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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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G

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Gabadi
Gad'ang
Gaddang
Gah
Galoli
Gana

Gani
Gapapaiwa
Gayō
Gedaged
Geser
Ghanongga

Ghari
Ghove
Gilbertese
Gimán
Gitua
Gondang

Gorontalo
Guinaang Kalinga
Gumawana

180. Gabadi (5) OC (Capell 1943) [kbt] (Abadi) Papua New Guinea

arasibite (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

maiand (PMP: *mai)

rua a-vuitwenty (PMP: *ŋa)

umun-aoven; to roast (POC: *qumun-a) *qumun

vainaosteal (POC: *painako) *Cakaw

181. Gad'ang (1) WMP

ka-pinsancousin, or first cousin (PWMP: *pisan)

182. Gaddang (60) WMP (Reid 1971) [gad] Philippines

abaŋboat, canoe (PAN: *qabaŋ₁)

abbancarry a child in a blanket (PMP: *haban) *SabaN

adwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

aforeciprocal relationship between grandparent and grandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

ali-fambaŋbutterfly (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₉) *baŋbaŋ₂

alim-buyuŋ-enbumblebee (PWMP: *buyuŋ)

alinawshadow (PPh: *alinaw)

ánaytermite (PAN: *aNay)

aripanslave (PPh: *qadipen)

aroyofar (PPH: *adayuq)

átaŋgills (McFarland 1977) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

atuksmoke (PWMP: *atuk)

ayampig, water buffalo, chicken, dog, cat, cow, goat, duck; hence: domesticated animal (Wallace 1983:28ff) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

bábuydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bekkengeneric negative (PWMP: *beken)

do:yanhammock (PPH: *dúyan)

dulemcloud (ROOT)

fu:tuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

ga:kitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

gamutroot (PMP: *Ramut)

Gaddang (20 / 60)

geʔgekfrog (PMP: *gekgek)

ɨminall (PAN: *qemin)

in-an-anakbilateral personal kindred (formerly the effective units in revenge and wergild (Lebar 1975:101) (PPh: *hin-anak-an) *aNak

kioblique case marker for singular personal nouns (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

láŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

maka-tawato laugh (PPh: *maka-tawa) *Cawa

ma-kippitnarrow (McFarland 1977:524) (PAN: *kipit)

ma-lisinsmooth (PWMP: *licin)

ma-luppato spit (PAN: *lupaS)

ma-manokbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

maːmitsweet (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

manokchicken (PMP: *manuk)

ma-teggathard (PMP: *ma-teRas) *teRas

ma-turogto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

ma-ʔaːgetstinging pain (PMP: *hapejis)

ma-ʔaːtaunripe, raw (McFarland 1977) (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

ma-ʔataraw, unripe (PAN: *ma-qataq) *qataq

mel-lákadto walk (PMP: *lakaj)

na-pákeltired (McFarland 1977) (PWMP: *pagel)

n-ataydead (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

Gaddang (40 / 60)

na-ʔaltɨmsour (PWMP: *qalesem)

na-ʔimpitthin (PAN: *iŋepis)

ŋáanname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋipantooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

paluwato paddle (PAN: *pa-aluja) *aluja

patay-ankill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

silavagina (PMP: *tila)

silon-ɨnto swallow (PMP: *tilen)

ta-fuluten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

talaŋa tree: Diospyros spp. (PPh: *talaŋ₁)

teggemant (PWMP: *sejem)

telluthree (PAN: *telu)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tuudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

uttadoe, female deer (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

wárathere is, there are (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

warákscattering; spreading (PPh: *warák)

wayyidistant relatives, second cousins and beyond (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

wiritto twist (PMP: *wirit)

yanthat (2p.) (PWMP: *ian₃)

183. Gah (1) CMP (Wallace 1962) [gah] (Alekano) Papua New Guinea

karufeirat (PCEMP: *kazupay)

184. Galoli (8) CMP [gal] East Timor

abu-rbelly (PCEMP: *kampuŋ)

abu-rbelly (PMP: *kambu)

gami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

gitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

go2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

lanitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

seiwho? (PMP: *sei)

sofar (PMP: *zauq)

185. Gana (4) WMP [gnq] Malaysia (Sabah) [aka: Minansut]

adi-ʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

bagashusked rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

ina-ʔM (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

puəkowl (PWMP: *puek)

Gani (6) SHWNG. see: Gimán

186. Gapapaiwa (34) OC [pwg] Papua New Guinea

igi-koropubic hair (male) (POC: *koRo)

kani-kanibe eating (POC: *kani kani) *kaen

kanuto spit (PEMP: *kanus)

kate-kateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

katovaroof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

kavarashoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

kawaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

kawamouth (POC: *qawa₂)

kio-koropubic hair (female) (POC: *koRo)

kira-kirakaparrot (POC: *kiRak)

kivivisea bird (POC: *kiwiwi)

koso-kosoto cough (POC: *koso)

-ku1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kutu-gerilouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuviyam (PMP: *qubi)

mata-koroeyelash (POC: *koRo)

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

natu-child (PCEMP: *natu)

poropig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

raavievening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

Gapapaiwa (20 / 34)

rapiasago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

rovo-rovoto fly (POC: *Ropo-Ropok) *Rebek

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

siketo limp (POC: *tige)

ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix (PAN: *ita₁)

tai-feces, excrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tara-tara-ito fell trees (PAN: *taRaq-i) *taRaq₁

tomsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tumakind of large louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tupuabody (POC: *tupuqa)

utayam type (POC: *kuta)

wa-kokolarge species of spider that sometimes occupies outhouses (POC: *koko)

wavinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

wivinewomen (POC: *papine) *bahi

187. Gayō (185) WMP [gay] (Gayo) Indonesia (Sumatra)

akalintelligence, but in an unfavorable sense: clever trick, subterfuge, pretext (LOAN)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anakchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

badakRhinoceros sumatrensis (LOAN)

baŋkecorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

basahwet (PMP: *baseq)

basuhwash (hands, feet, etc.) (PAN: *basuq)

bataŋtree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

ba-tunaŋ-anpledged to be married (PWMP: *tunaŋ)

bauodor, as of burnt rice (PMP: *bahu)

be-gasiŋto spin a top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

be-kayusearch for wood to build a house (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

be-kutuseek lice, delouse (PWMP: *maR-kutu) *kuCux

be-santanto make santan (by pressing out the rich substance from a coconut) (LOAN)

be-sepitstuffed full (PWMP: *sempit)

be-suluhuse a torch, illuminate with a torch (PMP: *suluq)

be-tenunto weave (PAN: *tenun)

be-te-tarohto wager, place a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

Gayō (20 / 185)

busuŋdropsical swelling of the belly so that one has a tendency to pass wind (PWMP: *busuŋ)

dapurhearthstones used to support a cooking pot; hearth (PMP: *dapuR)

datuancestor in the female line (PMP: *datu)

demdemhold a grudge (PAN: *demdem₁)

depafathom (PMP: *depa)

dirito stand; upright (as a post) (PAN: *diRi)

duetwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

durindurian, Duria zinetinus (PWMP: *duRi-an)

duruside; room of a house near the doorway (PWMP: *zuRu)

garaŋfierce, strong, indomitable (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

garustir, mix (PWMP: *garu)

garutbe scratched (as by a cat) (PMP: *garut) *garuC

gasiŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gatalitchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gatal-enpromiscuous, of girls (PWMP: *gatel-en) *gaCel

gileinsane (PMP: *gila)

giliŋto grind (PMP: *giliŋ)

guntiŋscissors; tonsure, haircut (LOAN)

juel-enthe status of a woman who has patrilocal residence (LOAN)

kaif (PAN: *ka₂)

Gayō (40 / 185)

kam2pl. independent pronoun, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kampuŋvillage, settlement (LOAN)

kanisa tree: Garcinia atronileata (PWMP: *kandis)

karamcapsize, sink; ruin, spoil; chaotic (PWMP: *kaRem)

kayawealthy (PWMP: *kaya)

kayuwood, tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kenurslack (not taut) (PWMP: *kenduR)

kitewe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

konabe hit, struck by something (PMP: *kena₁)

-ku1sg non-subject actor and possessive pronoun (after consonant-final bases) (PAN: *-ku)

kulitskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kuraŋlacking, short of (LOAN)

kutuhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu ni asuflea (‘dog louse’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkaha step, pace, stride (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lapahslicing off (PWMP: *lapaq)

latoŋplant with stinging leaves, Laportea spp. (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lawitail feathers of a rooster (PMP: *lawi₁)

Gayō (60 / 185)

layuwilted; pale, as a person’s face (PAN: *layu)

lebihmore, in excess (PWMP: *lebiq)

lepoveranda (PMP: *lepaw₂) *lepaw

liaŋhole; wound (PMP: *liaŋ)

limefive (PAN: *lima)

lisethe white eggs of head lice that adhere to the hair (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

luaŋhole, as in end of bamboo; aperture of the ear (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

luaŋ lètgrave niche (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

lumutmoss (as on river stones) (PMP: *lumut)

manukbird (PMP: *manuk)

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata goŋankle (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni jelbaŋblade of a hoe (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni losun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata ni ulenfemale phantom that takes the spectral form of a detached head (‘eye of moon’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata térspring, source (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

me-nusuto nurse, suckle, suck at the breast (PWMP: *ma-ñusu) *susu₁

me-ñusunto stack up (PMP: *susun) *susuN

mu-dapurto use hearth stones to support a cooking pot (PMP: *dapuR)

