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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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I

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Iaai
Iarkei
Ibaloi
Ibaloy
Iban
Iban (Lemanak)
Ibanag
Ibatan
Ida'an Begak
Idate

Iduna
Ifira-Mere
Ifugao
Ifugaw
Ifugaw (Amganad)
Ifugaw (Batad)
Ifugaw (Bayninan)
Ilianen Manobo
Ilokano
Ilongot

Ilongot (Kakiduge:n)
Imorod Yami
Imreang
Inabaknon
Inati
Inibaloi
Iranomilek Yami
Irarutu
Ishbukun Bunun
Isiai

Isinai
Isinay
Isneg
Itawis
Itawit
Itbayaten
Itneg
Itneg (Binongan)
Ivatan
Ivatan (Isamorong)

217. Iaai (14) OC [iai] New Caledonia

anfood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

drablood; red (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

hanto eat; meal (POC: *kani) *kaen

hmitato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

jijia bird: Halcyon sanctus canacorum (POC: *kiki₁)

-k1sg possessive suffix: my, of me (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kɔnɔearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

meand, with (plus pronominal complement) (PMP: *mai)

metâright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

mokutrlie down, sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

noko-child (PCEMP: *natu)

umahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

wââ-nroot (PMP: *wakaR)

watra plant: Pandanus (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

218. Iarkei (1) OC [aka: Whitesands]

ian matudry coconut (PCEMP: *matu)

Ibaloi (582) WMP. see: Ibaloy

219. Ibaloy (582) WMP (Ballard 2011) [ibl] (Ibaloi) Philippines [aka: Ibaloi, Inibaloi]

abadashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

a-diroŋshadow (PAN: *liduŋ)

a-diroŋ-anto cast a shadow on or over something; (to some) the human spirit (PAN: *liduŋ)

alato get, take something (PAN: *ala)

ala-ento get, take something (PAN: *ala-en) *ala

alithis direction, toward me/us, coming --- both of space or time; of space, where ali lends a meaning component of this-direction, e.g. daw ‘go’, daw ali ‘come’; of time, where ali lends a meaning component of future; give it here! Give it to me! (PAN: *aRi)

alis-an [edisan]to move something to a place; to affect, influence something, someone (PPH: *alis-an) *alís

amo-anto make someone or something obey (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

baakaged, old --- of cereals that are kept, preserved for more than a year; probably fig., of old people, esp. old maid, bachelor (PPH: *baqak₂)

baawbe lessened, abated (as anger) (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

baaykind of vine (pliant and tough, good for tying) (PMP: *bahay) *baSay

bagotto pluck something (as a hair) (PPH: *bagut)

bagot-anthe pile of cards from which one draws in card games (PPH: *bagut)

bakaperhaps, maybe (PPH: *bakáq)

balodbonds, what is used to tie; prisoner (PPH: *balud)

baŋaearthenware pot, jar (primarily associated with cooking non-staple food eaten with rice, but to some also used for rice, and for storing cold water (PPH: *baŋaq₂)

baŋkaycorpse (old word; sometimes used for the living body) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

basiga sterile person, i.e. one who has had no children after several years of marriage (PWMP: *basiR)

bayawbrother-in-law, sister-in-law (PWMP: *bayaw)

bedor-ento tie a person or animal hand and foot (PPH: *balud-en) *balud

Ibaloy (20 / 582)

bedusa tree: Acalypha amentacea Roxb. (PPH: *beRus₂)

beKot-ento pluck something (as a hair); (in cards) to draw a card (PPH: *bagut-en) *bagut

betekbundle (as of firewood, vines, but especially rice stalks (PPh: *betek₁)

betek-ento bundle something (PPh: *betek₁)

boŋotmouth (PWMP: *buŋut)

dabinight --- esp. as a period of time or as a measure of time (PMP: *Rabiqi)

dakayold man (PWMP: *lakay)

dakdak-ento peel something off that has adhered (as adhesive tape, paint, poster from wall, chewing gum from floor, skin of animal in skinning) (PWMP: *laklak)

dakiman, male, boy (PMP: *laki)

daki-tomale plant (the plant that doesn’t bear fruit) (PMP: *laki)

d<al>akaycollective term for the old men, elders of the community (PWMP: *lakay)

damótthe root of a plant or tree (PMP: *Ramut)

damot-ónto take root in the ground (PMP: *Ramut)

daŋitheaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

daokto mix something into something else, a generic term (PWMP: *lahuk)

dapdapto strip off something, esp. with a bolo or large knife (as meat from the bone, sod from the earth, skin from an animal to make bitad (cut and twisted hide) rope (PPH: *dapdáp)

debas-ento make, take , etc. something too far (as house dimension beyond the specifications, bananas beyond proper ripeness) (PPH: *labas)

debeŋdeep water (PPH: *lebeŋ₂)

dekebdoor of a house; also similar structures (as window shutters) (PWMP: *lekeb)

demdemkind of bird: a black dove (PAN: *demdem₂)

Ibaloy (40 / 582)

dikawroundabout, circuitous route, the long way to a place, detour (PAN: *likaw)

dimafive (PAN: *lima)

dobaŋcamote slips for planting (PPH: *lubaŋ₂)

dobidrope (PPH: *lúbid)

dobir-ento twist strands of something together to make rope, cable, string, thread (PPH: *lubid-en) *lúbid

e-dak-daki-anlesbian (PMP: *laki)

e-dawaŋto be spacious, roomy (as the inside of a house, a field, shoes that’s too big) (PPH: *rawaŋ)

e-kapoyweak, unable to do a certain job (as bulldozer to remove a boulder, man to do work, medicine to relieve pain) (PPH: *kápuy)

ekar-ento walk somewhere, something (as a distance) (PPH: *lakaj-en) *lakaj

emo-ento tame, break, train an animal (as carabao for plowing) (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

em-paitsour, bitter, salt (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

em-potiwhite; also of light hues such as yellow, pink, pastel blue and green (PMP: *putiq)

en-sagapsaprough to the taste, tongue --- describes the unpleasant feeling some things give in the mouth (as hair on meat, bone in fish, peeling of some beans that come off, stone or husk in cooked rice) (PPH: *sagapsap)

en-sakitpainful (PMP: *sakit)

e-ŋotoinfested with lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

e-podpodworn out, as the soles of one’s shoes (PPH: *pudpud)

e-toleŋdeaf, hard of hearing; (fig.) inattentive, unresponsive to criticism, advice (PPH: *tuleŋ)

i-balodto put someone in prison (PPH: *i-balud) *balud

i-dabito do (something) at night (PMP: *Rabiqi)

i-daemto put something inside, into the interior (as inside a house or car) (PMP: *i dalem) *dalem

Ibaloy (60 / 582)

i-dawaŋto make a wide space or passage (PPH: *rawaŋ)

i-dekebto close the door (PWMP: *lekeb)

i-kiwkiwto use something to stir (as a spoon) (PPH: *kiwkiw₂)

i-knato use, place, set something as a trap or snare (PMP: *kena₁)

i-kotibto whisper something to someone as a secret, esp. in public (PPH: *kútib)

i-kowanto say, tell something (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

i-kowanto say, tell something (PWMP: *kuan₂)

i-Koyodto pull on something (as to dislodge rope caught in tree, plow by carabao) (PWMP: *guyud₃)

ilitown; sometimes esp. the municipio town center as opposed to the barrios/barangays; (also any geopolitical unit, as province or country, e.g. ili ni hapon ‘the country of the Japanese’) (PMP: *híli)

i-mata-anto see something for oneself, precisely, personally; to recognize something (PMP: *mata) *maCa

in-ka-limaone fifth (PWMP: *iŋ-lima) *lima

in-tarosto take someone directly to a place (PWMP: *tarus)

i-ŋadn-anto call, mention someone’s name (PWMP: *i-ŋajan(-an)) *ŋajan

i-pagpagto brush something off with hard blows (as dust from a coat) (PPH: *i-pagpág) *pagpág

i-pagpagto hit, slap, strike something hard against something else (as one’s hand against a wall) (PWMP: *pagpag)

i-paristo put something with something else in order to make a pair (LOAN)

i-patpatto use something for this purpose (as a bolo) (PWMP: *patpat)

i-pedpedto pack down, tamp down something (as earth around house post, carrots in a sack so it will hold more) (PAN: *pedped₁)

i-pelpelto pound, drive something down (as a nail) (PWMP: *pelpel)

i-penpento pack, stuff, put a large amount of something into a container (as cargo on a bus, harvested rice into a basket) (PWMP: *penpen₁)

Ibaloy (80 / 582)

i-ponasto use something to wipe (as cloth); proper cloth to wipe with (PMP: *punas)

i-ponponto pile something up in a big heap (PWMP: *punpun)

i-poŋanto use something as a pillow (as coat, forearm) (PPH: *puŋan)

i-sadsadto trample, stomp on something, step on something repeatedly (as dried bean pods to free seeds) (PPH: *sadsad)

i-saŋdalto roast or parch something with dry heat (as coffee beans, peanuts in a cast-iron pot) (PMP: *saŋelaR)

i-sapatto put something up to a higher place --- especially of putting rice bundles up into the attic granary or on the sapat-an drying rack; more broadly, of putting cargo on top of a bus (PPH: *sapat₁)

i-sapo(in butchering) to cut an animal into basic large portions, to quarter it (PPH: *sapuq)

i-sawsawto dip something---especially food (as in preparation for cooking, lechon (pork) in sauce (PPH: *sawsáw)

isbourine (PAN: *sibu)

isbo-anplace to urinate (as urinal, bedpan); to urinate on something (PAN: *sibu)

i-sedsedto pack something down, compress, tamp (as earth around a housepost, carrots in a sack) (PPH: *sedsed₂)

i-seksekto hide, place, plant something thus (as coffee seedlings among tall trees, house built in wooded area); to stuff something into something else (as tobacco into a pipe bowl, things into a suitcase) (PPH: *i-seksek) *seksek₁

i-shait-ansew something for someone (PMP: *zaqit)

i-shemshemto keep something a secret --- especially of wrong-doing (PAN: *demdem₁)

i-shogoplace something in a corner (PWMP: *zuRu)

i-síkadto stamp (purposive, as to remove dust from shoes) (PPH: *sikad)

i-siŋilto bring something out in confronting someone (as old misunderstanding, quarrel, favor given that wasn’t returned) (PWMP: *siŋir)

i-sipolto apply either the drink to the staple, or the staple to the drink (PMP: *simbuR)

i-siʔshipto aim, sight something (as a gun) (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

i-taloto store, keep, put away something (PMP: *taRuq)

Ibaloy (100 / 582)

i-tambakto pile, heap something up (PMP: *tambak₂)

i-tantanto delay something --- esp. of that done purposely or by neglect (as of someone not completing his work on time) (PPH: *tantán)

i-taŋalto put something in the mouth so that a part of it protrudes (as pencil, large camote, thermometer) (LOAN)

i-taŋebto put something in place, as a lid or cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

i-tapewto put something on the top, outside (PPH: *i-taq(e)paw) *taq(e)paw

i-taytayto use something in making a bridge (as cable, steel) (PMP: *taytay)

i-taʔkipto insert something into something else (as money in a book) (PPH: *taq(e)kip)

i-tikebto invert, turn over something so that it is lying on its “abdomen” or usual top side (as can, basket, cooking pot, book face down) (PWMP: *tiŋkeb)

i-tiktikto reveal something that is secret (PPH: *tiktík)

i-tiponto unite man and woman --- of the action of a community in marrying a young couple or uniting the separated (PPH: *típun)

i-toboŋto put something into a bamboo for storage (PWMP: *tubuŋ)

(i)tod-anto teach someone (PWMP: *tuzuq-an) *tuzuq₁

i-toloyto continue something --- both of something that one persists in and does not discontinue, and also of something that one carries on after an interruption or suspension (PMP: *tuluy₁)

i-topito fold something; to roll something by repeated foldings (PPH: *tupíq)

i-toroto point to, point out, show something -- especially of that done with a gesture of the hand, eyes, etc; to indicate, tell someone -- especially to a go-between -- whom one wants to marry (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

iwi-iwilstaggering, swaying (as drunk, baby learning to walk), wobbly, incapable of steady position (as chair with damaged leg) (NEAR)

iyothuman copulation, sexual intercourse (not an appropriate word in most conversations) (PPH: *iut₂)

iyot-ento have sexual intercourse with someone (PPH: *iut₂)

kayou, 2sg. topic set (PMP: *ka₄)

kabancavan; a unit of dry measure equivalent to 75 liters, or 4 large kerosene cans (used especially for rice, both rough and milled; introduced as a measure by the Spanish in the 19th century) (LOAN)

Ibaloy (120 / 582)

kabaŋanimals with white spots, mixed with color, on its fur (PPH: *kabaŋ)

KabKabto cause an abrasion of the skin; to scratch, scrape the skin (as rock does) (NEAR)

kaintraditional wraparound skirt (PWMP: *kain)

kakawa small tree from whose seeds cocoa and chocolate are made (LOAN)

kakawaspider (PWMP: *kakawa₁)

kalababeehive, ant hill, wasp nest, similar insect colonies (PPH: *kalába)

kalbittrigger of a gun and other such devices (PPH: *kal(e)bit)

ka-leki-anbull, stallion, mature male carabao; (of deer) buck (PWMP: *ka-(la)laki-an) *laki

KaloŋKoŋgeneral term for both trachea and esophagus – the anatomical part both in humans and animals (PWMP: *kaRuŋkuŋ)

ka-mataconjunctivitis, sore eyes, “pink eye” (PMP: *ka-mata) *maCa

kamatistomato (folk remedy for skin burns) (LOAN)

kaneat (PAN: *kaen)

kapesfiber useful for tying---abaca, alinew tree, cotton, commercial fibers (LOAN)

ka-pidit-ancompulsory, obligatory (PPH: *pílit)

ka-pin-showasecond time, second one (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ka-pin-tedothe third time (PWMP: *pin-telu) *telu

ka-pitothe seventh day of the aremag/siling funeral ritual (PMP: *ka-pitu) *pitu

kapkapto grope, feel for something with the hands without light and without seeing (as in a dark room, in one’s pockets for money, in walking along in the dark; this word has decided sexual connotations without proper context, since the word is used of intimate caressing; method of fishing and gathering shrimp and crabs , i.e. use of the bare hands (PAN: *kapkap)

kara-showaspirit of a living person; turns into kedariŋ/kaleshiŋ at death (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ka-siyamthe ninth day of the aresag/siling funeral ritual (PPH: *siám)

Ibaloy (140 / 582)

katamplane, tool for smoothing wood (LOAN)

katam-ento smooth lumber with a plane (LOAN)

ka-tdothird day of aremag/siling funeral celebration (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

katelan itch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katirooster that is trained to lure sabag wild roosters (usually small size since the sabag might not fight a big rooster); the kati is tied so that when the sabag approaches to fight it is snared (done at dawn) (PPH: *kátiq)

katirooster that is trained to lure sabag wild roosters (usually small size since the sabag might not fight a big rooster); the kati is tied so that when the sabag approaches to fight it is snared (done at dawn) (PPH: *káti)

katiribed (LOAN)

kawajankind of bamboo that grows in warm places (PAN: *kawayan)

Kawedbetel pepper, Piper betle; the leaves are used as an ingredient in the mama betel chew, along with areca nut and lime (widely thought to strengthen teeth) (PPH: *gawed)

kawithook (as fish hook, hook used to reach fruit in trees) (PAN: *kawit)

kawit-anto get or catch something by means of a hook of some kind (as clothesline) (PWMP: *kawit-an) *kawit

kayaability, capability (said to be from Tagalog) (PWMP: *kaya)

Kayemo ~ Kamayochicken louse (NEAR)

kebkebenclosure --- especially of a pig pen; to pen, cage something (as pig, carabao) (PMP: *kebkeb)

ke-kenfood; will eat (PAN: *kaen)

KemKemto hold, grasp something in a closed fist; make one’s hand into a fist (PAN: *gemgem)

KemKem-enhold something for oneself, not sharing (PAN: *gemgem)

KetKet-ento grind the teeth on something, make repeated bites into something (as lice when picked) (PMP: *getget₁)

kewit-ento hook something (PWMP: *kawit-en) *kawit

Kidiŋ-angrinding stone, grinding machine; (in mining) machine used to crush ore (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

Ibaloy (160 / 582)

Kidiŋ-ento grind something, reduce something to powder (as corn) (PWMP: *giliŋ-en) *giliŋ

k<im>apoybecame weak (PPH: *kápuy)

kimátlightning (PPH: *kimat)

k<in>anwas eaten by someone (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

kitkit-anto scratch, dig at something bit by bit, gradually (as a rat gnaws open a package, digging with a tool in very hard ground) (PWMP: *gitgit)

kiwkiw-ento stir something (as sugar into solution) (PPH: *kiwkiw-en) *kiwkiw₂

kiyewtree; in some contexts kiyew is generic for all trees, but also kiyew can be specific in contrast with kadasan, non-pine trees; wood; firewood, wood for fuel (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kiyew-ancommunal forest, place to get wood for fuel and lumber for house construction (all forest not owned by someone belongs to the community, and anyone can get wood and forest products there) (PWMP: *kahiw-an) *kaSiw

koI, my; 1sg possessor and agent of a non-actor focus verb (-k after vowel-final stems) (PAN: *-ku)

kodatkind of edible mushroom that grows on dried wood, grayish white in color (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kokofingernail, toenail, claw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kolaŋinsufficient, not enough (LOAN)

Koloncogon grass, Imperata cylindrica (young shoots can be eaten cooked; the roots, which contain starch and sugars, are easy to chew; the sikpot flowers are eaten by children; used also in certain areas for roofing) (PMP: *guRun)

kolotcurly hair (PMP: *kulut)

kolotcurly hair (PMP: *kurut)

kolot-ento curl (PPH: *kulut-én) *kulut

kompas-anto act in rhythm, in synch, in time with something (as dancing to the beat of the drums); to be appropriate (as what one says to the topic of conversation) (LOAN)

konoit is said, they say; I understand that, the story goes that, according to (PMP: *kunu₂)

kopitgraft, kickback, cheating, pilfering (said to be from Ilokano) (PPH: *kúpit)

koritto make a line (as in underlining, drawing on the ground) (PPH: *kurit)

Ibaloy (180 / 582)

kotohead louse in humans; also related species that infest animal fur (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

koto ni shontogcattle that roam in mountain pasture (‘lice of the mountains’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kowanwhat one says, one’s word; quotative verb, he said, etc. (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kowanwhat one says, one’s word (PWMP: *kuan₂)

Koyodto pull on something (as to dislodge rope caught in tree, plow by carabao) (PWMP: *guyud₃)

Koyod-ento pull something toward oneself in an effort to get more of it; (fig.) to force, convince someone to come along (PPH: *guyúd-en) *guyud₃

Koyor-ento pull something toward oneself in an effort to get (more of) it; to force, convince someone to come along; (of non-rice food) to “pull rice”, i.e. to fail to satisfy hunger and require more rice (PWMP: *guyud₃)

m-adato get, take something (PAN: *ma-ala) *ala

ma-dketsharp, as a blade that bites into wood or bamboo, instead of bouncing off (PPH: *ma-deket) *dekeC

ma-iwilto be tilted, listing to one side, skewed, leaning at an angle of less than 90 degrees instead of nicely vertical (as flagpole, plant whose roots have been eaten away, basket set wrongly on one’s back) (NEAR)

ma-lekiof a woman who regularly has illicit relations with men, promiscuous (PMP: *laki)

mamathe betel nut chew (PMP: *mamaq)

mama-anto spit red betel juice on something (PMP: *mamaq)

man-akad(of persons and animals) to walk (PMP: *lakaj)

ma-naŋebto close, lock oneself inside a house (PWMP: *ma-naŋeb) *taŋeb

ma-nawtáwto wander about in places other than one’s own --- esp. of one who goes away (as to the lowlands and never comes back) (PWMP: *tawtaw)

man-dabito be, stay overnight (PMP: *Rabiqi)

man-dekito have illicit relations with a man --- spoken of a woman (PMP: *laki)

man-de<l>kebto shut oneself in behind a closed door (as for secret conversation) (PWMP: *lekeb)

man-desdesto roll up one’s sleeves, trouser legs; to push something out of the way (as pushing back the cuticle around a fingernail, cut grass at the edge of a field (PPH: *desdes₁)

Ibaloy (200 / 582)

man-desdesto roll up one’s sleeves, trouser legs; to push something out of the way (as pushing back the cuticle around a fingernail, cut grass at the edge of a field) (PPH: *lesles)

man-desdesto roll up one’s sleeves or trouser legs (PPH: *lesles)

man-dimasplit into five parts (PWMP: *maŋ-lima) *lima

man-dobaŋto plant camote slips (PPH: *lubaŋ₂)

ma-neŋoygood swimmer (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

ma-nimbaŋto be in good balance (as coffee and sugar in a cup) (PWMP: *ma-nimbaŋ) *timbaŋ

man-kapkapto grope for words (PAN: *kapkap)

man-ketelto itch (as skin rash does) (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

man-kokoto clip the fingernails (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

man-mamato engage in betel chewing (PMP: *mamaq)

man-matato have sore, draining eyes (PMP: *mata) *maCa

man-naŋoyto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

man-ŋasŋasto pant, breathe in short, labored breaths (as from exertion) (NOISE)

man-ŋeŋŋeŋto speak words that are not distinguishable (as crowd of people all talking, new song being sung, deaf mute talking) (PMP: *ŋeŋeŋ)

man-ŋikŋikto whimper, the beginning of a cry (as child, puppy in the night when cold) (PMP: *ŋikŋik)

ma-nogtogto bump heads (PMP: *tugtug₁) *CugCug₂

manókchicken (PMP: *manuk)

man-pageyto realize a certain yield from a field (PAN: *pajay)

man-paristo be a pair, matching set (LOAN)

man-payapayto wave, flap (as a blanket on the back of a running person) (PPH: *payapay)

Ibaloy (220 / 582)

man-paypayto wave, stir the air (as flag, shirt tail or runner); to wave with one’s hand --- sideways to greet someone, outward to tell someone to go, toward oneself to summon to come (PPH: *paypáy)

man-pidakto have money (LOAN)

man-pidito choose between alternatives (PAN: *piliq)

man-pitoto increase sevenfold (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

man-polpolto remove all one’s clothes (PWMP: *pulpul₁)

man-poŋanto lay one’s head on a pillow (PPH: *puŋan)

man-posoto suffer from heart disease (PMP: *pusuq₁)

man-potito wear white (PMP: *putiq)

man-sakayto ride on an animal, bicycle, scooter, etc. (PMP: *sakay₁)

man-saŋato lean one’s head, jaw on one’s hand, or both hands, for support (connotes disappointment, sadness, or sometimes thinking) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

man-saŋito have teeth, esp. of artificial ones (PPH: *saŋi)

man-saŋsaŋto face one another (implies opposition, hostility, as in disputes, court cases, opposing politicians) (PPH: *saŋsáŋ)

man-sedsedto feel with the feet; to walk that way, as a blind man feeling his way (PPH: *sedsed₃)

man-seksekto go inside something and thus be out of sight; hide onself (as bird into grass, many people into a house or forest) (PAN: *seksek₁)

man-shaitto sew (PMP: *zaqit)

man-shalanto pass a certain way (PMP: *zalan)

man-shogoput oneself in a corner (PWMP: *zuRu)

man-showato become two, divide, split into two (PWMP: *man-duha) *duSa

man-showa-showato doubt, be undecided, not sure (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

man-siŋilto seek to collect a debt owed (PWMP: *siŋir)

Ibaloy (240 / 582)

man-siyamto increase ninefold (PPH: *siám)

man-siyaŋto warm oneself in the early morning sunshine (PWMP: *siaŋ)

man-sodittake a long time, be a long time in doing something (PWMP: *sulit₁)

man-sowanto have, carry a walking stick (PMP: *suqan)

man-tabdato tie (LOAN)

man-taito move one’s bowels, defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

man-tampokto clap one’s hands (as in applause) (PMP: *tampuk₁)

man-tawento be a certain age (PMP: *taqun)

man-tebalto converse, of two people talking together, or multiple people talking to one (PPH: *tebáR)

man-teshosto go directly to a place without deviation en route (PWMP: *tarus)

man-tombalikto somersault, tumble end over end in the air --- of persons or animals that fall (PPH: *tumbalik)

ma-ŋikŋikcontinually whimpering (PMP: *ŋikŋik)

ma-pidakrich, having a lot of money (LOAN)

ma-pidichoosy, picky, fussy (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-renomhaving abundant water, liquid; (of fruit, etc.) juicy; (of mother’s milk) abundant (PMP: *danum) *daNum

ma-sekitsickly, frail (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-s<in>akitsickly, frail (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-sKem (<seKem)stinging words, esp. those that have a curse attached (PWMP: *sejem)

mataeye --- the anatomical part (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tbalfriendly person, one who initiates conversation (PPH: *tebáR)

Ibaloy (260 / 582)

ma-tebafat, stout, chubby (PWMP: *ma-tabeq) *tabeq

matekland leech found in moist places (PAN: *-matek)

ma-tekotinclined to fear, fearful (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

ma-yka-pitoseventh --- the ordinal number (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

ma-y-penpenchock-full; to gather with standing room only (as people) (PWMP: *penpen₁)

may-saɁŋitto become suspended above the ground (as thrown stick hangs in tree, clothers blown from a clotheline come to rest on a bush) (PPH: *saq(e)ŋit)

mayse-spi-anto feel the absence of another (as in being homesick) (PWMP: *sepi)

may-sheketto stick to something (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

may-togtogto bump one’s head (PMP: *tugtug₁) *CugCug₂

me-dabi-anto be somewhere upon its getting dark, to be overtaken by darkness, to be benighted (PPH: *ma-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

me-dakayto become old (PWMP: *lakay)

me-kanfood; will eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

me-kebkebto be isolated, hemmed in, cut off from escape (as when road is closed to the outside) (PMP: *kebkeb)

meki-kanto eat with someone, join in a meal, esp. of going to a feast (PPH: *maki-kaen) *kaen

me-malpalthe traditional way to kill a chicken for ceremonies by striking it with a stick or knife handle around its body, head, neck, wings --- softly, but the head blows kill; the blows cause swelling and improve taste (PPH: *palpál₁)

me-matpatto cut down something with repeated strokes (as high grass, sugarcane) (PWMP: *patpat)

me-midakto buy a favor from someone; to buy votes in an election (LOAN)

memin-pigato do something how many times? (PAN: *pijax)

me-misosone peso each (LOAN)

me-miʔpito pound clothes on a stone in the washing process; clothes are put on a flat stone or concrete and paddled so that dirt is dislodged (PPH: *piqpiq)

Ibaloy (280 / 582)

me-nabsabto eat voraciously, wolf down, gulp down, devour, eat one’s food with fervor, especially of animals (as pigs), but also perhaps figuratively of people (PAN: *sabsab)

me-naittailor, dressmaker, seamstress (PMP: *zaqit)

me-nambaŋto set up an ambush (PPH: *tambáŋ)

me-nedepto fish by diverting a stream and recoursing it through waiting fish traps, or to lower the water level so fish are accessible to netting (PPH: *sáRep)

me-nepeyto make rice wine (PWMP: *tapay)

me-niksiksearch in the hair with one’s fingers for lice and lice eggs (PWMP: *ma-ñiksik) *siksik₁

me-niŋtiŋto ring a bell, perhaps especially a small, tinkling bell (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

me-nobato use toba in fishing (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

me-nogtogto knock, using repeated raps with the knuckles (as in asking to be received at a house) (PMP: *tugtug₁) *CugCug₂

me-nogtogto knock, using repeated raps with the knuckles (as in asking to be received at a house) (PWMP: *tugtug)

menok-endiscern one’s course of action by the omen given by the gall bladder of a chicken butchered for the purpose (PPh: *manuk-en) *manuk

me-noksokto shuffle cards (PWMP: *ma-ñuksuk) *suksuk

me-noladito play a flute, or other things that are similar (as rice stalks, straw) (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

me-nosoto nurse, suck --- of the babys action to the mother or bottle (PAN: *susu₁)

me-ŋanto eat; to bite, cut into (as auger bit cuts into wood) (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

me-ŋetito hunt using a kati rooster lure (PPH: *kátiq)

me-ŋetito hunt using a kati rooster lure (PPH: *káti)

me-ŋewitto fish using a hook and line (PWMP: *ma-ŋawit) *kawit

me-ŋiyewto get wood for fuel (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

me-ŋnato trap, snare, catch something (as fish, bird in a trap) (PWMP: *ma-ŋena) *kena₁

Ibaloy (300 / 582)

me-ŋotim (< kotim)to remove the husks from rice with the fingers and teeth in order to eat the grain raw (as rats and birds, or those who fancy freshly harvested rice) (PPH: *kutím)

me-ŋototo pick head lice (PWMP: *ma-ŋutu) *kuCux

me-pilayto be lame, crippled, both of temporary and permanent disability, either of total or partial disability (PMP: *ma-pilay) *piNay

me-pnofull, both of the container and its contents (PMP: *ma-penuq) *penuq

me-potolbe cut off, cut short, truncated (PMP: *putul) *putun

me-siyaŋto be bathed in pleasant sunshine (PWMP: *siaŋ)

me-sKem-anto sting, burn (as the action of salt, chili peppers, antiseptics on wounds, cuts) (PWMP: *sejem)

me-soŋato be wrong, make a mistake (as doing something the wrong way, having one’s shoes interchanged) (PAN: *suŋa)

me-taŋaŋato be so overwhelmed by something that one does not know what course to take (PWMP: *taŋaŋaq)

me-tepos-anto come to an end (PAN: *tapus)

me-tikoŋto be crooked, bent, curved, twisted, not straight (as stick, rainbow, lumber) (PWMP: *tikuŋ)

me-todembruised (PPH: *tudem)

mimiurine (PMP: *miqmiq)

mosaŋwild animal, the exact nature of which is obscure; probably a wild cat or civet cat (PWMP: *musaŋ)

na-bdeytired (PPh: *belay)

nan-demdemcloudy, overcast (PAN: *demdem₂)

naŋisweeping, crying (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

naŋoyswimming (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

naŋoy-anplace for swimming (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

naŋoy-ento swim across something (as a river) (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

Ibaloy (320 / 582)

nateŋvegetables (said to be from Ilokano) (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ

nat-nateŋvegetables (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ

nay-daemthe area inside, esp. inside a house (PMP: *dalem)

neŋis-anto cry over, about something (PMP: *taŋis-an) *Caŋis

nini and its inflected forms (niya, nita, nima) and its specific form nonta are together the source set of articles; at the clause level, indicates that the part of the clause that is marked by the ni article is non-topic and non-location, or is a time phrase; in genitive (or qualifying) phrases marks part-whole relations (e.g. atep ni baley ‘roof of the house’) (PAN: *ni)

niyogcoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

ŋabŋab-anto bite off the surface of something (as skin of guava, dog’s bite that takes a little skin, bulldozer skims only surface) (PAN: *ŋabŋab)

ŋalakind of wild duck (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

ŋalŋalto chew, perhaps especially to chew something for a long time (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

ŋalŋal-ento chew on something for a long time, with the jaws working hard and perhaps noisily (as dog chewing on bone) (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

ŋaranname (as of person, town); also, what a thing is called (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋeshan-anto give someone or a place a name (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan

ŋitŋit-anto nibble at something (as fish to bait, dog eating last scraps on bone); also, to grasp something in the teeth (as in picking up a coin in a contest, or a hangnail) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit

on-alisto transfer, move (PPH: *alís)

on-basigto become sterile, impotent (PWMP: *basiR)

on-dabasto pass, pass by (PPH: *labas)

on-Konayto act, i.e. take action, carry out an action (PPH: *gunay)

on-ŋatoto go high --- esp. of a person’s station in life, and prices (said to be from Ilokano) (PPH: *ŋatu)

on-ŋawŋawto mew---the sound of a cat (PAN: *ŋawŋaw)

on-piakto emit a sudden, loud cry --- esp. of babies, but also of chickens (PMP: *piak)

Ibaloy (340 / 582)

on-piyekto peep, of the frantic sound of baby chicks (PMP: *piqek)

on-polito pass on to another generation --- of some trait or characteristic (PPH: *pulí)

on-potito become white, as by bleaching (PMP: *putiq)

on-salkedto have difficulty in getting through a passage (as table too big to get through a door, truck held back by protruding rock) (PPH: *saR(e)ked)

on-saŋɁatto arrive up above, to a high place (as climbers of a mountain, the souls of the dead by tradition on Mt. Pulag) (PPH: *saŋ(e)qát)

on-sebetto absorb, pick up (as cloth does dust, hair does fleas, wood does moisture) (PWMP: *sebet)

on-seŋawto escape, go out into the air, of flavor, aroma, strength (PWMP: *seŋ(e)qaw)

on-seŋɁewto give off a pleasant aroma, as coffee (PWMP: *seŋ(e)qaw)

on-shalato bleed, to menstruate (PAN: *daRaq)

on-shalanto drop by somewhere for a quick visit enroute to somewhere else (PMP: *zalan)

on-soloŋto go, depart (PWMP: *suruŋ)

on-tapewto be on top (as children playing); to come to the surface, top (PPH: *taq(e)paw)

on-tawento be a year old (as debt, baby, time of a person in a place) (PMP: *taqun)

on-tedento swallow (PMP: *telen)

on-tekokof the crowing of roosters; also of person (perhaps figuratively) to hoot, as to attract someone’s attention at a distance (PPH: *tekuk)

on-tikolto warp, curl up at the edges, as board, photograph (PWMP: *tikul)

on-timtimto murmur, mutter (PPH: *timtim)

on-tontonto walk in a line, column, single file, following one another (PWMP: *tuntun)

on-toʔmawto come into view, presenting only a part (as person at a window, snake’s head from behind a rock, baby’s presenting part at birth) (PPH: *tuq(e)maw)

pageyrice --- esp. of rice standing in the field, but also of harvested rice that is still on the stalk unthreshed, and of unhusked rice off the stalk (PAN: *pajay)

Ibaloy (360 / 582)

paitsourness (as of unripe orange); bitter taste, saltiness; also describes the taste of good coffee or rice wine (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pakanfill material (PMP: *pakan)

pakpák-ento hit something with a resulting thump, thud (as head by police baton, volleyball on palm) (PAN: *pakpak₁)

palpalto beat something, strike many blows to something, esp. to the head (PPH: *palpál₁)

palpalstake to which an animal is tethered (as in pasture) (PPH: *palpál₂)

pan-pidi-analternatives, choices, options (PAN: *piliq)

pan-showato divide something into two (as inheritance, large camote, piece of land) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pa-ŋan to“his meal”, designation for the first day of the aremag/siling funeral celebration, when one pig is butchered (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

paŋpaŋbank of a river (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

parissomething that goes with something else to make a pair of matching set (LOAN)

paspasfast, quick, speedy (PPH: *paspás₄)

paspas-anto do something quickly (PPH: *paspas-an₂) *paspás₄

pekan-anto fill in the space between two sides (as in piling rocks and earth into the space between two sides of a wide stone wall, backfilling a wall) (PMP: *pakan)

pekelto form, gather, compress something into a ball, tight mas, lump, cluster (as rice grains when eating with the fingers) (PPH: *pekel)

pe-ŋatoto raise, cause something to go up, go higher (PPH: *ŋatu)

pe-pno-anto make something thus sufficient (PWMP: *penuq-an) *penuq

pe-pno-ento fill something, as a cup (PMP: *penuq)

pe-sakitto make someone sick (esp. with the spirit world as agents) (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pespesto squeeze something so that the liquid it contains comes out (as pustule on the skin, cow’s udder to milk, sponge, orange) (PMP: *pespes)

pidak-anto give money to someone (LOAN)

Ibaloy (380 / 582)

pidak-ento get money (LOAN)

pidasopiece, one unit of multiple things (as coins, lumber, etc.) (LOAN)

pidi-ento choose, pick, select something (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pidit-ento force, compel, make, constrain someone to do something; the act of forcing; do something forcefully, as a cow forcing its way through a fence (PPH: *pílit)

pigahow many?, how much? (PAN: *pijax)

pikomattock, pick ax used to loosen earth (LOAN)

pikpik-ento pat, tap something (as friend on the shoulder or buttocks); to pet an animal; to tap a chicken around its body before killing it (PAN: *pikpik)

pilakmoney (LOAN)

pilpil-ento pound on something to flatten or soften it (as in forging a bolo or preparing an animal hide) (PWMP: *pilpil)

pin-pitoseven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pin-showatwice, two times (PMP: *pin-duha) *duSa

pin-tedothree times, thrice (PWMP: *pin-telu) *telu

piŋkiwick, perhaps esp. of a cigarette lighter (PPH: *piŋkíq)

pipitvagina, female genitals --- the anatomical part, esp. of little girls (PWMP: *pipit₂)

pisekto have a deep hollow, recessed place (as scar from a boil, person’s cheeks when teeth removed, deflated ball when punched) (PWMP: *picek₂)

pisosone peso (LOAN)

pitoseven --- the cardinal number (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pito-n poloseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitpit-ento flatten, press, compress, press flat (as steel by blacksmith’s hammer, peso bills in money clip, something stepped on) (PAN: *pitpit₃)

piyanto want something; to like something (PMP: *pian)

Ibaloy (400 / 582)

pokpokscare device for rice birds—constructed of two bamboo halves cut lengthwise to the middle, where a notch is cut to allow the halves to open and close; when the bayon line is pulled one half moves with the line, and when it is released it hits back against the other half, making a clapping sound (PAN: *pukpuk)

pokpok-ento knock off; brush off something that clings (as dust on clothes) (PAN: *pukpuk)

pokpok-ento knock off, brush off (PWMP: *pukpuk-en) *pukpuk

polawwhite animal (PPH: *pudaw)

polidescendant --- of blood line, esp. with regard to genetic characteristics (PPH: *pulí)

polpol-anto remove, strip all the leaves and/or branches from a tree (PWMP: *pulpul₁)

ponas-anto wipe something to clean it (as one’s face, table) (PMP: *punas)

ponas-ento wipe something from something else (as soot) (PMP: *punas)

poŋanpillow (PPH: *puŋan)

poŋan-anto supply something (as one’s head) with a pillow (PPH: *puŋan)

posegnavel, umbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

poseg-anto cut the cord of a newborn baby (PMP: *pusej)

posoheart (regarded as the seat of various emotions, as love, sympathy, generosity) (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pospos-ento finish something, come to the end of something --- of serial actions (as taking the prescribed number of pills), or of something that can be viewed as serial (as climbing rope, planting field) (PWMP: *puspus₁)

potiwhiteness (PMP: *putiq)

potol-ento sever, cut off something (PMP: *putul) *putun

sabakind of banana: tree of medium height, large fruit with only one seed, not rounded at the ends (can be boiled or eaten raw) (PWMP: *sabeqa)

saboŋflowers (for ornamentation as opposed to blossoms of useful plants; said to be from Ilokano) (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

sadsad(in rice agriculture) trampling as part of crushing down rice stalks (PPH: *sadsad)

s<ag>absabanimal (as pig, carabao) that eats anything given to it, not being choosy (PAN: *sabsab)

