise₂) *talise

tia-nabelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tie tu-turaŋaa guide or leader (POC: *turaŋa)

tie vakawhite man (POC: *waŋka)

tie vakaa white man (POC: *pakaq) *baŋkaq

tie varanea brave man (POC: *paRane) *baRani

tiheto sneeze (POC: *tise)

Roviana (180 / 249)

tina-naM (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

t<in>uraŋaguidance (POC: *turaŋa)

tiroto read (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tiro-anaa mirror or looking glass (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

titathe powdered seeds of Parinarium laurinum, made into a paste which is effectively used for caulking canoes, and in inlay work (POC: *qatita)

titisisprinkle, shake off (PMP: *titis)

tivi-tiviloincloth (POC: *tipi)

tobaa long narrow island lying close to a mainland (POC: *tobwa) *tobwa₁

togasaid of a flock of belama (frigate birds) settling in a naru (Casuarina tree) (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

togasaid of a flock of frigate birds settling in a naru (Casuarina tree), etc. (POC: *toka₂)

togaraurua wind that blows from north to northwest (POC: *tokalaur)

tokaset out on a voyage (POC: *toka₃) *toka₁

tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty (POC: *tolu-ŋa-puluq) *telu

tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty (PMP: *ŋa)

tubusore, ulcer (POC: *tubu₁)

tuitree with inedible bean-like fruit (PMP: *tui₁)

tunuburn scars on the arm, as is often done by young boys (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tura-naan acquaintance or friend who is not a relative (POC: *tu(rR)a)

turaŋato lead (POC: *turaŋa)

turaŋa-nakinsman, relative (POC: *tuRaŋ)

Roviana (200 / 249)

turuto stand (POC: *turu₂)

turuto stand (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

turu-eto start, as on a journey by land (POC: *turu₂)

tutua large stick used for mixing native puddings; a small pestle used for mixing betel nut in a mortar (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

tuvaarthritis, paralysis of arms, face, etc. (POC: *tupa₁)

tuvakamend, repair (POC: *tupak)

tuvakato mend, repair (NOISE)

tuvulusend out new growth, of trees that have been cut down (POC: *tupul)

ulosomaggot (PMP: *qulej)

ul-ulosomaggots, when in numbers (PMP: *qulej qulej) *qulej

ululu-nahigh, lofty (PAN: *qulu qulu) *quluh

umamake a garden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

unusupull out, as a tooth, a nail, a post (POC: *unus) *SuNus

utuvuto draw water (POC: *qutub)

vakaa vessel--used distinctively of a non-native craft (POC: *waŋka)

vakaa vessel, used distinctively of non-native craft (POC: *pakaq) *baŋkaq

va-mate-akill (POC: *paka-mate-ia) *aCay

vaŋavaŋaenlarge the cuts made with an axe, as when felling a tree (POC: *paŋa₂) *baŋa₂

vaŋunuawake (POC: *paŋun) *baŋuN

varanebrave, bold (POC: *paRane) *baRani

Roviana (220 / 249)

vararawooden handle, as of an axe, etc. (POC: *paRara) *paRada

variwood rasp (POC: *pari₁)

vari-voseto race (POC: *pose) *beRsay

varua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (POC: *paRu) *baRu

va vaŋun-iato wake a person (POC: *paŋun-ia) *baŋuN

va vura-iacause to appear, reveal (POC: *pura)

velavelato shout, as an official at a gathering, a man in anger, etc. (POC: *pela pela)

vili-surua small noisy greenish bird often found at coconut and Barringtonia blossoms (POC: *pwirip)

v<in>a-gila-gilaa sign (PAN: *kilala)

vina limafifth (PAN: *lima)

vina-ruasecond (POC: *rua) *duSa

viru-virua variety of swordfish smaller than ikutaina (general term for swordfish) (POC: *piRu-piRu)

vi-viruawhirlwind, waterspout (POC: *pipirua)

volos-iato bound (NOISE)

voloso-naa boundary (NOISE)

volo-volosolines, stripes (POC: *polos₂)

volo-volosolines, stripes (NOISE)

vosea paddle; to paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

vose rarataclosely follow the coast line in a canoe, etc. (POC: *raRat) *daRat

vose-voseto paddle (POC: *pose pose) *beRsay

Roviana (240 / 249)

vuabear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vua-heni-nafruiting time, season, year (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vua-nafruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vugotomorrow (POC: *puko)

vurato appear (POC: *pura)

vu-vuafruit trees (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vu-vuaseahorse (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

vuvusustrew; crumble soil, as in gardening; fall, as dust from a dirty roof, to fall, as leaves of various plants (POC: *pupus) *busbus

zulito transplant seedlings, etc. (PMP: *suli₁)