Gayō (80 / 185)

mu-ge-gile-nact like a crazy person (PMP: *gila)

mu-guntiŋto cut the hair (LOAN)

mu-juelto sell (LOAN)

mu-karamcapsize, sink (PWMP: *kaRem)

mu-laŋkahto step, stride (PMP: *laŋkaq)

mu-lapahto slice off (as carabao flesh) (PWMP: *lapaq)

mu-lime-nfive times (PAN: *lima)

mu-milihto choose, select (PAN: *piliq)

mu-mireto expel eggs, of fish (PMP: *piRah) *piRaS

mu-nipito dream (PMP: *h<in>ipi) *Sipi

mu-nuluŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ)

mu-nututo pound (PWMP: *ma-nutu) *tutuh

mu-ñabuŋto fight cocks (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

mu-ñaputo sweep with a broom (PMP: *sapu)

mu-pitu-nseven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

mu-rayohto bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

mure-rayoh-ensoaked with blood, as clothing (PAN: *daRaq)

mu-salinto move, change location (PWMP: *salin)

mu-sampereached, attained (PMP: *sampay₂) *sampay

musaŋcivet cat: Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (a nocturnal predator on domestic fowls) (PWMP: *musaŋ)

Gayō (100 / 185)

mu-tanohpossessing land (PMP: *taneq)

mu-tanukhorned, having horns (LOAN)

mu-tulideaf (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

mu-turunto change (PWMP: *t<um>uRun) *tuRun₁

nigenitive marker, marker of possession (PAN: *ni)

nipé sawakind of snake, Python reticulatea (PMP: *sawa)

nipisthin (of materials) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ñawasoul (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

-ŋku1sg non-subject actor and possessive pronoun (after vowel-final bases) (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

pa-ŋanto be eaten by someone (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

papanplank, board (PMP: *papan)

pasaŋinsert (PWMP: *pasaŋ₂)

pātchisel (PMP: *paqet)

pe-naŋis-enregret, regrets (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

pe-ñakitsickness, illness, disease (PWMP: *pa-ñakit) *sakit

pilihchoose, select (PAN: *piliq)

pilih-enwhat is chosen, one’s choice (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pipicheek (PAN: *pipi₁)

pireroe, fish eggs (PMP: *piRah) *piRaS

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

Gayō (120 / 185)

puketfish net (PMP: *puket₁)

pulutglutinous rice; sticky (PMP: *pulut)

punmother’s brother (PMP: *puqun)

punesmall pigeon (PAN: *punay)

pupupick, pluck (leaves from twig, flowers, etc.) (PMP: *pupu₁)

pusoknavel, shallow hollow in the middle of the abdomen (PMP: *pusej)

putihwhite (PMP: *putiq)

putikcataract of the eye (PWMP: *putik₁)

rabuktinder (PMP: *Rabuk)

rakitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

ratushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rayabig, great (PAN: *Raya)

rayohblood (PAN: *daRaq)

sabuŋcockfighting (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

sabutfibers, as of coconut husk (PWMP: *sabut)

sakitsick, painful (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-ensuffering from an illness (PWMP: *sakit-en) *sakit

sakit uluheadache (PMP: *sakit)

saksiwitness (LOAN)

salédry something (as fish) over a fire (PWMP: *salay)

Gayō (140 / 185)

salinto change (PWMP: *salin)

sampeas far as, until (PMP: *sampay₂) *sampay

samutto answer (PWMP: *sambut₂)

samut-samutexchange replies in a conversation (PWMP: *sambut₂)

santansoft milky pulp of the coconut (LOAN)

sapubroom (PMP: *sapu)

sədaŋaverage, middling (LOAN)

se-depaone fathom (PMP: *depa)

selaŋbetween; intervening (PWMP: *selaŋ₁)

selaŋ serloon alternating days (PWMP: *selaŋ₁)

sepitbe pressed in (as under social pressure) (PWMP: *sempit)

se-ratusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

sibaksplit open (of a wound) (PWMP: *sibak)

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

simpaŋcrossroads (PMP: *simpaŋ)

sirupdrink by sucking up (PAN: *siRup)

suento plant (PWMP: *suan)

sulihto recover, restore (PMP: *suliq)

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

suluhtorch (PMP: *suluq)

Gayō (160 / 185)

sumaŋincest; subject that is forbidden or improper (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

suruŋpush forward, rush forward (PWMP: *suruŋ)

surutretreat; shrink, loss weight (LOAN)

susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

susunstack up (PMP: *susun) *susuN

taifeces; dirt, waste product (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

taluto surrender (PMP: *talu₂)

tanohearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

tanukhorn (LOAN)

taŋiscrying, weeping (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taroha wager, a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

tebaŋto fell trees; a tract of forest that has become the property of a person because it has already been cleared by him, or is intended to be cleared by felling (PMP: *tebaŋ)

te-konabe affected by black magic (PMP: *kena₁)

tenunweaving (PAN: *tenun)

teteflooring (generally of bamboo) (PMP: *taytay)

tineskill lice by crushing between the fingernails (in grooming the hair) (PMP: *tindes)

tuahluck (PWMP: *tuaq)

tulisto write (LOAN)

tulu-nthird day hence (PWMP: *telu-en) *telu

tuluŋhelp, assistance (PMP: *tuluŋ)

Gayō (180 / 185)

tunaŋpledge to be married (PWMP: *tunaŋ)

turunto descend; genealogy (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tutupestle for pounding substances; pounding (PAN: *tutuh)

umahhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

umah-umah-enplayhouse for children (PAN: *Rumaq)

188. Gedaged (207) OC (Mager 1952) [gdd] Papua New Guinea

-aa suffix added to certain finite verb forms to indicate that the third person plural is the undergoer of an action (PMP: *-a₂)

abitake hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take (POC: *abi)

abitake hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take (POC: *qabi)

abito take hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take (POC: *kabi)

-adsuffix added to some finite verb stems to indicate that the undergoer of the action is the first person plural inclusive (PAN: *ata₁)

aihave sexual intercourse (also used in respect to animals) (POC: *qait)

aiainterjection indicating wonder, astonishment, etc. (PAN: *aya₁)

aiauseveral species of the strangler fig (Ficus). They are considered to be the abode of tibud spirits ( = spirits of the dead) (PEMP: *qayawan)

anutname of a tibud (ancestral) spirit... Some say that Anut lived in the Laden region, others say Anut lived far away and did not concern himself about man; God, the creator of heaven and earth; the gods and idols of the non-Christian (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ataiprojecting part of the bidal (platform), opposite the sam (outrigger float) (POC: *qatai)

ataithe projecting part of the platform of a canoe opposite the outrigger float (POC: *katae)

ate-nheart (as will), the center of one's being; loyalty; surface, plane, area, breast, compound, floor (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

auyes, certainly (PAN: *auʔ)

auwhite marine fish about 22 inches long (PMP: *qawaʔ)

aua-nmouth; beak, snout, muzzle (POC: *qawa₂)

ayadoutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

bab (NG)kind of coral, limestone (POC: *papo₃) *papo

balaia fish about two feet long, red color (POC: *balai₁)

balicanine tooth of a dog (POC: *bati)

bani-nwings of birds (POC: *banic) *panij

Gedaged (20 / 207)

bazincantation, spell, magic, charm (NOISE)

baza tree: Erythrina variegata. It grows quickly and gives much shade, sheds its leaves and during that time has bright red flowers (NOISE)

baza tree: Erythrina variegata (NOISE)

bekhave a bowel movement, defecate (POC: *bekas₄)

bela shrub like the croton with dark green aromatic leaves -- used in witchcraft (POC: *bele)

bidbidlooped, wound about, convoluted, coiled (NOISE)

bilakhuge, gigantic, great, large, immense, powerful; honorable, expert, wise; the great one, 'big shot', expert (POC: *bilak₂)

boia part, share, piece, a fraction, portion, division, paragraph, stanza, section, fragment, moiety (POC: *boi₁)

boŋ-anipat the end of night, tomorrow (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

bozpig, hog, swine, pork (POC: *boRok) *beRek

buba fish about 10 inches long, brownish body with red stripes (POC: *bubu₇)

bubultree with white sap; the fruit is eaten by cassowaries and pigs (NOISE)

bubunicover (with dirt, paint, oil), spread (pain on boards, bread with butter, etc.), smear (object, character), besmear, paint, daub, anoint, hide the original surface of something (POC: *bubuni)

bubuz, bubuz-ito chase (as pigs into nets set up; a group spreads out and makes a lot of noise to chase the pigs into the nets); to drive (pigs, cattle, etc.), round up, press in from all sides, besiege, mob, harass, harry, badger (POC: *bubuR₂)

buidip something into a fluid; immerse, plunge in (and out) (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

buku-buksmall elevation or swelling under the skin due to an insect's bite (POC: *buku-buku) *buku

buku-nknot on the stem of a tree, or a knot tied in a cord; knob; tumor, hemorrhoids (POC: *buku)

buku-n-bakanknotty, gnarled, knotted (POC: *buku)

bula white shelled mollusk (Ovula ovum) used as an ornament, a medium of exchange, and in divination (POC: *buliq₁)

bul-bulbluish-grey marine fish about five inches long (POC: *buli buli)