Ibaloy (420 / 582)

sagidto make contact with, touch, brush asgainst something with sufficient force to be felt (PPH: *sag(e)qid)

sagsagbreak dirt clods up into small pieces; to split bolo bamboo lengthwise into fourths, eighths, sixteenths, etc. (PWMP: *sagsag₁)

sagsag-enbreak dirt clods up into small pieces (PPH: *sagsag-en) *sagsag₁

sakaaŋto have the legs, or similar parts of an object (too) wide apart (PPH: *sakáqaŋ)

sakaŋto have the legs, or similar parts of an object (too) wide apart (PMP: *sakaŋ)

sakitsickness, illness (PMP: *sakit)

salaksakkind of bird: common kingfisher (PWMP: *salaksak)

saleŋthe highly resinous heartwood of old or prematurely injured trees, pitch pine (valued as kindling, torches, house posts, fence posts) (PAN: *saleŋ)

salepdam placed in a stream to divert its water (as for fishing, irrigation, pool for carabao wallow) (PPH: *sáRep)

saliŋsiŋ-anto cut the branches from a tree (PPH: *saliŋsíŋ)

salked-ento block, hold back something passing through --- both of complete and partial blockage (PPH: *saR(e)ked)

salopganta, a unit of dry measure equal to about three liters; used for measuring coffee, rice, peanuts, etc (PPH: *salúp)

sa-m-púluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

san-parisa pair (LOAN)

saŋdal-anto roast or parch something with dry heat (PWMP: *saŋelaR-an) *saŋelaR

saŋitooth (PPH: *saŋi)

saŋi-anto put “teeth” into something, as harrow (PPH: *saŋi)

saŋKaphand-held digging tool: long metal or wood handle and short, wide, flat blade; trowel (NEAR)

sapadhand of bananas (PPH: *sápad)

sapad-ento separate a bunch of bananas into hands (PPH: *sapád-en) *sápad

Ibaloy (440 / 582)

sapal-anto be able to attend to all one’s duties, cope with one’s work (PPH: *sapal)

sapaŋkind of tree; slivers of its wood are boiled to make a red tea (PWMP: *sapaŋ)

satsat-ento cut, tear, rip something (as cloth, paper, galvanized iron sheets, including when the item is divided in two) (PPH: *tastas-en) *tastas

sayotithe fruit of a climbing cucurbitaceous vine (LOAN)

sedop-anto measure for someone (as the buyer) (PPH: *salúp)

sedop-ento measure something, especially of measuring by the ganta, but also used for other measures (PPH: *salup-en) *salúp

sedsed-ento feel for something (as people feeling with their feet among the rocks where they thought a drowned man was wedged) (PPH: *sedsed₃)

seKepto enter (PAN: *sejep)

sekit-ento be sick with something (PWMP: *sakit-en) *sakit

sepihomesickness; loneliness; bad feelings (PWMP: *sepi)

se-saiŋto want something that someone else is eating or selling but not to ask for it; rather to stand nearby as a hint, hoping to be offered some (PPH: *saiŋ)

se-spak-en (< sepak)to break something without completely severing it, esp. of tree limbs, jawbones of pigs in butchering process (PWMP: *sepak)

shaitsewing; style of sewing, how a thing is sewn (PMP: *zaqit)

shait-ansewing machine (PMP: *zaqit)

shait-ento sew, mend something (as dress, a tear) (PMP: *zaqit)

shalablood (PAN: *daRaq)

shala-ansmear something with blood (PAN: *daRaq)

shalantrail, road; route; way (PMP: *zalan)

shalan-ento take a certain route (PMP: *zalan)

shanomwater; river or other body of water (as dam reservoir); juice (as of fruit); pus, or serious drainage from a wound or sore (PMP: *danum) *daNum

Ibaloy (460 / 582)

sheketto cause something to adhere (as adhesive tape); to stick --- especially of food that sticks to cooking pots; hard, thin mass of rice that sticks to the pot after cooking; (fig.) very sharp blade (as bolo) that bites into wood or bamboo, instead of bouncing off (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

shenom-anto add water to something (as cooking pot, rice field) (PAN: *danum-an) *daNum

shilatongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

shogocorner (as of a house) (PWMP: *zuRu)

showatwo – the cardinal number (PMP: *duha) *duSa

showa-ento make something two, i.e. by adding one to one or by dividing a larger amount (PMP: *duha-en) *duSa

showa-n poloten (PMP: *ŋa)

showa-showadoubt, indecision, uncertainty (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

siarticle, “personal” counterpart of both i and say; occurs with peoples names, titles when standing for the person and some kinship terms, especially in genitive ni phrases (PAN: *si₁)

sibeyeaves of a house (PPH: *sibay)

sibolto have a simple meal or snack that is composed of only a staple food (as rice, camote, bread) and a drink (as water, broth, coffee) (PMP: *simbuR)

sikadto stamp one’s foot or feet (as an impatient horse, children marching, frustrated person) (PPH: *sikad)

sikapcraft, guile, cunning (PPH: *sikap₁)

sikoelbow (PAN: *sikux)

siko-ento elbow, strike someone with the elbow (PWMP: *siku-en) *sikux

siksiksearch in the hair with one’s fingers for lice and lice eggs (PWMP: *siksik₁)

silsilchisel --- wedge of steel used to cut hard things (LOAN)

s<in>absab-aneating contest (PAN: *sabsab)

s<in>adsadthe method of cultivating a rice paddy --- breaking the mud clods with the feet (PPH: *sadsad)

sipiŋtwins (PPH: *sípiŋ)

Ibaloy (480 / 582)

siraviand, i.e. non-staple food that is eaten along with rice, other cereal, camote, taro at a meal; includes primary meat or fish and vegetables; functionally, food that induces appetite for the filling staple food (PPH: *siraq₂)

siyamnine --- the cardinal number (PPH: *siám)

siyaŋthe pleasant warmth of early morning sunshine (PWMP: *siaŋ)

siyokkind of bird: purple swamphen (PMP: *siuk)

siʔship-ento aim at something (as with a gun); to sight something in with the eye (as the levelness of land, the evenness of house posts) (PPH: *siq(e)rip-en) *siq(e)rip

siʔshohiccup (PWMP: *siqedu)

sodsodflat wooden utensil used to dish out rice from the pot (PPH: *sudsud₂)

sogatwound (PWMP: *suRat)

sokat-ento measure something --- spoken of volume (as liquid or dry measure) (PWMP: *sukat-en) *sukat

soɁkipto insert something (as money into book, hairpin into hair) (PPH: *suq(e)kip)

soksokto insert something into a narrow space (as pipe into headband, roofing grass into leaky spot) (PAN: *suksuk)

solatwriting, penmanship (LOAN)

solitone who does something slowly (PWMP: *sulit₁)

sonsonto stuff, cram something into something else (as handkerchief into pocket, animal fodder into sack, intestines of wounded man back into the abdominal cavity) (PPH: *sunsun)

soŋsoŋsnout of an animal; to smell something, especially of animals, and especially purposeful smelling (as a dog her pups) (PPH: *suŋsuŋ₃)

sosothe breast, including the nipple, both of males and the female mammary, both in humans and animals; the milk from the mammary glands or its substitute (PAN: *susu₁)

soso-ento suck something (as orange juice) (PAN: *susu₁)

sowanwalking stick or its equivalent (PMP: *suqan)

soyodharrow, the farming implement to loosen and level the soil for planting (LOAN)

tafirst person dual: we two, you and I (PAN: *-ta)

Ibaloy (500 / 582)

tabecause (PPH: *taq₁)

tabafat on a living animal or person (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabakotobacco (LOAN)

tabastrimmings, remnant, that remaining of something (as piece of cloth, galvanized sheeting) after the desirable piece has been removed; the “cut” of a person, i.e. his nature, characteristics (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tabdatie, no winner or loser, even score (LOAN)

tabokolcast net, throw net; fishing net that is thrown and pulled back, closing the mouth of the net and trapping the fish (PAN: *tabukul)

tabtabto eat voraciously, wolf down, gulp down, devour, eat one’s food with fervor --- esp. of animals (as pigs), but also figuratively of people (PAN: *tabtab₂)

tabʔaŋpertaining to the unpleasant bitter taste of water, esp. of brackish, salty water (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

taden-anesophagus (PWMP: *telen-an) *telen

tadtadact of cutting up meat into small pieces; deadfall trap: trap for large animals in which a heavy weight is arranged to fall on and kill or disable the prey (PWMP: *tadtád)

tadtar-anto finish the cutting up process (PPH: *tadtad-án) *tadtád

tadtar-ento cut, chop something into pieces; to cut on, draw blade across something with repeated motions (as in maliciously ruining the sleeve of a jacket); to cut up meat into small pieces --- an important step in butchering (PPH: *tadtad-én) *tadtád

tagip-ento slice something in several parallel slices (as sweet potato, loaf of bread) (PPH: *tájip)

taifecal excrement, dung, crap, poop; waste material (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai-anto defecate on something (as a child on his shirt) (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takaŋspread apart (PPH: *tákaŋ)

takbabackpack, pack frame --- general term for things worn on the back, esp. for carrying oads (PPH: *takbá)

takba-enesp. of animal copulation, when the male mounts the female with his front feet on the females back (PPH: *takbá)

takeda tie, fastening, binding --- what is wrapped around to hold something in place (PPH: *takéd)

takotfear for one’s bodily safety (PAN: *takut)

Ibaloy (520 / 582)

taltal-ento loosen something by striking it (as pipe fitting or bolt with a hammer, peg that holds plow parts together) to strike, jar something (as house wall with hammer) (PWMP: *taltal₁)

tama-anto hit on, especially of something done timely, fortuitously (as selling one’s vegetables when the price is high; or hitting on the ‘heart of the matter’); such a fortuitous happening, as with gold strikes (PAN: *tama₁)

tambak-anto pile something against, on, etc. something else (PWMP: *tambak-an) *tambak₂

tambaŋambush (PPH: *tambáŋ)

tambaŋ-anto lie in wait for something, esp. with the idea of killing (as enemy, animal being hunted) (PPH: *tambaŋ-an) *tambáŋ

tampipilightweight box for keeping one’s clothes, blankets, that can be used as a travelling bag (PPH: *tampipiq)

taŋeblid, cover (as of pot, coffin, can) (PMP: *taŋeb)

taŋeb-anto provide something with a lid or cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

taŋeb-ento cover something (PMP: *taŋeb)

taŋkal-anto put a concave object over something --- perhaps esp. something to catch a chicken (PPH: *taŋkal)

taŋpa-ento pay for an animal when it is newborn or in utero, at a low price, taking it when it is weaned (if it dies the buyer loses, so it is a gamble) (PPH: *taŋpaq)

taŋtaŋ-ento ring a bell (spoken of large bells (as at school, church) (PPH: *taŋtáŋ)

tapewtop surface (as of river, coat, contents of a box) (PPH: *taq(e)paw)

tapeyrice wine, rice beer (made from traditional kintoman rice; a necessary part of almost all ritual and festive gatherings) (PWMP: *tapay)

tapj-anto have rice wine go along with an animal butchered (PWMP: *tapay-an) *tapay

tapokdust as it swirls in the air or has settled on something (as when stirred by a vehicle) (PPH: *tapuk₂)

tapoŋto grind something to a fine powder (as coffee beans, rice to make flour) (PPH: *tapuŋ)

taposthe end, last one --- of the last day of the month or year, the end of a person’s life or the world (PAN: *tapus)

taroŋeggplant (LOAN)

tastasto dismantle something --- esp. of a house prior to moving it to another site, and roofing material prior to changing it, but also of such as clothing that is unstitched and resewn (PWMP: *tastas)

Ibaloy (540 / 582)

tata-ŋfather --- esp. as a term of address or a term of endearment; term of respect for village elders (PAN: *tata₁)

ta-tdothree (especially in counting people) (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tawalto call, summon someone to come (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

tawenyear (PMP: *taqun)

tayawthe traditional Ibaloy dance performed at many feast occasions (PPH: *tayaw)

taytaya bridge (PMP: *taytay)

taytay-anto bridge something (as a river) (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

taʔnay ~ tanʔaya bundle of rice stalks; at harvest the rice is cut along with enough of the stalk to give it a “handle”; a taɁnay, though varying in size from place to place, is a local standard of measure (PPH: *taq(e)nay)

taʔpil-ento put like things together in layers, in a stack (PMP: *taq(e)pil)

tebekinjection with medicine (PAN: *tebek)

tebelkind of tree with wide leaves and plentiful fruit that is not edible (revered traditionally as important to water; planted around water sources, and said to increase water where it is, esp. in wet ground) (PPH: *tebéR)

tedothree --- the cardinal number; three stars that appear together in a line; the group is said to reach its zenith at dawn during harvest time (August); could be the three bright summer stars, Vega, Deneb, and Altair (PAN: *telu)

tekaŋ-ento spread, force something apart to make a space between (PPH: *tákaŋ)

tekot-anto fear something (as a current in trying to cross a river) (PWMP: *takut-an) *takut

tektekkind of insect similar to cricket, whose call is “tek-tek-tek” (PAN: *tektek₂)

teŋednape of the neck and back of the head (PPH: *teŋel)

tepew-anto cover the surface of something (PPH: *taq(e)paw-an) *taq(e)paw

teshos-anto be able to understand, folllow something (as lecture, sermon) (PWMP: *tarus)

te-tbek-ento puncture, stick in something (as bait for trap) (PAN: *tebek)

te-tden-ento swallow something (PMP: *telen)

Ibaloy (560 / 582)

tiktikthe two pieces of iron that are held, one in each hand, and beaten together by one of those accompanying the tayaw dance, making a dull sound (PAN: *tiktik)

timbaŋ-anscales; do something inmoderation, with discretion, judiciously (PWMP: *timbaŋ-an) *timbaŋ

timbaŋ-ento weigh something (PWMP: *timbaŋ-en) *timbaŋ

timelflea (PWMP: *timel)

timidchin’ (PMP: *timid) *timij

timtimmovement of the lips accompanied by little or no sound (PPH: *timtim)

t<in>adtadsmall chunks of meat (PPH: *t<in>adtád) *tadtád

tiŋalverb referring to a large wad, mass crammed into the mouth (PPH: *tiŋal)

tiŋal-ento put, cram, wedge something large into the mouth; (in butchering) to put a piece of wood into a pig’s mouth after it has been killed --- part of the butchering tradition (PPH: *tiŋal)

tiponfor three or more to come together, be united, joined (as earnings of a whole family brought together); of the newly married or those brought together after a marital separation (PPH: *típun)

tobaa kind of shrub; its leaves, fruit and roots are poisonous and are pounded in slow-moving water to intoxicate (disorient) the fish and make them easy to catch (PAN: *tuba)

toboŋsections of bamboo internodes that were traditionally used to store salt, chili peppers, sugar (PWMP: *tubuŋ)

todembruise, black eye (PPH: *tudem)

todoŋ-anto help someone (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tokakkind of small white, nonedible frog; usual habitat is ponds and ricefields, where they make loud noise at night (PPH: *tukák)

tokodpost, esp. of house posts, but also of other structures that have supporting posts (as stairs, bridges) (PAN: *tukud)

toktokhead; other physical features corresponding to the head, with qualifying ni phrase, e.g. toktok ni shontog ‘top of the mountain (PAN: *tuktuk₂)

toladimouth flute made of bolo bamboo (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

toleŋdeafness (PPH: *tuleŋ)

toloŋhelp --- especially of help other than with field work (as help with expenses, sick person’s work, government assistance) (PMP: *tuluŋ)

Ibaloy (580 / 582)

tostos-ento cut something into tiny pieces (as tobacco); to roll a cigarette (PPH: *tustus₂)

ʔatuŋburned, scalded skin, eyes, or other body part (as by fire, boiling water) (PPH: *hátuŋ)

ʔi-tuludto help something along, take someone, something somewhere (as by giving a boost, accompanying to a certain place, etc.) (PPH: *i-tulúd) *tulúd

220. Iban (1624) WMP (Richards 1981) [iba] Malaysia (Sarawak) (dialects: Lemanak [iba] 2)

abasexamination, reconnaissance; go and see, visit, examine, look into, hear a case (NOISE)

abiseveryone, all, the whole, entirely; finished, used up (PWMP: *qabis)

abokmess, shavings, sawdust, dust, padi bran (PMP: *qabuk)

abudust, fine ash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

abulfloat; buoy; raft (LOAN)

abusashes (PMP: *abus)

acaŋdomestic pigeon (PWMP: *acaŋ)

acarIndian spiced pickles of fruit or vegetable (LOAN)

acokthrust, pierce, poke (PWMP: *hacuk)

adaiborn, be born, give birth; supply, provide; have, possess (PWMP: *wada-i) *wada

adapaspect, position; to face, seek an interview, go before, appear before, present oneself; on the side of, towards (PMP: *qadep)

adihexclamation of pain or surprise (PWMP: *ajiq)

adih ~ adohexclamation of pain or surprise (NEAR)

adohexclamation of pain or surprise, adih; cry to a child to sooth it (PMP: *aduq)

aduarbitrate, arrange, settle, adjust; complaint, appeal (PWMP: *adu)

agamconsider, think, reckon that (PWMP: *agam)

agar-agarjelly made from edible sea-weeds (Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Sphaerococcus, and other spp.) often colored and flavored with pandan (kerupok) (LOAN)

agaslarge whitish sandfly that bites only at night (LOAN)

aiɁ chukaɁvinegar (LOAN)

ai pandiʔbathing place, bathing pool (PWMP: *pa-andiʔ) *andiʔ

Iban (20 / 1624)

aiʔ niurwater from green nut (PMP: *niuR)

aiʔ rayaspring tides (PAN: *Raya)

aiʔ tabarfresh water (PWMP: *tabaR)

aiʔ terejuncataract (LOAN) Iban

ajuhterm of address used between men (only intimates) (PWMP: *azuq)

akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence; deceive, delude (LOAN)

akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence (LOAN)

ak-andistant cousin; polite form of address to a younger person (PWMP: *kam-anak-en) *aNak

akarcreeper or anything used for binding or generally as a substitute for rotan (except in mat-making) (PMP: *wakaR)

akuI, me, my, mine (PAN: *aku)

alahbeaten, defeated; subdue, vanquish (PWMP: *alaq₂)

alahbeaten, defeated; subdue (PWMP: *alaq₂)

alaŋbeam (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

alaŋ-alaŋinsufficient, (do) half-heartedly (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ)

alihchange (PMP: *aliq)

alupestle of hard wood used to pound padi, etc. (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

alun(of sea) swell, rollers, surge (PMP: *qalun)

alun-alunwaves or swell (PWMP: *qalun qalun) *qalun

alur(main) current of a river, hence the deep channel (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

amalpractices for acquiring strength or beauty (LOAN)

Iban (40 / 1624)

amaŋmenace, threaten, aim (weapon) at; (hence) test, try (someone) (PWMP: *amaŋ amaŋ)

ambailover, sweetheart (PWMP: *abay)

ambatlend a hand (to hold steady) (PWMP: *abat₁)

ambatintercept, (hence) stalk prey as a cat does; block, surround and catch (PMP: *qambat)

ambatgo to meet (NOISE)

ambatgo to meet (NOISE)

ambihfinished (PWMP: *qabiq)

ambinlarge wide basket with strap(s) for carrying padi (PWMP: *hambin)

ambis seputout of breath (PWMP: *seput)

amboŋproud, haughty (PWMP: *ambuŋ)

ambullight (as cotton, feathers, cork); float attached to fishing net (LOAN)

ambundew, damp (PWMP: *ambun)

amburscatter, sprinkle (as rice in feeding chickens) (PWMP: *qambuR)

amokattack, run amuck; passion, enthusiasm, do with keenness, slave away at (PMP: *hamuk)

amparspread (as a cloth on a table) (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

ampaʔempty ears (of rice) (Scott 1956); worthless, empty; rubbish, husk, chaff (Richards 1981) (PMP: *qapah)

ampinbaby's napkin, nappy (PMP: *hapin)

ampirencroach, come foraging; approach threateningly or suspiciously (PWMP: *hampir)

ampunforgiveness, pardon, submission; apologize, confess (PMP: *ampun)

anakchild, son, daughter, offspring, youngster, junior; small, a little, young (PMP: *anak) *aNak

Iban (60 / 1624)

anak ambuʔadopted child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak ampaŋbastard (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak ampaŋbastard, child with no known or recognized father; valueless, 'black sheep' (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

anak buaha relation (PMP: *anak buaq) *aNak

anak bunsuyoungest child in a family; joint (in wood work); final tuck of knot or lashing; last knot in finishing a mat, point or climax of a story (LOAN)

anak duitinterest on money (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak impunsmall fry, small fish that swim in shoals (PMP: *hipun₁)

anak kulilaborer (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

anak mitbaby (PMP: *emit)

anak oraŋanother person's child (PMP: *anak i tau) *aNak

anak patuorphan (with neither parent) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak sapittwin (PMP: *anak apij) *aNak

anak tiriʔstepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak tuaieldest child, heir (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anaŋin prohibitions: don't; you must, don't fail to (PWMP: *anaŋ)

anaŋ aŋu-aŋudon't be silly (Scott 1956), silly, foolish, fond (Richards 1981) (PWMP: *aŋu aŋu)

anawa palm: Arena spp. (PWMP: *qanahaw)

ancitsend flying, shoot out like a shot (as a spinning top) (ROOT)

anitgnaw, nibble, tear off with the teeth (as the skin of a fruit) (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

ansagoose (LOAN)

Iban (80 / 1624)

ansahgrind, sharpen (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

ansakurge, incite, move towards; egg on (PWMP: *asag)

ansakpress back, drive back (as enemy in battle) (PMP: *hasek₂)

ansaŋgills of fish (PMP: *hasaŋ)

ansaulook about in search of anything (PWMP: *ansaw)

antahpadi in the husk that still remains after pounding (PWMP: *ataq)

antamstrike (as a wave striking a boat); go on with (PWMP: *qantem)

antapcover, patch, lining, backing (PAN: *aCab)

antinearring (LOAN)

antiʔwait for, lie in wait for (NOISE)

antuspirit, demon, or devil that can enter into men; familiar spirit, esp. of ancestor, in whatever guise it appears; the dead; any denizen of another world, the first being existing at the creation (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

antu imbokfemale demon (PMP: *imbuk)

antu palaʔhead trophy, dried head of an enemy (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

a-nuʔsome(thing), i.e. not specified (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

añamweave (of baskets and mats), braid, plait (PMP: *añam)

aŋathot, feverish, angry, heat (NOISE)

aŋgapreckon, calculate, think, consider, look ahead; forethought, foresight (PWMP: *a(ŋ)gap)

aŋisweet smelling, scented (PWMP: *aŋi)

aŋinwind, breeze; report, rumor, lie (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋin selatanhot south wind of the burning-off season (PWMP: *salatan)

Iban (100 / 1624)

aŋin selatanhot south wind of the burning-off season (PWMP: *silatan)

aŋispuffed, blown out of breath, perspire (NOISE)

aŋitfresh or fragrant smell, cause to smell sweet, flavor (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

aŋkutcarry in many loads or continuously, shift, remove, esp. of bringing in the harvest (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

aŋuhalf-witted, silly (PWMP: *aŋu aŋu)

apawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

apai tuaian old man (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

apalword perfect (LOAN)

apifire, light, lamp, spark (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

apia tree: Calophyllum obliquinervium Merr. (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

api baraʔ('smouldering fire') praise name of Ngelingkan, ancestor of Tuang of Ulu Klauh and Pengulu Ngali of Delok, whose remains are kept in the house at Engkramut (PMP: *baRah hapuy) *baRah

apisrattan bag or basket (PWMP: *apis)

apissmall plaited rotan bag for betel (pinaŋ), etc. (NOISE)

apitsqueeze, press (as a hand caught in a closing door) (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC Iban

apitsqueeze, press; next in order (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

apokfog, mist; dust, dirt (PWMP: *apuk)

apok empelawaʔ(old) cobwebs (PWMP: *apuk)

apuscomplete, finish, end (PMP: *qa(m)pus)

arakarrack, rice spirit, distilled from a fermented mash (LOAN)

arakarrack, rice spirit distilled from a fermented mash (LOAN)

Iban (120 / 1624)

araʔparasite fig (PMP: *qaRaʔ)

ariday (PAN: *waRi₁)

arisline, family (LOAN)

aruscurrent (in stream) (PMP: *qaRus)

asalorigin, race; habit, peculiarity (LOAN)

asamsour, acid, sulky; plants yielding sour fruit (used in preserves and for flavoring), esp. trees of Mangifera spp. (PWMP: *qalesem)

asapsmoke, steam (PWMP: *asep)

asaʔdisappointed, deceived (LOAN)

asiltithe, tribute, revenue, reward, profit, returns (LOAN)

asiʔvictim, dupe (PWMP: *asih)

asiʔcooked rice (PWMP: *asiʔ)

asuhunt, hunting (PAN: *asu₁)

atapthatch, roofing of any kind (PMP: *qatep)

atap apoŋnipa thatch (PMP: *qatep)

atap belianironwood shingles (PMP: *qatep)

atap muloŋsago thatch (long-lasting) (PMP: *qatep)

atasupon, above, over, (of position) upper (PMP: *atas) *aCas

atiheart, feeling, mind, disposition (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ati besai(lit. 'big liver') boastful, talking big (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

atisexclaim; exclaim and egg on; (call out and) encourage people to quarrel (PWMP: *atis)

Iban (140 / 1624)

aturarrangement, order, decision; arrange, set in order, decide (LOAN)

aurgeneric for kinds of large bamboo, payan, esp. Gigantochloa scortechinii and Bambusa wrayi (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

austhirst, thirsty (NOISE)

auʔaffirmative, yes, indeed; give assent, agree to, accept (PAN: *auʔ)

awancloud (PWMP: *hawan)

awicloth, cover, coverlet, counterpane, bedspread, shawl (PWMP: *awi)

ayampet (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ayamplaything, toy, pet (PWMP: *qayam₃)

aya-ʔuncle, stepfather. Term of address for men of speaker's father's generation; term of reference for the hearer's father (PMP: *aya₂)

ayaʔ ibuʔaunt (PMP: *aya₂)

ayunswing (as for a child) (PWMP: *hayun)

b. daraa frivolous woman (NOISE)

baat, in, on, with (PMP: *ba₃)

baunder, below (PMP: *ba₄)

babaktake off, pull down, undo, tear away, pull out, pull up by the roots (PMP: *bakbak₁)

babalignorant, thoughtless, slow-witted, forgetful, absent-minded (PWMP: *balbal₂)

babipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

babi menoadomestic pig (PMP: *babuy banua) *babuy₃

babutroot up, pluck out, pull out, weed (ROOT)

badisudden attack of sickness (PWMP: *badi)

Iban (160 / 1624)

bagaklively, vivacious (as a woman, when guests are present) (PWMP: *bagak)

bagishare, part; divide, distinguish; divide bilik property after a death and allot the shares equally to the survivors (PMP: *baqagi)

ba(h)exclamation to direct attention (PMP: *ba₂)

bajauraid, ravage, ravish, make a foray (Richards 1981) (PWMP: *bazaw)

bakain spite of (PMP: *baka)

bakatchoppy (of water), small waves made by wind and tide in shallow water (PWMP: *bakat)

bakautrue mangrove: Rhizophora spp. (PWMP: *bakehaw)

bakoŋplants of Amaryllis family growing on river banks, Crinum spp. (esp. Crinum asiaticum: also water lilies, Nymphaea spp., and probably Indian lotus, Nelumbium spp. (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

balakuncircumcised (NOISE)

balaŋlarge bottle (LOAN)

bali belantan bali belumpoŋpatterns or kinds of ritual cloth (NOISE)

balikturn, turn to look at; turned speech in which syllables are said in reverse order (PMP: *balik₂)

baliʔchanging (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

balunlarge rough bundle (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

balutwrapping; band, bandage, small bundle; wrap up, entangle (PWMP: *balut₂)

bambaŋlarge, broad (as leaves) (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₁)

bambaŋlarge, broad (ROOT)

bandoŋlarge sailing vessel; matching pair, set (PWMP: *banduŋ)

bantalcushion, pillow; bundle of cloth or clothes (PWMP: *bantal)

bantiŋwild ox (temadau) (LOAN)

Iban (180 / 1624)

bantunpull out, pull up, pluck out, weed (PMP: *bantun)

baŋkalsmall trees, Nauclea sp. (PMP: *baŋkal)

baŋkatlarge basket (PWMP: *ba(ŋ)kat)

baŋkaupike, short round spike on a staff; baŋkau also applies to the long bayonets of the early 19th century fixed to ironwood staves for arming Fortmen (Richards (1981)) (PWMP: *baŋkaw)

baŋkaycorpse, dead body of any animal; to call a person baŋkay in swearing is a gross insult (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋsalshed (PWMP: *baŋsal)

baŋunbeat, thresh (? to revive) (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

barahabscess (PAN: *baReq)

baraŋany; about; whatever, however (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baraŋ-kaliperhaps (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baratwest, western, westerly (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

baraʔgiven up to frivolity (NOISE)

barisrow, line, military array (LOAN)

barunew, modern; anew, again; just (now) (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

basahwet, moist, damp (PMP: *baseq)

basoŋsmall basket (PWMP: *basuŋ)

batakpull, drag, haul; withdraw (PWMP: *batak)

bataŋprincipal member or part (as of river); tree, tree trunk, log, stem; numeral coefficient for rigid things, as posts, cigarettes, spears, trees (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batasraised path or bund (as in a paddy field) (PMP: *bates)

batokcough (PMP: *batuk₁)

Iban (200 / 1624)

batustone, rock, ore, stone-hard, made of stone, talisman, charms used by shamans for protection, for invisibility, or for clear sight when seeking errant souls in the afterworld (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu ansahwhetstone (PWMP: *batu hasaq) *batux

batu apiflintstone (PMP: *batu hapuy) *batux

batu kiñaŋtranslucent stone, crystal (PWMP: *kiñaŋ)

batu kulatnoxious talisman (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

bayacrocodile: Crocodilus porosus (in estuaries), Crocodilus siamensis (in freshwater swamps); manifestation of a water deity (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bayakmonitor lizard, Varanus spp., esp. V. salvator (PWMP: *bayawak)

bebalobstruction, dam (PMP: *belbel₁)

bebaŋstop, hinder, check (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

bebarterrified flight; scatter, disperse (as chickens frightened by a civet cat) (PMP: *berber₁)

be-buatto load (PMP: *buhat₃)

be-buŋaibe in flower, to flower (PWMP: *buŋa-i) *buŋa

bedakface powder (LOAN)

be-daunhave leaves; to flame, of fire (PWMP: *maR-dahun) *dahun

bedilsmall gun (usually Muzzle-loaded) as opposed to meriam (large cannon) or senapaŋ (shotgun, rifle). Many bedil were cast in bronze at Brunei, often decorated and with twin barrels, for use from houses or boats bedil keretas firecrackers (LOAN)

begaualarm, panic; be alarmed (PWMP: *begaw)

be-jual be-belibuying and selling (LOAN)

bejurstretched out (ROOT)

bekakastork-billed kingfisher (PWMP: *bakaka)

bekalsupplies, provisions; provide for, esp. for a journey; advice, instruction (PWMP: *bekel)

Iban (220 / 1624)

bekautrace, track, mark, footprint; remains of, showing traces of, as a result of (PMP: *bekas₃)

be-kiloŋcrooked (PAN: *kiluŋ)

belacuʔcalico, any cheap, plain, unbleached cloth (LOAN)

belahsection, division, lot, piece; split, crack, divide in two (PAN: *belaq)

belahvarious trees: Ixora spp. (NOISE)

belakaŋback, rear, behind, after (PWMP: *balakaŋ)

belanakgrey mullet: Mugil spp. (PWMP: *balanak)

belaŋLeucoderma, mottling of the skin from loss of pigment (usually seen in the palms and soles); piebald, black and white in patches (of the coloration of pigs) (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

belaŋaʔwide-mouthed earthenware cooking pot (PMP: *balaŋa)

-belassuffix to the numbers 1-9 which makes them mean the numbers 11-19 (LOAN)

belatcane fishing screen or net (with canes horizontal) usually set across stream or current (PWMP: *bakelad)

belatcane fishing screen or net (with canes horizontal) usually set across stream or current (PMP: *belat₂)

belatcane fishing screen or net (with canes horizontal), usually set across stream or current (PWMP: *belet)

belatiktrap consisting of a low frame from which a spear is hurled when the trap is sprung (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

belatokwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

beledibucket, pail (LOAN)

belibuy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

belianperform a rite of Shamanistic curing or exorcism (pelian) (PWMP: *balian)

belidaʔmarine fish (PWMP: *balida)

belimbiŋfive-ridged fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Averrhoa carambola L. (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

Iban (240 / 1624)

belioŋadze (PWMP: *baliuŋ)

belitcoil, twist (as a python around something); twisted (PMP: *belit₂)

beloŋbent, crooked, out of true (PWMP: *beluŋ)

be-lubaŋhaving a hole or hollow (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

be-lukapbe turned up at the edge, as a mat (PWMP: *lukab)

beluŋgiŋ buia somersault (beluŋgiŋ = fall head first) (PMP: *bui₃)

belutworm, earthworm (LOAN)

bembairush or reed with fragrant white flower: Clinogyne dichotoma, and Donax, Cyperus spp. The skin is stripped for making mats which often have fine patterns in them but are not durable (PWMP: *benban)

bembairush or reed with fragrant white flower: Clinogyne dichotoma, and Donax, Cyperus spp. The skin is stripped for making mats which often have fine patterns in them but are not durable (PWMP: *benben₂)

benaʔtidal bore in a river (PMP: *bena)

benciʔabhor, shun, hate (LOAN)

bendamovable property of (ritual) value, esp. jars (LOAN)

bendiraflag (LOAN)

bendulcross-beam (LOAN)

benihseed; sow (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bentaŋrotan or cord stretched across a river with charms and offerings attached to it, to isolate and protect the people within it from sickness known to prevail outside (PMP: *benteŋ)

bentoknumeral classifier for circular ring-like things (PMP: *bentuk)

benturbend (as a branch that is weighted down) (PMP: *be(n)tuR)

benturbend (as a branch that is weighted down) (PMP: *be(n)tur)

bentutnot fresh (as fish) (PWMP: *bentut)

Iban (260 / 1624)

benuaŋ, menuaŋquick growing softwood riparian tree similar to entipoŋ, Octomeles sumatrana Miq. (PWMP: *banuaŋ)

benuaŋ, menuaŋquickly growing softwood riparian tree similar to entipoŋ (Anthocephalus cadamba: Octomeles sumatrana Miq. (PWMP: *benuaŋ)

beŋaltemporarily or partially deaf (PMP: *beŋel)

beŋkahdivision, part, class, lot; put aside (PMP: *bekaq)

beŋkokcrooked (PMP: *bekuk)

beŋkoŋrim (biŋkai) or ring-frame, usually of rattan or creeper, e.g. in a fish trap (bubu), etc. (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

beŋkoŋ beledihandle of a bucket (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

beŋkoŋ taŋgirim of a sunhat (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

be-piakhalved, divided (PWMP: *pihak)

berailanguish, pine for, miss (LOAN)

ber-anakgive birth; bear interest (money) (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

beranidaring, bold, brave, confident, adventurous, foolhardy (PMP: *baRani)

beraŋaiwar boat, esp. the 'boat' in which the souls of the dead travel the Mandai River (PWMP: *baraŋay)

beraŋansmall trees yielding a small chestnut: Castanopsis spp. (PWMP: *baraŋan₂)

berasrice husked or milled but uncooked (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

beratheavy, ponderous (hence unwilling), burdensome, oppressive, important (PMP: *beReqat)

berekasbundle, ball (PMP: *beRkes)

beresiclean (LOAN)

b-er-ibitcarry by a fold (as in a bag or a cloth held by one hand), (of crabs) carry in the claws (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

beribitcarry by a fold (as in a bag or cloth held by one hand), (of crabs) carry in the claws (ROOT)

Iban (280 / 1624)

berisshower, drizzle, spray (ROOT)

beriʔdowry; to give (PMP: *beRay₂) *beRay

berokpig-tailed macaque (LOAN)

beruaŋMalay (or Malayan Sun) Bear, "Honey Bear", Helarctos sp. (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

beruruan herb, Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., used as liniment; a climber, Mucuna biplicata, used as lashings and in medicine; (PWMP: *baluRu)

besaibig, large, great; be as big as; think highly of, treat as important (LOAN)

be-saupcombine (to do something) (PWMP: *saqup)

be-sekatto ration, as food (PWMP: *seked)

besiiron (LOAN)

besi baristeel (NOISE)

betaboh begausound an alarm (by beating rapidly on tawak drum) (PWMP: *begaw)

betahfor a long time, able to persist (PWMP: *betaq₁)

be-teleŋkasmoving quickly (travelling light) (ROOT)

betikpawpaw, papaya (Malay loan) (LOAN)

betislower leg (knee to ankle) (PAN: *beties)

betis ñantan, buah betiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

betoŋvery large bamboo: Dendrocalamus asper (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

betulexact (LOAN)

betuʔburn the skin, scald, be scalded (PMP: *betuʔ₂) *beCuʔ

be-uŋkat-uŋkatintermittently; do or carry little by little (PWMP: *uŋkat)

Iban (300 / 1624)

biasrain storm with high wind, driving rain (PWMP: *bias)

biauwave about, wave to someone; wave a fowl over a person or thing as a minor rite (NOISE)

bibirlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibirrim (PMP: *birbir₁)

bibitpinch between finger (knuckle) and thumb (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bicaralawsuit, case (LOAN)

bidaŋnumeral classifier for things spread out when in use, e.g. cloth, skirt, leaf matting, land, mats (esp. heavy kinds) (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidaŋnumeral classifier for things spread out when in use (cloth, skirt, palm leaf matting, land, mats -- esp. heavy kinds) (LOAN)

bidaʔkick or stumble against (PWMP: *bida)

bidoksmall heavy boat (LOAN)

bikoŋgeneric for cutting tool angled like a scythe or golf-club (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

bilahnumeral classifier for blades (PWMP: *bilaq)

bilikroom; walled-off part of longhouse, belonging to single family; family that inhabits a bilik (PMP: *bilik)

bilisanchovy, very small fish of Stolephorus and other spp., usually salted and dried (PWMP: *bilis)

bilokturn (as a rudder); crooked, unjust, unfair (PMP: *biluk)

bilutcrooked, turned (of a cutting edge); crumpled, puckered; make faces, grimace at (PWMP: *bilut)

bimbigoat (LOAN)

binatto stretch (as a sheet of rubber) (PWMP: *binat)

binataŋanimal (LOAN)

biniwife; married woman (PAN: *b<in>ahi) *bahi

Iban (320 / 1624)

bintaŋstar; medal, decoration (LOAN)

bintaŋ pariSouthern Cross (constellation) (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

bintaŋ timurthe Morning Star (PMP: *timuR)

bintaŋurtrees: Calophyllum spp. (PWMP: *bintaŋuR)

bintarspread out (as a cloth) (PWMP: *bitaD)

bintih(of birds) fight with legs and spurs, attack; (of a cock) tread a hen; kick the shins (of people) (PMP: *bintiq)

bintis(of birds) fight with legs and spurs, attack, (of a cock) tread a hen (PMP: *bities)

binuaŋquick growing softwood riparian tree similar to entipoŋ (Anthocephalus cadamba): Octomeles sumatrana Miq. (PWMP: *binuaŋ)

biŋakwide (nostrils), stretched open (basket) (NEAR)

biŋkairim made to strengthen the edge of a container (as a basket) (PWMP: *biŋkay)

biŋkokcrooked (PWMP: *bikug)

birahan aroid associated with itchiness: Alocasia macrorrhiza (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

biriŋred-brown color, esp. of fighting cocks; (of human beings) flushed, ruddy of countenance (PMP: *biRiŋ₁)

biristhin slice, sliver, strip (PWMP: *biris)

birublue, usually dark blue (LOAN)

biruʔsmall fan palms of the forest floor, whose disc-like leaves are divided to the center into wedge-shaped leaflets: Licuala sp. (Licuala glabra?). The leaflets are used for roofing, forest shelters, for wrapper mats and for hats (PMP: *biRu)

bisastrong, powerful, effective; poisonous (as a snake); fierce (as a hornet's sting) (LOAN)

bisaktorn; tear (PMP: *biseqak)

bisinbasin, large bowl (LOAN)

bisuʔdumb, be dumb (LOAN)