600. Rukai (137) Form. (Li 1977) [dru] Taiwan (dialects: Labuan 1, Tanan [dru] 10, Maga [dru] 17, Tona [dru] 21, Mantauran [dru] 24, Budai [dru] 39)

-aimperative suffix (Li 1973:37, 286) (PAN: *-a₁)

a-ba-báywoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi Tanan

a-bay-ánəwoman (PAN: *bahi) Tona

a-Doosoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Maga

ak-inithat (near hearer) (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni Tona

aɭəŋəpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ) Mantauran

aɭisəəsənit (PAN: *liseqeS) Budai

amafather (addr.) (PAN: *amax) Budai

atavaŋecockroach (LOAN) Mantauran

aúDudownhill (PAN: *lahud) Tona

a-vaiwoman (PAN: *bahi) Mantauran

baŋásəa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS) Tanan

beceŋemillet (PAN: *beCeŋ) Tanan

bəʔásəhusked rice (Tona) (PAN: *beRas)

bicúkastomach (Tona) (PAN: *biCuka)

biʔawild taro: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PAN: *biRaq₁) Tona

bósəhusked rice (Maga) (PAN: *beRas)

bosoRhus semialata Murr. var. roxburghiana DC (PAN: *beRus₁) Budai

bseea hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta (PAN: *baSay) Maga

bútusquirrel (Maga) (PAN: *buhet)

Rukai (20 / 137)

buu-búutusquirrel (PAN: *buhet) Budai

cakiexcrement (Tona) (PAN: *Caki)

caliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa) Budai

caliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa) Mantauran

cálisirope (Budai) (PAN: *CaliS)

cekeʔethin bamboo sp. (PAN: *CekeS) Mantauran

ckeeexcrement (Maga) (PAN: *Caki)

cŋiraear (Maga) (PAN: *Caŋila)

cobososugarcane (Tona) (PAN: *CebuS)

cooɭalebone (Budai) (PAN: *CuqelaN)

da-dránəroad (PAN: *za-zalan) *zalan Maga

Dakesecamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS) Budai

ðaɭaabove (PAN: *daya) Mantauran

Dawsoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Tona

daʔéearth, soil (PAN: *daReq) Tona

ɖósatwo (PAN: *duSa) Budai

Drésebowstring (PAN: *deles) Maga

iná-amother (address) (PAN: *ina) Budai

isíiurine (PAN: *iSiq) Maga

itawe, us (incl.), topic pronoun (PAN: *ita₁) Mantauran

Rukai (40 / 137)

iθaone (PAN: *isa₁) Budai

kaoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ka₃) Budai

ka-daa-dalán-anəroad (PAN: *ka-zalan-an) *zalan Budai

kákaelder sibling (address) (PAN: *kaka₂) Budai

kákaelder sibling (address) (PAN: *kaka₂) Tona

kavaðanəBambusa spinosa (PAN: *kawayan) Budai

kəigawhen? (past; Ferrell 1971) (PAN: *kaija)

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Budai

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Labuan

kinominal case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Maga

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Tanan

kinominal case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Tona

ki-harvest (millet, rice), gather (brushwood), fetch (water), earn (money, kill (animal, enemy) (PAN: *ki-) Tona

ki-ɖəməɖəməthink/mind (PAN: *demdem₁) Budai

ko-akó1sg.; I’ (PAN: *aku) Budai

kuoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ku) Budai

ku-inithat (near hearer) (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni Budai

kwáwhawk (PAN: *kuaw) Budai

ɭacəŋəvegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ) Budai

ɭacəŋəa vegetable: Solanum nigrum (PAN: *NaCeŋ) Mantauran

Rukai (60 / 137)

la-sia-sinaa plant: Erechtites spp. (PAN: *Sina) Budai

látaɖəoutside (PAN: *NataD) Budai

latáɖəoutside (PAN: *NataD) Tanan

laududownwards (PAN: *lahud) Mantauran

ɭiaɭiváranəbutterfly (PAN: *qaNi-) Budai

Lotokorabbit, hare (PAN: *lutuk₁) Budai

ma-banáwwash, bathe (Tanan) (PAN: *ma-bañaw) *bañaw

ma-ca-cavato laugh (Tona) (PAN: *Ca-Cawa) *Cawa

ma-liu-liústurn round (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *liuS)

mamafather (Tsuchida n.d.) (PAN: *mamah) Maga

ma-ma-ɭima-lefifty (PAN: *ma-lima-N) *lima Mantauran

ma-nəmawhat? (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *nema)