Gedaged (40 / 207)

buliturn back or into something else; change, transform; turn (over, back, round) (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

bungeneral name for pigeons, doves (POC: *bune) *punay

buŋa round coral growth (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

damo-nforehead (POC: *damwa)

dodcork, stopper made out of leaves rolled together (POC: *joŋjoŋ) *seŋseŋ

duzito guide, lead, conduct, show the way (POC: *suRi₂)

enlie, rest, sleep (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

falaceiling, the covering of a room; sometimes only part of the room has a ceiling, and this serves as a platform (POC: *pala)

fia-futo bear fruit (abundantly, continuously, as a coconut tree) (POC: *puaq) *buaq

fonleatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea (POC: *poñu) *peñu

fubetel, a climbing species of pepper (Piper betle); the leaves, fruit and roots are used in chewing betel nut. The green leaves are also rubbed and mixed with lime to heal wounds; to bloom and bear fruit, to fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

fublowing, storming, roaring, blustering, tempestuous (as wind) (POC: *puu) *buu₁

fudbanana (thirty four varieties distinguished by name) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

fufa wood borer, beetle, worm; the refuse (dust) of the wood borer (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

funorigin, beginning; derivation, source; foundation, base; originator, creator, author, composer; home; kind, species, sort; reason, meaning, cause; fact (PMP: *puqun)

fun-istrike, beat, pound, thrash, knock, bash, bat, whack, whip; slay, slaughter, kill, murder; happen, befall; (cause to) spread far and wide; extinguish (as a torch); exert oneself; become tired, weary (POC: *punuq-i) *buNuq₂

fuʔeto open, uncover, lay (throw) open, turn (the leaves in a book) (POC: *puke) *buka

-ga suffix added to certain substantives to indicate that the first person singular is the possessor (POC: *-gu) *-ku

i3sg. and pl. (PAN: *ia₁)

iexclamation: whew! ugh! (PAN: *i₁)

Gedaged (60 / 207)

i-fun-adhe hit us (PAN: *ata₁)

illook at, behold, discern, perceive; sight, view (PMP: *ilaw)

ilo-ninterior, midst, inside, core, inlet, pith; the seat of thought, will and emotions; heart, mind, self, soul, contents of memory (POC: *ilo)

imkind of screw pine (pandanus); has aerial roots, and its leaves are used to make rain capes (PCEMP: *ima₂)

isissmile, grin (draw the lips away from the teeth) (NOISE)

iwa-nZH (m.s.) (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

iwa-n painBW (w.s.), HZ (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

izan adze; the stone was bound in a foŋ (two pieces of wood hollowed out on the inside to take a stone axe) so it could be turned as desired (PMP: *kiRam)

izikind of lory with red wings and green body: Lorius ruber (POC: *siri)

kalikhead (neck) rest (support); pillow (POC: *kalik)

kamu-kamumove something to and fro in the mouth; move the lips when chewing; nibble around a kernel held in the mouth; gnaw at somethting (POC: *kamu₃) *kamu₂

kanama song, hymn (POC: *kanam)

kan-kanto think, consider, reflect, muse, cogitate, deliberate, speculate, meditate, imagine, ponder (POC: *kana-kana)

kaŋazthe various species of the genus Canarium; also the mature seed, which is edible (POC: *kaŋaRi)

kaŋkaŋthe sound made by a ripe coconut (timber) when it is snapped with the finger (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

kapata raft; several logs thrown over a ditch or stream (POC: *kabat₂)

kasthe tobacco plant; a leaf of tobacco, a cigar (POC: *kasu)

kaulime made from coral, oyster shells, etc., and used in chewing betel nuts (POC: *kau₁)

kazaga crab (PMP: *kaRakap)

kili-bobbutterfly (POC: *boboŋ) *beŋbeŋ₄

Gedaged (80 / 207)

kiumovement in coitus (POC: *kiur) *kiud

kiumovement in coitus (POC: *kiuq)

kiukiuto hitch and hitch, said of a man (or woman) who fornicates (POC: *kiur) *kiud

kiu-kiuto hitch and hitch, said of a man (or woman) who fornicates (POC: *kiuq)

kokoŋa slit gong; the beat or rhythm of a song (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

kokoŋnarrow; strait; restricted, constricted (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₃)

kozrumor, hearsay, tittle-tattle, gossip, suppositions (POC: *koron)

kuáka bird; it cries a good deal, esp. in the morning (PMP: *kuak)

kunut-ipinch off (with the fingernails), pluck (cloth, wool, lint) into shreds, squeeze or compress between any two hard bodies (PMP: *kunut)

lato go (away, about on foot, a horse, bicycle, vehicle, boat, etc.); to walk, depart, march (get, pack, move, start) off, take leave, get underway, set out; to continue, keep on (with any kind of action), to keep up or maintain any course or series of actions; to carry on (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

labagrey marine fish about three feet long (POC: *lapa₁)

laswhitish-grey marine fish about five feet long (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

lauthe high seas, an open, unenclosed portion of the sea (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

lilimmadness, insanity, running amuck (POC: *lilim)

liwo-ntooth, saw tooth, the serrated margin of a leaf; tooth of a cog-wheel; prong (of a fork, spear, broken branch); the two points on the end of a housepost (POC: *lipon) *lipen

loanendure, continue a long time; exist for a long period; protract; abide; last (POC: *loan)

lofa pit, hole, grave, mine (POC: *lopoŋ) *lebeŋ₁

loŋto know, to have knowledge of, to be acquainted with, be aware of, be sensible of, to hear, learn, learn by heart, be able, be careful of, to make possible, to perceive, comprehend, understand, apprehend, be cognizant of, to fathom, make out, discern; have a premonition, to notice, feel, sense, observe, be conscious of (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

luma-nthe forelegs of kangaroos and wallabies (POC: *luma)

luŋa slip, a sloping ramp or pier, dock; the pieces of wood put on the beach over which the canoe slips when pulled up (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

Gedaged (100 / 207)

luŋthe pieces of wood put on the beach over whhich the canoe slips when pulled up (POC: *luŋan)

maiconjunction: and (PMP: *mai)

mala tree, it bark is used to make G-strings and blankets; loincloth made from the bark of mal (PCEMP: *malaw)

malonwhite core of the fruit of the breadfruit (POC: *malon)

mama reciprocal classificatory kinship term; male speaking: father’s brother, mother’s sister’s husband, father’s mother’s brother’s or sister’s son, father’s father’s brother’s or sister’s son; father; son; female speaking: father and his brothers; son; mother’s sister’s husband; father’s father’s brother’s or sister’s son; mother’s mother’s brother’s or sister’s son; an honorary title for older persons, those in a higher position, as teachers, missinaries, God (POC: *mamaₐ) *mamah

mamto chew, to crunch, to masticate (especially betel nuts, but also food) (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-maishame; embarrassment, confoundedness, abashment (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

mánantame, docile (mostly in reference to animals), peaceful, obedient, trained (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

maotaro, Colocasia esculenta (POC: *mwapo)

massea, ocean, sea water, saltwater; salt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

matdie, expire, pass away, yield up the ghost, perish, stop (motor), go out (fire); long, yearn, crave, hanker, desire, love, like, pine, pant for, languish for, care, want, die (for), lust after (POC: *mate) *aCay

mumarine fish about a foot long, front part yellowish brown, shading off to yellowish toward the rear (PMP: *muquŋ)

m-ulturn back, return, come (go) back, come again, turn around, return home, revert, relapse, recoil, react (POC: *m-ule) *uliq₁

m-uzi-kbehind, in the rear; back part (POC: *muri) *udehi

m-uzi-nthe rear, the back part, posterior, stern, after-part, the reverse, hind quarters, the outside (if one is inside a house, etc.) (POC: *muri) *udehi

-n3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

naikcooking, boiling (PAN: *nasuk)

namdew, moisture (on grass, etc.) (PAN: *ñamuR)

namto eat; used when speaking to small children (POC: *ñamu)

nao-nface, countenance, visage, feature, appearance, aspect; front, forepart, first line; the outside of something, exterior (POC: *nago)

Gedaged (120 / 207)

nata tree, Illipe family, Sapotaceae; two kinds of these trees have edible fruit and large leaves; a third kind has small leaves and inedible fruit (used for building up the sides of a canoe) (PMP: *ñatuq)

nie-n ate-nthe sole of his foot (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

nima-n ate-nthe palm of his hand (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

niniswing, oscillate, shake, rock (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu tuzutiremove all the coconuts (this is done to all the coconut palms of a dead person when the time of mourning is at an end) (PMP: *niuR)

ŋa1sg.: I, me (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

ŋukŋukstutter; catch one's breath (when crying) (PMP: *ŋukŋuk)

ŋuzuzto grumble (in discontent) (POC: *ŋuRuR)

oeinterjection used to call a person's attention to something (POC: *oe)

padthe pandanus tree (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

painwoman; wife; female (also said of plants like papaya, etc.) (POC: *papine) *bahi

palaŋpotsherd, used to render fat and to cook oil; frying pan, shallow roaster (POC: *palaŋa) *balaŋa

panigive (him); hand over, bestow, grant, confer, impart, accord, yield (POC: *pani₁)

panuvillage, settlement, hamlet, town, place, city (POC: *panua) *banua

paŋ-paŋsnap! noise made when snapping a dry coconut with one's finger (PMP: *paŋ)

patotkind of tree; wooden pegs made from the wood of a patot tree. They are used to fasten the aiad (outrigger booms) to the sam (outrigger float) of a canoe (PEMP: *patoto)

pazstingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

pazazhandle (of a broom, hammer, but not of cups, etc.) (POC: *paRara) *paRada

pispass gases from the bowels (POC: *pisi₂)