Iban (340 / 1624)

bokhair of the head (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

buahfruit of any kind, berry, nut; anything rounded or resembling a fruit (calf of the leg, biceps); pattern, design; numeral classifier for e.g. buildings, boats (PMP: *buaq)

buah beruruseed box used as container (PWMP: *baluRu)

buah betiscalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

buah bunutkind of scented horse-mango (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buah buŋasfirst fruit (of the season or a tree) (PMP: *buŋas)

buah jakoʔone to be spoken of and remembered (in song); famous, renowned in story (PMP: *buaq)

buah niurcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

buah rayabumper fruit season (PAN: *Raya)

buastree of Vitex sp. (NOISE)

buatinvent a story, make something up (PMP: *buhat₂)

buattake on cargo, have capacity for (especially boats), stow (PMP: *buhat₃)

buauempty (of grain in the ear), inferior (of belian wood) (PWMP: *buqaw)

buaythrow away, throw out, do away with, abolish, abandon, banish (PMP: *buqaŋ)

bubohpour out, pour away (as water from a container) (PMP: *buqbuq)

buboksmall beetle, unid. whose larvae bore into wood, (also?) a big black beetle that burrows in soft wood, unid. (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bubuany fish trap having a narrow opening so that the fish can enter but cannot get out. Usually conical, of rattan and creeper, with an inner cone of sharp spikes (ijap) fitted in the frame (beŋkoŋ) of the mouth (many named varieties) (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubunfontanelle (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

buburjellyfish, sea nettle, swimming bell, Medusa spp. The common white kind is preserved in brine by Chinese (PAN: *bubuR₁)

buburrice or sago gruel, porridge, used to eke out a meagre rice supply, esp. by poor Chinese (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

Iban (360 / 1624)

bubur candursweetened rice or sago pudding (PWMP: *candur)

bubusholed, pierced (as a shoe by a nail); break through (as a fence) (PMP: *busbus)

bubutcommon coucal or crow pheasant: Centropus sinensis Stephens, named from the call and associated with death (PWMP: *butbut₁) *butbut

bucurflow through a hole, usually of a container leaking out, as opposed to a roof leaking in (tiris) (LOAN)

budawstupid; disgraceful; disgrace oneself, give oneself a bad name (LOAN)

buihfroth, foam, spume; swirl in water caused by movement below; crocodile (PMP: *buqiq)

bujokflatter, caress, persuade (LOAN)

bukaiother, another (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

bukaʔopen (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

bukithill, steep land, mountain (distinct from gunoŋ, large forested mountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukit-anpeople of the Kakus River and adjacent areas in southern Sarawak (PWMP: *bukij-an) *bukij

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaŋcord with which an artificial spur is tied to the leg of a fighting cock (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bular(of the eyes) dim, glazed, clouded (PAN: *bulaR₁)

bulatround, rounded (PWMP: *buled₂)

bulaʔlying, false, tell a lie (LOAN)

bulohbamboo, Bambusa and other spp.; anything tubular resembling bamboo (shotgun barrel, etc.) (PAN: *buluq₂)

buloh aiʔcane grass or rush common in downriver flat land (PAN: *buluq₂)

bulufeather, quill, fur, hair (except of the head); kind, sort, color, pattern (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu bansueyebrow (PMP: *bulu₁)

Iban (380 / 1624)

bulu landakporcupine quill (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu manokchicken feathers (PMP: *bulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

bulu mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

bulu ulathairy swarming caterpillar, unid. (PMP: *qulej bulu-an) *bulu₁

bumboŋconical bark container for resin (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

buncisbeans (LOAN)

bunohkill, slay, murder; destroy (skin disease, warts), extirpate (trees from cleared land) (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunsuyoungest child in a family (PWMP: *buŋsu)

buntalglobe or puffer fish: Tetrodon and other species...There are two kinds, both poisonous: the yellow, buntal pisaŋ can be eaten, but only after careful preparation to remove the poisonous parts (PMP: *buntal)

buntascut through, cut open, lance (as a boil) (PWMP: *butas₂)

buntilbag made from prepared bark; bag slung from he shoulders for chewing materials, etc. (PWMP: *buntil)

buntutend, butt-end; last person in a row; innermost (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

buntut kandibottom of a bag (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

buntut laŋithighest heaven, zenith (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

buntut woŋfoot of a rapid (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

buntuʔbloated, swollen, rotten (of fish); (of old men) fat, bloated (PMP: *buntuʔ)

bunuttrees of Calophyllum spp. yielding a white bark cloth (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buñinoise, report, sound; make a sound, utter (PMP: *buñi)

buŋaiflower, blossom, garden flower (PWMP: *buŋa-i) *buŋa

buŋasnew, untainted, unused, brand new (PMP: *buŋas)

Iban (400 / 1624)

buŋawsleepy (as after too short a sleep); giddy (PWMP: *buŋaw₁)

buŋkaropen up, take apart; unload (as cargo from a boat); disassemble (as a hut, the pieces of which will be used again) (PMP: *buŋkaR)

buŋkasstrip off boat awnings (i.e. make all secure in a storm) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋkokbent, stooping, humpbacked (PMP: *buŋkuk)

buŋkoŋbutt of tree branch (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

buŋkoŋ genaluknot in wood, swelling on tree trunk (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

buŋkoŋ pasubranch growing horizontally before turning upwards (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

buŋkulhump (of oxen) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋkusbundle, parcel, packet of cooked rice; to wrap (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋurtrees of Lagerstroemia spp., esp. L. flos-reginae Retz., Queen Flower tree (PAN: *buŋuR)

burikspeckled, streaky (black and white), a color of fighting cocks (PWMP: *burik)

buritbottom, base (as of a jar); bottom, rump, posterior (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

buritbottom, base (as of a jar); bottom, rump, posterior (PMP: *burit₁)

burokrotten (as a tree stump), septic (as a wound); lazy, good-for-nothing (PAN: *buRuk)

buroŋbird, bird-like; frequented by birds; initial component in the names of many birds; omen, omen bird (or animal, insect), seek omens, practice augury (LOAN)

buroŋsmall contract; piecework; price for the job (LOAN)

buroŋ bulohthe hornbill (PAN: *buluq₂)

buroŋ kuŋkoŋBlack and yellow broadbill: Eurylaimus ochromalus Raffles (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₅)

burudrive away, send away, ostracize (as in sending someone away from the longhouse) (PAN: *buRaw)

burutswollen testicles, orchitis; hydrocele (LOAN)

Iban (420 / 1624)

burutswollen testicles, orchitis; hydrocele (NOISE)

busokrotten and stinking (PMP: *busuk)

busoŋafflicted with supernatural punishment for blasphemy, for uttering prohibited names of marrying within prohibited degrees; often heard as part of a prayer not to fall into sin and misery (PWMP: *busuŋ)

butirwart (PMP: *buteliR)

butohpenis; penis-like projection (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butoh antu rayaa poisonous fungus (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butoh dilahuvula (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butoh dilahuvula (lit. ‘penis of the tongue’) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

butoh padisharp tip of padi husk (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

cabuttake out, pull out or up (as grass); withdraw, subtract (PMP: *cabut)

cakahcontradict, dispute with, oppose (PWMP: *cakaq)

campurmix; mixed, mingled (NEAR)

caŋkasfit, proper, strong, young (ROOT)

cekalthrottle, strangle (PMP: *cekel)

celapaʔbrass betel box (PWMP: *calapaʔ)

cepakslapping, lapping (as water under a boat) (PMP: *cep(e)qak)

cepoknoise of movement in water (PMP: *cepuk)

cerik-ceriktalk in a shrill voice (PMP: *cerik)

ciapcheep, cheeping (as chicks) (PWMP: *ciap)

cibitpinch between thumb and forefinger knuckle (PWMP: *cibít)

Iban (440 / 1624)

ciritdiarrhoea, have diarrhoea (PWMP: *cirit)

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

dadampuerperal fever (PAN: *dajem)

dadamvery cold, be cold and shivery (PWMP: *damdam)

daiforehead (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

dakphlegm, mucus, sputum (PWMP: *dahak)

dakiʔdirt or stain on the skin (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

dalamdeep (as water); sensible, judicious, thoughtful; in, into, inside, referring to house, heart (usually alam); however (much) (PMP: *dalem)

damarresin, trade name for a natural exudation from trees (mostly of Dipterocarp spp., esp. Shorea spp.) (PAN: *damaR)

dampaʔtemporary longhouse built by a group of families farming contiguous land at a distance from the main longhouse (NOISE)

danbranch, bough (PMP: *daqan₁)

danawlake, natural pond, shallow pool, land flooded permanently or for long periods at regular intervals (PAN: *danaw)

dapurhearth, fireplace for cooking (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

darayoung woman, unmarried woman, maiden; (of women) smart (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dara buŋasa virgin (PMP: *buŋas)

darahblood; bleed; stock, race; the red sap of some trees (PAN: *daRaq)

daratland, as opposed to river or sea (PMP: *daRat)

dataycome, arrive, reach; send; bring; until, as far as (PMP: *dateŋ)

daunleaf; page (of book); blade (of knife); sheet (of paper), card (PMP: *dahun)

daun ititherb, unid. (PWMP: *itik₃)

Iban (460 / 1624)

daun paitwild leaf used as flavoring in cooking (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

dawareport, inform on (LOAN)

dawaywire (LOAN)

dedakdust, powder (PMP: *dekdek)

dedak beraurice bran (PMP: *dekdek)

dedatpacked, crammed in (as things in a box) (PWMP: *detdet)

demamfever, feverish (NEAR)

demam dadampuerperal fever (PWMP: *damdam)

demparflat (of forehead or back of hand) (PWMP: *de(m)paD)

dendamgrudge, feud; be spiteful (PAN: *demdem₁)

deŋutmurmur, grunt, whine, squeal (as young pigs), any protesting sound (PWMP: *deŋut)

deŋutmurmur, grunt, whine, squeal (as young pigs), any protesting sound (ROOT)

depaʔspan of the arms outstretched (between tips of middle fingers), fathom; lengths of cane, rope, etc., and generally where English measure is in yards (PMP: *depa)

deruʔ gunturroll of thunder (Scott 1956) (PWMP: *deRu)

di(of relative position) at, in, on (PAN: *di)

diaustill, silent; stop, sooth (PWMP: *hidem)

dilahtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilah papantongue of tongue-and-groove board (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dindiŋwall, partition; protect, defend (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

diŋahear, listen (PMP: *diŋa)

Iban (480 / 1624)

diristand, uphold, erect, cause to stand (PAN: *SadiRi)

diristand, uphold, erect, cause to stand (PAN: *diRi)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-iboth; the two of them; spouse of brother- or sister-in-law (not otherwise related) (PWMP: *duha-i) *duSa

dua piakon both sides (PWMP: *pihak)

dua pihakon both sides (PWMP: *piqak)

dudok be-silasit kneeling (on knees and feet together); sit deferentially, or cross-legged(?) (LOAN)

duduk be-silasit kneeling (on knees and feet together); sit deferentially, or cross-legged (?) (LOAN)

duit simpansavings (LOAN)

d-uluʔbefore, first; formerly, of old (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

duŋanfreshwater fish sp. (PWMP: *ijuŋ-an) *ijuŋ

duriantrees, Durio spp (Malvaceae), with large spiky (be-duriʔ) fruit (PWMP: *duRi-an)

duriʔthorn, spike; small spined shrimp (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

duyoŋsea-cow or dugong: Dugong dugon Mueller (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

embascare, threaten (as by intimidating someone near with a show of strength) (NEAR)

empaŋfish weir or dam of stakes and cane set upright, in which traps may be set (PMP: *empeŋ)

empasfling down, dash down, drop (as a load) (PWMP: *qempas)

empatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

empedugall bladder (PAN: *qapeju)

em-pekak(of a hen after laying an egg) cackle (PWMP: *pekak)

Iban (500 / 1624)

empelanmango: Mangifera indica L. (LOAN)

empiasdrops of driven rain (e.g. drops of rain blown onto a table by a window, drops of rain driven into a room) (PWMP: *ampias)

em-pilaksore or ulcer, esp. of foot or leg (NOISE)

empitsqueeze, press (PAN: *qepit)

empupossess, own, take as one's own (PMP: *empu)

endaʔnot (PMP: *edaʔ)

endaʔnot (PWMP: *ejaʔ)

enjokproffer, hand to, give (PWMP: *e(n)zuk)

en-suitto tip up, tilt (PWMP: *suqit)

entakdrive a pile; bump down, come down with a thump, knead or beat (clothes in washing) (PMP: *qentek)

eŋgaʔas far as, as much as (PWMP: *qeŋgah)

eŋkaperhaps, in case, on the chance that, supposing (NOISE)

eŋ-kelikto screech, scream (as a hawk) (PWMP: *kuliqik)

eŋ-keloŋcoil around, embrace, cradle a child in the arms (PWMP: *keluŋ₁)

eŋ-kiakto squawk, as a hen (PMP: *kiak)

eŋkuaslarge rhizomatous herb used as a spice in cooking, Alpinia spp. (esp. the white A. galanga) (PWMP: *laŋkuas)

galoŋcurling, rolling, billowing (PWMP: *galuŋ)

galoŋcurling, rolling, billowing (ROOT)

gamata plant: Cyanotis cristata Roehm. et Schultes. The leaves are edible, and may be used for poulticing (PWMP: *gamat)

gamaʔfeel or touch with the hands, palpate, examine by feel; grope (in the dark); catch fish with the hands (PWMP: *gamaʔ)

Iban (520 / 1624)

ganasrestless, active (PMP: *ganas)

garaŋfierce, ferocious, savage (as tigers) (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

gariŋroll (PWMP: *gariŋ)

garisline, mark, boundary line (PMP: *garis)

gasiŋspin, revolve; spinning top; spinning wheel (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gatalitchy; (of women) sensual, amorously inclined; longing for (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gawai benihrites for blessing the paddy seed (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

gawai ñimpan (padi)rites of storing away harvest (LOAN)

gawai tusok pendiŋrite of piercing child’s ears (PAN: *suksuk)

gayaŋpierce, make a hole, stab, as by thrusting a spear or knife into the neck of a pig as a ritual act (PAN: *gayaŋ)

geliʔamused, entertained, ‘tickled’ (LOAN)

geloŋcoil (ROOT)

gemi-ankind of sea fish (PMP: *gemi)

gənapevery, each one; enough, complete; give (to all), fultill (PWMP: *genep)

gəŋgamhandful, fist; grasp (PAN: *gemgem)

geritgnaw (PAN: *geriC)

gerit geritnoise of gnawing (PAN: *geriC)

geroŋ-geroŋgive a hollow sound (PWMP: *geRuŋ)

getahlatex or milky sap of any plant producing latex (PWMP: *geteq)

getah buŋasuntapped rubber tree, first rubber tapped from a tree (PMP: *buŋas)

Iban (540 / 1624)

getilpinch with the nails, nip (PAN: *getil)

gianaddicted to (PWMP: *gian)

gigitto bite (PWMP: *gitgit)

gigitto bite (PWMP: *kitkit)

gilamad, madly, wildly; mad, insane (PMP: *gila)

gila babiepilepsy (PWMP: *babuy₂)

gintiʔ ŋailfish with rod and line (PAN: *kawil₁)

giti-gitikshivering, quivering (as with cold or rage) (PWMP: *gitik)

gitikshivering, quivering (as with cold) (ROOT)

gugutpull out violently (PAN: *guCguC)

gumiswhiskers (of animals), long moustaches (PWMP: *gumis)

guntin ~ guntiŋscissors, shears; cut with scissors (as hair) (LOAN)

guruʔrhythmical or repeated noise (PMP: *guru)

gusiʔgums (PAN: *gusi(ʔ))

guyaŋto shake, sway; grind (PWMP: *guyeŋ)

hari lindoŋthe sun has gone in (PAN: *liduŋ)

hari rayamidday (PAN: *Raya)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

iaexpressing surprise (PAN: *qia)

iakterm of address for girls (NOISE)

Iban (560 / 1624)

iasmaggot (PWMP: *ias₂)

ibanperson (PMP: *ibah-an) *ibaS

ibuʔaunt, MZ, FZ (LOAN)

idap(of illness) be subject or liable to; have a relapse or recurrence of (PWMP: *hidap)

idaphold something against a person (as a grudge) (PAN: *qijap)

idaphold something against someone, bear a grudge (PWMP: *idap)

idoŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ijapwink the eye, blink (PWMP: *izap)

ijapwink the eye, blink (PWMP: *izep)

ijaudark colors on yellow or white (of fighting cocks) (PWMP: *hizaw)

ijoka palm: Arenga saccharifera (Wurmb.) Merr. (formerly A. saccharifera Lab.). It yields a toddy, soft brown sugar, and good black cordage (PWMP: *izuk)

ikanfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ikan buntuʔrotten or dead and drifting fish (PMP: *buntuʔ)

ikattie, tie together (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikoʔtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ikurfollow (PAN: *ikuD)

ikutfollow, go after, accompany; agree, join in opinion with (PMP: *ikut)

ilaŋlose; (fig.) dead (PMP: *qilaŋ)

ilaŋ-ilutree with poisonous fruits (PWMP: *hilu)

iliʔdownstream (PWMP: *iliʔ)

Iban (580 / 1624)

iliʔdownstream; (place or position) downriver (PWMP: *qiliR)

ilokhandsome, fair, beautiful (NEAR)

imbokRed cuckoo-dove, Little cuckoo-dove, Spotted-necked dove (PMP: *ibuk)

imburscatter or splash with the hands (PWMP: *imbuR)

imburscatter or splash with the hands (ROOT)

impungather into a flock; keep safe, take care of (as a mother hen gathering her chicks) (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

inaM (PMP: *ina)

ina-ŋnursing; nurse, rear (animals) (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

inda-imother, call mother, term of reference or address for woman of mother's generation (PWMP: *inda₂)

induɁ səŋatwasp, stinging insect (‘mother of stings’) (PAN: *seŋet₂)

indu-ʔwoman, mother, female, feminine; female of a pair; sacred plants set with the stones as the "centre" of a padi field; principal, chief, main or bigger member of a class (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

injauborrowing, borrow (PWMP: *hinzam)

insan, isanrelationship between the parents of those who have married (PWMP: *insan)

in-sapsmoked (of meat or fish) (PWMP: *asep)

insapsucking, suck, sip, absorb; to smoke (esp. tobacco) (PMP: *qisep)

insitmove, move slightly, budge, shift (PWMP: *iŋsiD)

insurmove, adjust (PMP: *isuR)

intaiwait or watch for (opportunity) (PWMP: *hintay)

iŋatremember, recollect, remind, be mindful of (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋincraving; long for, covet (NEAR)

Iban (600 / 1624)

iŋincraving, long for, covet (LOAN)

iŋkasremove, undo, unpick (stitches) (ROOT)

iŋkokcrooked (ROOT)

iparbrother-in-law, sister-in-law, relation by marriage of the same generation (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipaʔlie in wait for, ambush (PMP: *hipaʔ)

ipiltrees, Adinandra spp.; also Gordonia havilandii Burkill; trees of Intsia spp., esp. I. bijuga (Colebr.) (PMP: *qipil)

ipohthe upas tree: Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. The latex is used in making poison for blowpipe darts. (PWMP: *qipuq)

irin, iriŋlead by the hand (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

iritdraw, drag, haul (PWMP: *irid₂)

irupdrink, fit for drinking (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

isexclamation of scorn or disapproval (PMP: *qis)

isiʔcontent; capacity; interior; fill (PAN: *isiʔ)

itamblack (PMP: *qitem)

ititduck, Anas sp. (PWMP: *itik₂)

itoŋreckoning, calculation, count; reckon; reckoned; held to be, considered to be (PWMP: *qituŋ)

jaitsewing, sew, work with a needle (PMP: *zaqit)

jalaiway, path, road; go, walk, travel; way of doing something, method, solution (way out) of difficulty (PMP: *zalan)

jalai asuʔhunting trail (PMP: *zalan)

jalai bumaimethod of farming, way to farm (PMP: *zalan)

jaŋkitinfectious, contagious; catch, spread (as fire or disease) (PWMP: *za(ŋ)kit)

Iban (620 / 1624)

jarinlength of stout canes twisted together from which are hung overlapping cane nooses to catch driven deer (PMP: *zariŋ)

jarum(sewing) needle; hand of clock or needle of dial (PAN: *zaRum)

jauhfar, far off, distant, remote (PMP: *zauq)

jawaʔmillet, especially Bulrush millet, Pennisetum typhoideum; jawaʔ is planted with the padi, but not as a main crop (PAN: *zawa₂)

jawaʔ jambaisuperior kind of millet with long ear (PAN: *zawa₂)

jelataŋsmall tree, Laportea stimulans Miq., having stinging hairs on the leaves, which can be littered about where an enemy may rest (PMP: *zalateŋ)

jeliŋlook from the corners of the eyes (PWMP: *zeliŋ)

jempitcrushed (PWMP: *zepit)

jeŋkoŋcurved handle (as on a pail, teapot) (PMP: *zeŋkuŋ)

jeputtake a pinch or single piece (LOAN)

jəramiʔsacred plants (induʔ padi – lit. ‘rice mother’) in the paddy field after harvest (PWMP: *zaRami)

jeraʔlearn by experience (‘the hard way’), have one’s fill, get one’s fingers burned, be fed up with; (poetic) fearful, crazed (PWMP: *zera)

jimattalisman, amulet (LOAN)

jualsale, sell (LOAN)

kabankinsman, relation; companion, follower, supporter; group, band, herd, member of group (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kaban tampilrelative by marriage (PWMP: *tampil)

kabithang or hook on (as in hooking coins onto the hem of a skirt, or hanging a basket on a branch) (PAN: *kabit₁)

kabut(of weather) continually bad, stormy (PMP: *kabut)

kacawdisturbed, in disorder, confused, troubled, in a stir, annoyed (PWMP: *kacaw)

kacaw-kacawstirring, moving, moved (as leaves stirred by a troupe of monkeys) (PWMP: *kacaw)

Iban (640 / 1624)

ka-empatfourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kailfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kaincloth, skirt (esp. short skirt worn by women); kinds of cloth (PWMP: *kain)

kain kaŋganblack cotton cloth; Chinese black calico (LOAN)

kairscratch, scrape (with the foot) (PWMP: *kahiR)

kairto scratch, scrape with the foot (as a hen searching for food) (PWMP: *kahir)

kaithook (PAN: *kawit)

kaithook (PMP: *kaqit)

kaka crow (PAN: *kak)

kaka crow, Corvus sp. (onom.) (PMP: *hekak) *Sekak

kakaelder sister (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

kalidig up or out (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kaliŋcluster of fruit (PWMP: *kaliŋ)

kambingoat, sheep (LOAN)

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kampoŋforest never yet cleared and usually extensive, virgin forest (LOAN)

kananright, on the right side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kancinfastening, button, bolt, lock (LOAN)

kandisgeneric for trees, Garcinia sp., yielding edible fruit (PWMP: *kandis)

kandoŋwomb, foetus; (of padi, fruit) in bearing, fruiting, having fruit set and swelling; (of women) pregnant, conceive (PWMP: *kanduŋ)

Iban (660 / 1624)

kantoŋsmall bag or case, overnight bag; air travel bag (NOISE)

kaŋfrog sp. (PWMP: *ekaŋ)

kaŋkind of frog (PMP: *kaŋ)

kaŋkind of frog (PMP: *keŋ₁)

kaŋkoŋwater convolvulus, Ipomoea spp., I. aquatica, I. reptans and others; quick-growing layering plant grown as a green vegetable (LOAN)

kapascotton before spinning, cotton wool (LOAN)

kapoksilk cotton or kapok tree, Bombax sp., Ceiba pentandra (PWMP: *kapuk)

kapurlime (burned shell or soft limestone), whitewash (PMP: *kapuR)

karamawash, capsized, wrecked, foundered (strictly, karam applies to boats or anything that floats, and means full of, or covered with water so as to be unmanageable) (PWMP: *kaRem)

kasawrafter, roof timbers (PMP: *kasaw₁)

katilbedstead (Western style), (LOAN)

kau2sg., you (impolite) (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kauŋshouting (PMP: *kauŋ)

kausscrape out (a pan, the pulp of a cucumber), rake and throw out (earth, as for planting) (PWMP: *kaus)

kawahlarge cooking pan, usually iron (PWMP: *kawaq)

kawatwire (LOAN)

kayawealthy, well-to-do; power, might (PWMP: *kaya)

kayawraiding, war, foray because of a feud, headhunting (PMP: *kayaw) *ŋayaw

kayuʔtree; numeral classifier for trees; wood, timber; wooden; length of wood, stick (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ke-ordinal prefix to numerals (PAN: *Sika-)

Iban (680 / 1624)

kebalinvulnerable to weapons, have skin impenetrable by anything sharp (PWMP: *kebel)

kədaŋa stretch (as in stretching out one’s arms; also of an arm being stiff and lacking suppleness) (PMP: *kedeŋ)

ke-duasecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

kejutto jerk, tug sharply (as on a fishline); startled (PMP: *kezut₁) *kezuC

ke-kilawdusk, just after sunset (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

kelalaperceive, scrutinize (e.g. a pig’s liver for omens), identify, know, recognize (a person) (PAN: *kilala)

kelamcloudy, overcast (PAN: *kelem)

kelau kelaugiddy, queer (feeling) (PWMP: *kelaw)

kele-bembaŋmoth or butterfly (PMP: *beŋbeŋ₄)

kelelawaybutterfly (PAN: *kali-)

kəliliŋround, around; surround (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

ke-matawatch, keep an eye on (PMP: *ka-mata) *maCa

kemiritree bearing hard nuts, candle nut, Aleurites triloba Forst. (PMP: *kamiri)

kempisflat, flattened, deflated (PWMP: *ke(m)pis)

kenasfish (ikan) preserved by steeping or parboiling to remove bones, salting and smoke-curing in bamboo (PMP: *kenas)

kenawapalm yielding a large areca nut, sp. unident. (PMP: *kanawa)

kenaʔright, proper, suitable; suffer, undergo, be affected by; forming a passive; use, wear (PMP: *kena₁)

kendiformerly round earthenward cooking pot, usually with spout; now bell-mouthed brass pot with spout or lip, or a modern kettle (LOAN)

kendoŋtrees, Garcinia spp. (PWMP: *kenduŋ)

kəniŋforehead; have a slope (as sloping ground, a bluff) (PWMP: *keniŋ)

Iban (700 / 1624)

kentutto break wind, fart (PWMP: *ketut)

kenuʔit is said, the story goes (esp. in tales to mark quotations or new sections). (PWMP: *kenu)

kepai-kepaimoving, waving, flapping (as leaves, wings) (PWMP: *kepay kepay)

kepitsqueeze, press (as sugarcane, a hand caught in a closing door); carry under the arm, hold under the elbow (PMP: *kepit)

kepit baŋkaycaught between, of the inhabitants of a longhouse bilik (family unit) where there has been a death in each of the adjoining bilik so that one’s movements are restricted by taboo (lit. ‘hemmed in by death) (PMP: *kepit)

kerah-kerahchattering (PMP: *akerahaq)

kerashard, severe; determined, eager; obstinate (PMP: *keRas)

keratto cut length or piece, morsel, cut in lengths; cut off (as a piece of sugarcane) (PAN: *keRet)

keratcut length or piece, morsel, cut in lengths, cut off (as a piece of sugarcane) (PWMP: *keret)

ke-rawaŋhollow or channel, fretwork (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

kerikgnash, grind the teeth (PMP: *keriqik)

ke-rimpakbroken (break) piece of (PWMP: *ripak)

ke-rimpakbroken (break) piece of (PWMP: *Ripak)

keroŋhowl of a dog (PAN: *keRuŋ)

kerusrustling sound, as of a lizard scuttling over dry leaves (PWMP: *kerus₂)

kesa-kesapblinking, winking (PWMP: *kesap)

ketamcarpenter’s plane (LOAN)

ketapknife for reaping grain, esp. padi; this is a half disc of iron with a straight edge of 3” - 4” sharpened, set across a short stick or bamboo which is grasped in the right hand; the stalk is held with thumb and forefinger while the middle finger presses it against the knife to cut it (PWMP: *ketep₂)

ketasto cut anything taut (knot, lashing) (PWMP: *ketas)

ketawaʔlaughter, laugh (PWMP: *ka-tawa) *Cawa

Iban (720 / 1624)

ketoŋsection of bamboo with holes on opposite sides, used to scare birds by beating on it, or by hanging it with a stick to be sounded by the wind (LOAN)

kiaksquawk (PMP: *kiak)

kiaumewing (PAN: *kiaw)

kibak-kibakflapping (as a coat in the wind) (PWMP: *kibak)

kicah kicahchattering, gabbling (PWMP: *kicaq)

kijapsparkle, flash (PWMP: *kizab)

kijapsparkle, flash, twinkle (as the glitter of a diamond) (PWMP: *kizap)

kikirfile, grater (originally skate or shark skin used as sandpaper); (fig.) mean, stingy (PMP: *kiDkiD)

kikir pariskate-skin grater (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

kikisscrape, scrape off (as old paint from wood) (PAN: *kiskis)

kilapgleaming; (of eyes) rolling (PMP: *kilap)

kilap kilaprolling (of the eyes) (PMP: *kilep)

kilatlightning; flash, gleam (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kilaywag the head (PWMP: *kilay)

kilirput a fine edge on (a parang, etc.) (PWMP: *kiliD)

kiloŋcrooked (PAN: *kiluŋ)

kima-kimuttwitching, jerking (as lips before speaking) (LOAN)

kimut kimuttwitching, jerking (as lips, hips) (PWMP: *kimut kimut)

kinda-kindaŋraised to strike (as a sword that is raised for a blow) (PWMP: *kindaŋ-kindaŋ)

kita-iwe (plural incl.), we, us, our (PAN: *kita₁)

Iban (740 / 1624)

kitaʔyou, your (PAN: *kita₁)

kiuksquawk (PMP: *kiuk)

koŋkoŋnecklace; fasten a ring around the neck (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

kuahgravy, soup, any liquid left after cooking (LOAN)

kuaw-kuawshouting, calling (PAN: *kuaw)

kubitnip, pinch (PWMP: *kubit)

kukokcrow (of a cock) (PWMP: *kukkuk)

kukuclaw; fingernail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kukusto scrape out (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

kulatfungus, toadstool, mushroom (many varieties, both poisonous and edible) (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kulat bulohan edible fungus (PAN: *buluq₂)

kulitskin, hide, bark (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kulit buahfruit skin, rind (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kulit butohforeskin (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

kumaŋ məñaruŋhermit crab (məñaruŋ < saruŋ ‘sheath, case, covering’) (PMP: *kumaŋ)

kuñahchew (PWMP: *ŋuyaq)

kuñitturmeric; the rhizone yields a yellow dye, and is used for smearing the forehead of a corpse at the laying out of the dead (PMP: *kunij)

kuŋkoŋnecklace (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

kupitknock-kneed (PAN: *kupit)

kuraihard, rough patches of skin (Scott 1956); mottled, of skin (Richards 1981) (PWMP: *kuRan)

Iban (760 / 1624)

kuraŋnot enough, not much, less, short, lacking (LOAN)

kurapringworm (of the body) (PAN: *kurap)

kuraʔtortoise (LOAN)

kurinkind of cooking pot (PWMP: *kurin)

kurissores, ulcers; the itch (PAN: *kuris₁)

kurohsnore, snoring (PMP: *kuruq)

kururbreadfruit tree, Artocarpus sp. (PMP: *kuluR)

kurus(of people, animals) thin; meagre, poor (LOAN)

kutokto blame (PWMP: *kutuk₁)

kutulouse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu apisparks (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu lelabiwater insect, unid. (‘water boatman’?) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

labanbecause, owing to (PWMP: *laban₁)

labisoft-shelled or freshwater turtle: Trionynx cartilagineus Boulanger and other spp. (PWMP: *labi-labi)

labohfall, drop, let fall (PWMP: *labuq)

ladaŋbank, dyke or firebreak to mark boundary or protect land; swamp or wet paddy field enclosed by bunds (NOISE)

laindifferent, other, another, strange; to differ, vary (PWMP: *lain)

lakafar apart, big; too large, as an opening or space (e.g. the space between the rungs of a ladder) (PWMP: *la(ŋ)ka)

lakimale; husband; male of a pair, e.g. of mortice and tenon joint, press-studs (PMP: *laki)

lamaʔold, former, ancient; long (of time), long ago, formerly (PAN: *lama)

Iban (780 / 1624)

lambatslow; late (in coming) (LOAN)

lambokthe disturbed water in rapids (PWMP: *la(m)bug₂)

lamusunprotected, naked above the waist (NEAR)

landakporcupine (PWMP: *landak)

lantaŋunhurried, take one's time (PWMP: *lantaŋ)

lantiŋanything used for support in water (PWMP: *lantiŋ)

laŋaubluebottle, or meat fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋitsky, heavens; the Heavens, as distinct from Earth; World of the Dead, and the land of the serpent deities…The hornbill, Segadu’, represents the manang (shaman), of whom the chief is Menjaya or Ini’ Manang, living in the seventh heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkahstep, pace, stride; overstep (as in disobeying an order or violating customary law) (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laparhungry, famished (PMP: *lapaR)

larirun away, make off, cause to run away, take away (PAN: *laRiw)

laukanything eaten with rice (PWMP: *lahuk)

launlate (in arriving); delay, linger (PWMP: *laun)

lautsea; Malay, Muslim (PAN: *lahud)

lawaʔcome, go to (to visit) (Scott 1956) (PWMP: *lawaʔ)

layaŋfly through the air, skim, glide; send flying (PWMP: *layaŋ)

layarsail (PAN: *layaR)

layuʔwither, scorched, dry (as leaves because of a long drought) (PAN: *layu)

lebatdense (foliage), abundant (fruit), heavy (rain) (PMP: *lebet)

lebihmore, extra, overmuch, superior (PWMP: *lebiq)

Iban (800 / 1624)

lecut(of knots, ropes, etc.) slip, become loose, come off (PWMP: *lecut)

lekaŋwide open, gaping (door, legs) (ROOT)

lekaŋ lekaŋwide open (PMP: *le(ŋ)kaŋ)

lekasquickly, speedily (PWMP: *lekas₂)

lekatsticky; stick, adhere to; stuck, caught, fixed (PWMP: *leket)

lekikgiggle (ROOT)

lekuʔcoil, convolution (PMP: *leku)

le-lakimale (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

le-lepufish with venomous fins, Angler and Goblin fish (PMP: *lepu)

lelukok(of old people) bent, stooped (< *-kug?) (ROOT)

lemahsoft, weak, feeble, languid (PWMP: *lemeq)

lemahsoft, weak, feeble, languid (as a person who doesn’t feel up to doing anything) (PWMP: *lemaq)

lemakanimal fat, lard, suet, grease; (of food, land) fat, rich (PMP: *lemek₂)

lemasstifled, drowned; (fig.) of a baby, stillborn, dead in the womb (PMP: *lemes)

lembaŋvalley, stream between two hills (PWMP: *le(m)baŋ)

lembaŋvalley, stream between two hills (PWMP: *le(m)beŋ)

lemisoft, weak (PWMP: *lemi)

lempusover, finished (ROOT)

leŋit(of words) unkind (ROOT)

lepasfree, at large; set free, dismiss, release, let go; past, after (PWMP: *lepas)

Iban (820 / 1624)

lesittake out the kernel (PWMP: *lesit)

letupblister, as on the hands from hard work (PWMP: *letub)

liaʔginger, plant or rhizome of Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia)

libasguava (Scott 1956); fruit tree, unident. (Richards 1981) (PWMP: *libas)

lidilaze-rod in weaving (PWMP: *li(ŋ)ji)

likat(of liquids) thick, sticky (PMP: *liket)

likawstreaks, wavy or zigzag lines; streaky, striped (PAN: *likaw)

lilin mañiʔbeeswax (PMP: *lilin)

liliŋlop-sided, askew (as a head that leans to one side) (PMP: *liliŋ)

limawcitrus spp. and hybrids; pomelo, mandarin orange, bitter orange, lime, grapefruit, lemon, etc. (PWMP: *limaw)

lindak-lindak(of sun-hats, umbrellas), bobbing (Scott 1956) (PWMP: *lindag)

lindoŋshaded, shady, screened, covered (PAN: *liduŋ)

liŋascareless, idle (PWMP: *liŋas)

liŋaʔfrivolous, careless, heedless, idle (PWMP: *liŋa₁)

lipancentipede: Scolopendra subspinipes and others (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

liuprowl round (Scott 1956), prowl or hang about (Richards 1981) (PAN: *liuS)

luak dadachest cavity (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

luasclear, wide, spacious (PMP: *luas)

lubaŋhole, pit (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

lubaŋ buŋkoŋhollow left by a fallen branch (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

Iban (840 / 1624)

lucakmuddy, soft ground (PWMP: *lucak)

ludahsaliva, spittle (PMP: *ludaq)

luitlever up, force open (PWMP: *luhit)

lukapthe underside at the edge (of a mat) (PWMP: *lukab)

lukutmoss, lichen, some algae (PAN: *lukuC)

luluhmolten, melted (PWMP: *lu(q)luq)

lumpakeasily split (PWMP: *lu(m)pak)

lumutmoss, seaweed (said to be from Malay) (PMP: *lumut)

lunak(of fruit) pulpy, fleshy (PWMP: *lunek₁)

lunjaktrample, tread or stamp on repeatedly (ROOT)

lunsurdrain away (PWMP: *lu(n)cuR)

lunsurdrain away (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)suR)

luŋkasdismantle, uncovered; remove (awning from boat, shirt, etc.) (PMP: *lu(ŋ)kas)

luŋkup(of boats, bowls, etc.) turn upside down (ROOT)

lupisslender, thin, make slender (PWMP: *lupis)

lupisslender, thin; make slender (ROOT)

lurusstraight, direct; straightforward, honest (PMP: *lurus)

lutancharred wood, cold embers, litter of charred logs in burned clearing; unburned logs (PMP: *aluten)

lutoŋsilvered leaf monkey: Presbytis eristata ultima Elliott (PAN: *luCuŋ)

luyaʔfaded, secondhand, shop-soiled; (of a woman) be divorced after having borne children who have not lived (PWMP: *luya(ʔ))