ma-poliwhite (PAN: *ma-puNi) *puNi Mantauran

ma-posaletwenty (PAN: *ma-puSaN) *puSaN Budai

maʔa-davilifar (PAN: *dawiN) Tona

ma-ʔoliwhite (PAN: *ma-puNi) *puNi Tona

ma-ʔosaletwenty (PAN: *ma-puSaN) *puSaN Tona

me-tgútgubump the head (PAN: *CugCug₂) Maga

mo-cakidefecate (Tona) (PAN: *C<um>aki) *Caki

mu-movement prefix; latadre ‘outside’, mu-latadre ‘to go outside’, gaku ‘school’, mu-gaku ‘go to school’ (PAN: *mu-)

Rukai (80 / 137)

mua-cíŋasəfood particles caught between the teeth (Budai) (PAN: *CiŋaS)

mu-áɭuDuadrift (PAN: *qañud) Budai

mu-ckeedefecate (Maga) (PAN: *C<um>aki) *Caki

naganəname (PAN: *ŋajan)

-nai1pl. excl. nominative and genitive (PAN: *n-ami) *ami Budai

namɨ1pl. excl. nominative and genitive (PAN: *n-ami) *ami Maga

nwáŋəcow (PAN: *qaNuaŋ) Tona

ŋisiŋisibeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS) Tona

ŋiʔiŋiʔibeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS) Mantauran

ŋú-ŋutype of mushroom (PAN: *quSuŋ) Maga

obisipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS) Tona

otokorabbit, hare (PAN: *lutuk₁) Tona

oviʔipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS) Mantauran

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pagayrice plant, unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay) Budai

paŋuDaɭpineapple (PAN: *paŋudaN) Tona

ponoforehead (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq Budai

po-poliwhite (PAN: *puNi) Budai

pucafoam (Tona) (PAN: *puCaq)

punáywild pigeon (PAN: *punay) Budai

Rukai (100 / 137)

samaplant sp.: Lactuca indica (PAN: *Samaq) Budai

savikiareca palm and nut; betel nut (PAN: *Sawiki) Mantauran

si-kiʔiŋto wear clothes (PAN: *Si-₃) Tanan

silobeads (PAN: *SiNuq) Budai

si-vi-vríicome back, return (PAN: *wili) Maga

srə́ŋəpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ) Maga

taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit (PAN: *taNiud) Budai

t-ámafather (ref.) (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax Budai

t-amáfather (ref.) (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax Tanan

tanaa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq) Budai

timussalt (PAN: *timus)

t-inaM (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina Budai

toɭothree (PAN: *telu) Mantauran

tua-báləto answer (PAN: *bales₁) Budai

túruthree (PAN: *telu) Maga

ua-cuɬuto roast right on the fire (PAN: *CuNuh) Budai

ubisipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS) Maga

u-dilato lick (PAN: *dilaq₁) Mantauran

u-íkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet (PAN: *iRik) Maga

u-íkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet (PAN: *qiRik) Maga

Rukai (120 / 137)

uɭuɭaŋetree with sticky fruits: Cordia myxa (PAN: *quNuNaŋ) Mantauran

uɭuɭaŋə (<?Cordia myxa, plant with small sticky fruits (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ) Mantauran

u-pilito choose (PAN: *piliq) Mantauran

u-príito choose (PAN: *piliq) Maga

vaɭaua plant: Smilax sp. (PAN: *baNaw) Mantauran

valis-anəwild boar (PAN: *waNiS-an) *waNiS Tona

valísitooth (PAN: *waNiS) Tona

vanaləright (side) (PAN: *wanaN) Tanan

viʔawild taro: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PAN: *biRaq₁) Mantauran

wa-baaygive (PAN: *beRay) Tona

wa-gəmgəmsqueeze in the hand (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *gemgem)