Gedaged (140 / 207)

pitsnap a finger against something (marbles, coconut, etc.); let go with a jerk; flip, flick, to whip (lash); to tap (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

pitolhunger, famine (POC: *pitolon)

pizito weave (mats, sails, etc.), to braid, to knot (the strands of grass skirts, but usually abi is used) (PMP: *pirit)

publowing, spitting out by blowing; flaring up (fire) (POC: *puu) *buu₁

sale-salebobbing, swaying, teetering, moving up and down (as a long pole carried on the shoulder) (POC: *sale sale)

samthe outrigger float on a canoe, consisting of a shaped log; keel on boat; float on a seaplane (POC: *saman) *saRman

saŋa-ncrotch, groin; bifurcation, fork; acute angle formed by the upper and lower eyelid; the female or male genitals (POC: *saŋa₁)

saolong tom: Strongylura incisa (POC: *sao)

sisgrasshopper, locust (POC: *sisi(rR))

sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling) (PMP: *ziziq)

sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling) (POC: *sisi₂)

sisidraw up the lips, as when smiling, draw the lips away from the teeth (in grinning, smiling) (PMP: *zizir)

sisito pull up (off), peel off, husk, take off (one’s clothes), draw up the lips as when smiling (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

sok ~ soksokstick insect, Phasmatidae (POC: *sakwa)

solbecome mixed or compounded (POC: *solo₂)

solopostposition of direction: toward, to (POC: *solo₁)

sommollusks that cling to the belly of ships and boats (Mytilidae, Balanidae, Teredo) (POC: *somu)

supito pare, peel (cut off thin slices) (PEMP: *supi)

tabiza wooden bowl; plate (POC: *tabiRa)

tadto look (upwards) (POC: *tadal)

Gedaged (160 / 207)

t-ai-younger sibling of the same sex; placenta (POC: *taci) *Suaji

talito bend (straight or round) (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

talito bend (straight or round), as in bending a tortoise shell into a circle (POC: *tali₂) *tali

tama-father, FB, son, MZH (w.s.); FB, MZH (m.s.); lord, master, guardian; owner, composer, originator, inventor (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tansoil, ground; land; garden, field; earth; world (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

taŋa netbag used by women; chorion, membrane enveloping the fetus of mammals; afterbirth; the uterus (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋe (<taŋa-i)put into a netbag (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋiza white marine fish about 30 inches long, like a mackerel (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tauzkind of mollusk, triton (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

tazeto hew down a tree, cut into (down, off), fell a tree (POC: *saRe)

tetladder (a pole used as a ladder), stairs, step (anything that may serve as a step); a small tree standing near a large one used as a ladder; a bridge; wharf; companionway, stile, gangway, catwalk, drawbridge (POC: *tete) *taytay

tibu-nancestor, grandparent, grandchild (POC: *tibu₂) *impu₂

tidomnight, darkness, gloom, obscurity (PMP: *tidem)

timwind, breeze (PMP: *timuR)

tinansuperlative degree; maximum, extreme (PCEMP: *tinana)

tina-tamamother and father; parents (PMP: *ina ama) *ina

titito pound, knock, stamp, thrust against; nail down, beat, thump, hammer, pummel (POC: *titik₂) *tiktik

tiza bivalve marine mollusk like a som (som = teredo, etc., mollusks that cling to the belly of ships and boats) (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

tostill, calm, quiet; contented, at peace, serene, at rest, quiescent, motionless (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

toka stick, pole, cane, staff, switch; brace (POC: *tokon) *teken

Gedaged (180 / 207)

tolthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

toŋmangrove tree: Rhizophora mucronata (PMP: *teŋeR)

toŋolto eat fast, not stopping to masticate the food properly (POC: *toŋol)

totospurting, squirting (as blood) (POC: *toto)

totospurting, squirting (as blood) (NOISE)

tuia tree (Leguminosae) the stem of which is used to make canoes (PMP: *tui₁)

tun-icause to burn, light (a fire so it burns well), set fire (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tuza fish, about 15 inches long (PMP: *turiŋ)

tuza tan fish about 15” long (NOISE)

uverbal prefix indicating that the actor is 2sg. (PEMP: *u₂) *Suʔu

uainterjection: see! behold! aha! (PAN: *ua)

udany kind of weed (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

ukname of the sound made when afflicted with asthma or whooping cough (PMP: *ukuk)

ulúawhite marine fish about eight inches long (POC: *qulua)

umgarden, field, plantation, cultivated land (PMP: *quma) *qumah

uti-npenis; handle; point (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

uzito follow, pursue; come after, succeed; go to the rear (POC: *uri) *udehi

uzitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

wabwhite fish about three feet long (NOISE)

waegive (away), dispense, distribute, bestow, deal out, apportion (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

Gedaged (200 / 207)

waglarge canoe that goes out on the high seas, has one or two masts and a large platform; ship, boat (POC: *waŋka)

waŋright hand, right side, dextral (PMP: *wanan) *waNan

waŋright hand, right side, dextral (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

wazvine, liana (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

yafire, conflagration, combustion, ignition (POC: *api) *Sapuy

zezto fear, be afraid, be scared, be frightened; despair, be terror-stricken, panic-stricken, be anxious (POC: *rere₁)

zua-ia large tidal wave (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

189. Geser (13) CMP (Wallace 1962) [ges] (Geser-Gorom) Indonesia (Maluku)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

atliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ba-toluthick (PCEMP: *təlu)

fituinstar (PAN: *bituqen)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

kalufarat (PCEMP: *kazupay)

ma-toransit (PMP: *tu(n)daŋ)

m-ulireturn, go back (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

ŋga faŋato eat (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

saone (PAN: *esa)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

te-ino, not (PMP: *taq₃)

tiliŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

190. Ghanongga (1) OC

vuru-vuruŋuflame (POC: *pururuŋ)

191. Ghari (28) OC (Tryon and Hackman 1983) [gri] Solomon Islands [aka: Tandai]

ha-hanito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

hiu-natail (POC: *siku)

husuverat (POC: *kusupe)

i-hami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

i-hamu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

ke-saone (PAN: *esa)

kesa sa-ŋ-atuone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

lioneck (POC: *liqoR) *liqeR

manaand (POC: *mana)

ma-tipithin (PMP: *tipis)

matoluthick (POC: *matolu) *təlu

maturuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

muatasnake (POC: *qumata)

ŋutulouse (POC: *ŋutu)

pukato fall (POC: *puka)

rara-nabranch (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

sambahaa tree: Alstonia scholaris (POC: *sabakap)

sa-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sa-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

sa-savuwaterfall (POC: *sabu)

Ghari (20 / 28)

tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

tinae-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tinae-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tivinative loincloth for men (POC: *tipi)

viruwaterspout (POC: *pipirua)

vuŋa-vuŋamountain (POC: *puŋa-puŋa)

waŋgacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

192. Ghove (2) OC

nak-rɔfuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

natʰaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

193. Gilbertese (271) OC (Sabatier 1971) [gil] (Kiribati) Kiribati [aka: Kiribati]

-apersonal pronoun object suffix of the 3rd person, joined to a transitive verb (PMP: *-a₂)

afour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

ae ranranwatery, liquid, juicy (POC: *ranum) *daNum

ai-prefix to some words having the meaning of reciprocity; ex., hit one another, look at each other, follow one another, etc. (PEMP: *paRi-)

aicoconut crab: Birgus latro (PMP: *qayuyu)

aifire; (fig.) fervor, passion, ardor; get red, glow (POC: *api) *Sapuy

aiafirewood, fuel (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

ainefemale; woman; feminine (POC: *pine) *bahi

anatake, subtract, take away, remove, take off (PAN: *alaq₁)

anaterm used in mat weaving to designate a certain width (PMP: *añam)

anaa fish (small, slender species), needlefish, garfish, halfbeak (Sabatier 1971) (POC: *panapa)

anatake, subtract, take away, remove, take off (PAN: *ala)

anaalong-billed needlefish (Johannes 1981:160) (POC: *panapa)

a-nimaa utensil for bailing out a canoe; to bail out (POC: *nima) *nimas

ano-abeckon with the hand or arm (PAN: *qalep)

antia god, spirit, ghost (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

anti-nadeify, hold or worship as a god (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

wind, breeze, air, gas; breath; climate; atmosphere; direction (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋ-aŋit is windy, the wind is blowing (POC: *aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

aothe upper part of, the surface, the outside, the back, the exterior (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

Gilbertese (20 / 271)

aofibre of coconut husk, fishline, twine (POC: *apon) *hapen

araname, title, noun (PMP: *ajan)

araprefix to names of different species of pandanus (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

are (< *asa-i)who, whom, that, which, what, whoever (PMP: *ajan)

arigall, gall bladder; bitter; bitterness (POC: *qasu₂)

arieyebrow (POC: *paju)

aro-boismell, scent, the sense of smell (POC: *acok) *Sajek

arok-aa plant, cultivated plants (POC: *pasok) *pasek

arok-ito smell or scent an odor (POC: *acok) *Sajek

ati-atoto weave thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ati-naifish sp.: bonito; swift, as this fish (POC: *qatun)

atothatch made of coconut leaves (POC: *qatop) *qatep

atowhale (POC: *rato)

ato-nathatch a house with ato (POC: *qatop) *qatep

atu-atia big bonito fish (POC: *qatun)

auamullet (PMP: *qaRuas)

auafish sp.: mullet (PMP: *qawas)

awaexclamation of surprise (POC: *awa)

awafish sp.: coral trout (PMP: *qawa₁)

babecause, so that, as, for (POC: *ba₁)