Iban (860 / 1624)

ma-kaito eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

makalto caulk (a boat) (PWMP: *pakal)

manaŋ balimedicine man who dresses as a woman (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

mandiʔbath, bathe (PWMP: *um-andiʔ) *andiʔ

manokdomestic fowl, Gallus sp. (PMP: *manuk)

manok lakicockerel (PMP: *laki)

manok saboŋfighting cock; fig. bodyguard or bully (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

(ma)ŋ-anakcall someone a child (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

masgold (LOAN)

masokenter into or upon, begin (PMP: *p<um>asuk) *pasuk

mataeye; eyesight (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata aŋinmagnetic compass (‘eye of wind’) (PMP: *mata nu haŋin) *maCa

mata dacingraduated marks on balance or weigh-beam (‘eye of scale’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata dukuʔcutting edge of blade (‘eye of knife’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata harisun (PAN: *waRi₁)

mata harisun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata lalatreef knot (‘eye of housefly’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata manaŋbeads presented to a manang (shaman) to give him keenness of sight (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata pisaʔ‘head’ of a boil (PWMP: *mata nu piRsa) *maCa

mata tincinstones set in finger ring (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Iban (880 / 1624)

mata tusunipple of breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mata waŋcash (‘eye of money’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matidead; set (of the sun); fast, firm, tight, immovable (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

matuclean with a stone, as the hands (PWMP: *ma-matu) *batux

ma-túagood fortune, sign or stroke of luck, godsend, windfall (PWMP: *tuaq)

ma-ʔmother (PMP: *ema-ʔ) *ema₁

medaŋ kasapa tree: Gironniera sp. (PWMP: *kasep)

mejamto close the eyes (as in sleep or death) (PWMP: *pezem)

me-merekastie into a bundle (PWMP: *maŋ-beRkes) *beRkes

meniraflag (LOAN)

menoa, menuaarea of land held and used by a distinct community, esp. longhouse (rumah), including house, farms, gardens, fruit groves, cemetery, water and all forest within half a day's journey. Use of the menoa is only gained and maintained by much effort and danger, and by proper rites to secure and preserve a ritual harmony of all within it and the unseen forces involved; home, abode, place, district, country, region (PMP: *banua)

menoa laŋitthe heavens, abode of Petara and other deities (PMP: *banua)

mentua ~ entuaparent-in-law (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

meŋkudusmall trees, Morinda citrifolia L. and others (PWMP: *biŋkudu)

meŋkudusmall trees: Morinda citrifolia L. and others (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

merahto squeeze, express (as juice from a lime) (PAN: *peReq)

miaŋirritants produced by plants; irritating; irritated (as by paddy dust or bamboo) (Scott 1956), minute bristles on bamboos and other plants; irritation of skin caused by them (Richards 1981) (PWMP: *amiaŋ)

mi-mita little; small in quantity or number (PMP: *emit)

miñakoil (in food, on hair) (PMP: *miñak)

mirahred (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

Iban (900 / 1624)

misah namato change one’s name (PWMP: *pisaq)

mitsmall, little (PMP: *emit)

muaydivorce; miscarry, abort (PWMP: *maŋ-buqaŋ) *buqaŋ

muay hariwaste time (PWMP: *maŋ-buqaŋ) *buqaŋ

m-udayoung, unripe (PWMP: *maŋ-buqaŋ) *buqaŋ

mudayoung, unripe (PMP: *muda)

mukatfish with a seine or drag-net; pukat empelawaʔ, spider’s web pukat are set with weights and floats across a stream, or may be dragged ashore in shallows (PWMP: *ma-muket) *puket₁

mukaʔto open (as a door), loosen, untie (as a rope); undress (PWMP: *maŋ-bukaʔ) *bukaʔ

mukaʔ rumahopen a building formally (PWMP: *maŋ-bukaʔ) *bukaʔ

muncoŋprotruding, sticking out, esp. of jaw or lips (PWMP: *mu(n)cuŋ)

munoŋchaps of pig, bushy cheek bristles of Bearded Pig (PWMP: *munuŋ)

munsaŋMalay weasel: Mustela nudipes Cuvier, and other species; generic for palm civets, including otter civets and linsangs (PWMP: *musaŋ)

muntilput in a bag (esp. of selected seed padi) (PWMP: *buntil)

muñimake a sound (PMP: *buñi)

muŋashave the first fruits (PMP: *buŋas)

muŋkokbend down (person) (PMP: *buŋkuk)

murudrive away, send away (PWMP: *maŋ-buRaw) *buRaw

nadai be-lebihthere’s nothing over (PWMP: *lebiq)

nalitwist into rope, prepare fibre for rope; continue the line, inherit bilik and share of property (PWMP: *ma-nalih) *CaliS

namsix (PAN: *enem)

Iban (920 / 1624)

nampilmarry into a family (PWMP: *tampil)

nampokperform a vigil, go to a solitary place to meet with ancestors or other beings in dream or vision, and obtain their help; tops of hills are used but any isolated place, even a cemetery, may be used (PWMP: *tampuk₂)

nanahpus, matter (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

naŋamouth of a river (PMP: *binaŋa)

naŋkaʔlarge jackfruit, Artocarpus spp. (LOAN)

narokto grow buds, shed leaves (i.e. to bud afresh) (PWMP: *taruk)

narumto dye with indigo (PMP: *taRum)

nayunto swing, as one’s arms (PWMP: *tayun)

nenoŋto divine, find by divination (Scott 1956) (LOAN)

nentaŋlook at, look towards (Scott 1956) (PWMP: *teŋteŋ₂)

nenunto weave (PAN: *tenun)

neran-ka taiʔstrain at stool (PWMP: *teRan)

ng-uŋkat(of illness) recur or relapse (PWMP: *uŋkat)

niboŋtall prickly cluster palms, Oncosperma spp.: Oncosperma horridum Scheff. (bayas) growing inland; Oncosperma tigillarium (filamentosum) Blume (niboŋ proper) coastal, with leaves arched; niboŋ wood resists teredo and termites; yields posts, piles, ribs of leaf thatch, split flooring; spines make blowpipe darts; fruit can be used as betel (pinaŋ) and the 'cabbage' (upaʔ) is edible (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

nipaha palm: Nipa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

nisikto scale fish (PMP: *siksik₂)

niurcoconut palm: Cocos nucifera L. (PMP: *niuR)

niur undaŋhead trophy (poetic; undaŋ = ‘visit and return’) (PMP: *niuR)

nuan busoŋ ñebut nama entuayou blaspheme when you utter the name of your father-in-law or mother-in-law (PWMP: *busuŋ)

nulapsecretly plant a small patch and make an offering before the general planting (PWMP: *suleb)

Iban (940 / 1624)

nusahto trouble, cause sadness or worry (LOAN)

ñamakto steep or dye cordage, as a casting net (PWMP: *samak)

ñamñaminsipid, tasteless (PAN: *ñamñam)

ñamokmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ñañisinging, especially in style other than Iban, or particular kind of song (probably < Malay) (PWMP: *ñañuy)

ñarinto hunt deer in this way (PMP: *zariŋ)

ñatohgeneric for trees yielding gutta (including gutta percha), Palaquium, Ganua and other species (PMP: *ñatuq)

ñawavoice, sound; mouth; life, existence, breath; hence rest, ‘breather’ (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ñekaŋprop something open, as a door (PMP: *sekaŋ)

ñeligiraging, in turmoil (LOAN)

ñəŋatto sting (PAN: *seŋet₂)

ñualto sell (LOAN)

ŋaitto hook (as a thorn hooking the clothes of a passer-by) (PWMP: *ma-ŋawit) *kawit

ŋ-akuʔtreat as, acknowledge; claim, admit, confess, own (as if owning up to the paternity of a child) (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ŋalito dig, dig up or out (PMP: *ma-ŋali) *kalih

ŋ-alunoverwhelm, roll over, drive back, rush furiously (as a wave overwhelming a boat) (PWMP: *maŋ-qalun) *qalun

ŋ-amalfast or perform the proper ceremonies to become strong (LOAN)

ŋ-apimake a fire flare up; cook with a fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

ŋaristo mark out land by drawing boundary lines (PMP: *garis)

ŋ-asuto hunt, go hunting (PWMP: *maŋ-asu) *asu₁

Iban (960 / 1624)

ŋ-ayamplay with (as a toy): game, play (PWMP: *qayam₃)

ŋayawmake war on (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw

ŋe-lemah diriʔto tire oneself out (as by physical exercise) (PWMP: *lemeq)

ŋəliliŋto go around something (as in circling a house) (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

ŋe-ludahto spit, spit at (PMP: *ludaq)

ŋe-matawatch over, look after, be caretaker or manager of, keep an eye on (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ŋ-empelasto polish, smooth something (PWMP: *maŋ-qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

ŋe-nalamto deepen, make deeper (PMP: *dalem)

ŋesapto blink, to wink (PWMP: *kesap)

ŋ-ikattie something together (PWMP: *maŋ-hiket) *Siket

ŋindaŋto soar, hover over (as a hawk hovering over fowls before attacking) (PWMP: *kindaŋ-kindaŋ)

ŋ-iriŋ capito herd cattle (PWMP: *maŋ-iriŋ) *iriŋ₁

ŋ-iritto draw, drag, haul (PWMP: *ŋ-irid) *irid₂

ŋ-irupto drink (PWMP: *maŋ-hiRup) *SiRup

ŋ-isapto suck, sip (PWMP: *maŋ-qisep) *qisep

ŋ-ujanto rain (PWMP: *maŋ-quzan) *quzaN

ŋulatto collect edible fungus, go mushrooming (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

ŋ-ulaucause dim sight (PAN: *ulaw)

ŋ-uliŋto steer (PMP: *quliŋ)

ŋ-ulugo at the head of, lead, guide (PWMP: *maŋ-qulu) *quluh

Iban (980 / 1624)

ŋ-umpancatch with bait, hence entice (as a chicken with food) (PWMP: *maŋ-umpan) *qumpan

ŋuñahto chew (PWMP: *ŋuyaq)

ŋuŋut(of pain) ‘murmur’ or throb (PMP: *ŋutŋut₂)

ŋuŋutto smoulder, set light to (PWMP: *ŋutŋut₃)

ŋ-urutto massage (PWMP: *maŋ-quRut) *quRut

ŋutgrunt, grunting (pigs) (PMP: *eŋut)

oraŋ basaacquaintances (PWMP: *basa)

oraŋ bukaia stranger, not one of us (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

oraŋ lakia man (PMP: *laki)

oraŋ matapoliceman (PMP: *mata) *maCa

padaŋlarge space covered with one kind of vegetation; freshwater swamp, usually flooded and supporting few plants; field, meadow, green, sports-ground (PWMP: *padaŋ)

padatclose up, crowd together, cram, pack tight (PWMP: *pa(n)det)

padirice, Oryza spp. as plants or grain in husk, paddy (PAN: *pajay)

padi ñau ñarumthe padi is sprouting (i.e. like green needles) (PAN: *zaRum)

padoŋraised sleeping platform or bunk near or in outer wall of house; (formerly) sleeping place for girls (PWMP: *pa(n)duŋ)

pagarfence, railing (PMP: *pager)

pagar ruyonstockaded fort (PMP: *pager)

pagimorning, early morning (PWMP: *pagi)

pagushelf, esp. over hearth (PWMP: *pagu)

paisfood, esp. fish, cooked in green leaves or bamboo (PWMP: *paqis)

Iban (1000 / 1624)

pais ikanfish so cooked (PWMP: *paqis)

paitfreshwater fish: Puntius sp. (PWMP: *paqit₁) *paqit

paitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-kaito eat, consume (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakalcaulking material (PWMP: *pakal)

pakuʔnail, dowel or tree-nail (LOAN)

pakuʔ lawaŋwire nail, iron nail (LOAN) Iban

palaŋcrosspiece (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

palaukind of river fish (PWMP: *palaw)

palistrees, Helicia spp. (NOISE)

paluʔhit, beat, strike (with stick or mallet) (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

panasheat; hot, esp. of weather (PMP: *panas₁)

panaulight patches on skin, leucoderma, caused by diet deficiency or (mild) tinea (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

pancitsquirt, spray, shoot out (ROOT)

pandakshort (as a stick, stature, brevity): shorten (PMP: *pandak)

pandanScrew pine (Pandanus spp.) (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

pandaŋshow, exhibit, expose, shine forth (LOAN)

pandiʔbathing, bathe (PWMP: *pa-andiʔ) *andiʔ

pantaiearth, soil, mud, (at sea) mud bottom (PWMP: *pantay)

pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head (PAN: *paCak)

Iban (1020 / 1624)

pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head (PWMP: *pantek)

pantak daunlesser green leafbird (PMP: *dahun)

pantaŋforbidden, not done or avoided for fear of evil consequences; ritual restriction or activity (LOAN)

pantarraised floor or bench built in or next to front wall of longhouse (PMP: *pataR₁)

pantasquick; sharp; attentive (LOAN)

pantikto nail (PWMP: *pa(n)tik)

pantok daungreen broadbill (PMP: *dahun)

paŋgaŋroast, bake, cure by smoking (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgauwooden platform, bench or bedstead in ruai (longhouse gallery); frame or threshing sieve; hunter's machan (usually near salt lick) (LOAN)

paŋgawwooden platform, bench or bedstead in longhouse gallery (PWMP: *paŋgaw)

paŋgilask to help or take part; summon, call to attend (LOAN)

paŋgila tree: Clerodendron album Ridl. (LOAN)

paŋgoŋpile, stack (PWMP: *paŋguŋ)

paŋkatrank, position (LOAN)

paŋkaʔstrike, dash (down, against), hurl (PWMP: *paŋkaq)

paŋkoŋstrike, beat, hammer, usually with ringing sound (ROOT)

paŋkupsqueeze trap for squirrels and rats (ROOT)

paŋkuʔtake or hold on the lap (PWMP: *paŋku)

papalpare, clip off, cut even (at the edges) (PWMP: *palpal₂)

papanlong flat surface or thing (PMP: *papan)

Iban (1040 / 1624)

papan kayuʔplank, board (PMP: *papan)

papan pelaŋkasleeping platform, bedstead; open wooden box on four ornamental legs ... used in SAUT ritual (LOAN)

paparcut smooth (with adze, etc.) (PWMP: *parpar)

paraframe or rack over a hearth for drying or preserving things laid on it; platform for felling large trees; hide or machan for hunter in tree (PAN: *paRa₁)

paraŋlarge knife, chopper (LOAN)

parastrim, cut even or smooth (PWMP: *paras₁)

parasshape of the face, features (PWMP: *paras₂)

parauhoarse (PAN: *paRaw)

paritditch, drain (PWMP: *parij)

paritditch, drain (PWMP: *parik)

pariʔskate; ray. Generic for sting-rays (Trygonidae), electric rays (Torpedinae), and eagle-rays (Myliobatidae) (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

parutgrater, rasp; to grate (PMP: *parud)

pasaktreenail, dowel, peg, wedge; fix with these (PAN: *pasek)

pasaŋpair (LOAN)

pasaŋ menohhigh tide; the tide is high (PWMP: *maŋ-penuq) *penuq

pasirsand, sandbank; mudbank (PWMP: *pasiR)

pasir buŋafine sand (PWMP: *pasiR)

pasir keresikquicksand (PWMP: *pasiR)

pasokenter into or upon, begin, go into (PAN: *pasuk)

pattapping knife, gouge, chisel (PMP: *paqet)

Iban (1060 / 1624)

patahbreak, snap (something long) (Scott 1956); broken, snap, break across (Richards 1981) (PMP: *pataq)

pat getahtapping knife for rubber latex (PMP: *paqet)

pauha tree bearing inedible mango-like fruit: Parkia speciosa Hassk. (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pautpull towards oneself, take a share of, tug at, draw paddle towards boat; include (PWMP: *paqud)

payoŋumbrella, sunshade (PWMP: *payuŋ)

pecalpinch, squeeze, grasp (PWMP: *pecel)

pedaspungent, hot (to taste); hot (not cold) (PMP: *hapejes)

pedispainful, aching, hurt, sore, be in pain (PMP: *hapejis)

pe-duaʔdivide, share out, division (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pejamclosed (of eyes) (PWMP: *pezem)

pekaŋwith arms or legs stretched out (PMP: *pekaŋ)

pekaŋ kayuʔfork of a tree (PMP: *pekaŋ)

pelamconceal (as an illness); keep oneself in seclusion, of an unmarried woman with child, until she cites the father (PWMP: *pelaqam)

pelebirplaced to hang over an edge (ROOT)

pe-lekuʔbend; curl up (as a dog) (PMP: *leku)

pelesitslip out, shoot out, press out, extrude (as a small fish from between the fingers)! (PWMP: *pulesit)

peliasamulet for deflecting weapons and missles (LOAN)

pelupohpalm, unident. (NOISE)

p<em>unfirst post of longhouse to be erected (PWMP: *p<am>uqun) *puqun

p<em>upuslast of a series (PWMP: *puspus₁)

Iban (1080 / 1624)

pe-nalamdepth (PMP: *dalem)

penin palaʔdizziness, vertigo (LOAN)

penohfill; be full (as a jar full of rice beer) (PMP: *penuq)

penuloŋhelper, assistant (PMP: *tuluŋ)

pe-ñakitillness (PWMP: *pa-ñakit) *sakit

pe-ñayata saw (PWMP: *sayat)

peñuʔany marine turtle (green turtle, hawksbill turtle, leatherback turtle, loggerhead turtle) (PMP: *peñu)

pe-ŋaitcrook, hook (esp. the stick used in the left hand when cutting grass and bushes with a broad heavy knife) (PWMP: *pa-ŋawit) *kawit

peŋ-uluwar leader; officially recognized area headman (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

pe-paŋilgrass sp. (LOAN)

peradathin plate or leaf of metal, foil, tinsel (LOAN)

perahto squeeze, express (as juice from a lime) (PAN: *peReq)

peram(of birds) to sit, incubate, (of hens) go broody, hatch eggs; (of fruit) cause to ripen, keep until ripe (LOAN)

per-anakoffspring, issue (PWMP: *paR-anak) *aNak

peraŋaicharacter, conduct, nature, behavior (LOAN)

pe-rauŋ, pe-roŋhowling (of dogs) (PWMP: *rauŋ)

perauʔboat (without close or full deck, as opp. to kapal) (PMP: *paraqu)

perawangeneric for ‘red meranti’ hardwood trees (Shorea spp.), as well as softwoods (PWMP: *parawan)

perawanhardwood trees: Shorea spp. (NOISE)

perekaŋwide apart, wide open; sit sprawling (ROOT)

Iban (1100 / 1624)

perepata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (L.) (PWMP: *paRepat)

periaʔbitter gourd Momordica charantia L., a yellow-white pointed cucumber with lumpy skin, eaten raw or cooked (PWMP: *paria)

periokcooking pot, saucepan (PAN: *pariuk)

pe-salah(of joint or muscle) sprained, twisted (PWMP: *salaq₂)

pesokholed, broken through, bashed in (esp. of hollow things, as boats, gongs, clothes) (PMP: *pesuk)

pesuhole, opening (as in a wall) (PMP: *pesu₁)

petaŋdark, dim; darkness, evening (PWMP: *peteŋ)

petikspot (PWMP: *pe(n)tik)

piakside (PWMP: *pihak)

piakside (PWMP: *piqak)

picakblind in one eye (PWMP: *picek) *picek₁

pikokcrooked, deformed, esp. of hands (PMP: *pi(ŋ)kuk)

pikulsharp corner, bend, angle (esp. of road or river) (PMP: *pikul)

pilakforce open (PWMP: *pilak₁) *pilak

pilayparalyzed (as a hand); to paralyze (PAN: *piNay)

pilihchosen, choose, select, pick out (PAN: *piliq)

pilokcrooked, twisted, lame (of a leg or foot that is crooked) (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

pilokcrooked, twisted, lame (ROOT)

pintaʔrequest, petition, demand; ask for (LOAN)

piŋgaiChina plate or dish, usually large and valued (LOAN)

Iban (1120 / 1624)

pipicheek (of the face) (PAN: *pipi₁)

pipisgrind to powder, roll, pound (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

pipitrice sparrow or Munia, especially the Dusky Munia: Lonchura fuscana Cassin. (PWMP: *pitpit₁)

pipitrice sparrow or munia, esp, Dusky munia: Lonchura fuscana Cassin. (PWMP: *pipiqit)

piraksilver; silvery (LOAN)

pisahshift; remove; move house (PWMP: *pisaq)

pisaŋbanana, Musa spp. (LOAN)

pisaʔgeneric for boil, carbuncle, whitlow (PWMP: *pi(R)sa)

pitplaiting; plait (PWMP: *epid)

pitakcontainer in which paddy is temporarily stored (PWMP: *pitak₂)

puardrive off bees (to get the honey) (PWMP: *puhaR)

puassatisfied, satiated (PMP: *puqas)

pucokpoint or top, esp. of trees (PAN: *qapucuk)

pujipraise, flattery; (Christian) adoration, praise; to glorify (LOAN)

pukcall of any bird of prey with plaintive note, as opp. to screechers (PMP: *epuk)

pukcall of any bird of prey with plaintive note (PMP: *puk₂) *puk

pukakvulva (PWMP: *pukak)

pukatseine or drag-net, as opposed to rantau (drift-net) (PMP: *puket₁)

pukiʔvulva (PAN: *puki)

pukiʔ maʔswearing interjection or gross insult (lit. ‘(your) mother’s vagina!’) (PAN: *puki)

Iban (1140 / 1624)

pukulstrike, beat, knock (PWMP: *pukul)

pulaireturn, go or come back (home), end up at, revert (PWMP: *pulaŋ)

pulastwist, warp, whorl (PMP: *pules)

pulas ucoŋwhirlwind, whorl (of hair on the crown of the head) (PMP: *pules)

pulutglutinous rice, Oryza glutinosa; it is fermented, cooked (sometimes sweetened) in bamboo or leaf packets for offerings and to eat at rites (PMP: *pulut)

pumpoŋbreak or cut the top off (as wind breaking off the top of a fruit tree), behead (as an enemy) (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₁)

punorigin; basis, cause; occasion; start; stem (PMP: *puqun)

punaipigeon, including Green Pigeon, Treron spp., Jambu Fruit Pigeon, Ptilinopus jambu Gmelin, and Spotted-Neck Dove, Streptopelia chinensis Scopoli (PAN: *punay)

punai siulpink-necked pigeon (PMP: *sihul)

punasbarren, childless, with no direct heirs; died out, having no survivors; wipe out, destroy (PMP: *punas)

pun beritasource of news (PMP: *puqun)

pun biliksenior living member of a bilik family (PMP: *bilik)

pun biliksenior member of a bilik family by descent (who would erect the first post of new building) (PMP: *puqun)

pun bulohclump of bamboo (PMP: *puqun)

pun kayufoot or trunk of standing tree (PMP: *puqun)

pun rumahfounder of a longhouse; padi pun primary sacred padi of bilik family (PMP: *puqun)

puntulstubby, bob-tailed, partly cut off, cut short, blunt and short (PMP: *putul) *putun

puŋau puŋaulooking forlorn (PWMP: *puŋaw)

pupusall , complete, done with (PWMP: *puspus₁)

puputblow, fan (PWMP: *putput₂)

Iban (1160 / 1624)

pusacat (LOAN)

pusatfocus, navel, center or hub (of organization) (PMP: *pusej)

put-anforge bellows (PWMP: *puput-an) *putput₂

putihwhite (PMP: *putiq)

putik ~ putitpick up or out (PWMP: *putik₂)

putoŋbamboo container (PMP: *putuŋ₁)

putusbreak, part (as cord); sever (as in losing a finger (PWMP: *putus₂)

puyoŋdo round a center, surround (PWMP: *puyuŋ)

puyuɁa river fish: Anabas testudineus (PWMP: *puyu₁)

rabunweak-sighted, almost blind; hence hazy, fogged, obscure (PWMP: *Rabun)

rabutpulled out or off, as the head of a spear in the flesh of an animal (Scott 1956) (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

rakitbring together (as in bringing one boat alongside another, of bringing a married couple back together after they have separated) (PMP: *Rakit)

rampassnatch, loot, take violently (PWMP: *Rampas)

randau empelascreeper with rough leaves used as sandpaper: Tetracera assa (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

raŋkaidry, harsh (PWMP: *Raŋkay)

raŋkap(of creeping plants) to spread and cover (PWMP: *raŋkep₁)

rarirun away, escape (PAN: *laRiw)

rattight, firm; tighten; confirm (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

ratushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rauŋtoad; tree toad (unident.); howl of dogs (PWMP: *rauŋ)

Iban (1180 / 1624)

rautpare, peel, scrape; whittle down, sharpen (PAN: *rauC)

rawanexperience emotion, be agitated (PMP: *rawan)

rawaŋhollow, cavity (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

rayalarge, major (PAN: *Raya)

regau-regauwandering, at a loss (PWMP: *regaw)

rekaŋwide apart, wide open (PWMP: *rekaŋ)

rekiklose the voice (PWMP: *re(ŋ)kik)

rempunclump of tubers or rhizomes (PMP: *rempun)

(re)ñuankind of small bee, often kept under eaves in hives (tikoŋ of hollowed logs; honey is good, but inferior to that of the large wild mañiʔ (PMP: *qari-ñuan)

reŋik(of children) crying and pestering; gasp, grunt, squeal (ROOT)

reŋkapcover, put over (< *-keb?) (ROOT)

reŋkoŋnoisily, loud sounding (as of someone beating on the buttress of a tree) (ROOT)

repiksplit in (thin) pieces (PWMP: *Repik)

resama fern: Gleichenia sp. (PMP: *aResam)

resama fern: Gleichenia sp. (PMP: *qaRsam)

retaproperty, inheritance, estate (LOAN)

retoksound of chopping (PMP: *retuk)

riassplit into strips, split and splay at end (e.g. to make torch), strip pieces off (e.g. sugarcane, to chew the sweet core) (PMP: *riqas)

rikaŋrolling, swaggering; walk with feet apart (ROOT)

rikokcreak, squeal (ROOT)

Iban (1200 / 1624)

rimpakchip, notch; broken (break) piece of (PWMP: *Ripak)

rimpakchip, notch; broken (break) piece of (PWMP: *ripak)

rintastorn open, broken through (PWMP: *ri(n)tas)

riŋatangry (< *-ŋeC?) (ROOT)

riŋaua river fish (PWMP: *Riŋaw)

riŋikgiggle (ROOT)

riŋkaphave or move under a cover (PWMP: *ri(ŋ)kep)

ruaroutside; broad and empty (PMP: *luqaR)

ruita barb (PWMP: *ruit)

rukokbent and shambling (as an elderly person) (ROOT)

rumahhouse, permanent dwelling; housing; longhouse as ritual center of menoa (area of land held and used by distinct community) (PAN: *Rumaq)

rumah rayalonghouse (as distinct from farm huts) (PAN: *Raya)

runutlong black fibres under leaf-butts of palms, esp. Arenga spp. (PMP: *Runut)

ruŋkohdrooping (as paddy) (PWMP: *ru(ŋ)kuq)

ruŋkupinvert, turn upside down on, cover completely (ROOT)

rupusall over, completely (ROOT)

rurutstrip by drawing between fingers (PWMP: *rudrud)

rusaʔSambhur: Cervus unicolor Kerr. (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

rusokside, flank (PAN: *Rusuk)

sabaŋgeneric for palmlike plants (Palm Lily), Cordyline spp. ... forest Pleomele spp., also (?) Dracaena and other spp., widely used in SE Asia in medicine, cooking, and ritual, popularly called in Eng. "croton" (PWMP: *sabaqaŋ)

Iban (1220 / 1624)

sabarwall of brushwood, etc., with a gap in which a trap is set (PWMP: *sabeD)

sa-bidaŋ mañiʔnest of wild bees (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

sabitsmall silver or brass chains worn by women round the waist (PMP: *saqebit)

sabitsmall silver or brass chains worn by women around the waist (PWMP: *sabit)

sabit bekaitCrooked Sickle, sea lawyer and trouble-maker of the heavens, always ready to settle disputes by fighting (PMP: *saqebit)

Sabit bekaitCrooked Sickle, sea lawyer and trouble-maker of the heavens, always ready to settle disputes by fighting (PWMP: *sabit)

saboksarong, especially worn short, as by men, i.e. wrapped at waist and hardly reaching knees (LOAN)

saboŋto set in opposition to, match (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

saboŋ jadito urge a couple to marry (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

saboŋ jadi baruto reconcile, bring a married couple together again (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

saboŋ manokcockfighting (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

sabutpalm fiber (PWMP: *sabut)

sabut niurcoconut husk (PWMP: *sabut)

sadaistand or lean, esp. against rail or frame (penadai) for drying out of doors (PAN: *saŋeday)

sadarlean on (PWMP: *sandeR)

sadarlean on (PWMP: *sandaR)

saguɁpearl sago, made by roasting (PMP: *sagu₁)

sa-jeput semakaua pinch of tobacco (LOAN)

sakaycrew member of (racing) boat (PWMP: *sakay₃)

sakitsick, ill; painful; illness (PMP: *sakit)

Iban (1240 / 1624)

sakoŋsunken (of cheeks), hollow and drawn looking (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂)

saksiwitness, evidence (in court) (LOAN)

salahwrong, bad; be wrong, find guilty; shoot and miss (a target) (PMP: *salaq₁)

salamconceal a fact, keep quiet about (PWMP: *salem)

salayto dry or smoke over a low fire, esp. fish (PWMP: *salay)

samaktanning, plants yielding tannin, preservative for cordage, nets, etc. (PWMP: *samak)

sambiɁbarter, exchange (NEAR)

sampaiup to, reaching as far as; arrive (PMP: *sampay₂) *sampay

sandaɁgive token price in kind, give goods for later repayment in kind; hence lend against repayment of equivalent (PWMP: *sanda)

sandaɁgive token price in kind, give goods for later payment in kind; hence lend against repayment of equivalent (NEAR)

sandaŋcarry slung from shoulder or at hip (e.g. unsheathed knife) (PWMP: *sandaŋ)

sandatin need, pressed, in want (as when lacking food) (PWMP: *sadat)

s-anuʔSo-and-so (PWMP: *i-anu, si-anu) *-nu

saŋaʔfork, branch, especially of road or river (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋaʔa tree, Elaeocarpus sp. (PWMP: *saŋa₂)

saŋgasupport, hold up (by the arm) (PWMP: *saŋga)

saŋgul(of women's hair) braid, plait, coil, dress, put up (PWMP: *saŋgul)

saŋkai(of boats) come to land, touch at, go alongside; put ashore; take passage (in boat), carry cargo, set down (cargo or passenger); join in business or work, lend a hand (PMP: *sakay₁)

saŋkapfish trap (PMP: *sakep)

saŋkutcatch on, hook up, stick on; hence hinder (PWMP: *saŋkut)

Iban (1260 / 1624)

sapainterrogative pronoun: who? what? (PMP: *sapa)

sapaktwin, double (PWMP: *sa(m)pak)

saparsplit or strip from round to leave flat surface; rive; hence flat-sided, strips removed (as from cane) (PWMP: *sapaD)

sa-pasaŋa pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

sa-piakon one side of (PWMP: *piqak)

sa-piak bukiton the other side of the hill (PWMP: *pihak)

saputo brush, sweep, wipe (PMP: *sapu)

saraŋnest, hence place or container in which things rest (LOAN)

saratheavily laden, fully loaded, deep in the water (of boats with little freeboard) (PWMP: *saRad)

sa-ratusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

saroŋsheath, case, covering (PWMP: *saruŋ)

saroŋ dukuɁscabbard (PWMP: *saruŋ)

saroŋ suratenvelope (PWMP: *saruŋ)

satakknock off or out (as a knife to get the handle off) (ROOT)

sauhanchor (PMP: *sauq₂) *sauq

sauphelp, assistance (PWMP: *saqup)

sawaŋ(of hole or wound) gaping, large; to enlarge; (in sword or spear fighting) to expose oneself (PWMP: *sawaŋ₂)

sayapwing (PWMP: *sayap)

sayatto slice (as meat); to saw (as logs) (PWMP: *sayat)

sayawpity, sorry for, fond of; feel pity for (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

Iban (1280 / 1624)

seguk-segukgurgling; gulping as one drinks (PWMP: *seguk)

sekaŋstrut, spreader (to hold apart) (PMP: *sekaŋ)

sekatnarrow, tight (example sentence: "Skrang women wear their skirts very tight") (PWMP: *seket)

sekatlimit, end, restriction (PWMP: *seked)

sekoksob (PMP: *sekuk)

sekoksob (ROOT)

sekutcrowded, thronged, packed (PWMP: *sekud)

səlambawlarge triangular fishing net set between stakes or, in tidal streams, anchored boats (PWMP: *salambaw)

selampaywoman’s embroidered scarf for ceremonial, worn round throat with ends hanging behind (PWMP: *salampay)

selapaʔbrass betel box (PWMP: *salapa)

selar(of fire) lick, touch, singe, burn (PMP: *saŋelaR)

selatalternation, stripes, striped (as red and white stripes on woven cloth); thrust in, squeeze in between (PWMP: *selat)

selempepatfirefly (PWMP: *salim-petpet)

seligiwooden javelin, spear of hardened bamboo or palm; crocodile ‘hook’ (LOAN)

semayapromise, agreement (LOAN)

semetikclick (PWMP: *simetik)

sempitnarrow (as a path); cramped, squeezed in (as with tight trousers) (PWMP: *sempit)

senaipause, stop, rest (LOAN)

sendattight,close-fitting (as a coat); stuck (as finger in a bottle); puzzled (PWMP: *sendet)

sendat idoŋto be blocked (of the nose) (PWMP: *sendet)

Iban (1300 / 1624)

seŋakbreathless, difficulty in breathing (PWMP: *seŋek)

səŋatsting of insects (PAN: *seŋet₂)

seŋitintermittent abdominal pain (PWMP: *seŋit)

seŋkalanboard for crushing spices on, kitchen board, chopping block (PWMP: *saŋkalan)

seŋkarcross piece, horizontal strut, tie-beam; lie across; spreader thwart in dugout ‘keel’ of boat to help widen it; spreader left to receive flooring; generic for thwart, as in longhouse (PMP: *seŋkar)

sepastale, kept too long (PAN: *qasepa)

sepatkind of fish (PWMP: *sepet₂)

sepohdip (in liquid), quench (hot iron) (LOAN)

seputbreath, life; to breathe (PWMP: *seput)

serampaŋfish spear with more than one point, usually trident (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

serayaromatic grasses (lemon, citronella): Cymbopogon spp. (PWMP: *seray)

sesak-sesakwhispering chatter, e.g. of engkerasak (Spider-hunter) (PWMP: *seksek₂)

se-terapjackfruit trees: Artocarpus spp. (PWMP: *si teRep) *teRep

setikclick (ROOT)

siahto push aside (people), to clear a surface to see down (in water) (PWMP: *siaq)

siaŋdaylight; by day; clear (undergrowth) (PWMP: *siaŋ)

sidokspoon (PMP: *si(n)duk)

sigaudisordered, disturbed; haunted (PWMP: *sigaw)

sikaractive (in games) (Scott 1956) (PWMP: *sikaD)

sika-sikaŋwith legs apart (PWMP: *sikaŋ)

Iban (1320 / 1624)

sikatstretch and brush new thread after sizing, brush for thread (PWMP: *sikat)

sikoksob, choking sobs (Also Singhi Land Dayak n-.ikuk 'hiccup') (ROOT)

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

silawdazzled; hence dim-sighted from glare (PMP: *silaw)

silu-iluʔlonely; restless; disappointed; ashamed (NEAR)

siluʔsetting teeth on edge; nervous, having creepy feeling (NEAR)

simbakfling open, draw aside (e.g. curtains); unveil (memorial plaque); open (PWMP: *sibak)

simpakfragment, chip (PWMP: *sipak)

simpankeep, store, put by, hide away (LOAN)

sindirmake insinuations, banter or flirt (in riddles) (LOAN)

siŋkoŋcrooked, curved U shape (as a trigger guard, a crooked arm) (PWMP: *siŋkuquŋ)

siŋkum(of mouth, seed pods, etc.) closed, shut, tight (ROOT)

siŋutsniff, blow the nose; (poetic) to sob (PWMP: *siŋ(e)hut)

siŋut-siŋutsniffling (PWMP: *siŋ(e)hut)

sipakkick up in the air (LOAN)

sipatto measure (PWMP: *sipat)

sipitto nip; pincers (PAN: *sipit)

siputgeneric for spiral shells; shellfish (LOAN)

sirafraid, feel inferior (PWMP: *siqir)

siramwash part of the body (LOAN)

Iban (1340 / 1624)

siraŋcleft, gash; division, partition, section; divide in sections, cut lengthwise (NOISE)

siraŋ buritcleft between buttocks (NOISE)

siraŋ tunjokhollow between fingers (NOISE)

siulcrested green wood partridge (PMP: *sihul)

subokcome upon unawares, surprise; hence stalk game; (of speech) tactful, persuasive (PWMP: *subuk₁)

suduʔspoon (PMP: *sudu)

sugiquid of tobacco or betel (PWMP: *sugi)

suitjoist; lever; stick to take part of weight of carrying pole load on other shoulder by bearing on it to lever up the pole behind (PWMP: *suqit)

sukarhard to do (PWMP: *suker)

sukuquarter, fourth part; generic for distant relatives (PMP: *suku)

suku jurupeople unrelated to speaker (PMP: *suku)

sukulgo against, be resisted by (as in fighting a headwind in sailing); take measures against, fend off accusation (PWMP: *sukul₁)

sukuntrees, Artocarpus spp. (PMP: *sukun)

sulaʔ(of children) playing games (PWMP: *sulaʔ)

suliŋflageolet, fife, pipe, whistle (PWMP: *suliŋ)

suliʔplant sucker, shoot, runner’ (fig. ‘children’) (PMP: *suli₁)

sulohshine light on, cast beam of light (PMP: *suluq)

sulurproject, stick out (in succession), hence go one after another; new growth (of cut plants) (LOAN)

sumbuwick, fuse; lampwick or mantle (LOAN)

sumitmoustache (PWMP: *simuj)