wa-senaysing (LOAN) Tanan

wa-θenaysing (LOAN) Tona

ʔaLibaubaŋbutterfly (PAN: *qali-) Tanan

ʔau- viliɭito follow (PAN: *biliN) Mantauran

ʔəna-ʔənauwash clothing (PAN: *Señaw) Mantauran

ʔuŋutype of mushroom (PAN: *quSuŋ) Mantauran

Rukai (Budai) (39) Form. [dru] (Rukai) Taiwan

aɭisəəsənit (PAN: *liseqeS) Budai

amafather (addr.) (PAN: *amax) Budai

bosoRhus semialata Murr. var. roxburghiana DC (PAN: *beRus₁) Budai

buu-búutusquirrel (PAN: *buhet) Budai

caliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa) Budai

Dakesecamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS) Budai

ɖósatwo (PAN: *duSa) Budai

iná-amother (address) (PAN: *ina) Budai

iθaone (PAN: *isa₁) Budai

kaoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ka₃) Budai

ka-daa-dalán-anəroad (PAN: *ka-zalan-an) *zalan Budai

kákaelder sibling (address) (PAN: *kaka₂) Budai

kavaðanəBambusa spinosa (PAN: *kawayan) Budai

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Budai

ki-ɖəməɖəməthink/mind (PAN: *demdem₁) Budai

ko-akó1sg.; I’ (PAN: *aku) Budai

kuoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ku) Budai

ku-inithat (near hearer) (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni Budai

kwáwhawk (PAN: *kuaw) Budai

ɭacəŋəvegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ) Budai

Rukai (Budai) (20 / 39)

la-sia-sinaa plant: Erechtites spp. (PAN: *Sina) Budai

látaɖəoutside (PAN: *NataD) Budai

ɭiaɭiváranəbutterfly (PAN: *qaNi-) Budai

Lotokorabbit, hare (PAN: *lutuk₁) Budai

ma-posaletwenty (PAN: *ma-puSaN) *puSaN Budai

mu-áɭuDuadrift (PAN: *qañud) Budai

-nai1pl. excl. nominative and genitive (PAN: *n-ami) *ami Budai

pagayrice plant, unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay) Budai

ponoforehead (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq Budai

po-poliwhite (PAN: *puNi) Budai

punáywild pigeon (PAN: *punay) Budai

samaplant sp.: Lactuca indica (PAN: *Samaq) Budai

silobeads (PAN: *SiNuq) Budai

taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit (PAN: *taNiud) Budai

t-ámafather (ref.) (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax Budai

tanaa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq) Budai

t-inaM (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina Budai

tua-báləto answer (PAN: *bales₁) Budai

ua-cuɬuto roast right on the fire (PAN: *CuNuh) Budai

Rukai (Labuan) (1) Form.

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Labuan

Rukai (Maga) (17) Form. [dru] (Rukai) Taiwan

a-Doosoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Maga

bseea hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta (PAN: *baSay) Maga

da-dránəroad (PAN: *za-zalan) *zalan Maga

Drésebowstring (PAN: *deles) Maga

isíiurine (PAN: *iSiq) Maga

kinominal case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Maga

mamafather (Tsuchida n.d.) (PAN: *mamah) Maga

me-tgútgubump the head (PAN: *CugCug₂) Maga

namɨ1pl. excl. nominative and genitive (PAN: *n-ami) *ami Maga

ŋú-ŋutype of mushroom (PAN: *quSuŋ) Maga

si-vi-vríicome back, return (PAN: *wili) Maga

srə́ŋəpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ) Maga

túruthree (PAN: *telu) Maga

ubisipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS) Maga

u-íkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet (PAN: *iRik) Maga

u-íkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet (PAN: *qiRik) Maga

u-príito choose (PAN: *piliq) Maga

Rukai (Mantauran) (24) Form. [dru] (Rukai) Taiwan

aɭəŋəpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ) Mantauran

atavaŋecockroach (LOAN) Mantauran

a-vaiwoman (PAN: *bahi) Mantauran

caliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa) Mantauran

cekeʔethin bamboo sp. (PAN: *CekeS) Mantauran

ðaɭaabove (PAN: *daya) Mantauran

itawe, us (incl.), topic pronoun (PAN: *ita₁) Mantauran

ɭacəŋəa vegetable: Solanum nigrum (PAN: *NaCeŋ) Mantauran

laududownwards (PAN: *lahud) Mantauran

ma-ma-ɭima-lefifty (PAN: *ma-lima-N) *lima Mantauran

ma-poliwhite (PAN: *ma-puNi) *puNi Mantauran

ŋiʔiŋiʔibeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS) Mantauran

oviʔipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS) Mantauran

savikiareca palm and nut; betel nut (PAN: *Sawiki) Mantauran

toɭothree (PAN: *telu) Mantauran

u-dilato lick (PAN: *dilaq₁) Mantauran

uɭuɭaŋetree with sticky fruits: Cordia myxa (PAN: *quNuNaŋ) Mantauran

uɭuɭaŋə (<?Cordia myxa, plant with small sticky fruits (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ) Mantauran

u-pilito choose (PAN: *piliq) Mantauran

vaɭaua plant: Smilax sp. (PAN: *baNaw) Mantauran

Rukai (Mantauran) (20 / 24)

viʔawild taro: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PAN: *biRaq₁) Mantauran