Gilbertese (40 / 271)

babaa board, plank, used for diverse purposes; a wash board, surf board, etc. (POC: *baban) *papan

bai-manugiant ray, manta ray (Polynesian loan) (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

banaa sling; (kare)-bana hurl with sling and stone, pelt with stones (PAN: *panaq)

banavoice, speech, words, recommendations (NOISE)

banaa sling; to hurl with sling and stones (NOISE)

bekato evacuate feces (POC: *bekas₄)

benuhusk of coconut used for making string (POC: *benu)

beŋa-beŋalarge opening, separation; separated, wide (ROOT)

biagrowth, tumor, gland, knob, excresence, fish ovaries (POC: *piRa₁) *biRaS

bikebeach sand, sandbank, sandy soil; beach, shore (POC: *pika)

birotool used to fasten ropes or tighten boards: carpenter's vice, screw jack, tourniquet (POC: *piro)

biro-ato twist, to screw, to tighten with a vice (POC: *piro)

boŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

boŋi-boŋtwilight; a day of 24 hours, day, date, period, epoch, season (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

bucome out, come forth, emerge; to bud (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

buconch, sea-shell horn, trumpet, instrument of brass band (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

buki-narorareef jutting out at end of land (POC: *buku)

buki-ni-baielbow (POC: *buku)

buki-ni-waeheel (POC: *buku)

butonavel; boundary stone; center of a whirlpool; fig. center, heart (POC: *buto)

Gilbertese (60 / 271)

bʷaŋahide in a hole (Bender et al 2003) (POC: *pwaŋa)

bwebwebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

bwubwublack trigger fish: Balistapus acuteatus (POC: *bubu₇)

bwuro-bwuroebullition, bubbling up, frothing (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

e a boŋit is night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

e boŋit is dark (POC: *e boŋi) *beRŋi

iexclamation of pleasure, pain, or disgust (PAN: *i₁)

i-prefix to names of places or categories. It designates persons originating or living in those places, or members of these categories (PMP: *hi-) *Si-₂

iawhere? (interrog.) (POC: *pia) *pia₁

iagrey or greying hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

iatide, flow, flux, ebb (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

iaithere, here (PMP: *iaqi)

ibitree like itai (Calophyllum inophyllum), but harder and heavier (PMP: *qipil)

iboan edible worm found in sand on beach (called sea asparagus) -- resembles long piece of thick macaroni: Sipunculus indicus Peters (POC: *ibo)

ikafish (generic) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

imthy, thee, thou (PCEMP: *imi) *Simu

imiyou (pl.) (PCEMP: *imi) *Simu

inoworm, larva (PMP: *qulej)

ino-inofull of worms, worm-eaten (PMP: *qulej qulej) *qulej

irifollow, accompany (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

Gilbertese (80 / 271)

irikoflesh, muscle, meat (POC: *pijiko)

itiseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

itilightning, thunderbolt, electricity, light (NOISE)

itovery light wood found on beaches and used as cork (POC: *uton) *utem

itoistar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

itoi ni matapupil of the eye (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

itu, itututo sew, to thread (beads, fish) (NOISE)

itu-aseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

i umain an inhabited place, in the village, at home (PAN: *Rumaq)

kaannear, not far from, close to (in time or space) (POC: *karani)

ka-aŋ-await for the wind; let the wind blow (fig. = fervor, ardor, zeal) (POC: *paka-aŋin) *haŋin

ka-beŋaenlarge, widen (ROOT)

kaiwood; instrument (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ka ino-abring on putrefaction (PMP: *qulej-an) *qulej

kam2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kamaa constellation: the Southern Cross (POC: *gama)

kamaa fish, the rainbow runner (POC: *kamaRi)

ka-maiGive me! (for distant objects) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

ka-mamato chew bait and give it to fish (PMP: *mamaq)

ka-marakicausing pain (POC: *masakit) *sakit

Gilbertese (100 / 271)

ka-mari-marihighly productive (POC: *masuR)

ka-mate-akill, extinguish; learn, memorize (POC: *paka-mate-ia) *aCay

ka-matoa-toato strengthen, fortify, make resistant (POC: *ma-toRas) *teRas

kanato eat, to devour, to consume, gnaw; deteriorate (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kanawaa tree: Cordia subcordata (PMP: *kanawa)

kani-ato eat, to devour, to consume; to gnaw; to deteriorate (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

ka-nima-fifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

ka-ŋaŋato poison (POC: *ŋaŋa₁)

ka-onosixth (POC: *ika-onom) *enem

ka-oŋo-ainform (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ka-rara-eato make bleed; rust; to make rusty (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

karaurain, rainwater; to rain (POC: *kadapuR)

ka-taŋi-taŋto make music, to play an instrument; to make (someone) cry (PMP: *paka-taŋis) *Caŋis

katawasurgeonfish; unicorn fish (PMP: *katawan)

kateaside of canoe opposed to the side facing outrigger (POC: *katae)

ka-tenu-ato triple (POC: *paka-tolu) *telu

ka-uo-uathe second (POC: *ka-rua) *duSa

kawa ~ kawakawato creep, to crawl (POC: *kawar)

ka-waneighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

kekea noise, crack, crackling noise, grating noise, rustling noise (of hard thing being rattled or dragged along); to make this noise (POC: *keke₁)

Gilbertese (120 / 271)

keni-kento scratch in sand for shellfish; to dig, to excavate (PCEMP: *keli)

keresexual organs (feminine), exterior (POC: *keRe)

kia-kiaa bird, the Black-naped tern (POC: *kiRa)

kiarostick connecting the outrigger to a canoe (POC: *kiajo)

kiea mat of pandanus leaves used for sleeping (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kimaa large shell (PMP: *kima)

kini-kato pinch, to take between or with the fingernails (PMP: *kinit)

kiokiochicken (PAN: *kiaw)

kiririlong-legged plover (sandpiper) (LOAN)

koyou, thou; pronoun (objective), thee (joined as suffix to verbs) (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kori-korito scratch (POC: *kori)

kori-tato scratch, to claw (POC: *kori)

korostake, pointed stick used to take husk off coconut, dart pointed at both ends, spur, horn, etc. (POC: *kojom)

kuaua fish: Epinephelus corallicota (PMP: *kuRapu)

maconjunction: with, and, but (PAN: *maS)

maakufear, dread, terror, fright, dismay (POC: *matakut) *takut

maa-mashame, timidity, shyness, bashfulness (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

maifrom (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mai ikaifrom here (POC: *mai) *ai₃

ma-iulife, existence, salvation, comfort (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

Gilbertese (140 / 271)

mamfresh water (as opposed to salt water) (POC: *mamis) *hemis

mamafood chewed for babies or for chiefs formerly, for betrothed (sign of great esteem, veneration); to chew, to masticate (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-maa-mabe ashamed, shy, confused (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

(ma)-ma-iuliving, flourishing, fresh, prosperous (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

ma-marakipainful, paining; to be suffering (POC: *masakit) *sakit

ma-mateimmortal, imperishable, inextinguishable (POC: *ma-mate) *aCay

mananimal, beast, insect, etc. (POC: *manuk)

manawapit of the stomach (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

marakipain, suffering, grief; painful (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maraki n nanohurt feelings (‘painful insides’) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mariabundance of harvest, time of abundance (POC: *masuR)

mataeye, look, figure, face, front, facade, appearance, exterior aspect; opening, needle eye, opening of insects’ nest, etc.; lid, entrace, facade, operculum, mesh of net, core of boil, eyelet hole (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-matato look in order to choose, to make a choice (used esp. when choosing a daughter-in-law) (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-n-ikaa small hard abscess caused by a prick in the sole of the foot (POC: *mata ni ikan) *maCa

mata ni wi/mata nu wiedge, border; chief, director, commander (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n-rawa-rawaan opening, channel, gap in the reef (POC: *mata ni cawa) *maCa

mata-riki-rikijunction of ebbing tide and the ocean in beaches of reef; coconut shell with three holes used for drawing water (POC: *mata riki) *maCa

mata-roadoor, entrance (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedeath, disappearance, extinction; dead, defunct, paralyzed, stopped, extinct, tired, unconscious, lost, cancelled, taken, blocked (in games), known by heart, memorized; free, tranquil; calm (as the sea); die, go out (fire, etc.), stop (clock, etc.), perish, faint, succumb; extenuated, worn out, dead tired (POC: *mate) *aCay

mate-akinadesire, love (POC: *mate) *aCay

Gilbertese (160 / 271)

matenthick, thickness (POC: *matolu) *təlu

mate-n namakainaeclipse of moon (POC: *mate) *aCay

mate-n taieclipse of sun (POC: *mate) *aCay

maten-tenthick, thickness (POC: *matolu-tolu) *təlu

matoafirmness, solidity, hardness, resistance (POC: *ma-toRas) *teRas

matusleep, nap, immobility (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

matu-tuto sleep, to slumber, to be still, to close (a knife), to pass (cards) (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

meareddish yellow color, rust, grey (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

midream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

mu-mutaregurgitation; to vomit, to regurgitate (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

-na3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nakoto, towards, against (POC: *lako) *lakaw

nako-maiCome here, come towards me! (POC: *mai) *ai₃

namsmacking of tongue, tasting; to smack lips, to taste, to suck (PMP: *ñamit)

nanothe interior, the inside; contents; soul, conscience, heart, will, desire, sentiment, opinion, conviction, disposition, inclination, etc. (many derivatives relating to character, feelings, etc.) (POC: *ralom) *dalem

nano-ato think about, keep in mind, be preoccupied with, be busy about (POC: *ralom) *dalem

nano-aŋacompassion, pity, sympathy; to sympathize (POC: *ralom) *dalem

nano marakito regret, repent (POC: *masakit) *sakit

nano-nanodeep, abstract, sublime, unfathomable, hard to understand (POC: *ralom) *dalem

nano-raupeace, tranquillity of soul, peace of mind (POC: *ralom) *dalem

Gilbertese (180 / 271)

naŋi-naŋwith a few clouds, cloudy (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

naowaves, billows, breakers (PAN: *Nabek)

narileatherback: Scomberoides sancti-petri (Johannes 1981:167) (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

ne-aŋspider shell: Lambis sp. (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

nicoconut tree (PMP: *niuR)