Iban (1360 / 1624)

sumitmoustache (PWMP: *sumit)

sumpahoath, swearing; to swear, curse, abuse (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpinear-stud, ear-ring (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

sumpitblowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

sumpitchopsticks; narrow (PWMP: *supit) Lemanak

suŋkitprise open, lever up; vaccination, vaccinate, inoculate; brocade, embroidery, any weave done with needle following weft (PMP: *suŋkit)

suŋkuɁMuslim cap, fez, usually in Sarawak a shallow cylindrical cap of black velvet without tassel (LOAN)

suŋkupminiature house erected over grave at gawai antu (feast of the dead) (Richards 1981) (PWMP: *suŋkub)

suŋutmurmur, mumble, bear a grudge against (PWMP: *suŋut₁)

suroŋto push forward, along, or out (as in pushing wood into the fire); temporary bridge or path of poles laid end to end over marsh; proffer, hand over, pay up (PWMP: *suruŋ)

surutwithdraw, ebb, subside, retreat (as the tide) (LOAN)

tabakround metal stand or tray with foot; tray without foot = talam (LOAN)

tabancarry off, carry along, i.e. without leave (and so liable to fine), but with no intention of theft, and not by force; abscond or elope with, i.e. without consent of parents or tuai rumah (head of longhouse) (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tabartasteless, insipid, unseasoned (PWMP: *tabaR)

tabiʔgreeting; to greet, salute (LOAN)

tabursprinkle, scatter, sow broadcast (as seed rice in planting) (PMP: *tabuR₁)

tadanatural spur of a cock (PMP: *tada)

tagayput off, postpone; linger, allow to drag on (esp. debt) (PWMP: *tagal)

tagihimportune, press for, dun for debt (LOAN)

tajamsharp, keen-pointed (as a knife); excitable, excite, incite (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

Iban (1380 / 1624)

tajam mata(fig.) sharp-eyed (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tajisteel blade spur for fighting cock (LOAN)

tajokframe or whole awning of boat (LOAN)

takarmeasure by volume (as rice) (LOAN)

talamtray, usually round and metal (formerly brass) (LOAN)

talaŋcast upwards and far (as a stone) (PWMP: *talaŋ₂)

talirope, cord, string, line; tali is made from bark, palm fiber, etc. by laying the fibers together and rolling with palm on thigh or other handy surface (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali pitbraided cord (PWMP: *epid)

tali pusatumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

tali sabutcoir rope, rope of ijok [sugar palm] fiber (PWMP: *sabut)

tali sipatcarpenter’s line, i.e. black cord for stretching on wood, lifting to smack back and mark straight line (PWMP: *sipat)

taloshout at or to (Scott 1956) (PWMP: *talu₁)

talunturn up soil, dig, till (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tambitfastening; latch, button (PWMP: *ta(m)bid)

tambitfastening; latch, button (ROOT)

tamburdrum of Western or Chinese type (LOAN)

tampakvisible, obvious; light, clear, shining (PMP: *tapak₂)

tampalpatch, cover; hence replant failed patches, e.g. in padi (rice in the field) (PWMP: *tapal)

tampasto trim, shave or shape (with adze or axe) (PWMP: *ta(m)pas)

tampaysee from afar, catch sight of, make out at a distance (as in recognizing someone from a long way off) (PWMP: *tampay)

Iban (1400 / 1624)

tampikthrow something soft and wet at (PMP: *tapik)

tampiljoin, attach, tie on (PWMP: *tampil)

tampiljoin, attach, tie on; relative by marriage; graft, bud graft (NOISE)

tampirjoin, attach, tie on (PWMP: *tampir) Lemanak

tampokfruit stalk (picked) (PWMP: *tampuk₃)

tanahearth, soil, land, ground, country (PMP: *taneq)

tanah baru(‘new land’) land that is recently first cleared and still fertile (PMP: *taneq)

tanah jəramiʔ‘stubble’, land harvested of paddy with crops other than grain still to be gathered; land in the first year of fallow (PWMP: *zaRami)

tanah tumbohtermite mound (lit. ‘growing earth’) (PMP: *taneq tumbuq) *taneq

tanakto cook (usually not rice) (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

tandinmatching, equal, uniform; balancing match in which contestants each hold a foot with the hand and barge with the knee so bent (PWMP: *tandiŋ)

tandukhorn (LOAN)

tanjakgo against current or wind (PWMP: *tazek)

taŋgaʔstair, steps, ladder (PMP: *taŋga)

taŋkapgrip, seize, catch, arrest; captive (LOAN)

taŋkasquick, quickly (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kas) *ta(ŋ)kas₁

taŋkaystalk of fruit; come into ear, pick with the stalk (PMP: *taŋkay)

taŋkirfix next to, add to, extend; extension (as to a garden), supplement (PWMP: *taŋkir)

taŋkupcover with something hollow (as a plate with a basin); to match, correspond, fit (PMP: *takub)

tapalpoultice (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

Iban (1420 / 1624)

tapala poultice (PWMP: *tapal)

tapayfermented rice (PWMP: *tapay)

tapihunsewn sarong worn by women wrapped at waist (PWMP: *tapiq₂)

tapokto hide, conceal, as a fault (PWMP: *tapuk₃)

taridancing, esp. with graceful arm movements (LOAN)

tarisline (PMP: *taris)

taritpull, draw out, pull tight (LOAN)

tarohto put away, keep; lay a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

tarokbud, leaf bud (PWMP: *taruk)

tarumindigo plant, unidentified (probably creeper Marsdenia tinctoria R, Br., and not Indian Indigofera tinctoria L.); the blue-black dye made from it (PMP: *taRum)

tasakcollect material and plait (as palm thatch, split bamboo for basket) (PWMP: *sasag)

tasaʔcollect nipa leaves for roofing (PMP: *sasah)

tatahstud, inlay, usually of brass (PWMP: *tataq)

tatokknock, tap, peck (ROOT)

tatokknock, tap, peck (ROOT)

tau-hubean curd made by grinding to consistency of soft cheese, usually eaten cooked (LOAN)

taunyear, cycle of seasons (PMP: *taqun)

tauʔbe able, can, may, know how (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

tawarbargain, bid, haggle (< Malay?) (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawarremedy, cure (< Malay?) (PWMP: *tawaR₁)

Iban (1440 / 1624)

tayokto wag, oscillate, flap (PWMP: *tayug)

tayun-tayunswinging (PWMP: *tayun)

tebakpierce, prick, be pricked (as by a thorn) (PAN: *tebek)

tebalthick (as a plank), dense (as crowds of people) (PMP: *tebel₂)

tebaŋfelling; to fell (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

tebascut grass and bushes (as in clearing a path) (PWMP: *tebas₂)

tebascut grass and bushes (LOAN)

tebaʔcut small plants through, esp. bamboo (PMP: *tebah) *tebaS

tebelokshipworm or teredo (PWMP: *tambiluk)

tebiŋriver bank, shore, edge (LOAN)

tebiŋriver bank, shore, edge (NOISE)

tebokhole or hollow carved out, mortise (to fit tenon); bore a hole (LOAN)

tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tebuantree hornet (PMP: *tabuqan)

tebu betoŋkind of sugarcane (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

tedaʔleavings, remnant, left-overs (PAN: *teda)

tedohcalm, still, quiet (esp. of weather) (LOAN)

tedoŋgeneric for cobras and kraits (PWMP: *teduŋ₂)

tegarstrong, powerful (PMP: *teger)

te-kaitbe hooked or caught in passing, as clothing caught on a thorn (PAN: *kawit)

Iban (1460 / 1624)

tekanpress down, hence figuratively, oppress, subdue (PMP: *teken)

tekaŋclimb a tree with a rope thrown over a branch (hence by shinnying up?) (PWMP: *tekaŋ)

te-kaŋkaŋstiff with cold, wet and chilled, terror-struck (as of someone paralyzed with fear of thunder); stiff (as the corpse of a dog) (PMP: *kaŋkaŋ₃)

tekapdeafened (as by the sound of a gunshot) (LOAN)

tekoŋto rap, knock (as someone knocking on a door) (PAN: *tekuŋ₂)

tekupslam shut, shut up or in (PMP: *tekub)

tekuyoŋ pulassnail, unid. (or whorl of snail shell?) (PMP: *pules)

telagasmall lake, pool, shallow well (LOAN)

telapsink into, settle (e.g. sediment), percolate, enter the system (e.g. medicine) (PMP: *teleb)

teluadd or twist strands into a rope, splice (PAN: *telu)

temadauwild ox: Bos javanicus d'Atton (formerly Bos sondaicus) (PWMP: *tamadaw)

temanattendant on a superior, escort; (hence polite for) companion, partner (NOISE)

temilokshipworm or teredo (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tempohassail; break through (as a fence); storm a house (in attack) (LOAN)

tenaŋ(of water) still, calm (PWMP: *teneŋ)

tentaŋover againstt, face (towards), opposite (PWMP: *teŋteŋ₂)

tenunweaving (PAN: *tenun)

teŋarmangrove, Ceriops, esp. C. tagal and other species yielding dark tannin, used locally (PMP: *teŋeR)

təŋgiliŋscaly anteater: Manis javanica (LOAN)

teŋgíriScombroid marine fish, Cybium spp., mackerel (PWMP: *taŋgiRi)

Iban (1480 / 1624)

teŋikloquacious, garrulous (as in nagging) (ROOT)

tepatmake straight for (as in sailing for a destination) (PWMP: *tepet)

tepa-tepakmaking a pattering sound (as rain rattling on the roof) (PWMP: *tepak-tepak) *tepak₁

tepayanlarge earthenware jar (PWMP: *tapay-an) *tapay

tepiedge, margin (LOAN)

tepi-anriver landing or bathing place (LOAN) Iban

tepikslapping (as in slapping a moquito on oneself) (LOAN)

te-piloksprained, lame (PWMP: *ta-piluk) *piluk

te-piloksprained, laimed (pilok ‘crooked, twisted, lame, as a foot’) (PMP: *ta-₂)

teranto strain, force (as in trying to speak when ill, or when defecating) (PWMP: *teRan)

teraŋclear; bright (LOAN)

tərapfruit trees yielding bark cloth: Artocarpus spp. (PWMP: *teRep)

terasheartwood; (in Skrang and northern to lower Rejang river) ironwood (PMP: *teRas)

terejunleap down, drop, plunge down (LOAN)

terimaʔto receive, accept (LOAN)

tesahwash (clothes) (PWMP: *seqseq)

tesalregret, be sorry, repent (PWMP: *selsel₂)

tetakcut up, cut into lengths, cut off or to a length (as in cutting wood for punting poles) (PAN: *tektek₁)

tetapfirm, steady, stable (LOAN)

tetascut off, trim (as the frayed ends of a mat) (PWMP: *testes)

Iban (1500 / 1624)

ticakwall lizard (PWMP: *cikcek)

tikai lampitheavy mat of lengths of rattan threaded together with bark cords (PWMP: *lampit)

tikalturn back, go back (PAN: *Cikel)

tikupto close, shut (as a door) (PWMP: *tikup)

tilitgaze at, peer into, hence predict (LOAN)

timahlead (PWMP: *timeRaq)

timbaŋto weigh, measure weight; to balance, make up for something; to assess, judge fairly (usually in for leniency); hence fine or sentence (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timbawjoin on, add to; planks added to keel of boat, sides of boat (PWMP: *timbaw₁)

timbulcome to the surface, float; reveal (PWMP: *timbul)

timbuncollect, catch, accumulate, heap up (PWMP: *timbun)

timpaŋlame; one-sided (as a jacket with only one sleeve, a man short of a finger) (PMP: *timpaŋ)

timureast (PMP: *timuR)

tiŋaʔshred, splinter, esp. food stuck between teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tiŋaʔ kayuwood splinter (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tiŋaʔ pelandokhangnail (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tiŋgaʔear pendant worn by men (PWMP: *tiŋgaʔ)

tiŋkapprostrate, prone, fall face down (PWMP: *tiŋkeb)

tiŋkohstrike (matches, flint and steel, etc.) (PMP: *tiŋkuq)

tipasto graze, touch in passing (PWMP: *tipas)

tisikscale (of fish, etc.); scale-like pattern (PMP: *siksik₂)

Iban (1520 / 1624)

titilow bridge, timber causeway, board walk; usually distinct from batang (felled tree or logs laid end to end), and andau (bridge); walk along narrow way or in single file (PMP: *taytay)

titikstrike (matches) (PWMP: *tigtig)

tiupblow, puff, fan (PMP: *tiup)

tuaiold, mature; leader, head, chief, senior (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuai bilikspokesman for a bilik family (PMP: *bilik)

tuai saboŋmanager and umpire at cockfighting (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

tuayleader, head, chief, senior (PWMP: *tuqay)

tubaiplants with poisonous juice used esp. to stupefy fish; tubai is one of the gifts made to mankind by the snake deities of Panggau; plants include Derris spp.: Derris malaccensis Prain, D. elegans Benth., D. thyrsiflora Benth., D. elliptica Benth., D. trifoliate Lour. (D. uliginosa Benth.); Diospyros spp. (trees, ... of which unripe fruit is used; Croton spp.; Diospyros spp. (yam climbers – tubers used); Calophyllum muscigerum Boerl. et Koord.; Barringtonia spp.; Linostoma pauciflora Griff. (shrub?); Blumea balsamifera Ham., Sapium indicum Willd. (coastal tree), and others; a little fresh root crushed in a cup of water will kill a man if he drinks it; a large scale tubai-fishing is a social occasion under an organizer (tuai) (PAN: *tuba)

tucokpierce, stab, prick, give injection (PMP: *cukcuk)

tuculapply fire to (PWMP: *culcul)

tudohleak from above (as a leaking roof) (PAN: *tuduq)

tugaldibble stick (PWMP: *tugal)

tuiltongue, pin (of a buckle) (PWMP: *tuil)

tuiʔkind of tree: Ixonanthes icosandra (PMP: *tui₁)

tujohseven (counting fingers of one hand, then thumb and forefinger of the other makes 7) (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tukaŋmove or adjust door or window (usually open) (PMP: *tukaŋ)

tukaŋ piraksilversmith (LOAN) Iban

tulakpush away, shove aside, push off (boat); to reject (as a gift); to refuse (as to see visitors) (PMP: *tulak)

tulaŋbone (including fish bones); (fig.) strength, stamina; component in names of various trees (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tulaŋ rusokribs (lit. ‘side bones’) (PAN: *Rusuk)

Iban (1540 / 1624)

tuliʔdeaf; ear-wax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

tuloŋto help, aid, assist (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tumaʔparasitic insect, esp. louse (kutu) or nits (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumbitheel; to stamp or kick back with the heel (PWMP: *tumbid)

tumbohshoot up, grow, arise; begin, broach (subject); call together; organize; form (group or society) (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tumboŋanus, rump (PWMP: *tumbuŋ₁)

tumpihflat round sweet cake of rice or sago flour fried in oil, usually for offerings (PWMP: *tumpiq)

tumpoksmall heap; rounded mass, clot, lump (PWMP: *tumpuk)

tunjok anaklittle finger (PMP: *anak) *aNak

tunuburn up, consume by fire; to roast, toast (as fish) (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tuŋawbiting insect or mite on wet land (small and red); black sand flea (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

tuŋkapfind or ferret out, discover by diligent inquiry, research (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kab)

tuŋkulflower bud, esp. bud spike of banana or palm (PAN: *tukul)

tuŋkuspacket, bundle, esp. leaf packet of food (PWMP: *tuŋkus)

tuŋkuʔtrivet for cooking pot (originally three stones, or five for two pots, now iron tripod ring (LOAN)

turiscut skin deep, esp. of tapping cut in rubber tree (PWMP: *turis)

turundescend, go down (as in descending a hill, coming down from a tree); poetically, of journeys; go out to work or set out on an expedition; to lower, bring down (as prices); line of descent (PMP: *tuRun₁)

turuspost or pile standing free, esp. in water; mooring post, post to which divers cling in diving contest (PMP: *turus)

tusahtroubled, anxious, sad (LOAN)

tusokpierce; threaded or strung together; strings of fish (PAN: *suksuk)

Iban (1560 / 1624)

tusokpierce (as the ears for inserting earrings); threaded or strung together; strings of fish (PMP: *tusuk)

tusubreast, udder; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

tusunpile in layers, arrange (similar things) in order; crowded together, herd, shoal (of fish) (PMP: *susun) *susuN

tusutpedigree, family tree (PWMP: *sudsud₁)

tutknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tutohlopped, topped (of a tree before or after felling); to circumcize (PWMP: *tutuq)

tutokto pound, crush (as rice to husk it in a mortar) (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tutur(of a resin torch) let fall sparks, dribble fire; hence apply fire to (PWMP: *tutuD)

ubahalteration, change (LOAN)

ubangrey or white hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ubatmedicine, drug; gunpowder; poison; spell, charm (LOAN)

ubat kebalcharm or spell to confer invulnerability (PWMP: *kebel)

ubituber, tuberous plants including aroids, yams and sweet potato (PMP: *qubi)

ubun-ajifontanelle, esp. of infant (PMP: *hubun₁)

ucapmutter (LOAN)

ucap-ucapincessant talk (of a group) (LOAN)

udaŋ, undaŋgeneric for prawn, shrimp, tailed crustacean (distinct from crab) (PAN: *qudaŋ)

udiafter, later; follow after (PMP: *udehi)

udok ayampet dog (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ujakdrive in, plant, stick upright (PMP: *uzeg)

Iban (1580 / 1624)

ujanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ujan batuhail (PMP: *quzan batu₂) *quzaN

ujitest, try, attempt (PWMP: *uzi)

ujoŋend, tip, point (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ukaŋslow loris: Nycticebus coucang borneanus Lyon (PWMP: *ukaŋ)

ukircarve, engrave; hence: draw designs, write; design or pattern carved or drawn (PMP: *ukir)

ukoy baliʔchameleon (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

ukumofficial decision or order, esp. judicial; sentence, penalty (LOAN)

ukupguard the ends of line of deer nets (PMP: *ukup)

ukurfate, destiny, luck (LOAN)

ukurmeasure length, calculate distance, set out (work, plan) by measurement (LOAN)

ulamfood eaten raw, esp. spiced salad of vegetables and fruit; cattle fodder; eat raw; graze; eat anything cooked or raw without rice, take a snack (PWMP: *qulam)

ulaŋrepeat; (of paths) well-trodden, much used (PAN: *ulaŋ)

ularsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ular daunwhip snakes, Dryophis spp. (PMP: *dahun)

ular sawaʔgeneric for python spp. (PMP: *sawa)

ulatcaterpillar, grub, maggot, worm (PMP: *qulej)

ulauunable to see clearly, dazed (PAN: *ulaw)

ulau manoknight-blindness, nyctalopia (PAN: *ulaw)

ulihby, because of; get, catch, obtain (PWMP: *uliq₂)

Iban (1600 / 1624)

uliŋrudder, helm (PMP: *quliŋ)

uluhilt, handle (as of sword, paddle, knife); upper part of river basin, headwaters (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulu aiʔupper part of river basin, headwaters (PMP: *qulu ni wahiR) *quluh

ulunserf, slave (PMP: *qulun₁)

ulurlet down, pay out (rope), launch (a boat), cast (fishing line) (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

uma-irice field, 'farm' for rice and other annual crops (PMP: *quma) *qumah

umaŋdependent on others, orphaned; hence generally poverty-stricken (PAN: *qumaŋ)

umbakwave (PWMP: *humbak)

umbutpalm cabbage (PMP: *qubud)

umpanbait (PMP: *qumpan)

unjurstretch out, lay lengthwise (as one's legs, a snake in the path, etc.) (PMP: *qunzur)

untakbrain (PMP: *hutek)

untoŋprofit; unexpected gain, windfall (LOAN)

un-utstretch, lengthen (ROOT)

uŋkatrepetition (PWMP: *uŋkat)

uŋkat uŋkatrepeatedly; reiterate (PWMP: *uŋkat)

upahreward, prize, wage (esp. for piecework) (PMP: *upaq)

upaspoisonous latex of IPOH tree: Antiaria sp. (PMP: *upas)

upihspathe of palm blossom (mayang), esp. areca (pinang), yielding tough waterproof material for e.g. bailers (PMP: *hupiq) *Supiq

upoŋbunch of fruit (PAN: *qupuŋ)

Iban (1620 / 1624)

uraiunfold, burst into bloom (PWMP: *quray)

urai masgold dust (PWMP: *quray)

uraŋperson, people (LOAN)

uratsinew; vein; root (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

urutrub, stroke, massage (PMP: *quRut)

utanforest; of the forest, wild (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utaŋdebt; be in debt, borrow (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utaraNorth (LOAN)

utasdivision, lot or parcel of land; divide land with a boundary (PWMP: *qutas)

uyutdeep, narrow rattan basket carried slung on shoulder or back (PWMP: *uyut₁)

uyutswing or hammock (PWMP: *uyut₂)

wi segaʔrotan, Calamus spp., especially C. cassius Bl. (PWMP: *segaʔ)

Iban (Lemanak) (2) WMP [iba] (Iban) Malaysia (Sarawak)

sumpitchopsticks; narrow (PWMP: *supit)

tampirjoin, attach, tie on (PWMP: *tampir)

221. Ibanag (43) WMP (McFarland 1977) [ibg] Philippines

addanstairway, ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

aggugall (PAN: *qapeju)

a-lawa-lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

anabosmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001) (PWMP: *anabu)

a-nipaa palm: Nypa fruticans (Madulid 2001) (PMP: *nipaq)

atáwaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

bajiwedge; split with wedges (LOAN)

balinustar lotus, red and blue water lily: Nymphaea nouchali (PPH: *balinu)

basulahairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. (PPH: *basula)

ba-váyifemale (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

danumwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

do:yanhammock (PPH: *dúyan)

donleaf (PMP: *dahun)

duwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

fukivagina (PAN: *puki)

funat-anto wipe (PMP: *punas)

futuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

gamuʔroot (PMP: *Ramut)

igúŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ikegcough (PWMP: *ikej)

Ibanag (20 / 43)

ka-turugto sleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

kilaʔlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

lákagto walk (PMP: *lakaj)

láŋiʔsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

ma-fuluten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq

ma-gatuʔone hundred (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

manuʔchicken (PMP: *manuk)

nagenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *na₃)

na-feggistinging pain (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

na-pnuʔfilled, full (PPH: *na-penuq) *penuq

n-assemsour (PWMP: *qalesem)

na-teggaʔhard (PMP: *teRas)

ŋáganname (PMP: *ŋajan)

piaŋaa tree: Ganua obovatifolia.(Merr.) (PPH: *piaŋa)

saleŋa pine: Agathis philippinensis Warb. Araucariaceae (Madulid 2001) (PAN: *saleŋ)

so-nu anniwhen? (PAN: *-nu)

sukoŋsupport, prop, buttress; (speak) in support of, second a motion (LOAN)

talaŋa tree: Diospyros spp. (PPh: *talaŋ₁)

teggemant (PWMP: *sejem)

telluthree (PAN: *telu)

Ibanag (40 / 43)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

vukigmountain (PAN: *bukij)

y-amafather (PAN: *amax)

222. Ibatan (158) WMP (Maree and Tomas 2012) [aka: Babuyan]

adanbe old (as a hat) (PPH: *daqan₂)

adnettouch lightly onto the surface of something (PPH: *denet)

ahbeŋa small, stagnant pool, a hollow where water stays (PPH: *lebeŋ₂)

alipogpogwhirlwind (PPH: *qali-pugpug)

amoafraid (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

āmoboss, lord, master (LOAN)

ananayouch! An exclamation of pain, esp. from a fall or cut (PPH: *ananay₁)

aŋaysomeone comes, goes to do something (PAN: *aŋay)

aŋay-ansomeone comes, goes someplace (PAN: *aŋay)

apātotkind of hardwood tree with yellow fruit used as worm medicine, and leaves used as a poultice (PPH: *apatut)

apina sleeping mat (woven of pandanus) (PMP: *hapin)

apisthe coconut bark where the leaves come out at the base of its fronds (can be used for straining, and wringing out coconut milk from grated coconut) (PPH: *qepis)

aponto roost at sunset (birds, chickens) (PPh: *hápun)

apon-anthe place where a bird normally (PPH: *hapun-an) *hápun

asdepdelicious, tasty (of food or drink) (PWMP: *sedep₂)

asdoa hiccup (PAN: *sedu)

atbayto answer (PPH: *tebáR)

atobaŋline up something, esp. plants (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atoŋblow on a piece of burning wood to make it flame (PPH: *hátuŋ)

ayoscurrent (PMP: *qaRus)

Ibatan (20 / 158)

badicibanyan tree: Ficus stipulosa (PPh: *balítiq)

bagotpull up or out (hair, teeth, plants, nails, etc.) (PPH: *bagut)

baheŋblack, dark in color (LOAN)

bahosaeggplant: Solanum melongena (PPH: *basula)

bākesa female crab (PPH: *bakes₂)

baŋaearthen cooking pot (PPH: *baŋaq₂)

batoya line, row of something, esp. rocks; be lined up (PPH: *batuR₂)

bayatsomeone goes to meet someone; two people (may) meet together (PPH: *baRat)

bayoykind of tree with bark that can be stripped and used for straps of an alat basket or for tying rice bundles (PMP: *bayuR)

bohodborrow, lend (PPh: *bulud₁)

boŋtotstench (as of spoiled food) (PPh: *buŋtút)

botoha seed, grain (PPH: *butúl)

chipohokind of breadfruit tree: Artocarpus altilis (PPH: *qatipulu)

deŋdeŋto overcook food, esp. vegetables (PPH: *deŋdeŋ)

desdesto roll or rub together something between the palms of the hands (PPH: *desdes₂)

dy-aken1sg dative and emphatic possessive marker (PAN: *aken)

dy-amen1pl ex dative and emphatic possessive marker (PAN: *amen)

dy-aten1pl in dative and emphatic possessive marker (PMP: *aten₂) *iten₂

gametkind of brown seaweed with leaflets on both sides of the stem (PWMP: *gamet)

gonaythe motion, movement of someone or something (PPH: *gunay)

Ibatan (40 / 158)

goyoda kind of green-skinned banana (PPH: *guyud₁)

habaswhat is passed by (as by a person who is looking for something) (PPH: *labas)

hanotkind of tree used for posts; the thick inner fibrous bark of the hanot tree that can be stripped by just pulling it off the tree (used for straps of alat baskets, making rope, or for tying something, as rice bundles) (PPH: *lanut)

hobidrope or string (PPH: *lúbid)

h<om>abasto pass by (object, day or time) (PPH: *labas)

i-bōnoŋto distribute something to someone (PPH: *bunuŋ)

idapa slice (PPH: *ilap₃)

idap-ento slice meat, cut into slices (PPH: *ilap-en) *ilap₃

i-kayatclimb up a tree, ladder, steep incline, etc. with something (PPH: *i-kay(e)qat) *kay(e)qat

iponlobster, shrimp (PPh: *hípun₂)

i-toboŋput something into a bamboo tube (PWMP: *tubuŋ)

ka2sg. nominative (PMP: *ka₄)

kabatitia kind of luffa (PPH: *kabatíti)

ka-baya-bayat-ana meeting place (PPH: *baRat)

kaka crow (PAN: *kak)

kamatisa tomato (LOAN)

kametto grasp something with the tips of the fingers, especially cooked rice (PPH: *kamet)

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamo2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

ka-ŋína-ento increase the price of (PPH: *ŋina)

Ibatan (60 / 158)

kaŋkaŋeagle (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₄)

ka-sabaya companion in doing something side by side or together (PPh: *ka-sabáy) *sabay₁

kataŋ-kataŋto drift at sea in a boat (PPH: *kataŋ-kataŋ)

katkatto lift up, pick up (someone (PWMP: *katkat₁)

kaykaya wooden rake made from a trunk of a shrub with splits on one end; to rake (leaves, etc.); to scratch up (as a chicken scratching in a pile of dry leaves or soil) (PPH: *kaykáy)

kimitto blink (of the eye), to twinkle (of a star) (PPH: *kimit)

k<in>amatis-anwas lied to by someone (LOAN)

kolilikind of fire saw (PPH: *kulili)

kotaya tangerine tree or fruit: Citrus nobilis (PPH: *kutay)

koyawa kind of fish resembling the threadfin (PMP: *kuRaw)

leslesroll up the sleeves, pant legs, bags, etc. (PPH: *lesles)

ma-bakesa female, girl, woman (PPH: *bakes₂)

machi-ananayto cry out in pain (PPH: *ananay₁)

machi-bayatsomeone meets with someone (PPH: *baRat)

mag-gonayto move oneself (PPH: *gunay)

mag-kamatisto lie to someone (LOAN)

mag-sabaytwo boats go together (PWMP: *sa(m)bay) *sabay₁

ma-hobidmake fiber, etc. into rope (PPH: *lúbid)

ma-kotayto be plentiful, of tangerines (PPH: *kutay)

ma-masoto roast over hot coals (PPH: *pásuq)

Ibatan (80 / 158)

ma-molassomeone harvests fruits or vegetables (NOISE)

m-antadsomething is easily seen, visible; someone or something is famous (PPH: *aŋ(ə)tad)

maŋ-aŋayto go (PAN: *aŋay)

ma-ŋarehthe cutting side of a blade is blunt, dull (PWMP: *ma-ŋazel) *ŋazel

maŋ-gonayto move something (as a table) (PPH: *gunay)

maŋ-idapto slice meat, cut into slices (PPH: *maŋ-ilap) *ilap₃

ma-ŋinacostly, expensive, valuable (PPH: *ŋina)

maŋ-lāgasomeone weaves something from weaving materials (PWMP: *laja)

maroŋgaya kind of drumstick or horseradish tree with edible leaves, pods, and roots: Moringa oleifera (PPH: *maruŋgay)

ma-sagsagsomething is chopped up, meat is minced (PWMP: *sagsag₂)

ma-sekseksomeone or something is tucked in the narrow space between two things (PWMP: *ma-seksek) *seksek₁

matankind of fish resembling the squirrel fish, but with larger eyes and mouth (PPH: *mataqan)

may-kakakto caw like a crow (PAN: *kak)

mayp-antadsomeone or something becomes visible, especially that comes out or sticks out (PPH: *aŋ(ə)tad)

may-sagsagsomeone chops up something, minces meat; someone chops up fallen branches in a field before burning (PWMP: *sagsag₂)

nákemkeep someone in mind, remember (PPH: *nákem)

ŋotŋotbite and chew on a piece of fruit, corn, etc. (PPH: *ŋutŋut)

oloŋthe horns of an animal (PAN: *uReŋ)

om-ŋare-ŋarehto blunt or dull a blade (PWMP: *ŋazel)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

Ibatan (100 / 158)

pa-habas-anlet something pass by (PPH: *pa-labas-en) *labas

pa-seksek-ensomeone inserts, tucks something in the narrow space between two things (PAN: *seksek₁)

pātawa buoy, float, or any floating device (PPH: *patáw)

patpatslash down vegetation to clear the land (PWMP: *patpat)

pay-bayat-anan intersection, a place where two things meet (PPH: *baRat)

pidaylame as a result of a birth defect or an injury (PAN: *piNay)

p<in>a-causative (perfective) (PWMP: *p<in>a-) *pa-₂

piŋgana plate (LOAN)

pirahow much/how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pisñithe cheeks of a person (PPH: *pis(e)ŋí)

pōdawpale, of a person’s complexion (PPH: *pudaw)

podpodto break off something (as shrub, broken teeth, etc.) (PPH: *pudpud)

poŋana pillow (PPH: *puŋan)

pusinto wean a child (PPH: *pusiŋ)

pusitcuttlefish (PPH: *pusít)

rapoy-ana stove, a tripod of three stones used for cooking (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

sabhaycarry something, as a bag or sack suspended over the shoulder (PPH: *sab(e)láy)

saboŋbloom, blossom, flower (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

sadsadto kick someone or something, of a person or animal (PPH: *sadsad)

sagosago palm tree: Cycas revoluta (PMP: *sagu₁)

Ibatan (120 / 158)

sakebbe inverted, upside down (as a barrel), lie face down (person) (PPH: *sakeb)

salōyotokra plant with edible green pods and spinach-like leaves: Hibiscus esculentus, or Abelmoschus esculentus (PPH: *saluyut)

samsamto seize something from someone (PPH: *samsám)

sapada hand of bananas (PPH: *sápad)

sapad-anthe place on the stem where the hands of bananas are separated (PPH: *sapád-an) *sápad

sa-syamnine (PPH: *siám)

saychidrefrain from doing something (PPH: *saR(e)ked)

simabarb of a spear, arrow or hook (PPH: *simaq)

simsimsample food or drink to test the quality or flavor of something (PPH: *simsím)

s<om>doto hiccup (PAN: *sedu)

sōŋcanine tooth; tusk of an animal (PPH: *sauŋ)

tafirst person plural inclusive nominative pronoun (PAN: *ta-₁)

tafirst person plural inclusive genitive or possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ta)

tabecause (marks the result proposition in result-reasons, as in ‘He passed &because& he studied’) (PPH: *taq₁)

tabafat of the body, substance from animals or plants used for cooking (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabaŋbland, tasteless, lacking in salt (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tabtabto hack something with a bolo or axe (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

takadfootprint, track (PPH: *takad)

taŋaylook up at something (PPH: *taŋay)

taŋgigia kind of fish resembling a barracuda (PWMP: *taŋgiRi)

Ibatan (140 / 158)

taŋhadkind of sharp-bladed grass that grows in higher elevations (PPH: *taŋ(e)laj)

taŋtaŋto hammer metal to flatten it (from the sound “tangtang” that is produced) (PPH: *taŋtáŋ)

tapiflat; to flatten something (PPH: *tapiq₁)

ta-taŋaylie flat on the back (PPH: *taŋay)

tatoscoconut crab (lays its eggs in the sea) (PPH: *tatus)

tavayaya common gourd, upo: Lagenaria leucantha (PPH: *tabayaR)

toboŋa section of a bamboo stem or a tube (a tube with a closed end was used for a lamp) (PWMP: *tubuŋ)

toboysend someone on an errand (PPH: *tubuy)

toboy-ena messenger, servant, someone sent to do an errand (PPH: *tubuy)

togikind of small, thorny yam, about the size of a fist (PPH: *tugíq)

tokoda cane, walking stick (PAN: *tukud)

tolema black mole on the skin (PPH: *tudem)

tontonto lower something by rope down to some place (PPH: *tuntún)

torsito finger-wrestle someone (LOAN)

vilasail of a boat (PPh: *biklaj)

yabnoykind of softwood fig tree with inedible fruit (PPH: *labnuR)

y-aken1sg topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun (PAN: *aken)

y-amen1pl ex topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun (PAN: *amen)

y-aten1pl in topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun (PMP: *aten₂) *iten₂

223. Ida'an Begak (189) WMP [dbj] (Ida’an) Malaysia (Sabah)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

alobknee (PAN: *qaleb)

aludboat (PWMP: *alud)

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

a-pilatbe cut, wounded (PWMP: *pilat)

baraʔtell (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

basaʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

bataŋtree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batustone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

bəg-aludride a boat (PWMP: *alud)

bə-giliŋto grind (PMP: *giliŋ)

bəkə-dilapto twinkle (PMP: *dilap₁)

bə-kitokto tickle (PWMP: *kitek)

bitisshin (PMP: *bities)

buatlong (PWMP: *abuat)

bubuncrown of the head (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

buowchase birds from rice field (PAN: *buRaw)

dalanroad (PMP: *zalan)

dallomdeep (PMP: *dalem)

danowlake (PAN: *danaw)

Ida'an Begak (20 / 189)

daraŋto warm the body (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

daunleaf (PMP: *dahun)

dawaywire (from Malay) (LOAN)

ddaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

dduʔjuice, broth; make into broth (PMP: *zuRuq)

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dukutweeds; to weed (PMP: *dukut₂)

duotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

gadduŋgreen (LOAN)

gakopput arms around (PWMP: *Rakep)

gaunsmoke (PWMP: *Rabun)

gayobig (PAN: *Raya)

gə-layagto sail (PAN: *layaR)

g<əm>untiŋto cut with scissors (LOAN)

gə-sədu-nto hiccup (PAN: *sedu)

g<um>iliŋto grind (PWMP: *g<um>iliŋ) *giliŋ

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

i-kow2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

indusrice scoop (PAN: *qidus)

kagomsink (PWMP: *kaRem)

Ida'an Begak (40 / 189)

katolitch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kawinto marry (people), crossbreed (trees); said to be a Malay loan (NOISE)

kayutree; wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kə-ordinal prefix to numerals in non-future contexts (PAN: *Sika-)

kebpittouch (PMP: *kebit)

kədtutto pinch (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

kənnuyeagle; kite (NEAR)

k<ər>itokto tickle (PWMP: *kitek)

kimooyster (PMP: *kima)

kiŋogto hear (Lobel 2016) (PAN: *kiŋeR)

kito1st plural incl. NOM and GEN (PAN: *kita₁)

kkancooked rice (< əkkan < əkan) (PAN: *kaen)

-ku1sg genitive pronoun (marks both possessor and non-subject actor of an undergoer verb) (PAN: *-ku)

kulatkulat (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kuronrice pot (PAN: *kuden)

kutulice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

labusquash (LOAN)

lallakremove bark of a tree (PWMP: *laklak)

lanooil (PMP: *laña)

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

Ida'an Begak (60 / 189)

laŋowhousefly (PMP: *laŋaw)

lasogtesticles (PMP: *laseR)

laudwind (PAN: *lahud)

layaga sail (PAN: *layaR)

ləjoginger (PMP: *laqia)

l<əm>uaʔto let go out of the mouth (PMP: *luaq)

ləŋkuasAlpinia galanga (PWMP: *laŋkuas)

límofive (PAN: *lima)

luagloose (PMP: *luqaR)

luaʔlet go out of the mouth (PMP: *luaq)

lumutalgae (PMP: *lumut)

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

maraʔtell (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

matoeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mato bubuncrown of the head (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mato dtowsun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mə-nabaŋto help (PMP: *tabaŋ)

mə-nalaʔto forbid (PWMP: *ma-ñalaq) *salaq₁

mə-nandogto lean on (PWMP: *sandeR)

mə-nanomto bury (PWMP: *ma-nanem) *CaNem

Ida'an Begak (80 / 189)

m-ənaŋobto close a door, cover food (PWMP: *ma-naŋeb) *taŋeb

mə-narabto burn a rice field (PWMP: *sadab)

mə-nattasunstitch (PWMP: *ma-nastas) *tastas

me-nəndukto scoop (PWMP: *senduk)

mə-nəpputto blow (PWMP: *seput)

mə-niruŋto shade (PWMP: *siduŋ)

mə-nuayto look for clams, go clamming (PMP: *tuay)

mə-nuboto poison prawns or fish (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

meŋ-aroksniff, smell (PWMP: *meŋ-hajek) *Sajek

məŋ-əkkanto eat (PAN: *kaen)

muyu2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

n-akon1sg oblique (PAN: *aken)

n-amon1pl ex oblique (PAN: *amen)

nanamtaste (PAN: *ñamñam)

nanaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

natadyard (PMP: *natad) *NataD

n-aton1st plural accusative; us (incl.) (PWMP: *aten₃) *ita₁

n-aton1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *aten₂) *iten₂

ndtawday (PMP: *qalejaw)

nipontooth (PAN: *nipen)