ʔau- viliɭito follow (PAN: *biliN) Mantauran

ʔəna-ʔənauwash clothing (PAN: *Señaw) Mantauran

ʔuŋutype of mushroom (PAN: *quSuŋ) Mantauran

Rukai (Tanan) (10) Form. [dru] (Rukai) Taiwan

a-ba-báywoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi Tanan

baŋásəa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS) Tanan

beceŋemillet (PAN: *beCeŋ) Tanan

kioblique case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Tanan

latáɖəoutside (PAN: *NataD) Tanan

si-kiʔiŋto wear clothes (PAN: *Si-₃) Tanan

t-amáfather (ref.) (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax Tanan

vanaləright (side) (PAN: *wanaN) Tanan

wa-senaysing (LOAN) Tanan

ʔaLibaubaŋbutterfly (PAN: *qali-) Tanan

Rukai (Tona) (21) Form. [dru] (Rukai) Taiwan

a-bay-ánəwoman (PAN: *bahi) Tona

ak-inithat (near hearer) (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni Tona

aúDudownhill (PAN: *lahud) Tona

biʔawild taro: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PAN: *biRaq₁) Tona

Dawsoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Tona

daʔéearth, soil (PAN: *daReq) Tona

kákaelder sibling (address) (PAN: *kaka₂) Tona

kinominal case marker for personal nouns (PAN: *ki₂) Tona

ki-harvest (millet, rice), gather (brushwood), fetch (water), earn (money, kill (animal, enemy) (PAN: *ki-) Tona

maʔa-davilifar (PAN: *dawiN) Tona

ma-ʔoliwhite (PAN: *ma-puNi) *puNi Tona

ma-ʔosaletwenty (PAN: *ma-puSaN) *puSaN Tona

nwáŋəcow (PAN: *qaNuaŋ) Tona

ŋisiŋisibeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS) Tona

obisipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS) Tona

otokorabbit, hare (PAN: *lutuk₁) Tona

paŋuDaɭpineapple (PAN: *paŋudaN) Tona

valis-anəwild boar (PAN: *waNiS-an) *waNiS Tona

valísitooth (PAN: *waNiS) Tona

wa-baaygive (PAN: *beRay) Tona

Rukai (Tona) (20 / 21)

wa-θenaysing (LOAN) Tona

601. Rungus Dusun (40) WMP [drg] (Rungus) Malaysia (Sabah)

anarulong (of objects) (PMP: *anaduq)

atipsplit wood piece holding cloth on waist during weaving (PMP: *qatip₃) *qatip₁

avifinished, used up (PWMP: *qabiq)

azamlivestock; domesticated animals (PWMP: *qayam₂)

bavaŋriver (PWMP: *bawaŋ)

buazocrocodile (PMP: *buqaya)

i-saywho? (PMP: *i-sai) *sai

kahawchicken lice (PWMP: *kaRaw₂)

kam-ama-nFB, MB (PWMP: *kam-ama-an) *amax

kam-ama-nfather’s brother, mother’s brother (< *ama ‘father’) (PWMP: *kam- -an)

ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikow) (PMP: *ka₄)

kom-ina-nMZ, FZ (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina

kom-ina-nfather’s sister, mother’s sister (PWMP: *kam- -an)

-ku1sg genitive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

k<um>odomclose the eyes (PAN: *kezem)

lalatuashes that are flying about (PWMP: *lalatu₂)

ma-mataykill (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

mataydie (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

moŋo-dulato spit (PMP: *dulaq)

munuŋlip (PWMP: *munuŋ)

Rungus Dusun (20 / 40)

na-pataydead (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

-nu2sg possessor and non-subject agent (PWMP: *-nu)

oduŋnose (PWMP: *e(ŋ)juŋ)

o-roŋowto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

pataz-unkill; death (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pitikflint and steel (PMP: *pitik₁) *pitik

pitikflint and steel (PMP: *pitik₁) *pitik

poriŋbamboo variety (PMP: *periŋ)

puvokowl (PWMP: *puek)

ralanpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

sarapaŋthrusting spear for fish with harpoon head (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

tilibblown away (PWMP: *tilib)

uliʔ-Unhome (PWMP: *uliq-en) *uliq₁

uluhead, handle (as of axe) (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulUnman, person (PMP: *qulun₁)

unitone, sound, note (PMP: *huni) *Suni

uripUnslave (PWMP: *qudipen)

urumedicine (PMP: *uduq₂)

utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utoːksmart, intelligent (PMP: *hutek)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 7/20/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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