-n(i)of, in, by, for, with. in order to (PAN: *ni)

nikanebularge moth (PAN: *qali-)

nima-five (PAN: *lima)

nona tree: Morinda citrifolia; the fruit of this tree (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

nushade, shadow, shadow pictures, outline (POC: *qanunu)

nunushadowed, shady (POC: *qanunu)

nunu-ato shade (POC: *qanunu)

ŋaafathom (Bender et al 2003) (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋa-iraus (PAN: *kita₁)

ŋaŋafood poisoning (esp. by fish); suffer from poisoning (POC: *ŋaŋa₁)

ŋaugluttony, voracity; gluttonous (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋa-unten; tens (PMP: *ŋa)

ŋau-ŋauvery gluttonous; to gulp down, cram, devour (POC: *ŋau-ŋau) *ŋau₁

okajoint, beam, rafter of house going from tataŋa (large horizontal beam on which rafters are placed) to taubuki (ridge of house roof) (POC: *oka₂)

oka-okareef fish, scavenger fish (POC: *oka oka)

Gilbertese (200 / 271)

onfull, filled; fullness (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

onsea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

on rakefull to the top (POC: *ponuq sake) *penuq

oŋohear, obey (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ora-oraact of eating fish or meat in a raw state (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

otacoconut after oil has been extracted, residue (LOAN)

rasuffix of interrogation: what?, which? (PMP: *sapa)

rakaiblock of coral rocks; rock; reef (PMP: *sakaRu)

ramaside on which outrigger is placed; port side, opposite katea (POC: *saman) *saRman

ranfresh water, liquid, juice, sap, milk (POC: *ranum) *daNum

raŋaleg, thigh (POC: *saŋa₁)

rarablood; stick sap (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

rawaa canal, passage through reef, strait (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

riba-n taitaiwood shavings (POC: *siba)

-riolower or west side (opposite of rake), used only in compound words (POC: *sipo)

rio maito come, to advance from the west, from lower down (POC: *sipo)

tabasides, edges of passage; to deviate, go sideways (POC: *taba₂)

tabuprohibition, interdiction; sacred; forbidden, prohibited (generally used with religious meaning of sacred, consecrated) (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tabu-ato forbid, prohibit, interdict (POC: *tabu) *tambu

Gilbertese (220 / 271)

(tabʷa)-keaspecies of turtle with brilliant red shell (Banksbill turtle) (PCEMP: *keRa)

takuadolphin (POC: *takua)

tamafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tanosand, soil, clay, ground, land (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

tano-ato cover with sand, to dirty with clay (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

tano-tanofull of sand (food) (POC: *tanoq tanoq) *taneq

taŋicomplain, sigh, lament (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋiiyellowfin tuna (Bender et al. 2003) (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taŋi-taŋcomplaints, sighs, lamentations, claims, sobbing; to complain, to whine, to moan, to cry, to grieve; song of birds, music, playing musical instrument (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

t-arisibling of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tarisea, saltwater, seawater (PMP: *tasik)

tari-akito salt, to be salted (PMP: *tasik)

tau-ato hold, to keep, to reserve, to conserve, not to let go, to practice (religion, profession) (POC: *taur)

tautipuffer fish, Diodon (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

te-aiinewoman (POC: *pai-p<in>ai) *bahi

te aine-n umahousewife (married woman) (PAN: *Rumaq)

te boŋi-naone day (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

te boŋi-naon a certain day (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

te ka-beŋaclimb (trees) with feet apart (ROOT)

te ka-kekekea skirt of dry leaves, very stiff (POC: *keke₁)

Gilbertese (240 / 271)

Te ka-matuProtestant (because they close their eyes to pray) (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

te naŋa cloud; fig. hindrance, annoyance, obstacle, worry (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

teni boŋthree days (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

tenu-athree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

te tarisalt (PMP: *tasik)

te toki ni matahorizon (PMP: *mata) *maCa

te utilouse, lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

tibugrandfather, grandmother, grandchild, grandparents and their ancestors, grandchildren and their descendants, adopted child, adopter, god-father, godmother, god-child (POC: *tibu₂) *impu₂

tinamother, adopted mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tokahigh rank, noble, chief, lord; rich landlord having servants (POC: *toka) *teka₂

toŋomangrove (PMP: *teŋeR)

toua whole pandanus fruit (chewed like sugarcane; cf. Bender et al 2003a) (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tuaiof long duration, past or future, so old, lasting onwards; long ago; forever (POC: *tuaRi)

-u1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

uafruit; product, result, gain, profit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

uatwo, in compound words; two when counting in pairs, by two’s (POC: *rua) *duSa

uaa nifruit of coconut (PMP: *niuR)

ua-boŋstay til night, stay late (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

ukifingernail, toenail, claw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

umaany kind of dwelling, anything with roof; house, dwelling, hut, shelter, cabin, roof, tent, umbrella (PAN: *Rumaq)

Gilbertese (260 / 271)

um-umcook in ground oven (PMP: *qumun)

um-umun-aput to cook in ground oven on hot stones (POC: *qumun-a) *qumun

umun-aput something to cook in ground oven on hot stones (PMP: *qumun)

umun-aput to cook in ground oven on hot stones (POC: *qumun-a) *qumun

uotwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

uo-tacarry in arms, rock, lull to sleep (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

uo-uatwo (things) (POC: *rua) *duSa

uti-n te mananimal lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uueel basket, eel pot, eel trap; to fish for eel (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

viro-ato twist, to screw, to tighten with a vice (POC: *piro-a) *piro

waany vehicle, any means of conveyance; canoe, boat, bicycle, cart (POC: *waŋka)

wai rioto go towards the west, to descend (POC: *sipo)

194. Giman (6) SHWNG (Wallace 1869) [gzn] (Gane) Indonesia (Maluku) [aka: Gani]

fnikflying fox (PMP: *paniki)

kalibobobutterfly (PAN: *kali-)

kali-bobobutterfly (Wallace 1962:473) (PMP: *beŋbeŋ₄)

toliegg (PMP: *qateluR)

usnutnose (PMP: *suŋut₂)

yak1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

195. Gitua (171) OC (Lincoln 1977) [ggt] Papua New Guinea

ageleg, foot (POC: *qaqe) *qaqay

aitree; wood (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

aiowankind of ficus with short leaf; sometimes chewed with poapoa bark in lieu of betel (PEMP: *qayawan)

anunuimage, spirit, soul, photo, etc. (POC: *qanunu)

anutuGod (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

apwa-belly; pregnant (POC: *kapwa)

asa-ngills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

asira(residue of) salt spray (PAN: *qasiRa)

ateliver; chest (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-ŋgu mutuI am surprised ( = 'my liver is broken') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-ŋgu yayapI am angry, frustrated ( = 'my liver is in pain') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-ŋgu yayap(lit. 'my liver is hurt/in pain') I am angry, frustrated (PMP: *X₄ + qatay) *qaCay

avulime (calcium oxide) (PAN: *qapuR)

avu-avuash (POC: *qapu) *qabu

awamouth (POC: *qawa₂)

azejaw, chin (POC: *qase) *qazay

azuaspouse; husband, wife (PAN: *qasawa)

banibait (POC: *baniŋ) *paniŋ

baŋbang! noise of stone exploding fire (PMP: *paŋ)

baracarry on shoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

Gitua (20 / 171)

barama tree: Erythrina indica (NOISE)

barama tree: Erythrina indica (NOISE)

begaexcrete, shit (POC: *bekas₄)

bega-ŋadefecating (POC: *bekas₄)

begaza-ŋadefecating (POC: *bekas₄)

bioarm ring of trochus shell (POC: *bio)

boŋlast night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

buabetel nut (POC: *buaq)

bui-buia fish: Moses perch (NOISE)

buŋa-buŋastage of coconut (about 3 inches in diameter) (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

damoforehead (POC: *damwa)

dogi puapiper betel catkin (POC: *puaq) *buaq

-gai1pl. excl. object, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

-iaverb suffix, apparently related to definiteness of subject (POC: *-ia)

igafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

iga asa-nfish gills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

iga tuafish bone (POC: *tuqa₂)

igutail (PAN: *ikuR)

ipikind of nut tree: Inocarpus fagiferus (POC: *ipi₂)

isa-isawash, things washed (NOISE)

Gitua (40 / 171)