Ida'an Begak (100 / 189)

niugcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu)

nu kidanwhen (future)? (PAN: *-nu)

nu k-idanwhen? (future) (PAN: *ijan)

padaŋcoarse grass (PWMP: *padaŋ)

paitfish (PWMP: *paqit₁) *paqit

pakayto use (< Malay) (LOAN)

pakkowhandle of a cup (PWMP: *pakaw)

pakpakdrop something small (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pappaŋbeach; river side (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paraypaddy (PAN: *pajay)

parudscrape (PMP: *parud)

pasaŋsea (PWMP: *pasaŋ₄)

pə-dependent causative (PAN: *pa-₂)

(pə)nə- -i-causative (completive) (PWMP: *p<in>a-) *pa-₂

pikota kind of fly that bites (PWMP: *piket₁)

pilatcut, wound (PWMP: *pilat)

pintorsmart (LOAN)

piŋganplate (LOAN)

piogood (PMP: *pia₂)

Ida'an Begak (120 / 189)

pirohow many? (PAN: *pijax)

pukutfishing net (PMP: *puket₁)

puluʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

punsoktop (PWMP: *puncek)

pusodnavel (PMP: *pusej)

pusuʔheart; brave (PMP: *pusuq₁)

putiʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

rakopcatch (PAN: *dakep)

rindiŋwall (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

rumo3sg, he/she (PAN: *duma)

sakayget on board (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakitcrazy (PMP: *sakit)

salagto smoke, roast (PMP: *saŋelaR)

salaʔmistake; mistaken (PMP: *salaq₁)

sandoglean on (PWMP: *sandeR)

saŋitto wail (at a funeral) (PWMP: *saŋit)

sapaɁwater (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapowroof (PAN: *sapaw)

sarabburn rice field (PWMP: *sadab)

sədtopto sink, go down (PMP: *sedep₁)

Ida'an Begak (140 / 189)

segkorattan (PWMP: *segaʔ)

səkkorattan (PWMP: *seka)

səkkukfood or drink going down the wrong way (PMP: *sekuk)

səkkukfood or drink going the wrong way (PWMP: *cekuk)

səllaŋin between (PWMP: *selaŋ₁)

sənduka scoop (PWMP: *senduk)

səŋowsteam (PWMP: *seŋ(e)qaw)

sərambikitchen (with gas stove) (PWMP: *surambi)

səraylemon grass (PWMP: *seray)

sidtomant (PWMP: *sijem)

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

sikutrat, mouse (LOAN)

sinagshine (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sipputto be blown (PWMP: *seput)

sirisort grains with winnowing tray (PMP: *siji)

siruŋshade (PWMP: *siduŋ)

siwa-ynine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

soksokhouse lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

sondoglean on (PWMP: *sendeR)

sukabopen roof from the inside out for the russay ritual (PMP: *su(ŋ)kab)

Ida'an Begak (160 / 189)

sukkolworry (PWMP: *suker)

sundukscoop (PMP: *suduk)

surata letter (LOAN)

susumilk (PAN: *susu₁)

tabaŋhelp (PMP: *tabaŋ)

tabascut pattern out of cloth (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tabidto hold and twist (PWMP: *tabíd)

taddiʔspur (LOAN)

tagaʔadze (PAN: *taRaq₁)

takas-takashurry up (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kas) *ta(ŋ)kas₁

tanaʔlow (PMP: *taneq)

tandukhorn (LOAN)

tanombury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taŋguŋyoke; carry with yoke (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

taŋobclose door, cover food; lid, cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

tattasunstitch (PWMP: *tastas)

təbpusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

təlluthree (PAN: *telu)

t<əm>uboto poison prawns or fish (PAN: *t<um>uba) *tuba

təŋŋáʔhalf (PMP: *teŋaq)

Ida'an Begak (180 / 189)

timuncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

tindakto step on (PWMP: *ti(n)zak)

tiŋofood rests between the teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tuayclam (PMP: *tuay)

tuboto poison prawns or fish (PAN: *tuba)

tunayhit exactly; spear hits an object and stays there (PWMP: *tunay₂)

tuoold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

turuʔseven (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tutupounding of rice (PAN: *tutuh)

224. Idate (5) CMP [lka] (Lakalei) East Timor

lalanpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

manu telorchicken egg (PMP: *qiteluR ni manuk) *qiCeluR

mə-nututo pound rice (PWMP: *ma-nutu) *tutuh

pudiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

225. Iduna (2) OC

fififiRufous-necked Stint: Calidris ruficollis (POC: *pwipipi)

fuacrush (POC: *puaR)

sisitoʔapufferfish (LOAN)

Ifira-Mere (6) OC. see: Mele-Fila

Ifugao (746) WMP. see: Ifugaw

226. Ifugaw (1076) WMP (Lambrecht 1978) [ifu] (Ifugao, Mayoyao) Philippines (dialects: Bayninan [ify] 1, Amganad (Reid 1971) [ifa] 4, Batad (Newell 1993) 325) [aka: Ifugao]

a-kind of prepositional prefix which makes certain word-bases adjectival and descriptive, as if they were preceded by the preposition 'with'; in the Kiangan area an- is preferred to simple a- for some word-bases: a-tike/an-tike/ 'short (with shortness)' (PMP: *ha-₁) *ha-

abakáManila hemp (PPh: *abaká)

abílodinflammation caused by whipping, e.g. the part of a boy's body which is whipped begins to swell and becomes red (NOISE)

abitwedge anything between waistband of loincloth and body (PMP: *habit) *Sabit Batad

ábokany kind of mat to sleep on (NOISE)

abólweaving; whatever pertains to weaving (PWMP: *habél)

ābulfrighten away chickens, rice birds, pigs, flies in any effective manner (PPh: *ábuR) Batad

ábulchase, repel, drive away (PPh: *ábuR)

abuniyanskyworld; the dwelling place of spirits (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni₁ Batad

a-dálomdeep (depth of a river, pond, or lake) (PMP: *dalem)

adáwi ~ adawífar (PPH: *hadawiq)

ad-dalómbeneath, at the bottom (of a container); at the underworld (PMP: *dalem)

adino, not (PWMP: *hadiq)

adínegative auxiliary of verbs that actually denote a present action; if the verb denotes a past action, uggé must be used (PAN: *qazi)

adinegative auxiliary of verbs that actually denote a present action; if the verb denotes a past action uggé must be used (PAN: *adi)

adúmany, much (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

agíbrother, sister, cousin (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

ahaexclamation denoting surprise or approval (NOISE)

ahawan inside rafter of the roof of a house (PMP: *kasaw₁) Batad

aháwahusband or wife (PAN: *qasawa)

Ifugaw (20 / 1076)

ahāwaʔonthe person whom one marries, spouse (PPh: *qasawa-en) *qasawa Batad

ahi-botókharvest time (PPh: *betek₁)

ahínsalt; to salt food (PAN: *qasiN) Batad

ahínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

ahin-anthat salted (PWMP: *qasin-an) *qasiN Batad

áhudog, hound (PAN: *asu₁)

ahúdpound rice with two or three pestles in one trough, each pounder acting by turns (PPh: *asúd)

ahúksmoke (PMP: *asuk)

ākaŋfor someone to step over someone or something, especially something low (PWMP: *akaŋ) Batad

akdáŋ(<M) make a big step over something that lies across the way (ROOT)

ākupscoop out a liquid or solid with the two hands cupped together (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup Batad

ákupact of scooping out things (e.g. pounded rice, beans) with one's two hands joined (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

ālaget (PAN: *alaq₁) Batad

álaconveys the action-denoting idea of getting, taking (PAN: *alaq₁)

ála(h)communal forest (PMP: *halas) *Salas

aláh-anforested zone (PWMP: *halas-an) *Salas

ala-ʔonget (PAN: *alaq-en) *alaq₁ Batad

algawdo something all day long; to sun something or someone (PMP: *qalejaw) Batad

algósun; day (PMP: *qalejaw)

ālifor someone to come towards the speaker or hearer (PAN: *aRi) Batad

Ifugaw (40 / 1076)

áliact of coming, arriving, approaching (PAN: *aRi)

altápygmies of the Philippines, called Negritos by the Spaniards (PMP: *qaRta)

alutónpieces of wood that are not, or not wholly burned and still lie in the hearth (PMP: *aluten)

alʔúpestle for pounding rice in an Ifugaw trough, also called lalú. It is just a round, polished pole (more or less one meter twenty long and 20 cm. in diameter) rounded at its ends so that it can fit in the bottom of the hollowed cavity of the trough; its handle is made in the middle, which is thin enough to fit the grip of the hand (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

amáfather (PAN: *amax)

ama-ānthumb (PWMP: *ama-an) *amax

amindo all, complete something, exhaust a supply, as of food, money; all, exclusively (PAN: *amin) Batad

ámoconcept of tameness (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

amtáka yellow variety of green gram: Phaseolus radiatus Linn., universally known as mongos (PWMP: *hametak)

amtíblack nightshade: a broad-leafed plant, Solanum nigrum [Sol.] planted in upland fields … or on mounds … along a pondfield dyke. The leaves and young shoots are boiled and eaten as a side dish (PMP: *SameCi) Batad

amtínightshade: Solanum nigrum Linn.; a common solanaceous weed with white flowers and small black berries (PMP: *SameCi)

anthe taste of food; to eat; for a fire to consume something combustible; for a saw to cut into iron, wood (PAN: *kaen) Batad

-ansuffix of general use. First, it conveys a locative meaning; it is used to form names of places, or common nouns indicating certain places... Second, -an (like -on) is a suffix which actually verbalizes a given word-base by making it pertain to the so-called passive voice..... The difference between the suffix -on and the suffix -an can be (in some way) clarified as follows: the suffix -on puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base can be applied and, in fact, is applied to the direct object, while the suffix -an puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base is only indirectly applicable to the grammatical object (PAN: *-an)

anákson, daughter; sibling; may sometimes be used in the sense of nephew or niece (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak-ónadopt a child as son or daughter (PWMP: *anak-en) *aNak

ananayan exclamation expressing pain, either superficial or severe (PPH: *ananay₁) Batad

ánetermite (PAN: *aNay)

ániharvest (of the rice) (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

aninítothe word-base aníto, conveying the idea of a supernatural being (either a deity or a spirit), is always pluralized by the reduplication of ni, even in the Ifugaw invocations and prayers (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

antatādularge green caterpillar such as the common tomato worm (PWMP: *qantatadu) Batad

Ifugaw (60 / 1076)

ānudto float inanimate objects downstream; to float downstream, of inanimate objects, of a dead person (PAN: *qañud) Batad

ànudconcept of floating away, being taken away by the strong current of a river (PAN: *qañud)

ānud-onthat floated (downstream) (PPh: *qañud-en) *qañud Batad

a-nu-káthing ... may be used in the sense of adultery in the case that the speaker avoids using the real word (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

a-nú-nawhen? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu Amganad

anúphunt wild animals with a dog; a hunting dog; to bark, of a dog (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup Batad

anúpto hunt (e.g. in the communal forest) (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

anup-anthat hunted, i.e., a wild animal (PMP: *qanup-an) *qaNup Batad

anúp-onthat hunted, i.e., a wild animal (PMP: *qanup-en) *qaNup Batad

āŋahthe face of a living being (PPH: *aŋas) Batad

áŋahface, facial aspect (PPH: *aŋas)

aŋáŋa great earthen cooking pot in which the Ifugaw boil the food for pigs (e.g. sweet potato peels) (LOAN)

aŋhógsuppurating skin disease of the armpit, or the stench that it produces (PWMP: *qaŋesej)

aŋhógsuppurating skin disease of the armpit, or the stench that it produces (PAN: *qaŋeseR)

āŋitcall another to come and fight as in play, or when in earnest as of a drunk person; one who is extremely angry (PMP: *haŋit) Batad

áŋitto challenge, summon somebody to a fight (PMP: *haŋit)

aŋīt-onthe one called to come and fight (PMP: *haŋit) Batad

aŋtógextremely unpleasant odor of decaying flesh, unwashed genitals, of smells worse than those referred to as munʔāgub or munʔagutūut (PPh: *qaŋetej) Batad

āpalchase after to catch or to drive away, as to chase a thief, or a pig to catch it or drive it away (NOISE) Batad

apgúbile, bile-sac (omens are taken with e.g. the bile-sac of a chicken) (PAN: *qapeju)

Ifugaw (80 / 1076)

apidbraid with three strands, as of a rope, hair (PAN: *qapid) Batad

apídto braid, entwine, interlace; applicable to anything that can be or that is braided, such as ropes, strings, threads, mats, women's hair (PWMP: *apid₁)

apídbraid, entwine, interlace; applicable to anything that can be or is braided, such as ropes, strings, threads, mats, women's hair (PAN: *qapid)

apíltwins (PMP: *hampil)

āpintemporary garbage container woven from the inner stripping of bamboo (PMP: *hapin) Batad

ápinleaf, or part of a big leaf which is spread over the bottom of containers, such as jars or baskets (PMP: *hapin)

aplahto sandpaper with a rough leaf of an aplah tree; a tree (Moraceae Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. or F. ulmifolia Lamk.) the leaves of which are used for sandpapering (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas Batad

aplah-onbe sandpapered with a rough leaf (PWMP: *qa(m)pelas-en) *qapelas Batad

aplú(h)act of rubbing something (e.g. a broken bone), massage (PPh: *haprus)

āpoha cotton plant: Gossypium barbadense [Malv.]; a kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra; cotton fibers (LOAN) Batad

apúgrandfather, grandmother, granduncle, grandaunt; also used in the sense of 'master', 'leader having the authority of prestige', 'teacher', 'superior', etc. (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apūaprub any part of the body with the open palm, as to rub an insect bite, an area that has been bumped (PMP: *hapuhap) *SapuSap Batad

apúapact of feeling, groping, fumbling (PMP: *hapuhap) *SapuSap

ápukdrizzling rain (PWMP: *apuk)

āpuladd lime to areca palm nut; lime made from snails (successive layers of reeds and shells are stacked and thoroughly burned; the shells are then pounded in water, yielding lime) (PAN: *qapuR) Batad

ápullime, lime-powder to be sprinkled over a betel pepper leaf enveloping a betel nut slice (PAN: *qapuR)

apúw-onadopt a child as one's grandchild (PPh: *apu-en) *apu

apúyset fire to something, revive a fire from coals (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy Batad

apúyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

apuy-anthat burned, as wood; that revived, i.e. coals (PWMP: *hapuy-an) *Sapuy Batad

Ifugaw (100 / 1076)

átagreen, applied to grass, leaves, unripe fruit, natural color of vegetation in general (PWMP: *hataq)

átagreen; applied to grass, leaves, unripe fruit, natural color of vegetation in general (PAN: *qataq)

atéword-base of all the words that convey the meaning of death, die, kill, try to kill by fighting (PMP: *atay) *aCay

átobdeadfall to crush rats or to capture and possibly kill boars (PAN: *qaCeb)

atóproof of a house, granary, hut, shed; after the ... roofers have covered the four ridges of the pyramidal roof with bundles of grass, they begin covering the lower part of the íbat (trapezoidal shelf of reeds that is lashed to the rafters) with layers of canes that still have leaves ... they continue their covering operation using now bundled sheaves of gúlun grass (Imperata cylindrica). Each layer is laid a little higher than the one already laid and strongly lashed to the ulhút (pair of reed stalks) of the íbat by means of horizontally laid canes called hípit (PMP: *qatep)

attibset a rat or mouse trap; catch a rat or mouse in a trap (NOISE) Batad

áwakloins, or waist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awniexclamation roughly equivalent to 'wait!', 'later!' (PAN: *Sauni) Batad

ayexclamation to arouse someone's attention (PAN: *ai₂)

ayámfriend, comrade (PWMP: *qayam₃)

āyatfor a person, animal, insect, climbing vine to climb something, as a tree, ladder, house, steep incline such as a stone wall, sheet rock surface that is nearly vertical, but not to climb a hill or mountain (PPH: *kay(e)qat) Batad

ay-ayámplay, amusement (PWMP: *qayam₃)

āyiwa branching tree with a hard bark, or a piece of a tree, such as a stick, log, plank (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw Batad

ayúdswing used by children, who rock themselves backward and forward (PWMP: *ayud)

a-ʔanthe taste of a staple or snack food, such as rice, sweet potato, bread or pastries, fermented rice grains, and fruit (PAN: *kaen) Batad

ba-bāiwoman; female (person, monkey) (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi Batad

ba-báiwomen (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

badbádact of unwinding something (e.g. a string) (PWMP: *bajbaj)

baflatbanana plant, banana fruit (NOISE)

bagatell; confess; request (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq Batad

Ifugaw (120 / 1076)

bagáto ask; to tell (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bagutpull out a piece of wood that is pressed between two other pieces of wood (ROOT)

bāhiga sterile man or woman; for someone to remove the testicles from an animal, especially a dog, cat, carabao, pig with a knife (PWMP: *basiR) Batad

bahigsterility, barrenness of human persons (PWMP: *basiR)

bāholcareless act; charge someone with a careless act (PPH: *básul) Batad

bakbákwooden slab with a handle with which women beat the clothes they are washing; frog (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bálaglowing fire without flames, red-hot fire (PMP: *baRah)

baláulceration, ulcer (PAN: *baReq)

balábaghorizontal position of a wooden stick, a cane, a shelf of canes, a spear including its shaft, etc. (PPh: *bala(R)baR)

balabógkind of spear, the blade of which is provided with two barbs (PWMP: *balabeg)

bálatbanana plant; banana fruit (NEAR)

balátoŋkind of bush producing small, black beans: Phaseolus radiatus L. (PWMP: *balatuŋ)

balbálkind of wooden slab with a handle with which women beat the clothes they are washing (PAN: *balbal₁)

balídeceit, fraud, lie (PMP: *bali₄)

balígasword of an Ifugaw weaving apparatus (PMP: *balija) *baRija

balíkisrelatively narrow imported belt of leather (PPh: *balíkis) Batad

balíkohwoman's belt (PPh: *balíkes)

balitókoften used in the sense of "gold", though it properly means a gold ornament (necklace, earring) (LOAN)

balítuʔplate s.t. with gold, esp. to cap or crown a tooth with gold (LOAN) Batad

báliwact of turning oneself when walking, etc. and continue (walking, etc.) in the opposite direction; produce an action which will have an effect which is the contrary of what somebody else tries to produce (e.g. to defend the life of somebody who is attacked); opposite part (e.g. the lowlands are the balíw-on of the mountain area and vice versa (PMP: *baliw₁)

Ifugaw (140 / 1076)

balló(h)conveys the idea of vengeance; take revenge on somebody (with unexplained -ll-) (PAN: *bales₁)

ballúnewly ripe rice; young person married or not, who has the characteristics of not being old (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

baló, bal-balóyoung; young man not yet married (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bāluthat which a man or woman wears to indicate that his or her spouse has died; to put on clothing to indicate that one's spouse has died (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁ Batad

báludprisoner (PPH: *balud)

bálugwild dove (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

baluŋábiŋcock's comb, also applied to the crest above the head of a hen (NOISE)

banbánthe inner, soft fibers of rattan thongs (PWMP: *banban)

bannodam of stones; pond (LOAN)

bannuga bird commonly called a Red-tailed hawk (PPh: *banúg) Batad

bannúgkind of bird of prey said to eat small snakes, and cannot fly as quickly as other birds of prey (PPh: *banúg)

banteŋa flint lighter, consisting of a flint stone...a piece of steel against which the flint is struck, and tinder...which lights when a spark is created; for someone to strike a fire with a flint lighter (PMP: *bantiŋ) Batad

bantíŋa small iron (or steel) piece with which the Ifugaw strike a small piece of flint to produce sparks that hit some cotton and is easily enkindled by blowing over it; in the Hapaw area, matches, a box of matches, is called bantíŋ-an (PMP: *bantiŋ)

banútana tree the stem of which yields a very hard and reddish timber (PPh: *banútan)

baŋbaŋplant something that must grow in the earth, not in the mud (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₃)

baŋlómint; a very fragrant little herb; hence applied to whatever plant or flower has a good smell (PPH: *baŋ(e)lu)

bātaŋsulphur mushroom (poisonous; inedible); for a decaying tree to grow sulphur mushrooms (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Batad

bátoktattoo (PMP: *batek)

baturock (PMP: *batu₁) *batux Batad

batústone, boulder, pebble (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

Ifugaw (160 / 1076)

batu-batustony (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux Batad

báugdecay of teeth (PPH: *baqug)

bayábatguava (LOAN)

bāyadthe payment for something such as non-inherited goods, debt, fine, with money or barter goods (PMP: *bayaD) Batad

báyadpayment, act of paying (PMP: *bayaD)

báyuto pound rice (this word-base is exceptionally used in the sense of “pestle”) (PAN: *bayu)

bídachanted ballad (LOAN)

bidíbidintertwine threads using the fingers (PWMP: *bidíbid)

bigíshoot, sprout of plants (NOISE)

bihʔákact of parting, severing; disunite coiled rings (e.g. of a copper bracelet or leglet) (PMP: *biseqak)

bíka(h)strength, force (PWMP: *bikas)

bíkaŋbow; bow and arrow; what has the shape of a bow (PWMP: *bi(ŋ)kaŋ)

bikbíkact of beating, knocking on something (e.g. on one's breast) (PWMP: *bikbik)

bikbíkact of beating, knocking on something (e.g. on one's breast) (NOISE)

biklátscar, cicatrix (PPh: *biklát)

biklátscar, cicatrix (ROOT)

bíkoŋlover's harp; flat, thin metal plaque, the inner, loose part of which can vibrate and produce harplike sounds if someone holds it to the lips and, so to say, speaks through it ... During the evening hours, boys coming to a girls' dormitory use it to express their love of one or another girl. The girl who is addressed answers through her own bíkoŋ (ROOT)

bikutkúthump in the back of old people (ROOT)

bīlaa wild taro growing in forested areas: Araceae Alocasia heterophylla [presl.] Merr. (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁ Batad

bílakind of wild taro which serves as food for the pigs (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

Ifugaw (180 / 1076)

bilágact of unfolding, unrolling something, e.g. a package, a bag that is rolled up (PMP: *bilaj)

bílaŋto count, number, compute. Iloco word, known and understood by all the Ifugaw (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bīlatscarred, of a part of the body (except the forehead and scalp) by a cut, a boil on that part of the body (PMP: *bilat₂) Batad

biláubamboo grass (Miscanthus sinensis Andr.), reed, canes; used for making flakes, sometimes to make fire in the hearth (PAN: *biRaSu)

bilínto put, lay something aside, to push something a little farther (PWMP: *bilin)

b-in-aŋonwas awakened by something (as a rooster crowing) (PWMP: *b<in>aŋun) *baŋuN Batad

b-in-okbókwhat is crushed, what is pulverized (applied to the yeast cakes uŋwád or onwád) (PWMP: *b<in>ekbek) *bekbek₁

b-in-u-búukwoman's braided tress (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

b-in-úhuga heap of fluffed cotton (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

b-in-unbunsecond crop rice seedling (PMP: *bunubun) *bunabun Batad

bīolan enlarged thyroid gland, commonly called goiter (NOISE) Batad

bitáulgeneric term for several trees, the foliage of which appears to be the same, but not the wood of their stems; a few species yield a sort of timber that is good for building purposes, while the other species are not free from woodworms (some of them are spoiled quite rapidly after they have been felled) (PMP: *bitaquR)

bítilfamine; general scarcity of food, e.g. after the end of the war, when the retreating Japanese troops had harvested the rice fields and dug up the sweet potatoes, while the Ifugaw were hiding themselves in isolated places in the midst of the mountains (PMP: *bitil₁)

bītinbe out on the end of a branch (of a person or animal); hang from the branch of a tree, of a small bat; a horizontal branch on which a small bat customarily hangs (PPh: *bítin) Batad

bítinhang up (PPh: *bítin)

bittūanbe starry, of the sky; a star (PAN: *bituqen) Batad

bītumake a deep hole to catch wild animals; a deep hole dug to catch wild pigs. The hole is camouflaged by covering it with twigs and grass (PPh: *bítu) Batad

bítupitfall dug in a wild pig's trail (with interior stone wall and sharpened bamboo impaling spikes at bottom); any pit dug into the ground may be called bítu; a pit without bottom, made into a beam is an úwaŋ; a waterpit (however small it may be) is a loboŋ (PPh: *bítu)

bitugbump oneself as by hitting the head against a beam, by falling (ROOT) Batad

bitúkastomach, though stomach and intestines are more often called putú; the gizzard of a chicken may also be called bitúka (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

Ifugaw (200 / 1076)

bitu-onwild pig caught in such a trap (PPh: *bítu) Batad

bitúwonstar; also planet since the Ifugaw do not distinguish between the two... All the stars are believed to be the daughters of the moon deity (PAN: *bituqen)

bitūʔathe stomach of man and most vertebrates; the gizzard of a fowl (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka Batad

bīʔahbecome strong, be quick; strength (PWMP: *bikas) Batad

biʔuŋa Jew's harp made either of bamboo or from a flattened piece of brass wire (ROOT) Batad

bōbodbind something into a relatively small bundle, as to bind a bundle of tobacco (from about 3" to 6" in diameter), the arms or legs together, a bundle of clothing, the feet of a chicken, the remains of the dead into a blanket (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej Batad

bóbodwhatever serves to bind, attach, wind around something, e.g. a rope, a string, a liana thong (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bobod-onthat (which is) bound (PPh: *bejbej-en) *bejbej Batad

bogahto develop rice grains, of growing rice, of a pond field; become full, enlarged, of growing rice grains, of the bile of a chicken or pig. An enlarged bile is a good omen if the chicken or pig is being sacrificed for something such as for stored rice to increase in amount, but bad for something as for a sickness (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas Batad

boga(h)pounded rice; may also be used figuratively in the sense of what is most significant, as the decorticated grains are the only important products of rice plants (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

bognátrelapse into the same sickness; to make wounds, infections, skin diseases that were being cured, grow worse by not being careful (PPh: *beRnát)

bohátbreak by jerking, by a snapping pull; applied to strings, threads (PMP: *be(R)tas)

bohkágbuds that develop, open and become flowers (PPh: *beskag)

bohkágbuds that develop, open and become flowers (PPh: *beskaj)

boholblame, be angry at, hate someone for something (PPh: *besqel) Batad

bohʔólanger (PPh: *besqel)

bokbókanything that may serve to crush or pulverize grains, nuts, the roots of certain herbs, etc. by continued beating, pounding, or hammering (PMP: *bekbek₁)

bokkokbe short and stocky, of an adult (PWMP: *beŋkek) Batad

bokónexclusive, i.e. restrictive negation; if bokón itself functions as a verb it means 'refuse', 'not want', 'reject', 'take ill' or something similar (PWMP: *beken)

bólaany kind of ball used for playing (LOAN)

Ifugaw (220 / 1076)

boladremove the clothing covering the genitals, thus to expose one's nakedness (PPh: *belaj) Batad

bola(h)word-base conveying the idea of "white" in the Kiangan area, and of "red" in the other areas of Ifugawland (NOISE)

bolayto cause tiredness, as of work (PPh: *belay) Batad

boléfatigue, lassitude (PPh: *belay)

bolhápurse, pocket (LOAN)

bonágsunstroke (PWMP: *benaR)

bonálact of throwing a stone (stones) to somebody, or an animal (PWMP: *benal)

boŋboŋdivert water into a canal for irrigation by making a dam across a stream of water (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁ Batad

boŋbóŋa dam made to prevent the flow of water, e.g. in an irrigation canal, a water outlet in the dyke of a rice field (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

boŋgókto snore while sleeping (ROOT)

botbótstrike something repeatedly with a knife, e.g. to split a log, to fell a tree (PMP: *betbet)

botókrice bundle; other things are seldom called botók, but botók may be used as a word-base so that the compound word implies the act of bundling (PPh: *betek₁)

botoʔto bundle together into a small bundle, as to bundle rice into a sheaf, imperata grass into a small bundle, vegetable greens, the hair of a woman to make a pony tail (PPh: *betek₁) Batad

boʔʔadigging bar (NOISE) Batad

buágact of uprooting (e.g. a tree in a typhoon) (PPh: *buág)

buahfor someone to do something early to something or someone, or with someone or something (PPh: *buás) Batad

bua(h)early in the morning (PPh: *buás)

buáyacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bubúnspring, source, waterpit (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

bubúŋthat capsheaf of a building (traditionally ten to fifteen bundles of cogon grass laid around the roof peak, butt-ends down, tied to the roof-bearing post, twisted, bent over to one side, and tied again; for someone to lay a thatch capsheaf on a roof peak or ridge (PMP: *bubuŋ₁) Batad

Ifugaw (240 / 1076)

búbuŋpeak of the pyramidal roof of an Ifugaw house or granary consisting of a couple of grass bundles attached to and above the grass that already covers the highest parts of the topmost roof slope and upper ends of the rafters. Thus, these bundles of grass constitute the outside búbuŋ. Since the grass bundles are firmly attached to, and the twelve rafters nailed to a wooden disk, the disk which helps support the rafters constitutes, together with the tops of the rafters, the inside búbuŋ, and is rightly called búbuŋ or ambubúŋan/ (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

budákexplosion, detonation (PWMP: *bundak)

budbúdgeneral term for bundle, e.g. a bundle of firewood, of canes; not applied to a bundle of rice ears (botók); however, if the rice bundle is smaller than ordinary in a certain area it is called budbúd (NOISE)

būgastone-like object reportedly found in the flesh of animals such as a wild pig, about the size of a pea (PPh: *búgaq) Batad

bugapluck, pull off (e.g. fruits from a tree) (PPh: *bujas)

búgapeculiar little stone which is said to have been found by an ancestor of former times and has been put in the ritual box of the one who inherited it; it is believed to have a magic power, since it makes the rice last long, not quickly consumed. It seems to be a tektite, or what is called 'tooth of the thunder' (PPh: *búgaq)

búgato pluck, pull off (e.g. the fruits from a tree) (NOISE)

būgawfor someone to shout something to someone over a distance (PAN: *buRaw) Batad

bugnáya tree: Antidesma bunius [Linn.]; fruit of the bugnáy tree, sweet-sour to the taste, eaten as a snack food; old berries are pounded before eating (PWMP: *buRnay) Batad

bugnékind of tree producing small black berries which are edible: Antidesma bunius Spreng. (Euph.) (PWMP: *buRnay)

buháka split in a piece of wood; to burst; produce a burst by cutting open something that is still closed; to split a piece of wood (PPh: *busqák)

buhismall and more or less superficial fissures in a board or beam (PPh: *busiq)

būhughunter's bow, weapon used with an arrow (pāna) for hunting small animals such as birds and snakes; cotton fluffer (made of bamboo in the shape of a bow, about 33 cm. long); for someone to fluff cotton with a fluffer (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂ Batad

buhúgfor food to satisfy someone in eating; for someone to satisfy himself in eating (PWMP: *busuR₃) Batad

búhugfluffing implement: kind of bow with its cord used to make cotton more fluffy by making its cord vibrate in the midst of a heap of cotton (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

buhúgsatiated in the sense of having eaten enough (PWMP: *busuR₃)

būhulan enemy of a village; i.e. a person of another village; wartime; for two or more hostile villages to engage in warfare against each other. Traditionally warfare was potentially engaged in with any village with which there was not a truce agreement (bayaw). Warfare was caused by disputes over territorial boundaries or use of public forests. Rampant and serious theft or more trivial matters could finally result in warfare. The heads of enemies killed in battle were taken, and sometimes hands or feet, and ceremonies involving these body parts performed (PAN: *busuR₁) Batad

búhulenemy (PAN: *busuR₁)

búkaconveys the idea of making appear what is covered, or otherwise invisible (PMP: *buka)

bukbúkwood worms (as in house posts) (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

Ifugaw (260 / 1076)

buláfor someone to push out foreign matter (food, spent betel quid) from the mouth with the tongue (PMP: *buRah) *buReS Batad

buláspit out what one is busy eating (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

búlagblindness (PPh: *bulág)

bulalákawwhiteness of a wealthy young man; used in hudhúd literature (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

būlanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN Batad

búlanmoon, lunar month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buláwanaction-denoting noun: that which dazzles, i.e. an ornament (a necklace, an earring) that dazzles; it may occasionally replace the term balítok 'gold' (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

búligbunch of bananas; i.e. the whole bunch (as when it still hangs on the banana tree) (PMP: *buliR)

būlua thin-walled bamboo, Schizostachyum lumampao, used as weave (lāga) for making house walls, waterspouts, water containers, and salt-meat containers. Also used as material for the eel basket trap, locust basket and loosely woven head basket (PAN: *buluq₂) Batad

bulúwashing one's face using one's hands; hence washing one's face and hands (PMP: *bulu₂)

būludthe ascending ridge of a mountain; roof-ridge thatch of a traditional house, baluy, and pile hut, inappal (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁ Batad

buludfor someone to temporarily borrow something, such as an implement, for working (PPh: *bulud₁) Batad

búludcrest of a mountain or hill; occasionally used in the sense of 'mountain', as in the Mayawyaw area (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

búludborrow, lend (said to be an Ilokano loanword) (PPh: *bulud₁)

bulúntravelling companion; companion in general; to accompany as helper (PMP: *bulun) *buluN

bulʔákdivide something in four equal parts, to quarter (NOISE)

b<um>atúbecome stone, harden (PWMP: *b<um>atu) *batux

b-um-úŋa-y pagethe rice bears (or will bear) ears (grains) (PMP: *buŋa)

b-um-ūŋotbecome angry (PWMP: *buŋet) Batad

bunbunsecond crop rice seed planting season, in which rice seeds (billuŋan) are planted in dry seedbeds; for someone to plant rice seeds in a dry seedbed (PMP: *bunubun) *bunabun Batad

Ifugaw (280 / 1076)

bunbún, bumbúnput something under ashes (as sweet potatoes for roasting, firewood so that it will not be extinguished during the night) (PMP: *bunbun)

bunígeneral term for deities, i.e. those who pertain to the higher classes of the Ifugaw supernatural beings, not those who are better called 'spirits'; however, shamans, go-betweens and others may occasionally neglect making a distinction and call all the supernatural beings buní (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni₁

bunwíta fish-hook (with or without a fish-line); to hook up a fish, etc. (PPh: *bunwít)

būŋathe pulpy fruit of a plant, tree, vine, with or without seeds or pits; for a plant or tree to bear fruit, seed vessel, grain (PMP: *buŋa) Batad

búŋafruit of trees, shrubs, plants (banana pods, rice ears, berries, beans, pears, nuts, etc.) (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋbuŋdynamite, used to break large rocks, especially in a pond field; for someone to put dynamite on something to blast something, as a stone, sheet rock (PPh: *buŋbuŋ₂) Batad

buŋbúŋonomatopoetic word, since it imitates the sound produced by an explosion, a detonation (PPh: *buŋbuŋ₂)

būŋotanger (PWMP: *buŋet) Batad

būŋotanger, ire, fury (PWMP: *buŋet)

buŋtútstench, applied to dirty water (PPh: *buŋtút)

būŋuga low-pitched sound, as of someone talking in a bass, somewhat rough voice; as of the sound of a truck, bus, propeller driven aeroplane; group of men chanting a song; for someone or something to make a low-pitched sound such as this (PWMP: *buŋug) Batad

būŋutfor someone to muzzle an animal (dog, carabao, pig) (PWMP: *buŋut) Batad

buŋwitfish with small hook and line (ROOT)

bútafor a foreign substance to lodge in the eye, as dirt or a hairy thorn; for a foreign substance, such as a hairy thorn, dust or ashes to irritate the eye by lodging in it (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa Batad

bútamote in the eye (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butakálmale quadruped; mostly applied to dogs (PPh: *butakál)

butá-onto blind (PMP: *buta-en mata) *buCa Batad

butbútless poetic word for 'hawk', called buliklík in hudhúd stories (PWMP: *butbut₁) *butbut

butífor someone to pop corn in coals or hot ashes of a fire with a stir stick (PPh: *butíq) Batad

butícrackling of burning firewood in the hearth (PPh: *butíq)

Ifugaw (300 / 1076)

bútigwart, mole on the body (PMP: *buteliR) Batad

bútigwart (PMP: *buteliR)

butikícalf, i.e. the fleshy hinderpart of the leg below the knee (PPh: *butikíq)

butiʔicalf of the leg (PWMP: *butiqes) Batad

būtoŋfor someone to be drunk to the extent that the person can still control his or her actions; typically of a person who shouts or wants to fight (PMP: *buteŋ) Batad

būtoŋintoxication, inebriation (PMP: *buteŋ)

búttoŋfirstborn child; a first born child which is the only one (PPh: *bugtúŋ)

butúlfor part of the body to be raised in a welt as the result of an insect bite or allergic reaction (PMP: *butequl) Batad

būtusvoting time for the election of government officia (LOAN) Batad

búukhair (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

būutspider web (NOISE) Batad

būutmould (as on a dank log); cobwebs (NOISE)

buwáseed, grain, kernel, nut (PMP: *buaq)

buwá-n di pagérice grains (PWMP: *buaq pajay) *buaq

búwotmarmot, a wild cat (PAN: *buhet)

buyu-búyutviscous efflorescence of long grass (NOISE)

buyuta lacy-leaved grass, Drymaria cordata Caryophyl. (NOISE) Batad

buyyóŋearthquake (LOAN)

buyyóŋearthquake (NOISE)

buʔbúʔfor termites, weevils, etc. to extensively destroy something, as corn, rice, wood (PMP: *bukbuk₃) Batad

Ifugaw (320 / 1076)

buʔbúʔfor someone to pour out a solid such as rice into something, such as the hand, a container, or onto something such as the ground (PMP: *buqbuq) Batad

buʔbuʔ-anplace into which something is poured (PPh: *buqbuq-an) *buqbuq Batad

dadánold; long-time, as an old jar, a long-time position of an agricultural leader (PMP: *dadan) *dadaN Batad

dadánold, not new, no longer new; applied to clothes, bags, blankets, anything that has been used for a long time (PMP: *dadan) *dadaN

dadáŋwhat is burnt, i.e., food that has been fried or boiled over the fire until it is black (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

dagāmirice stubble, i.e. stalks remaining after the upper stalks with rice panicles ... have been harvested, either standing in a pond field, or removed to allow for a second planting (PWMP: *zaRami) Batad

dagíknoise (ROOT)

dáitjoin two woven pieces by sewing them together (PMP: *zaqit)

dákitto cross a river (PPH: *dákit)

dakít-anplace where a large river can be crossed (PPH: *dákit)

dakólmuch, many (PPH: *dakél)

dālablood (PAN: *daRaq) Batad

dálablood of an animal, fish, person (the blood of animals and chickens is boiled with salt and vegetables and eaten as a side dish) (PAN: *daRaq)

dala-dālabloody (PMP: *daRa-daRaq) *daRaq Batad

dālana way, habitually used in going from one place to another; to walk (person or animal); make a path through a given area by clearing it with a bolo, walking back and forth over the same area; for the sun, moon, stars, water in a river, spirit beings, to follow a set course (PMP: *zalan) Batad

dálanpath; nowadays horsetrail, road for large vehicles; act of walking, traveling (PMP: *zalan)

dalán-anpath, way to walk upon (PAN: *zalan-an) *zalan

daláyaplemon (PAN: *dalayap)

dalikántrivet for cooking pot (PMP: *dalikan)

dalíteel (NOISE)

Ifugaw (340 / 1076)

dālomthe lower belly of an animal, person; the lower flank cut, of a butchered animal (PMP: *dalem) Batad

dalómunder, beneath; deep, low (PMP: *dalem)

danúma liquid, such as broth, juice of fruits and plant stalks, milk, rice beer, tree sap, water, wine (PMP: *danum) *daNum Batad

danúmwater; also applied to whatever is watery, juicy, succulent (PMP: *danum) *daNum

daŋdáŋact of removing the cooking pot with boiled rice from the dalikán (trivet), and depositing it on the ashes of the hearth more or less near the fire, so that the boiled rice will be somewhat dry before it is served (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

daŋgóksnore while sleeping (ROOT)

dáŋokind of stinkbug very destructive to young ears of rice -- eats also the leaves of sweet potatoes (PWMP: *zaŋaw)

dapánsole, the under surface of a foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

dapan-ónput one’s foot on something (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

dāpatfor three or more animals, people to be lying side by side, as in sleeping; of pigs, trussed and waiting to be sacrificed (PPH: *dápat) Batad

dápatto lay things side by side; to lie side by side (PPH: *dápat)

dapulashes; for something to become ashes, of any combustible material (PMP: *dapuR) Batad

datoŋfor someone to arrive at a given place or time (PMP: *dateŋ) Batad

datóŋarrival; to arrive at one’s destination, to bring something to the place where it has to be, etc. (PMP: *dateŋ)

DāyaThe Heavens (includes the earth’s atmosphere, touched by mountain peaks, where birds fly; it is the location of clouds, and the source of meteorological events, as rain, hail, thunder and lightning, storms and the like. The territory also includes outer space and involves spirits relating to, and named after various celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, numerous named stars, sunlight and so forth) (PAN: *daya) Batad

dáyacosmic Upstream Region, extending beyond the Sky Cupola; it is conceived as surrounding half of the earth; the cosmic Upstream Region is inhabited by the gods and spirits of the Dáya, who dwell in a number of villages situated above the lower part of the Sky Cupola; the stem dáya is also applied to any site of the Earth proper that lies nearer the cosmic Dáya (i.e. more upstream) than the habitat of the person who speaks (PAN: *daya)

dayakótgeneral term used for any variety of sticky rice (ROOT)

dāyuna blanket or mat hammock (as for a child to sleep in); a hammock is suspended from a horizontal pole and carried on the shoulders of two men to transport someone unable to walk; it is sometimes suspended from two vertical poles and used for sleeping (PPH: *dúyan) Batad

dáyuncradle, i.e. an oblong basket that can be suspended in some way on both its ends, so that the baby can be rocked; the word is also applied to a long cradle-like basket used to carry a sick person to a certain place (PPH: *dúyan)

dílatongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

Ifugaw (360 / 1076)

dīlathe tongue of an animal, bird, chicken, person (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilá-anto lick (PMP: *dilaq₁)

d<in>apánfootprint (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

diŋdíŋwalls of huts (very seldom of houses or granaries), made of twilled bamboo flakes; walls of huts may also be made of biláu (arrow-grass) canes (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

dohdó(h)to push down with one’s hands, or stamp down, e.g. long grass, rice plants, straw of rice plants that still remain standing in a rice field (PPH: *desdes₁)

dokótwhat clings, adheres, sticks to something; paste, glue (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

domdoma large flying fox, black with grey flecks (PAN: *demdem₂) Batad

doŋdóŋcooking of vegetables (PPH: *deŋdeŋ)

doŋólto hear, listen (PMP: *deŋeR)

dopaa unit measure of an arm span, i.e., a distance measured between the fingertips of two outstretched arms (PMP: *depa) Batad

dopáfathom, measure of length recognized among the Ifugaw (PMP: *depa)

dúdunlocust (PPh: *dúdun)

dūgua roof-ridge rafter of a traditional house; a corner line of a box, building basket (reference is to the exterior or interior line where two converging walls of a building meet; a horizontal or oblique line where two sides of a box or basket meet, as of a colander basket (PWMP: *zuRu) Batad

duldúlact of driving animals (e.g. pigs) ahead of oneself (PPH: *duldúl)

d<um>ālato bleed (nose, teeth, a wound, etc.) (PAN: *daRaq) Batad

d<um>álato bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

d<um>álanto walk (PWMP: *z<um>alan) *zalan

d<um>anumto urinate (used euphemistically) (PMP: *danum) *daNum Batad

d<um>apulfor dust to cover a surface (PPH: *d<um>apuR) *dapuR Batad

d<um>atóŋto arrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ

Ifugaw (380 / 1076)

d<um>kótto stick to something (PWMP: *d<um>eket) *dekeC

d<um>ŋólcan hear, able to hear (PWMP: *d<um>eŋeR) *deŋeR

d<um>oŋolfor the ear to hear, and thus to function properly (PWMP: *d<um>eŋeR) *deŋeR Batad

d<um>uwa-yto become two (PPH: *d<um>uhá) *duSa Batad

duntúkblow of one's fist (ROOT)

duntúkblow of one's fist (ROOT)

duwathe number two (PMP: *duha) *duSa Batad

duwátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duw-duwáonly two (PMP: *du-duha) *duSa

ga-dwáone half (PMP: *duha) *duSa

gahúta unit of a hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus Batad

gahúthundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gali(h)a line or stripe traced over the ground (PMP: *garis)

galíta black and white speckled cat or dog (PMP: *garit) Batad

getéŋrattling of metals that collide against each other (ROOT)

gíliŋwinding, coiling action (PMP: *giliŋ)

gilíŋ-onto wind something around spirally (PWMP: *giliŋ-en) *giliŋ

g<in>íliŋa coiled copper bracelet or leglet, the former worn by women from the wrist up to a short distance from the elbow; the latter worn by men below the knee down to and resting on the calf (PPH: *g<in>iliŋ) *giliŋ

gitgitfor worms to eat holes in leaves of plants (PWMP: *gitgit)

gokómfist, clenched hand (PMP: *Re(ŋ)kem)

Ifugaw (400 / 1076)

gokómfist, clenched hand (ROOT)

gomgomfor someone to grasp something tightly in one or both hands to prevent escaping, as an animal, or a piece of meat someone is trying to wrest from someone else (PAN: *gemgem) Batad

gūluna coarse spear grass, Imperata exaltata, commonly called cogon grass; used for roof thatch (PMP: *guRun) Batad

gūyudfor someone to pull something along, as to drag a tree, a sledge; to lead an animal on a leash (PWMP: *guyud₃) Batad

gúyudto pull (PWMP: *guyud₃)

guyúd-ansledge (PPH: *guyúd-an) *guyud₃

hábaŋsaid of a person who arrives at the bank of a river and goes across; also said of a tributary of a large river that flows into it and thereby enlarges it (PMP: *sabaŋ₁)

habáŋ-anplace where a tributary flows into the main river (PMP: *sabaŋ₁)

habhábgluttonous manner of eating, i.e. eat with heaping spoonfuls or with a hand more than full (PAN: *sabsab)

habláy-anhanger, protruding peg (or anything that can serve as a hanger) (PPH: *sab(e)láy)

habléthe act of hanging something (PPH: *sab(e)láy)

hābuŋa plant bud, which develops into a flower (PPH: *sabuŋ₂) Batad

habúwagto disperse, scatter, throw things (of the same kind) in various directions toward several persons (PPH: *sabuag)

hādagto lean something against an erect object, as to lean a load against a tree or house post so it stands on end (PWMP: *sandaR) Batad

hádagthat against which a sitting or squatting person can bend his or her back; dorsal of a chair (PWMP: *sandaR)

hágabto scorch something; to become scorched (PPH: *sajab)

hákaŋcrooked leg (PMP: *sakaŋ)

hakáŋto stand astride on the ground (PMP: *sakaŋ)

hakayfor someone to ride on an animal, such as a horse or carabao (PMP: *sakay₁) Batad

hakítpain, sickness; grief, sadness (PMP: *sakit)

Ifugaw (420 / 1076)

halakháka kind of kingfisher with dark brown plumage, medium size; in hudhúd chant the word is used in the sense of a dark brown jar (not necessarily used for rice wine), which has a special cover resembling the crest of a kingfisher (PWMP: *salaksak)

halídoŋlarge circular hat suited for wear in the rain (ROOT)

halin-duwádoubt, be doubting (PMP: *duha) *duSa

halɁób ~ halóbto get water with any container, not drinking water from the spring, but from any place where water flows or is available (PPH: *saR(e)qeb)

hāloŋpitch pine root of a pine tree, bolbol, heavily saturated with pine resin; a pitch-pine torch (PAN: *saleŋ) Batad

háloŋresin of pine trees; the word may be used in the sense of pine tree, though the exact term is bolból; splinter of a pine tree containing resin, used as a torch (PAN: *saleŋ)

hālopthe activity of dam-fishing in a river (PPH: *sáRep) Batad

hálopthe part of a river that has been drained so that it became a fishpond without much water in it (PPH: *sáRep)

halp-onfor someone to dam a river for fishing. A relatively deep place in a river is chosen; below the area arrow-grass canes (bilāu) are placed, held by stones as a screen (hābay), to allow water, but not fish, to pass. Above the area a dam (bātug) is constructed to stop the flow of water into the area, which is then scooped out. River fish, eels, crabs, and edible tadpoles are caught in the shallow water. (PPH: *sáRep) Batad

haŋlaga roasting spatula (made of wood or tin with a blade about fifteen centimeters long and ten centimeters wide, and with a handle about one meter long; used for roasting grains in a vat); the roast-quality of cereal grains (PMP: *saŋelaR) Batad

haŋlag-onto dry-roast cereal grains (maize, peanuts, young rice grains) in a pan or vat, without fat; it is usually stirred with a stirring spatula; to fry cooked rice, pork fat (PWMP: *saŋelaR-en) *saŋelaR Batad

hāpada unit measure of a hand of bananas (PPH: *sápad) Batad

hápadbunch of betel nuts, grapes, cluster of bananas or other fruits (PPH: *sápad)

haphápact of chopping pieces of wood, especially boards, to make their surface even and smooth, using a knife if no plane is available (PWMP: *sapsap₁)

hápuallotment, apportionment, i.e. act of dividing things into two parts (not necessarily equal parts), and thus allotting one part to the kinship group of the husband and the other part to the kinship group of the wife; applied to butchered meat that has not been consumed in a festive banquet, but also to movable possessions, as jewels, in cases of divorce (PPH: *sapuq)

hayūtia chayote vine or fruit (LOAN) Batad

haʔitthe pain of a body part; of an affliction specifically located, as the pain of a boil, a headache, stomachache, a wound (PMP: *sakit) Batad

hia personal noun determiner (PAN: *si₁) Batad

hiarticle and nominative case marker of names of persons (e.g. hi Aligúyun) and kinship appellations (e.g. hi ama ‘my father’) (PAN: *si₁)

hiá3sg. (PAN: *si ia₁) *ia₁

Ifugaw (440 / 1076)

híbeeaves of a pyramidal roof in the sense of the lower edges of the four slopes that overhang the walls of an Ifugaw house or granary (PPH: *sibay)

hibódact of encircling (a post, rod, etc.) with a rope, string, or thread (ROOT)

hibúgsprinkling of water (PMP: *simbuR)

hibula brothy moistener for cooked rice or sweet potatoes; for someone to moisten food such as rice or sweet potatoes with a brothy moistener, either in a spoon or in the mouth (PMP: *simbuR) Batad

híbutact of weeding (ROOT)

hída, ihdá vianwhat is eaten with rice or sweet potatoes (PPh: *sidáq)

h-idíthere yonder, that yonder (3p) (PMP: *i-di) *-di

hīkadact of pushing, bumping, striking, kicking something with one’s foot or feet (as in bumping one’s foot against a stone to move it out of the way, stamping into the mud of a rice field to avoid sliding when one is about to hurl a spear toward an adversary (PPH: *sikad)

hikád-anthe bulky block of wood, or a heavy stone, against which the weaver (who sits at the end of the weaving loom) presses her feet when weaving (PPH: *sikád-an) *sikad

híkuelbow; also applied to paths, roads, ricefield dikes, things that are provided with projections, that resemble an elbow (PAN: *sikux)

hílistrong, dazzling rays of the sun (PMP: *sili)

hi ma-biláuin uncultivated land, i.e. in the places where many canes grow (PAN: *biRaSu)

him-búligone bunch of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

him-pūluthe number ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq Batad

h-ináthat, there (2p) (PMP: *i-na) *-na

hīnagan afterglow emitted by the sun’s rays after sunset (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR Batad

hínagreddish rays of the sun before evening darkness (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

h<in>aŋlagfine roasted cereal (PMP: *s<in>aŋelaR) *saŋelaR Batad

hin-dopáone fathom length (PMP: *depa)

hin-du-dwátwo for each (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Ifugaw (460 / 1076)

hiŋ-gahútone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus Batad

hiŋ-gahútone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

hípagblow in general, but not with a weapon (e.g. a stick); mostly used of blows with one's fist (ROOT)

hiphipfor someone to clean a dry pondfield or seedbed of weeds, stubble, or vegetation with the use of a suitable implement, as a digging stick or sickle (done during the preparation of seedbeds and fields for planting and transplanting) (PPH: *sipsíp) Batad

hīpita cane thatch clamp made of arrow-grass canes placed horizontally two or three together on top and near the top edge of a thatch row, and tied securely to two or three cane purlins; for someone to clamp thatch with a thatch clamp (PAN: *sipit) Batad

hípitliana thongs or reed stalks which are tightly lashed to the upper border of baskets in order to keep it (the upper border) more resistant (PAN: *sipit)

hitúhere; this (PWMP: *si-tu) *-Cu

hīʔadfor someone to brace the foot, as when walking in a swift current, or pushing something heavy (PPH: *sikad) Batad

hīʔuthe elbow of a person (PAN: *sikux) Batad

hodhódpressing action; apply pressure in one or another way on whatever it may be, but not applied to sugarcane pressing (PPH: *sedsed₂)

hogópact of entering a house, a granary, a hut built more or less two feet above the ground, a houseyard surrounded by a fence with a small gate (PAN: *sejep)

hokóba provisory cover, anything that can cover a container for the time being, e.g. a leaf, a carton, a piece of wood, even the palm of a hand, in order to avoid that dirt or drippings would spoil what has been poured or put into the container (PWMP: *se(ŋ)keb)

hokólto strangle, throttle (PMP: *cekel)

honhónact of accumulating, piling up things into a container until it be filled; the honhón action does not per se imply pressing (PPH: *sensén)

huboŋspecific term for a pang-ó necklace (consists of a number of cylindrical beads) (PWMP: *subeŋ)

hudhudto relate a story that is recognized as being fictitious, as to relate a story in which animals are personified; a fictitious story (PWMP: *sudsud₁)

húgasharpened ends of canes stuck on paths or ricefield dykes to impede passage (PMP: *suja)

húgudcomb to disentangle the hair (PWMP: *sujud)

húkatmeasure of capacity (as of rice in a wooden container) (PWMP: *sukat)

hukát-onto measure (PWMP: *sukat-en) *sukat

Ifugaw (480 / 1076)

hukhúkonomatopoetic word used by gamblers when they shuffle the cards (PAN: *suksuk)

hultíkmarbles (ROOT)

huluŋfor someone to go upstream along a brook or river (PWMP: *suruŋ) Batad

h<um>akítit will give (cause) pain (PWMP: *s<um>akit) *sakit

h<um>athatfor someone to clear a field of old sweet potato vines with a digging trowel or digging bar (PWMP: *t<um>astas) *tastas

h<um>aʔitfor something to pain (PWMP: *s<um>akit) *sakit Batad

huŋhuŋan odor, either pleasant or foul; for something to emit an odor; for someone, an animal to smell something with the nose; for the nose to be able to smell (PPH: *suŋsuŋ₃) Batad

húpukdust, sand (ROOT)

hūʔayfor a pig to root up soil (PPH: *sukáy) Batad

i-prefix of names of places. Indicates the person or the people who inhabit the village, the site, the region, the zone which bears a name known by all those who live there (PMP: *hi-) *Si-₂

i-causative prefix (NOISE)

īagto shout yəhə əy in a long drawn out fashion by many people at a dance (PMP: *iag) Batad

íagshout some words to call people; a loud cry to give vent to one's excitement or contentment (PMP: *iag)

íanto stay overnight, or for a short time, at one of the houses of a given village, when traveling (PWMP: *ian₂)

i-ānudthat floated (downstream) (PPh: *i-qañud) *qañud Batad

i-āyatfor someone to climb with someone or something carried (PPH: *i-kay(e)qat) *kay(e)qat Batad

i-āyiwto take someone along in gathering firewood, e.g. when men take along women to get firewood during the post-transplanting holiday season (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw Batad

ibábrother, sister, cousin, companion, friend (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

i-bōbodthat with which one binds something, as bark (PPh: *i-bejbej) *bejbej Batad

i-boŋboŋthat with which a dam is made, as stones, dirt (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁ Batad

Ifugaw (500 / 1076)

ibukblack and rotten (teeth) (ROOT)

íduhto spoon something, as in eating (PAN: *qidus) Batad

ídu(h)wooden spoon (PAN: *qidus)

igókgurgling sound produced by someone who drinks water (ROOT)

igúpLagawe word for drinking which is used in hudhud chant in the sense of "sip" rice wine; it is usually reduplicated (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

ihbúurine (PAN: *sibu)

ihbúw-anurinating place (PAN: *sibu)

íhiktrouble-making, quarreling talk (NOISE)

íhuwash one or all of the following: the face, the hands and arms, the feet and legs (PMP: *hisuq) Batad

íhuwashing of one's face (and hands) (PMP: *hisuq)

íiutter sharp cries because of anger, or to express astonishment and surprise because something disagreeable suddenly happened (PMP: *iqi)

ikánany kind of fish that is greater than mudfishes; may be applied to fishes in general (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ikáŋgreat step (PWMP: *iŋkaŋ)

ikíŋ, ik-ikíŋsmall finger (sometimes applied to the small toe) (PWMP: *iŋkiŋ)

ílaknowing, seeking, finding. Exceptionally, ila may convey the meaning of "seeing, looking" (PWMP: *ila₂) *ila

ílivillage not one's own; foreign village (PMP: *híli)

imátonsign at which someone is recognized (PPh: *himatún)

imbókbeating of gongs while the people dance (ROOT)

-in-infix denoting the frequency or intensity of an action (PMP: *hin-) *Sin-

ínamy mother (PMP: *ina)

Ifugaw (520 / 1076)

ináM (PMP: *ina)

ina-onMZ, FZ (PWMP: *ina-en) *ina Amganad

ínatto draw out, stretch out, lengthen, extend something by pulling (PWMP: *iñat)

iná-y, inó-yexclamation denoting astonishment or surprise (PMP: *qina)

in-dālato menstruate (PAN: *daRaq) Batad

in-dálamenstruation (PAN: *daRaq)

ínitartificial warmth or heat (not potaŋ heat produced by the sun); applied to whatever is warmed or rewarmed by the fire (PWMP: *qinit)

inópdream in general (PAN: *qinep)

inúmto drink (PMP: *inum)

in-y-āli-nwas brought to (recipient) (PAN: *aRi) Batad

íŋaknoise made by running water (PPh: *híŋak)

íŋalshouting noise made by children who are playing (PMP: *iŋaR₁) *iŋaR

iŋíiŋa bamboo flute (PPh: *iŋqiiŋ)

íŋolanger; use abusive talking, scold somebody (PPh: *íŋel₂)

iŋpí, inpithinness of things, e.g. a piece of wood (PAN: *iŋepis)

iomgrowls of dogs; grumblings of a person (PWMP: *qiem₁)

ipa-prefix meaning: 1. let something be done, achieved, etc. by the intermediary of somebody, 2. cause that something be used for another purpose than that for which it is made, 3. that something be put above, under, in, or on that which is implied by the particular word-base (PPh: *ipa-)

i-pa-álito make something arrive (PAN: *aRi)

ipa-datoŋ-nafocus is on an unnamed agent which causes an epidemic sickness to arrive, such as influenza (PMP: *dateŋ) Batad

ípila leguminous tree that yields red, hard timber, very valuable for building purposes. Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) (PMP: *qipil)

Ifugaw (540 / 1076)

ipil-ípilleguminous tree bearing small leaves (often planted in coffee plantations, because they shade the coffee plants better than other trees) (PPh: *ipil ipil)

ípitpincers; act of squeezing; a deadfall with bait to kill rats (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

ipótwhat is too tight (of clothes) (PWMP: *hiqepet)

ípunvery small fishes living in rivers (PMP: *hipun₁)

ītibclench the teeth, bite down on something (NOISE) Batad

ítikkind of small duck which lays her eggs anywhere (PWMP: *itik₂)

itlúgegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

i-tuduto explain something, as directions to a visitor, a subject to school children (PWMP: *i-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁ Batad

íusaid to be a kind of enormous eel, or boa, or a monstrous dragon swimming in the Lake of the Downstream Region (PAN: *qiSu)

iumclose the lips (PPh: *hium) Batad

īwalmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as the soil), by moving the object back and forth, as for the wind to make a space between the foundation post of a house and the soil around it by shaking the house; to wiggle a tooth to loosen it from the gum (PWMP: *hiwal) Batad

íwikexclamation to express one's disgust, disapproval, criticism (PPh: *íwik)

iwíŋsideward turning or holding one’s head (NEAR)

iwíttail (PPh: *íwit)

iwit-anloose end of a G-string that hangs down at the back (PPh: *íwit)

ka-creates abstract nouns: ka-tagu ‘manhood’ (cp. tagu ‘man, human being’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-kayu-an ‘place where there is firewood’ (cp. kayu ‘tree, wood’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

kabana miniature house sepulchre for the dead, of traditional design (used only for a rich person) (PWMP: *kaban₂) Batad

kabánIfugaw pronunciation of the term caván, measure for pounded rice, beans, etc., 25 halúb (LOAN)

ka-buny-án'skyworld', place where the buní abide (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni₁

Ifugaw (560 / 1076)

ka-dwá-nsecond (PWMP: *ka-duha-an) *duSa

káhudog (PPh: *ka-asu) *asu₁

káiw ~ káyutree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kakáwaspider (PWMP: *kakawa₁)

kalátto bite; mostly applied to dogs, seldom to human persons, e.g. when someone bites in a fruit (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

káliditch gutter in the earth (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

kalíspeech, language, word; to speak, to say, tell something (PAN: *kaRi₁)

ka-limá-nfifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

k-alláh-anprivate forest (PWMP: *ka-halas-an) *Salas

kalupátipigeon, or a bird that resembles a dove (LOAN)

kalutfor someone to dig or scrape something from something else with the hands, paws, or suitable instrument, as to scrape food remains from a container; for a dog to dig a hole (PAN: *karut₁) Batad

kamātisa tomato plant, Lycopersicum esculentum (grown in upland fields and dry pond fields; the fruit of a tomato plant (LOAN) Batad

kamatis-anfor someone to add tomatoes to something as a condiment (LOAN) Batad

kanwordbase conveying the meaning of “eating”, especially cooked rice or sweet potatoes (PAN: *kaen)

kánapcomplete darkness (PPH: *kanap₂)

kaníbulidea of being turbid, muddy, as the water of a river after a heavy rain (ROOT)

kaŋkáŋthe whine of a dog in fear; to whine in fear (of a dog) (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂) Batad

kápohcotton, mostly cultivated on mud heaps in rice field terraces: Gossypium paniculatum (LOAN)

káputstring, rope, liana, thong to tie, fasten, bind one thing to another in order to keep either of the two or both in their right place. Thus the two posts of a ladder are said to be nikáput, if liana thongs running from one post to another under each of the rungs, prevent dislocation (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput

kápuyweakness, debility (applied to persons) (PPH: *kápuy)

Ifugaw (580 / 1076)

katáma carpenter’s plane (said to be from Ilokano) (LOAN)

k-atay-ántime of somebody's death, manner in which somebody dies (PAN: *ka-aCay-an) *aCay

k-atédeath (PAN: *ka-aCay) *aCay

ka-tluw-ánadd a third one (PWMP: *ka-telu-an) *telu

ka-walúthe eighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

kawáyanbamboo (PAN: *kawayan)

káwitwhat has the form of a sickle; first or last quarter of the moon (PAN: *kawit)

kawít-ancock, so called because his comb is sickle-like (PAN: *kawit)

káyatto climb, e.g. on a long ladder, an upright pole, a tree; implies that arms and hands, as well as legs and feet are used in climbing (therefore the ascent of a path, which is not upright, is not considered a “climb”, but merely an ascent) (PPH: *kay(e)qat)

kayŋótbite on one's lower lip thereby to show one's anger or displeasure (ROOT)

kelkela file rasp; a ridged tool for smoothing surfaces of metal or wood (PAN: *kiRkiR) Batad

kīawa bird, commonly called a Moor hen: Gallinula chloropus Linn. (PAN: *kiaw)

kikia laugh (NOISE) Batad

kíkimanner of laughing, applied to women and children (onomatopoetic) (NOISE)

kíkiksqueaking noise produced, e.g. by the hinges of a door when it is opened or closed (PMP: *kikik)

kīlahbe scarred, of the forehead, scalp (PMP: *kiras)

kilíŋringing of a bell (PPH: *kilíŋ)

kílkil ~ kikilfile, an instrument (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kodkódsometimes used in the sense of attaching, tying one thing to another which is already fixed, so that the thing attached would not move (PPH: *kedked)

kodómeyelids; to close and open the eyes (PAN: *kezem)

Ifugaw (600 / 1076)

koláŋgeneral term for worm (PWMP: *gelaŋ)

konparticle of interrogation, the question being made to obtain a clarification of a doubt, or to elicit an answer (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

-kupronominal enclitic of the first person singular with genitive or possessiv meaning; if the word to which ku should be affixed ends in a vowel, only k is affixed, u being eliminated (PAN: *-ku)

kuhílapwhat is brilliant, glittering, gleaming (ROOT)

kuhípitnarrowness of things (ROOT)

kukufingernail, toenail of a monkey, person; the claw of an animal, bat, bird, chicken (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁ Batad

kukúfingernail, toenail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

k<um>áiw ~ k<um>áyuthe plant becomes wood (PMP: *k<um>ahiw) *kaSiw

k<um>alátwill bite (PMP: *k<um>aRat) *kaRaC

k<um>ánto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

k<um>ápuyto become weak (PPH: *kápuy)

k<um>áyatto climb (PPH: *k<om>ay(e)qat) *kay(e)qat

kumpaya broad-leafed creeping grass (grows in fertile soil around dwellings, pond or upland fields, or wooded areas (PPH: *kumpay) Batad

kutkútto make a small, superficial hole by scratching (applied to dogs, rats, mice) (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

kútulouse in the hair (of women especially, because of their long hair) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kúyugto walk in front, to take the lead of a traveling group, to lead on, precede the others as leader (PPH: *kuyug)

labimidnight (i.e. about 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m.) (PMP: *Rabiqi) Batad

labínight, darkness of the night (PMP: *Rabiqi)

labiy-onduring the night (PMP: *Rabiqi) Batad

labiy-onduring the night (PPH: *Rabi-en) *Rabiqi Batad

Ifugaw (620 / 1076)

labúnact of burying a newborn child or any small child which cannot be put in a death chair (PWMP: *Rab(e)qun)

lāgathe work of weaving (PWMP: *laja) Batad

lágaact of weaving closely certain baskets; also bamboo mats or walls of huts (PWMP: *laja)

lākia male pig, domestic or wild, either castrated or uncastrated (PMP: *laki) Batad

lákimale quadruped; mostly applied to bigger pigs (PMP: *laki)

lalákiman (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

lāloga common housefly (refers to most flying insects with transparent wings, including the large blowfly) (PMP: *lalej) Batad

lalurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu)

lámutroots of trees or any kind of plant (PMP: *Ramut)

láŋawa rice-beer fly (a small brown fruit fly that is partial to rice beer and breeds and multiplies in wine jars if not tightly covered (PMP: *laŋaw) Batad

laŋhiodor produced by fishes (NOISE) Batad

lāŋitheaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC Batad

laŋítheaven, skyworld; currently used by the Ifugaw, but borrowed from Ilokano or other languages (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láŋo ~ láŋawvery small winged insects that sip rice wine (if the jar is not covered) (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋónsticks between which (two below and two above) pigs are strongly tied when they must be sacrificed or transported (PMP: *laŋen)

lāyaginger (grows chiefly in upland fields); ginger root, i.e. the rhizone (used chiefly as a food condiment, and sometimes as a side dish) (PMP: *laqia) Batad

láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe. This is extensively cultivated by the Ifugaw; the root only is eaten by them, sliced and boiled in water (PMP: *laqia)

lemathe number ‘five’ (PAN: *lima) Batad

lema-lemaalways five; five by five (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima Batad

likódyard behind a house; granary, or hut (even a narrow yard) (PAN: *likud)

Ifugaw (640 / 1076)

lilínbeeswax. Used in weaving, i.e., when the weaver has some difficulty to raise the warp threads of her chain, etc. she rubs them a little with lilin (PMP: *lilin)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

l<in>a-lákimen (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

liyaŋa natural cave, found where there is large sheet rock (PMP: *liaŋ) Batad

lobóŋlake, pond, waterpit (even a small one); it is also applied to ricefield terraces if no rice is planted in them and the straw has been pushed into the mud (PPH: *lebeŋ₂)

lokóbpatch used to cover a hole, a breach of clothes (PWMP: *lekeb)

lokufbpatch used to cover a hole (ROOT)

lománnightmare, nightly vision of a deceased relative while dreaming (NEAR)

lomlómdrizzling rain (PAN: *lemlem)

lopa(h)conveys the idea of finishing, ending a certain work or action that cannot be accomplished within a short time, or a series of actions which pertain to one whole and are conceived of as forming a single complex, for example, a celebration, a work, a headhunting expedition, etc. that lasts several days (PWMP: *lepas)

lūhithe glans of a man or animal (a socially offensive word) (PPH: *lusiq) Batad

lukábto lift up something that is more or less heavy (PWMP: *ruŋkáb)

lūlugthe knee of an animal, person (PMP: *luluj) Batad

lúlugknee (PMP: *luluj)

l<um>abifor it to be midnight (PMP: *Rabiqi) Batad

l<um>abifor it to be midnight (PPH: *R<um>abiqi) *Rabiqi Batad

l<um>abíit becomes night, the night sets in (PPH: *R<um>abiqi) *Rabiqi

l<um>āgato weave a basket (flexible material such as thin strips of bamboo or rattan is used (PPH: *l<um>aja) *laja Batad

l<um>úwato shed tears (PPH: *l<um>uheq) *luSeq

lútugeneral word base for “cooking”; to boil rice, sweet potatoes, meat, etc. (PWMP: *lutuq)

Ifugaw (660 / 1076)

lúwatears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luyáwhatever is too old, worn out (e.g. clothes), having holes here and there (e.g. baskets) (PWMP: *luya(ʔ))

lúyaksoft mud (PWMP: *luyek)

ma-átait will be green (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

ma-atait will be green (cp. na-ata 'it is green') (PAN: *ma-qataq) *qataq

ma-baturocky, of a land area (~ ma-batu) (PWMP: *ma-batu) *batux Batad

ma-bíkahstrong (PWMP: *ma-bikas) *bikas

ma-bīʔahstrong, fast (PWMP: *ma-bikas) *bikas Batad

ma-būŋotangry (PWMP: *buŋet) Batad

ma-būŋotfurious (PWMP: *buŋet)

ma-buʔbúʔfor something (as corn, rice, wood) to be extensively destroyed by termites, weevils, etc. (PPh: *ma-bukbuk) *bukbuk₃ Batad

ma-dŋólaudible (PWMP: *ma-deŋeR) *deŋeR

ma-duwa-yto be two unit measures of length, quantity, size, time, value, weight, etc. (PMP: *duha) *duSa Batad

magádryness of a land, of vegetation, or what happened to be wet insofar as the dryness is caused by the heat of the sun or the lack of rain (PMP: *maja)

ma-hakítit is painful (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-hulítwhat is difficult to be done or achieved (PWMP: *sulit₁)

ma-inúmdrinkable (PWMP: *ma-inúm) *inum

ma-iŋpíthin (PWMP: *ma-hiŋepis) *iŋepis

ma-kánit is edible (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-ma-ŋánperson who gives to eat (feeds) (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

Ifugaw (680 / 1076)

ma-matúget stones (as to build a stone wall) (PWMP: *ma-matu) *batux

ma-māyadfor someone to pay for something (PMP: *bayaD) Batad

ma-máyadperson who actually pays (PMP: *bayaD)

ma-milaŋto count (PWMP: *maŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

ma-mīlifor someone to choose someone, something (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq Batad

ma-mílito choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

mamma-múgahcontinually pluck fruits (PPh: *maŋ-bujas) *bujas

mamma-múgahcontinually pluck fruits (NOISE)

mam-patèkiller, murderer (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

ma-múgapull off fruits (PPh: *maŋ-bujas) *bujas

ma-múgapull off fruits (NOISE)

ma-múnahto wipe away, to wipe up something from a body part, object, an area with wiping material, as to wipe perspiration from the face, excretion from the eyes, mucus from the nose, charcoal from a table, water from a floor (PMP: *punas) Batad

ma-múŋa-ybear fruit; may also convey the idea of producing interest on money (PMP: *buŋa)

ma-mūtulfor someone to cut off the head of an animal, chicken or person with a bolo or head axe (PMP: *putul) *putun Batad

ma-nāloŋfor someone to gather pitch-pine root (PAN: *saleŋ) Batad

ma-nālopfor someone to go dam-fishing (PPH: *sáRep) Batad

ma-nanumfor someone to water something, such as cooking food, plants, a pond field (PWMP: *ma-nanum) *daNum Batad

maN-apuyset fire to; revive a fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy Batad

man-duwato divide a count object, such as a board ... into two more-or-less equal parts (PWMP: *man-duha) *duSa Batad

man-haŋlagto dry-roast cereal grains (maize, peanuts, young rice grains) in a pan or vat, without fat; it is usually stirred with a roasting spatula (PWMP: *ma-naŋelaR) *saŋelaR Batad

Ifugaw (700 / 1076)

man-iduhto spoon up (PPh: *maŋ-qidus) *qidus Batad

man-lukábperson who lifts up (PWMP: *ruŋkáb)

manókgeneral term for chicken (PMP: *manuk)

ma-noŋolfor a person, a living thing with ears, to hear or listen to someone or something, as the call of a bird, a cry, music, noise, talking; to hear about someone or something; for someone to obey someone (PMP: *deŋeR) Batad

man-údunto catch locusts (PPh: *dúdun)

ma-nuluto be able to produce three things in a specified period of time, as for stone walling to produce three pesos a day in earnings, or for a man to be a three basket per week weaver (PWMP: *ma-nelu) *telu Batad

ma-nutufor someone to pound bark, bark fiber, or spun yarn with a pounding tool to soften it (PWMP: *ma-nutu) *tutuh Batad

manuʔa domestic or wild chicken (PMP: *manuk) Batad

ma-ŋádanto be named (PMP: *ŋajan)

maŋ-aháwato marry actually (PWMP: *maŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

maŋ-ahínthe one who salts (PWMP: *maŋ-qasin) *qasiN Batad

ma-ŋáiw ~ ma-ŋáyuto get firewood (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

maŋ-álago to get (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₁) *alaq₁

ma-ŋalátto bite (PWMP: *ma-ŋaRat) *kaRaC

maŋ-áli-dathey are actually coming, they are arriving just now (PAN: *aRi)

ma-ŋanfor someone to engage in eating, especially a scheduled meal (regular meals are eaten in the morning and at night; a noon meal is more casual and irregular); for someone to eat with someone else (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen Batad

ma-ŋánto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋ-anákgodfather, godmother (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

maŋ-anupto hunt (e.g. in the communal forest) (PWMP: *maŋ-qanup) *qaNup

maŋ-aplahto sandpaper with a rough leaf of an aplah tree (PWMP: *maŋ-qa(m)pelas) *qapelas Batad

Ifugaw (720 / 1076)

ma-ŋáyatperson who actually climbs (PPH: *ma-ŋayat) *kay(e)qat

maŋ-āyiwgather firewood from a forest (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw Batad

maŋ-inumhe (she) actually drinks (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

maŋ-itlúgto actually lay an egg (cp. um-itlúg 'can (or will) lay eggs') (PWMP: *mag-qiteluR) *qiCeluR

maŋmáŋlook with attention at somebody; conceived of as different from aŋ-áŋ, which not necessarily implies an attentive looking (PWMP: *maŋmaŋ)

maŋ-udanit is actually raining (opp. to um-udan 'it will rain') (PWMP: *maŋ-quzan) *quzaN

maŋ-uwégo and get rattan (in the forest) (PPh: *maŋ-quay) *quay

mataeye of a person, animal, insect, living being (PMP: *mata) *maCa Batad

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tabafat, of a person or animal (PWMP: *ma-tabeq) *tabeq Batad

m-atéhe/she will die (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mátokleech, bloodsucker (PAN: *-matek)

ma-tuluto be three units of measure, of length, quantity, size, time, value, weight (PAN: *ma-telu) *telu Batad

ma-údiit will be made last (PMP: *ma-udehi) *udehi

ma-úlawdizzy (PAN: *ma-ulaw) *ulaw

ma-ʔana main-dish food, either a staple food, normally eaten with a side dish, or a snack food, as fruits of various varieties, bread or pastries (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen Batad

mika-dwáit is the second (PMP: *duha) *duSa

m-ika-pʔátfourth (PPh: *ika-epat) *Sepat

mum-búhugperson who is busy fluffing (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

mum-buníshaman (understood in a broad sense) (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni₁

Ifugaw (740 / 1076)

mum-pi-dwátwice (PMP: *duha) *duSa

mum-pílitperson who actually compels somebody (PPH: *pílit)

mun-dalómthe unwoven ‘lowest’ part of the warp (in loom weaving) (PMP: *dalem)

mun-dapulsprinkle ashes on something, as on plants to make them grow (PMP: *dapuR) Batad

mun-díl-dílato continue putting out one’s tongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

mun-lag-lágaspecialist basket weaver (PWMP: *laja)

mun-lūhifor someone to expose the penis by pulling back the prepuce (PPH: *lusiq) Batad

mun-ŋínato buy; to sell (said to be from Ilokano) (PPH: *ŋina)

mun-tanómto plant a plant crown, cutting, rhizome, seed, shoot, vine into soil (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

muŋ-kálito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

muŋ-kilíŋto ring, of a bell (PPH: *kilíŋ)

na-ámotame, as a dog (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

na-búlagblind (PPh: *bulág)

na-píliwhat is (was) chosen; what is preferred (among the things that can be chosen) (PWMP: *na-piliq) *piliq

na-pituseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Batad

n-atéhe/she died (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

n-i-ka-nʔómsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

n-ika-pitúseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

niyúgoconut palm, Cocos nucifera L.; coconut fruit; a coconut cup may be called niyúg, but exceptionally (PMP: *niuR)

nuwáŋwater-buffalo. Rarely used to work in the rice field terraces among the Ifugaw, but raised to offer a sacrifice for the ancestors (never offered to the gods and spirits who want pigs) (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