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

izunose; point of land (PMP: *ijuŋ)

kaŋkaŋkind of sound (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

kawa-kawagolden trevally (POC: *kawa-kawa)

kila-kilalightning (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

kila-kilalightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kuritaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

lago (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

laeakind of edible ginger, flower like Phameria magnifica (PMP: *laqia)

lagoto walk (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lago-lagowalking around; alive (POC: *lako lako) *lakaw

lamandeep (POC: *laman)

latobig stinging leaf, red underside (POC: *latoŋ) *laCeŋ

liosuicide by hanging (POC: *liko)

livo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

luavomit (PMP: *luaq)

lua-ta buato spit out betel (PMP: *luaq)

luŋcanoe roller (POC: *luŋan)

malomen’s bark loincloth; clothing (PCEMP: *malaw)

mamafather (vocative) (POC: *mamaₐ) *mamah

Gitua (60 / 171)

mataeye; sharp edge (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataguzi ~ mataguzato fear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

matedie (POC: *mate) *aCay

mazaisick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

monasago (POC: *moñak₁) *moñak

m-ulereturn, back, again (POC: *m-ule) *uliq₁

m-urbehind, after (posterior time) (POC: *muri) *udehi

-na3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nagoface; bow or stern of canoe (POC: *nago)

natu-child, son/daughter (PCEMP: *natu)

nima da siripfive (PAN: *lima)

nima-nimastarfish (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

niucoconut (PMP: *niuR)

niu matacoconut eye (PMP: *niuR)

nonoa tree, Morinda citrifolia; bark used for red dye (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋaI (subject prefix): yau ŋa geno 'I slept' (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

ŋaŋacarry off in the mouth (as a dog taking food away) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaupre-masticate food for an infant (POC: *ŋau₁)

-ŋgu1sg possessive pronoun: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ooyo! (reply) (POC: *oqo) *heqe

Gitua (80 / 171)

padapandanus (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

palacut open, slice lengthwise (POC: *pwalaq)

palaŋazitree with edible seed: Barringtonia Procera (NOISE)

parstingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

parua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus; bark used for rope, leaf used as cigar wrapper (POC: *paRu) *baRu

patacorpse (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

patu-elbow, knee (POC: *pwatu)

payaanchovy, pilchard (PMP: *paya)

pilujack or trevally (Crevalle) fish (PMP: *pilu)

pilu-pilusmall trevally varieties (POC: *pilu-pilu) *pilu

pilu-pilusmall trevally varieties (PMP: *bilu-bilu)

pirwhite pithy ball inside sprouted coconut (POC: *piri)

pirwhite pithy ball inside sprouted coconut (POC: *piras)

pira(leg) swollen (POC: *pwiRa)

pisonavel (POC: *piso₂)

piso waroumbilical cord (POC: *piso₂)

pitito jerk, jump (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

piti-pitijump, as a flea (POC: *pitik-pitik) *bitik₁

porowring (POC: *poRos) *peRes

pozea canoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

Gitua (100 / 171)

puafruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

pugayacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

pugivagina, cunt (PAN: *puki)

rakeasterly wind, blows daily and forcefully from July into November (PCEMP: *raki)

rauleaf; head hair (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rau bitaikind of green snake (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

reredrain off (as water from a puddle) (POC: *rere₂)

rovoto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruidugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rui waŋga sonsonwhale (‘canoe swallower’) (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rumwahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

sagat-ibad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

samaoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

saŋa-crease at the crotch (POC: *saŋa₁)

sarumneedle (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

siolower (POC: *sipo)

sisiretract, uncover (as lips from teeth) (POC: *sisi₂)

sonto swallow (POC: *sonom)

sulutorch for night fishing (PMP: *suluq)

Gitua (120 / 171)

supicut up taro and similar food, only with small knife (PEMP: *supi)

suruprepared potable liquid: includes juice, coconut water, soup, tea, coffee, etc. (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

tadasupine (POC: *tadal)

tae-shit, residue (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-taecloud (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae zaŋa-zaŋacrease of ass (POC: *saŋa₁)

talto coil, put around (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

talto coil, put around (POC: *tali₂) *tali

taliŋa taeear wax (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tama-father, FB, MZH (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tanoground, earth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

tano sisiŋiared earth (= clay) (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

taŋanetbag, basket (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋirmackerel, wahoo (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tavurekind of shell, particular the Pacific trumpet shell, but includes other Cymatiidae species and Bursidae species (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

t-azi-younger sibling or cousin of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tina-M, MZ, FBW (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tiroto look for (unsuccessfully) (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

togopole (POC: *tokon) *teken

toŋormangrove: Bruguiera sp. (PMP: *teŋeR)

Gitua (140 / 171)

totokcut something hanging down (as a bunch of bananas) (POC: *totok) *tektek₁

tovotry, attempt, act out, gesture with hands in lieu of talking (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

tuabone (POC: *tuqa₂)

tunburn, hot (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tunafreshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tun-tunhot (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

turusprinkle water on (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tututo pound, beat, knock (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

uyou (sg.), thou (PEMP: *u₂) *Suʔu

umwagarden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

utopith, center of tree (particularly sago) (POC: *quto)

utonfish net float (POC: *uton) *utem

utuflood (POC: *qutub)

uvesprout for planting (PEMP: *upe)

vangive (POC: *pani₁)

va-vaito weave (a basket) (POC: *pai₂)

vazokto plant (POC: *pasok) *pasek

vonfull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

vozeto paddle a canoe (POC: *pose) *beRsay

vuvulaspotted herring (POC: *pupula₁)

Gitua (160 / 171)

vu-vulaspotted herring (POC: *pu-pulan) *bulan-bulan

waŋgacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

warizaday before yesterday (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

warorope; vine (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

witipenis, cock (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

wo-waimango (POC: *na wai, na waiwai) *wai

yapfire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

yarua tree: Casuarina sp. (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

yau1st sg., I (PAN: *aku)

yavaraNorthwest wind; blows from December-March, brings rain to Gitua (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

zuarto root in the ground (as pig with snout, boy with heel as when crying desperately) (PMP: *suaR₁)

196. Gondang (1) WMP

adéʔno, not (PWMP: *hadiq)

197. Gorontalo (243) WMP (Pateda 1977) [gor] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

aexpression of satisfaction or ridicule (PMP: *a₃)

a:paŋirice cake (LOAN)

a:turuorder, regulation (LOAN)

alinuabutterfly (PAN: *qali-)

Ɂami1pl. excl., we; term of address to an older man (esp. to Arabs) (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

asaliplace of origin; provided that (LOAN)

asaritime of the afternoon prayer (LOAN)

aːyiexclamation, as on seeing a snake (PAN: *ai₂)

ayolets go! (LOAN)

balafence (PMP: *bala₂)

balafence (PMP: *baRa₂)

balafence (PMP: *bara₁)

baladudouble-edged knife (used as personal weapon) (PWMP: *baladaw)

balanjaoutlay, expenses (LOAN)

baliopponent, adversary (as in a cockfight) (PMP: *baliw₁)

balisarestless (LOAN)

bantabundle, as of wheat or cement (PWMP: *bantal)

bañogoose (LOAN)

bataŋotree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

béatax, duty (LOAN)

Gorontalo (20 / 243)

bia-biahubeing cared for (as a domesticated animal) (PWMP: *bihaR)

biasaaccustomed, used to (LOAN)

bibiʔoduck (LOAN)

bibiʔo manilaManila duck (LOAN)

bilalemuezzin; caller to prayer (LOAN)

bile-biletoopen, as eyes that are waiting for eyedrops to fall (PMP: *bilat₁)

biliseed-rice, rice seedling (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

b-il-olidebt (PWMP: *b<in>eli) *beli

biluduvelvet (LOAN)

binataŋianimal (LOAN)

bintecorn, maize (LOAN)

biŋgislope of a mountain (NOISE)

bisaanimal venom (LOAN)

bisa-bisalato speak, give a speech (LOAN)

bisalaword (LOAN)

biyawaʔomonitor lizard (PWMP: *bayawak)

biyayacosts, expenses (LOAN)

biyoduroe, fish eggs (PWMP: *bihed)

bohunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

botustone; seed (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

Gorontalo (40 / 243)

buhelibrave; to dare (PMP: *baRani)

buhetoheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

buŋgucurved, of a board that has warped (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

du-luotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duŋoh-elobe heard, listened to (PPH: *deŋeR-en) *deŋeR

duuŋoleaf (PMP: *dahun)

hetutohundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

heʔit-araft (used, e.g. in time of flood) (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

hualoslightly raised or uprooted, as banana plants with a digging stick or lever (NOISE)

huayocrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

huːdutip, as of a sugarcane stalk (PMP: *budu)

huhetowash (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

huhubeam which connects the ridgepole with the upper part of the crossbeam (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

huhuʔoto slap (as a mosquito, or a person on the back) (PMP: *bukbuk₁)

hulawhite; albino (PMP: *budaq₃)

hulawhite (PMP: *bulan₂)

hulalomoon, month; menses (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

hulaŋosickness that leaves stripe marks on the calves of the legs (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

hulaŋosickness which leaves striped marks on the calves of the legs (ROOT)

hulawagold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

Gorontalo (60 / 243)

huliatokind of tick or body louse (PAN: *buli-)

hulimamaŋotalk in one's sleep; be delirious (PAN: *buli-)

hulimayangodizzy, giddy (PAN: *buli-)

hulolocataract of the eye (PWMP: *buleheR)

hulu-aplace where fish collect in the rear compartment of a basket trap (PWMP: *bunuq-an₂) *buNuq₂

huluduupper part, headwaters of a river (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

hulutofibers, husk (PMP: *bulut₁) *bulut

hulutococonut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

hulut-olobe fibrous, as a mango (PPh: *bunut-en) *bunut₁

huluʔoaddled (of an egg which has failed to hatch) (PAN: *buRuk)

huntitaprotruding abdomen (caused by intestinal worms or other illnesses) (PWMP: *buntit)

huntu-huntupiled up, as a stack of wood, (LOAN)

huŋomushroom, fungus; fruit (PMP: *buŋa)

huŋo-huŋotoirritable because one is sick or has experienced something disagreeable (PWMP: *buŋet)

huoʔohead hair (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

hutaearth, soil (PMP: *buRtaq)

hutesick (PPh: *butí)

hutihukind of taro which is dangerous to eat, as it is poisonous (NOISE)

hutologoiter (NOISE)

hututesticles; castrate (as a bull) (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

Gorontalo (80 / 243)

huwalolifted a bit, as when prying out banana shoots with a crowbar (PPh: *buál)

huwaŋ-aloexcavated (PAN: *buhaŋ)

huwaŋohole, grave pit (PAN: *buhaŋ)

huwatololifted, raised (PWMP: *buhat-en) *buhat₃

huʔa-huʔatoopened, as a package (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

huʔidumountain (PAN: *bukij)

huʔoopen (as a door) (PMP: *buka)

huʔo-huʔoopened (PMP: *buka)

huʔo-olobe opened (as a door) (PWMP: *buka-en) *buka

huʔuankle (PMP: *buku)

huʔumoshut, as the mouth (PWMP: *buŋkem)

idatime in which a widow may not remarry (LOAN)

iitoscraped down (PPh: *iit)

ilapowink (PWMP: *izap)

il-atedead (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

ilitosliced (PMP: *qiris)

intop-aloto be sucked up (PWMP: *qisep-an) *qisep

intoposuck (PMP: *qisep)

in-tupoblowgun (PWMP: *seput)

ipitoclinging (of a small child that does not want to be left alone) (PMP: *ipit)

Gorontalo (100 / 243)

lataʔomud (ROOT)

lataʔomud (ROOT)

liluhuearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

limat-alobailed out, of water from a canoe (PWMP: *limas-an) *limas

limofive (PAN: *lima)

-lio3sg. possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

litaegg of a louse, esp. head louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lopa-lopatofreed (PWMP: *lepas)

lupi-yolofolded (< *lupi-en) (PWMP: *lu(m)pi)

lupi-yolofolded (< *lupi-en) (PWMP: *lupiq)

lutoʔopressed together (ROOT)

ma-ahuburned up, turned to ash (PWMP: *ma-qabu) *qabu

ma-opatoalready four in quantity (PMP: *ma-epat) *Sepat

matoeye; counting classifier for objects that have ‘eyes’ (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mato no dulahusun; East (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mo-duŋohuto hear (PWMP: *man-deŋeR) *deŋeR

moh-alamoto weave (PMP: *añam)

moh-etopocover with thatch, put a roof on (PWMP: *maR-qatep) *qatep

mo-hetutoone hundred (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

mo-huatoundertake a long journey on foot (PMP: *buhat₃)

Gorontalo (120 / 243)

moh-uliloto steer (usually a boat) (PWMP: *maŋ-qulin) *qulin

mo-lapoto smoke something over a fire (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

mo-limatobail out a canoe (PMP: *limas)

mo-luluroast in hot ashes (as cassava) (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

mo-luluto point out, indicate (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

mo-mamato chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

mo-miahulook after, care for, give life to (PPh: *maŋ-bihaR) *bihaR

mo-milito choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

mo-muatoto lift, raise (PMP: *buhat₃)

mo-muŋobear fruit (PWMP: *maŋ-búŋa) *buŋa

mo-muʔatoto open (as a package) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

mon-intopoto suck (PWMP: *maŋ-qisep) *qisep

moŋ-a:turuto order, regulate (LOAN)

moŋ-akuadmit, confess (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

moŋgiaŋoshark (Mills 1975) (NEAR)

mo-tohi-ilopodream (PAN: *qinep)

mo-tuluhuto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

mo-tuluhuto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

moʔo-duŋohuable to hear (PPH: *maka-deŋeR) *deŋeR

mumuʔocrumb (of bread, etc.) (PWMP: *mumuk)

Gorontalo (140 / 243)

olomosix (PAN: *enem)

olo-walaright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

olo-yihileft (side) (PAN: *wiRi)

oŋgomoclenched in the fist (PMP: *eŋgem)

oŋgomograsp, clutch (PMP: *qeŋkem)

oŋgomoclenched in the fist (ROOT)

oːoyes, true (PMP: *heqe)

opatofour (in serial counting) (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

otilieel (PWMP: *kasuli)

oʔabuopen (wing) (PWMP: *e(ŋ)kab)

paalobait (PAN: *paen)

pahikind of marine fish with skin like sandpaper (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pahuspace between attic and roof (PWMP: *pagu)

pahutouproot (plants), unsheathe (weapon) (PMP: *paRut)

pahutopull out, extract (ROOT)

paladupalm of the hand, sole of the foot (PMP: *palaj₁)

palia wound (PMP: *palaj₁)

palia wound (PWMP: *paliq₂)

paluhammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

patecorpse (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

Gorontalo (160 / 243)

patuhua cycad: Cycas rumphii (PMP: *patuRu)

peletaʔosound of person being struck by flat object (ROOT)

peletuʔasound of finger joints cracking (PAN: *paleCuk)

peletuʔasound of finger joints being cracked (ROOT)

peletuʔasound of finger joints being cracked (ROOT)

peyahuʔodust (ROOT)

pilichoose (PAN: *piliq)

pilitoline, mark with a line (ROOT)

pohu-wawaʔoposture, shape or condition of the body (PWMP: *paR-hawak-an) *Sawak

polotiʔopulse; blow (ROOT)

polugall, gall bladder (PAN: *qapeju)

pō-tuluhesleeping place (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

po-tunuadvice, instruction (PAN: *pa-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

poʔo-toheto-lobe strengthened, be made hard (PMP: *teRas)

puŋgatailless (of birds) (PWMP: *puŋgal)

puŋgepick, break off the stem (PWMP: *puŋgel)

putuŋoheart of banana (PMP: *pusuŋ₂)

sikuright-angled carpenter’s tool (PAN: *sikux)

taboduhinder, obstruct (PWMP: *sabeD)

talistring, cord, rope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

Gorontalo (180 / 243)

talubeeswax (PWMP: *tadu)

taluhuwater (PWMP: *saluR)

tapoto smoke something over a fire (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapoː-lobe smoked by someone, as copra (PPh: *tapa-en) *Capa

tatocollect sago leaves (PMP: *sasah)

taʔoduclimb (PWMP: *taked₂)

taʔubucover for food (PMP: *takub)

taʔubuto cover (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kub)

tihuʔodust from pounding grains (ROOT)

tiy-amofather (PAN: *amax)

tiy-amofather (PAN: *si amax) *amax

tobuʔoto pound, as rice (PWMP: *tebuk₁) *tebuk

tohetostrong, hard (PMP: *teRas)

t<ol>itiʔoscales of a fish (PMP: *siksik₂)

tolopoenter, be inside (PMP: *selep)

tonelobride price (PWMP: *tendan)

tonuʔofence made of split bamboo (PWMP: *tendek₂)

toŋgobuoverturned (ROOT)

to-tapo-waplace where something is smoked (PWMP: *tapa-an) *Capa

totoʔogecko, house lizard (PAN: *tektek₂)

Gorontalo (200 / 243)

totoʔodense, crowded (as trees growing closely together); always (PAN: *seksek₁)

tu:-tuluhusleeping, asleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

tulalobone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

tulufire (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tulu-woloroasted, as cassava in hot ashes (PPh: *tunuh-en) *CuNuh

tumoclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tunu-tunupointing at, keep pointing at (PMP: *tuzu-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

tu-tuaduladder (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tuwodulow stump or stake in the ground (PAN: *tuqed)

wahuashes from the hearth (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

walamoweaving, woven (PMP: *añam)

walam-olowoven (PWMP: *añam-en) *añam

walaʔa wuwatoʔostepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

walaʔochild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

waletermite larva (PAN: *aNay)

walitoskin (of animals) (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

walueight (PAN: *walu)

wantoʔoinsert, put in (as money into a fold of the clothing) (PMP: *hasek₁)

wapidulayers (PWMP: *apid₂)

wapitotouch, be touched (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

Gorontalo (220 / 243)

watiŋosalt (PAN: *qasiN)

watoslave, servant (PMP: *qaRta)

watop-alocovered with thatch, roofed (PWMP: *qatep-an) *qatep

watoposword grass (Imperata cylindrica) bound into bundles of thatch (PMP: *qatep)

wawaʔobody (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

wawoloto weave (PWMP: *habél)

waʔupocatch, capture, be caught or captured (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

wepitonarrow (ROOT)

woluŋoshelter (< *-luŋ?) (ROOT)

wontoʔoinserted (ROOT)

wuinterjection to ridicule (PMP: *qu₁)

wulilorudder (PMP: *qulin)

wulitorepeat, mention again (PWMP: *ulit)

wulodumaggot, caterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

wulubeads (PAN: *quNuq)

wululapillow, headrest (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

wuluŋocape of land (PMP: *quzuŋ)

wulutoto launch (a boat) (PWMP: *hurus)

wutalong beans (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

wutipenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

Gorontalo (240 / 243)

wutoʔobrain (PMP: *hutek)

wuwalogray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

yitomoblack (PMP: *qitem)

Guinaang Kalinga (4) WMP. see: Kalinga (Guinaang)

198. Gumawana (7) OC

ia talashort snouted unicornfish: Naso brevirostris (POC: *taRa)

kaitato copulate (POC: *qait)

kutachew sugarcane (POC: *kuta)

taboflesh inside a coconut that has sprouted (POC: *tabwa)

tokukuangelfish (POC: *tokuku)

va-to-towa-nato imitate (POC: *toa)

visito break, crack (of pots) (POC: *piti)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-l_g.htm