Ifugaw (760 / 1076)

ŋabŋábbite off a mouthful out of something edible, e.g. a piece of meat, a cake (PAN: *ŋabŋab)

ŋādana name by which something or someone is identified (people, spirits, geographical divisions, flora and fauna); what?, when?, where?, who? (PMP: *ŋajan) Batad

ŋádanproper name of a person, also the particular name of a village, a mountain, a forest, a group of rice terraces, and so forth (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋadán-anto give a name to somebody or something (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan

ŋakŋákhowling of dogs (PMP: *ŋakŋak)

ŋalŋálmastication, but not applied to betel nut chewing (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

ŋa-nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu) Bayninan

ŋaŋábig fissure in a piece of wood, e.g. in a board, a beam (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋatn-anfor someone to name someone or something (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan Batad

ŋāyawfor a group of men … to go on a headhunting raid (a raiding party traditionally consisted of about five to ten men, usually from a single clan) (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw Batad

ŋáyo, ŋáyawheadhunting raid, revenge expedition (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw

ŋulŋulfor someone to wail in crying, especially in grief (PWMP: *ŋulŋul₂) Batad

ŋulŋúllamentations performed in a more or less chanting tune by one or several women (but not in unison) in front of a dead person sitting on a death chair (PWMP: *ŋulŋul₂)

ŋ-um-āyawwaylay an enemy … for the purpose of taking a head in revenge (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw Batad

obánspecial blanket in which babies and little children are carried on the back of somebody (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

o-baylarge female animal (PMP: *bahi) Batad

obókrattling noise, sometimes applied to the resonant sounds produced by those who beat the gongs for those who are dancing (PWMP: *ebek)

odógback of persons, animals; textiles, garments, belts, certain tools, etc., may be said to have a back (PWMP: *edeg)

odópact of extinguishing fire (PWMP: *qezep)

ohado something alone, do something with one item (PAN: *esa) Batad

Ifugaw (780 / 1076)

oháone (PAN: *esa)

ohókput seeds in little pits (PAN: *hesek)

ohóʔplants seeds such as corn with a dibble stick (PAN: *hesek) Batad

okókto cough, cough up something, cough on something (PMP: *qekqek) Batad

okʔókcoughing disease (e.g. bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.) (PMP: *qekqek)

olóksleep (PPh: *helek)

olómunduly jealous or suspicious (PWMP: *elem₂) Batad

olómsuspicion; become suspicious, suspect (PWMP: *elem₂)

olótdo something by exertion, strength (PWMP: *elet₂) Batad

olótstrength, force (PWMP: *elet₂)

onacatch something by a trap; throw something accurately with the object of hitting a mark (as in throwing a spear, a stone) (PMP: *ena) Batad

onátto draw, pull out something in order to use it (PWMP: *eñat)

onóbdoor of an Ifugaw house or granary; more exactly, the cover of the door opening (PMP: *qeneb₁) *qeNeb₁

onómsix (PAN: *enem)

onomm-ánthat which six people do together (PPh: *enem-an) *enem Batad

óoŋmushroom, most common variety (PMP: *quhuŋ) *quSuŋ

opátfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

otárice grains that still have the cortex, i.e., failed to be decorticated by the pestle (PMP: *qeta) *qeCah

otákIfugaw long knife having a single-edged blade of approximately two daŋan (handspans) in length (PPh: *eták)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂) Batad

Ifugaw (800 / 1076)

pádawhat is the same, the equal in measure, quantity, number, or degree, commonly used with suffix -na (PWMP: *pada)

páda-naits equal (PWMP: *pada)

págaŋroast soomething edible (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

págerice growing in the fields, or bundles of rice ears (PAN: *pajay)

pagtíkwhat is hurled away, what bounds away by itself as if it were exploding (ROOT)

pahíksplashing or spattering water (ROOT)

páhokwedge used to cleave logs before they can be split and serve as firewood (PAN: *pasek)

pahpá(h)to purify, cleanse; applied to wounds (PWMP: *paspas₂)

pāitthe austere taste of old wine, ginger, salt, onion, garlic, red pepper, lemon, tobacco; of the stinging sensation of smoke (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC Batad

paítsourness; mostly applied to fruits that are not yet ripe (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-kánthread shot through the gape which the woman who is weaving made by raising the even (or the uneven) threads (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakókcackling sound (ROOT)

paláattic of an Ifugaw house in which rice bundles (and some other things) are stored (PAN: *paRa₁)

páladpalm of a human hand (scrutinized for signs of one's fortune) (PMP: *palaj₁)

pálakcry loudly out of anger, making a sobbing sound (applied to children) (PMP: *palak)

paláŋkamovable chair (LOAN)

pa-lemathe fifth time; to do something five times (PAN: *lima) Batad

pallú (-ll- unexpl.)heavy stick to beat somebody with (e.g. a recalcitrant slave or servant), or an animal (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

pálutpull out grass, weeds, small plants including the roots (PMP: *paRut)

palutpútspattering defecation (PPh: *p<aR>utput) *putput₂

Ifugaw (820 / 1076)

palyúkbroad iron pot (PAN: *pariuk)

pa-múŋaa unit measure of a bunch of fruit; relatively low interest on something borrowed, as on money, a pig, carabao (PPh: *paŋ-búŋa) *buŋa Batad

pánabow and arrow. Practically, it is only used by boys … it is hardly longer than one meter; its cord is mostly a string of rattan; its arrow is merely a straight, thin stick. (PAN: *panaq)

pa-nālopfor someone to use stones for damming up a river for fishing (PPH: *sáRep) Batad

pa-nalp-ánfishpond made by draining a river (PPH: *sáRep)

pa-napūl-ana fireplace (PMP: *dapuR) Batad

paN-apuywhat is used to make a fire (PWMP: *paŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy Batad

panníkigreatest species among the bats; fruit bat, flying fox (PMP: *paniki)

panniʔa bat: Pteropus Leucopterus (PMP: *paniki) Batad

paŋ-ahínwhat is used to salt something (PWMP: *paŋ-qasin) *qasiN Batad

paŋ-ahin-ánsite where salt can be collected; water pool containing much salt (PPh: *paŋ-qasin-an) *qasiN

pa-ŋaíw-an ~ pa-ŋayú-anplace where firewood is taken (PWMP: *pa-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

paŋ-ālainstrument used to get something (PWMP: *paŋ-alaq) *alaq₁ Batad

pa-ŋalí-nait is his way of speaking (PAN: *kaRi₁)

pa-ŋanfor someone to feed someone something (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen Batad

pa-ŋan-áneating place; eating time (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen-an) *kaen

paŋ-ānudway in which something drifts (PPh: *paŋ-añud) *qañud Batad

paŋ-anupthat used to hunt, i.e., a dog (PPh: *paŋ-qanup) *qaNup Batad

paŋgúkstifled, suffocated because of swallowing something the wrong way (ROOT)

paŋ-uway-anplace where rattan thongs can be gathered (PPh: *paŋ-quay) *quay

Ifugaw (840 / 1076)

paót mum-, -in-, <in> -anwood carving; chisels used for carving (PMP: *paqet)

pá-panbait, to lure birds to the place where they can be ensnared, or eels into a cage trap called udál, or rats into a kind of deadfall called ipít (PAN: *paen)

pa-paʔuan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum (PWMP: *paku) *paheku Batad

pátikact of flying away, of being flung away; applied only to splinters (ROOT)

patoykill any kind of animal life including man (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay Batad

patoy-onthat killed (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay Batad

patpátto cut off or cut down growing vegetation by swaying one’s knife to and fro, e.g. grass, canes, sugarcane plants (PWMP: *patpat)

pa-ʔana weft thread; transverse strips of certain baskets; to weave a weft thread onto warp threads (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen Batad

píhu ~ píhhuone peso (LOAN)

pikufor a linear object to be crooked (PAN: *pikuq₁) Batad

pilákmoney, silver (said to be from Ilokano) (LOAN)

pílaycripple, somebody who limps (PAN: *piNay)

pīlaygout or a gout-like inflammation, esp. of the ankle or knee joints, with or without swelling (PAN: *piNay)

pílichoice, selection (PAN: *piliq)

pīlitfor someone to insist on doing something with someone or something, or to someone or something (PPH: *pílit) Batad

pílitcompulsion, constraint, coercion (PPH: *pílit)

pilit-oninsist on doing something with someone or something, or to someone or something (PPH: *pilit-en) *pílit Batad

piŋsanonce (PWMP: *pisan) Amganad

pi-piŋsanfirst cousin (PWMP: *pisan) Amganad

pítokmud (PPh: *pitek)

Ifugaw (860 / 1076)

pitpita short, shrill cry of an omen bird, īdaw; the cry resembles the sound ‘pit, pit, pit’ (this cry does not signal an omen, as do numerous other cries of the omen bird) (PWMP: *pitpit₁) Batad

pitpitonomatopaeic word; pit-pit-pit sound produced by ído birds (ído = sparrow-like birds with long tail feathers; their quick and protracted pit-pit-pit is believed to predict good luck to headhunters (travelers or hunters), bad luck if their pit-pit call is slow and short) (PWMP: *pitpit₁)

pitpítto compress a number of things into a single container; to use pressure when closing a pot or a basket which has a fitting cover (PAN: *pitpit₂)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Batad

pitúseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pūhogthe navel of a person or animal, the umbilical cord; exclamation: Rascal! (this is a set expression consisting of a noun, pūhog, followed by a possessive pronoun or possessive noun; it is a non-vulgar expletive, classed as mild scolding) (PMP: *pusej) Batad

púhognavel; it is also applied to cavities which serve as mortise for a tenon, the undeep cavity being navel-like (PMP: *pusej)

pūhuthe heart of a person, animal, bird, chicken; the heart of a banana plant, i.e. the inflorescence (PMP: *pusuq₁) Batad

púhuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pukúpukmake a small heap by pouring out pounded rice, beans, peas or the like (ROOT)

pultíkfillip, snap with the finger (ROOT)

pulúpulto pluck, pull off all (or almost all) the fruits borne on a given tree or shrub (PWMP: *pulpul₁)

p-um-atehe will kill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

p-um-atoythat with which one kills, as a bolo (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay Batad

pum-bayu-antrough in which rice is pounded (PAN: *bayu)

p<um>ílifor someone to choose someone, something (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq Batad

p<um>ūtulfor someone to cut off the head of an animal, chicken or person with a bolo or head axe (PMP: *putul) *putun Batad

púnahwiping material, as a cloth, paper, rice straws, leaves (PMP: *punas) Batad

pun-apúl-anlime-tube (PWMP: *qapuR-an) *qapuR

pun-dapúl-anhearth (‘place where the ashes are’) (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

Ifugaw (880 / 1076)

punikótstickiness (ROOT)

pútawkind of axe with a wider blade than the commonly used axes called wáhe, or wáhay (PPH: *put(e)haw)

putíksound produced by a boulder that bursts (ROOT)

pūtulthe neck stump of an animal, chicken, person, after the head has been removed (PMP: *putul) *putun Batad

pútuldecapitation; to cut off the head of a man (not of animals), to behead (PMP: *putul) *putun

puúnlower or lowest part of the trunk of a tree or of whatever is planted in the ground (posts of a house, granary or hut); of growing stalks of plants, that part above the roots (PMP: *puqun)

tawe two (PAN: *-ta) Batad

tasubordinating conjunction, “so that”, “in order that” (PPH: *taq₁) Batad

tadual pronominal enclitic, I and you; independent form (PAN: *-ta)

taconjunction introducing a purpose or a result clasue, “in order that” (PPH: *taq₁)

tabaanimal fat, of the body fat of an animal or person; rendered lard of an animal; coconut meat (PWMP: *tabeq) Batad

tabáfat, grease (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabákotobacco (LOAN)

tabāʔutobacco (LOAN) Batad

taddóŋa large circular hat used as an umbrella, mostly by women when they are working in the rice fields, or in a sweet potato swidden (PPH: *taduŋ)

taddóŋlarge circular hat used as an umbrella by women working in the rice fields or in a sweet potato swidden (ROOT)

tadómsharpness of the blade of a knife, a spear, an axe, etc.; it is also applied to the balíga, i.e. the sword among the weaving rods (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tadtádfor someone to slash down a slender-stalked plant or tree, especially sugarcane, with a single slash using a bolo; for someone to chop meat into small pieces for cooking (PWMP: *tadtád) Batad

tāgipfor someone to slice a vegetable, fruit, tuber into chips with the use of a knife (PPH: *tájip) Batad

tágipslices of potatoes, carrots, meat, or whatever it may be (PPH: *tájip)

Ifugaw (900 / 1076)

tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs (PAN: *tageRaŋ) Batad

tagláŋribs; side of a human chest (what is enclosed by the ribs) (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tákaŋgape, act of gaping; not used in the sense of yawning (PPH: *tákaŋ)

tákaŋ-na“its gape”, i.e. the gape between the odd and even threads through which the weaver can shoot the shuttle (PPH: *tákaŋ)

takípcover of a container, e.g. a basket which has a fitting cover (PPH: *takíp)

takkístool relief of the bowels; excrement, feces (PMP: *taki) *Caki

tákutfear; to fear; to frighten somebody (PAN: *takut)

talírope, cable, anything that serves to bind, attach, wind, etc.' (said to be from Ilokano) (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

táluto hide, conceal (PMP: *taRuq)

taluŋeggplant, Solanum melongena (grown chiefly in dry pondfields and upland fields) (LOAN) Batad

tanókto boil something a long time because what must be boiled is too hard and thick (e.g. the hide of a water buffalo, a cow); it is also applied to an overcooking of vegetables by lack of attention so that they happen to be half-spoiled (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

tanómseed rice, selected during main-crop rice harvest for planting main-crop rice (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem Batad

tanómact of planting what must grow; transplanting (e.g. rice seedlings); tanóm is not applied to putting seeds in the earth, only to rice, trees, bushes (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tantánprogress of a certain work which cannot be finished in one day, or even in a few days (PPH: *tantán)

táŋadto look upward (PMP: *taŋad)

tāŋada location above something; for someone to look up at something (PMP: *taŋad)

taŋílahudhúd word for 'ear', instead of íŋa (PMP: *taŋila) *Caŋila

taŋkála provisional basketlike container which is roughly made by using reeds and grass (PPH: *taŋkal)

taŋlága kind of grass which has long and sharp leaves; therefore it cannot be used to cover roofs: Themada gigantea (PMP: *taŋelaj) *Caŋelaj

taŋlágkind of grass which has long and sharp leaves, and so cannot be used to cover roofs: Themeda gigtantea (PPH: *taŋ(e)laj)

Ifugaw (920 / 1076)

tapafor someone to smoke meat over a fire (as beef, catfish, venison, eel, frog, mudfish) (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa Batad

tapámeat or fish which has been laid to dry in the sun, or held over the fire (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

ta-táwalaughter; to laugh conveys a passive meaning, since the duplicated word-base takes the prefix ma- or na-, never the prefix mun- or maŋ- (PMP: *ta-tawa) *Cawa

tawónyear, unit time measurement (PMP: *taqun) Batad

táyo, táyawdance (PPH: *tayaw)

ta-ʔ-dogstand up from a sitting position (PWMP: *ta(n)zeg)

taʔístool relief of the bowels, excrement, feces (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tibúknoise made by somebody who plunges into deep water (PAN: *tibuk)

tíkaŋsmall split in a piece of wood (PWMP: *ti(ŋ)kaŋ)

tíkaŋsmall split in a piece of wood, or a narrow gap between two floor planks or wall boards (PWMP: *tikaŋ)

tikgóŋbumping sound produced when something that is hard falls and collides (ROOT)

tiktíkonomatopoetic word-base of taniktík, favorable chirping of 'ido birds (PMP: *tiktik)

tiktíkslight knocks, ticks on something (e.g. a lime tube, the knocking being done with the nail of a finger) (PAN: *tiktik)

tikúŋinward curves of mountain slopes (PWMP: *tikuŋ)

tímidpointlike tip of the upper lip; tip of the chin; may be used in the sense of lip (PMP: *timid) *timij

tímolflea (PWMP: *timel)

timtímto open and close the mouth frequently, as frogs do (PPH: *timtim)

t-in-apasmoked meat (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa Batad

t-in-apámeat or fish which is already dry (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa

tobalfor someone to respond to a question (or to being called); for someone to promise to give something to someone as an inheritance, a gift; to promise to sell a field to someone (PPH: *tebáR) Batad

Ifugaw (940 / 1076)

tobálanswer, approving speech; ritual invocation and its concluding prayer (PPH: *tebáR)

togtogfor someone to pound something in a downward motion with something, as a stone to crush another stone; a heavy piece of wood or stone to tamp soil; for someone to use something for pounding as described above (PMP: *tegteg) *CegCeg Batad

togtógonomatopoetic word imitating the sound produced by carving statues, handles of knives, spoons, ladles, wooden plates, wooden cups and other things (PMP: *tegteg) *CegCeg

togtogfor someone to pound something in a downward motion with something, as a stone to crush another stone, a heavy piece of wood or stone to tamp soil, etc. (PWMP: *tegteg)

toktókbore (as in boring a hole in a plank), drill; prick (as a thorn pricking the finger) (PMP: *tektek₂) *CekCek

tokúbkind of basket trap to catch mudfish in rice field terraces (PMP: *tekub)

tolóbto pour some water out of the cooking pot, because the one who was boiling rice sees that too much water had been poured in the pot (PMP: *teReb)

tolpághit somebody or something accidentally (ROOT)

toŋodneck, neck and throat (LOAN)

topoŋa bundle, linear or volume measure of something (PPH: *tepeŋ₂) Batad

topóŋto measure the length, width, thickness of beams, rafters, posts, boards, etc. lest the building would be misconstructed (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tūbaa cultivated bush, Meliaceae Dysoxylam; fruit of the tuba bush, used as a poison for catching fish (PAN: *tuba) Batad

túbathe green fruit of the liana also called tuba: Jatropha curcas L. (Euph.); tuba fruits are used to envenom (more or less) fishes ... so that they may be easily caught (PAN: *tuba)

túbakhew off large pieces of wood for logs (PMP: *tu(m)bak)

tūbunew growth, of a plant, weed, grass, tree growing from a seed; of a branch or plant stalk; of a fingernail, hair, tooth (also refers to new growth issuing from a pit, nut or fruit such as coconut (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq Batad

túbuleaves of trees, shrubs, and plants in general; not applied to leaves which serve for special purposes, such as chewing leaves or banana leaves (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tuddúto teach by speaking, by writing (e.g. on a blackboard), by showing (e.g. pictures) (PPh: *tulduq)

tūdufor something to leak (as a rain hat, a water pot) (PAN: *tuduq) Batad

tudúfor someone to point at something with the use of the index finger; the index finger of a person, monkey; for someone to explain something, as directions to a visitor, a subject to school children (PAN: *tuzuq₁) Batad

túdudripping; rain drops which fall on the floor of a house because there is a little hole in the grass covering the house (PAN: *tuduq)

Ifugaw (960 / 1076)

tudu-onbe pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁ Batad

tugia lesser yam: Dioscorea esculenta; the root is boiled and eaten as a staple (PPH: *tugíq) Batad

tugtugbullfrog (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁ Batad

tukábact of taking something apart (e.g. a house, or parts of it); to take off something (as the cover of a basket) (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kab)

tukáka kind of big frog (onomatopoetic word) (PPH: *tukák)

túkolhuddling position of a chicken or a bird which neither moves nor gives a sign of life (PAN: *Cukul)

tuktukforehead; also applied to the top of a hill or mountain (PAN: *tuktuk₂)

túkudpost of an Ifugaw house or gramary; the two posts of the paladáng standing loom (PAN: *tukud)

tullu-tullufor people to be three at a time in a particular state doing something, of one group repeating an action, or two or more groups acting successively (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

tuluthe number three (PAN: *telu) Batad

tulúthree, third, thrice (PAN: *telu)

túludact of pushing, antithesis of pulling (PPH: *tulúd)

tulu-tulualways three; three by three (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

tulu-wónto give (make, lay, etc.) three of the same kind (value, size, etc.) (PWMP: *telu-en) *telu

tūluyfor someone to continue on doing something, as going someplace, talking, working (PMP: *tuluy₁) Batad

túluycontinue with one's work, story, speech until it is completed completed (said to be from Ilokano) (PMP: *tuluy₁)

tūmaa small white blood sucking clothing louse which infests soiled clothing; rascal! a jocular expletive (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS Batad

túmabody louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t<um>aʔíto defecate (PMP: *t<um>aqi) *Caqi

tumpákbreaking of anything that can be broken and can no longer be used (ROOT)

Ifugaw (980 / 1076)

t-um-ūbufor something to issue new growth (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq Batad

t<um>úduit rains, it will rain (PPh: *t<um>uduq) *tuduq

t<um>ulufor something to become three, especially through natural processes such as reproduction (PPH: *t<um>elu) *telu Batad

tuntunfor someone to arrange the presentation of something in order, as ritual prayers during a religious ceremony, a genealogy, a description of events and arguments in presenting a case for decision (PWMP: *tuntun) Batad

tuŋala bone of the skeletal structure of an animal, bird, person (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ) Batad

tutua bark-pounding tool, used to pound bark or bark fibers (made of wood, about 25 cm. long, or of stone) (PAN: *tutuh) Batad

úbadloosen, detach, unleash something; open a knot (PPh: *hubád)

ubád-onbe loosened (PPh: *hubád-en) *hubád

úbangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

udánrain in general (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

udáŋshrimps living in rivers (PAN: *qudaŋ)

udí, udí-dilast, the last (PMP: *udehi)

udi-dí-anthe youngest of the family (PWMP: *udehi-an) *udehi

úgaŋdebt; Iloko, Tagalog, etc. word sometimes used by the Ifugaw instead of gawat (PMP: *qutaŋ)

úhilact of those who defend their habitat and pursue (or try to pursue) those who attack (PAN: *qusiR)

úka(h)to unloose, to remove what is covering something (PWMP: *hukas)

ukpíthold by pressing something between the knees, between the elbow (or the upper arm) and the side of the body (ROOT)

ukukto cough (NOISE) Batad

úla(h)wash one's hand or face, not applicable to the act of taking a bath (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

úlalsmall brownish snake which is not dangerous. It lives among the rice fields, behind or between the stones of retaining walls (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

Ifugaw (1000 / 1076)

ulátartery, vein, sinew (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

úlawdizziness (PAN: *ulaw)

ulhádeer, stag (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

úligto hush a baby to sleep; to sink, fall into sleep (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

úlogany kind of snake (PMP: *qulej)

úlo(h)any kind of blanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

úluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

úlu(h)slide, glide out, slip (PWMP: *ulus)

ulúlto unbuckle, unfasten, detach (as a belt or girdle) (PPH: *hulhul₂)

ulúw-anthe rod at the head of a weaving loom which holds up the threads of the warp (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

-um-verbal infix used with intransitive bases, and to mark inchoatives or futures (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

umáa tract of land cleared for cultivation; conveys the meaning of habal 'swidden', but is seldom used among the Ifugaw (PMP: *quma) *qumah

um-álaget, take (PAN: *um-alaq) *alaq₁

um-algóto shine, of the sun (PAN: *q<um>ajaw) *qajaw

um-ālito come towards the speaker or hearer (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi Batad

um-álihe (she) comes, he (she) will come (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

úmantell, relate, narrate something that happened (PAN: *quman)

um-anákgive birth to a child (PWMP: *um-anak) *aNak

um-ānudone who floats something downstream (PWMP: *q<um>añud) *qañud Batad

-um-anupthat with which one hunts, i.e., a dog (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup Batad

Ifugaw (1020 / 1076)

um-āpalfor someone to chase someone, something with the intention of catching or driving him or it away; to chase a thief, a pig (PPH: *hápaR) Batad

um-aplahthat with which one sandpapers, i.e., a leaf of an aplah tree (PWMP: *q<um>a(m)pelas) *qapelas Batad

um-apuythat with which something is burned, i.e. a fire (PMP: *h<um>apuy) *Sapuy Batad

um-ihbúto urinate (PAN: *sibu)

um-ilito visit, enter a village not one's own (PMP: *híli)

um-inúmto drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

um-iút, iut-ónhave sexual intercourse (PAN: *qiut)

um-udánit will rain (PMP: *q<um>uzan) *quzaN

um-úhildefend one's habitat and pursue (or try to pursue) those who attack (PWMP: *um-usiR) *qusiR

um-úmantell, relate, narrate (PWMP: *q<um>uman) *quman

um-útahe/she will vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

unábe first, foremost; go ahead; do something first; accomplish something before anybody else (PMP: *unah)

úŋachild; boy or girl (PWMP: *uŋaq)

úŋulroaring noise produced by the strong current of a river (PMP: *huRuŋ)

upákdry leaf of a betel nut tree; usually it hangs down along the stem of the tree (PWMP: *upak₁)

upókchaff of rice ears, husks of winnowed rice grain (PWMP: *upek)

upú(h)empty; consume all the things that are available, or have been gathered (PMP: *upus)

útawhat is vomited; act of vomiting (PAN: *utaq)

utá-onbe vomited up (PAN: *utaq-en) *utaq

útinpenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

Ifugaw (1040 / 1076)

útokbrains (PMP: *hutek)

ūtua louse or flea, a generic term for parasitic insects infecting warm-blooded animals and humans; a head louse, infesting the hair of humans (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux Batad

utútexpel wind (PMP: *qutut)

uú(h)suck at something which is sappy (e.g. a sugarcane stalk); not applied to the sucking of a baby at the breast (PMP: *ququs)

úwabyawn; act of gaping involuntarily (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

úwaŋa hole without bottom (PAN: *quaŋ₁)

uwaya climbing palm (Palmae Calamus mindorensis) used for making baskets; for tying materials together as in constructing a roof, etc. (PAN: *quay) Batad

uwáy, uwérattan (PAN: *quay)

uyápact of counting, reckoning, computing (PPh: *huyáp)

úyunbundle of firewood, grass, etc., but not of rice, since a bundle of rice is called botok (PWMP: *uyun)

wagwágshake out what is filling a container, e.g. a sack the contents of which cannot be poured out and emptied without shaking (PPh: *wagwág₂)

wáhay, wáheIfugaw axe, the blade of which is thick but narrow near and in its wooden handle (PWMP: *wasay)

wahhe-wahhekind of big mosquito (PPh: *wasay wasay)

wahíwa(h)a sort of Ifugaw fan ... a man who sits near the corpse of somebody who is installed on a death chair sways it back and forth to chase the flying insects away (PPh: *wasíwas)

wahíwayfrighten away flies from food, and esp. from the dead while tied in a death chair during preburial ritual by a continual waving back and forth of a stick (PPh: *wasíwas) Batad

wahwáhlift up and down in the water to wash off mud, as of the feet, a vegetable, in washing off soil from the root (PPh: *waswás₁) Batad

wahwá(h)rinse clothes which have been washed (PPh: *waswás₁)

wákalthongs of litúku lianas (PMP: *wakaR)

wákaŋgreat steps in walking (PMP: *waŋkaŋ)

wákatscatter all kinds of things, putting them separately (PPh: *wákat)

Ifugaw (1060 / 1076)

walúeight (PAN: *walu)

walu-an(with gemination of the second consonant to indicate reciprocal action), that which eight people do together (PPh: *walu(h)-an) *walu Batad

walwálmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as soil) by moving the object back and forth and then removing it (PPH: *walwáR) Batad

walwálmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as soil) by moving the object back and forth and then removing it (PPh: *walwál) Batad

wanánthe four beams of an Ifugaw house or granary... they serve as supporters of all the rafters of the pyramidal roof (NOISE)

watwátmay be used in the sense of widening a hole with a tool that can hollow out (PPH: *watwát)

wigwígto shake, of the body or parts of the body, as with palsy, when frightened, nervous, exhausted (PPh: *wigwíg) Batad

wigwígshake the head in a negative manner (implying a denial or refusal) (PPh: *wigwíg)

witíwitcontinual moving of a dog (wagging its tail) (PAN: *witiwit)

witwítcontinual moving of a light or a torch, i.e., the person who holds the light or the torch makes it move up and down, back and forth, higher or lower, farther or nearer, while he is walking in the darkness of the night (PPh: *witwít₂)

yup-yúpblow-pipe, used to increase the fire burning in the hearth (PWMP: *heyup heyup) *Seyup

-ʔu1sg genitive pronoun (marks possessor and non-focus agent or actor of the action of a verb) (PAN: *-ku) Batad

Ifugaw (Amganad) (4) WMP (Reid 1971) [ifa] (Ifugao, Amganad) Philippines

a-nú-nawhen? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

ina-onMZ, FZ (PWMP: *ina-en) *ina

piŋsanonce (PWMP: *pisan)

pi-piŋsanfirst cousin (PWMP: *pisan)

Ifugaw (Batad) (325) WMP (Newell 1993)

abitwedge anything between waistband of loincloth and body (PMP: *habit) *Sabit

ābulfrighten away chickens, rice birds, pigs, flies in any effective manner (PPh: *ábuR)

abuniyanskyworld; the dwelling place of spirits (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni₁

ahawan inside rafter of the roof of a house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

ahāwaʔonthe person whom one marries, spouse (PPh: *qasawa-en) *qasawa

ahínsalt; to salt food (PAN: *qasiN)

ahin-anthat salted (PWMP: *qasin-an) *qasiN

ākaŋfor someone to step over someone or something, especially something low (PWMP: *akaŋ)

ākupscoop out a liquid or solid with the two hands cupped together (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

ālaget (PAN: *alaq₁)

ala-ʔonget (PAN: *alaq-en) *alaq₁

algawdo something all day long; to sun something or someone (PMP: *qalejaw)

ālifor someone to come towards the speaker or hearer (PAN: *aRi)

amindo all, complete something, exhaust a supply, as of food, money; all, exclusively (PAN: *amin)

amtíblack nightshade: a broad-leafed plant, Solanum nigrum [Sol.] planted in upland fields … or on mounds … along a pondfield dyke. The leaves and young shoots are boiled and eaten as a side dish (PMP: *SameCi)

anthe taste of food; to eat; for a fire to consume something combustible; for a saw to cut into iron, wood (PAN: *kaen)

ananayan exclamation expressing pain, either superficial or severe (PPH: *ananay₁)

antatādularge green caterpillar such as the common tomato worm (PWMP: *qantatadu)

ānudto float inanimate objects downstream; to float downstream, of inanimate objects, of a dead person (PAN: *qañud)

ānud-onthat floated (downstream) (PPh: *qañud-en) *qañud

Ifugaw (Batad) (20 / 325)

anúphunt wild animals with a dog; a hunting dog; to bark, of a dog (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

anup-anthat hunted, i.e., a wild animal (PMP: *qanup-an) *qaNup

anúp-onthat hunted, i.e., a wild animal (PMP: *qanup-en) *qaNup

āŋahthe face of a living being (PPH: *aŋas)

āŋitcall another to come and fight as in play, or when in earnest as of a drunk person; one who is extremely angry (PMP: *haŋit)

aŋīt-onthe one called to come and fight (PMP: *haŋit)

aŋtógextremely unpleasant odor of decaying flesh, unwashed genitals, of smells worse than those referred to as munʔāgub or munʔagutūut (PPh: *qaŋetej)

āpalchase after to catch or to drive away, as to chase a thief, or a pig to catch it or drive it away (NOISE)

apidbraid with three strands, as of a rope, hair (PAN: *qapid)

āpintemporary garbage container woven from the inner stripping of bamboo (PMP: *hapin)

aplahto sandpaper with a rough leaf of an aplah tree; a tree (Moraceae Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. or F. ulmifolia Lamk.) the leaves of which are used for sandpapering (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

aplah-onbe sandpapered with a rough leaf (PWMP: *qa(m)pelas-en) *qapelas

āpoha cotton plant: Gossypium barbadense [Malv.]; a kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra; cotton fibers (LOAN)

apūaprub any part of the body with the open palm, as to rub an insect bite, an area that has been bumped (PMP: *hapuhap) *SapuSap

āpuladd lime to areca palm nut; lime made from snails (successive layers of reeds and shells are stacked and thoroughly burned; the shells are then pounded in water, yielding lime) (PAN: *qapuR)

apúyset fire to something, revive a fire from coals (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

apuy-anthat burned, as wood; that revived, i.e. coals (PWMP: *hapuy-an) *Sapuy

attibset a rat or mouse trap; catch a rat or mouse in a trap (NOISE)

awniexclamation roughly equivalent to 'wait!', 'later!' (PAN: *Sauni)

āyatfor a person, animal, insect, climbing vine to climb something, as a tree, ladder, house, steep incline such as a stone wall, sheet rock surface that is nearly vertical, but not to climb a hill or mountain (PPH: *kay(e)qat)

Ifugaw (Batad) (40 / 325)

āyiwa branching tree with a hard bark, or a piece of a tree, such as a stick, log, plank (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

a-ʔanthe taste of a staple or snack food, such as rice, sweet potato, bread or pastries, fermented rice grains, and fruit (PAN: *kaen)

ba-bāiwoman; female (person, monkey) (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bagatell; confess; request (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bāhiga sterile man or woman; for someone to remove the testicles from an animal, especially a dog, cat, carabao, pig with a knife (PWMP: *basiR)

bāholcareless act; charge someone with a careless act (PPH: *básul)

balíkisrelatively narrow imported belt of leather (PPh: *balíkis)

balítuʔplate s.t. with gold, esp. to cap or crown a tooth with gold (LOAN)

bāluthat which a man or woman wears to indicate that his or her spouse has died; to put on clothing to indicate that one's spouse has died (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁

bannuga bird commonly called a Red-tailed hawk (PPh: *banúg)

banteŋa flint lighter, consisting of a flint stone...a piece of steel against which the flint is struck, and tinder...which lights when a spark is created; for someone to strike a fire with a flint lighter (PMP: *bantiŋ)

bātaŋsulphur mushroom (poisonous; inedible); for a decaying tree to grow sulphur mushrooms (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

baturock (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu-batustony (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux

bāyadthe payment for something such as non-inherited goods, debt, fine, with money or barter goods (PMP: *bayaD)

bīlaa wild taro growing in forested areas: Araceae Alocasia heterophylla [presl.] Merr. (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bīlatscarred, of a part of the body (except the forehead and scalp) by a cut, a boil on that part of the body (PMP: *bilat₂)

b-in-aŋonwas awakened by something (as a rooster crowing) (PWMP: *b<in>aŋun) *baŋuN

b-in-unbunsecond crop rice seedling (PMP: *bunubun) *bunabun

bīolan enlarged thyroid gland, commonly called goiter (NOISE)

Ifugaw (Batad) (60 / 325)

bītinbe out on the end of a branch (of a person or animal); hang from the branch of a tree, of a small bat; a horizontal branch on which a small bat customarily hangs (PPh: *bítin)

bittūanbe starry, of the sky; a star (PAN: *bituqen)

bītumake a deep hole to catch wild animals; a deep hole dug to catch wild pigs. The hole is camouflaged by covering it with twigs and grass (PPh: *bítu)

bitugbump oneself as by hitting the head against a beam, by falling (ROOT)

bitu-onwild pig caught in such a trap (PPh: *bítu)

bitūʔathe stomach of man and most vertebrates; the gizzard of a fowl (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

bīʔahbecome strong, be quick; strength (PWMP: *bikas)

biʔuŋa Jew's harp made either of bamboo or from a flattened piece of brass wire (ROOT)

bōbodbind something into a relatively small bundle, as to bind a bundle of tobacco (from about 3" to 6" in diameter), the arms or legs together, a bundle of clothing, the feet of a chicken, the remains of the dead into a blanket (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bobod-onthat (which is) bound (PPh: *bejbej-en) *bejbej

bogahto develop rice grains, of growing rice, of a pond field; become full, enlarged, of growing rice grains, of the bile of a chicken or pig. An enlarged bile is a good omen if the chicken or pig is being sacrificed for something such as for stored rice to increase in amount, but bad for something as for a sickness (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

boholblame, be angry at, hate someone for something (PPh: *besqel)

bokkokbe short and stocky, of an adult (PWMP: *beŋkek)

boladremove the clothing covering the genitals, thus to expose one's nakedness (PPh: *belaj)

bolayto cause tiredness, as of work (PPh: *belay)

boŋboŋdivert water into a canal for irrigation by making a dam across a stream of water (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

botoʔto bundle together into a small bundle, as to bundle rice into a sheaf, imperata grass into a small bundle, vegetable greens, the hair of a woman to make a pony tail (PPh: *betek₁)

boʔʔadigging bar (NOISE)

buahfor someone to do something early to something or someone, or with someone or something (PPh: *buás)

bubúŋthat capsheaf of a building (traditionally ten to fifteen bundles of cogon grass laid around the roof peak, butt-ends down, tied to the roof-bearing post, twisted, bent over to one side, and tied again; for someone to lay a thatch capsheaf on a roof peak or ridge (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

Ifugaw (Batad) (80 / 325)

būgastone-like object reportedly found in the flesh of animals such as a wild pig, about the size of a pea (PPh: *búgaq)

būgawfor someone to shout something to someone over a distance (PAN: *buRaw)

bugnáya tree: Antidesma bunius [Linn.]; fruit of the bugnáy tree, sweet-sour to the taste, eaten as a snack food; old berries are pounded before eating (PWMP: *buRnay)

būhughunter's bow, weapon used with an arrow (pāna) for hunting small animals such as birds and snakes; cotton fluffer (made of bamboo in the shape of a bow, about 33 cm. long); for someone to fluff cotton with a fluffer (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

buhúgfor food to satisfy someone in eating; for someone to satisfy himself in eating (PWMP: *busuR₃)

būhulan enemy of a village; i.e. a person of another village; wartime; for two or more hostile villages to engage in warfare against each other. Traditionally warfare was potentially engaged in with any village with which there was not a truce agreement (bayaw). Warfare was caused by disputes over territorial boundaries or use of public forests. Rampant and serious theft or more trivial matters could finally result in warfare. The heads of enemies killed in battle were taken, and sometimes hands or feet, and ceremonies involving these body parts performed (PAN: *busuR₁)

buláfor someone to push out foreign matter (food, spent betel quid) from the mouth with the tongue (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

būlanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

būlua thin-walled bamboo, Schizostachyum lumampao, used as weave (lāga) for making house walls, waterspouts, water containers, and salt-meat containers. Also used as material for the eel basket trap, locust basket and loosely woven head basket (PAN: *buluq₂)

būludthe ascending ridge of a mountain; roof-ridge thatch of a traditional house, baluy, and pile hut, inappal (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

buludfor someone to temporarily borrow something, such as an implement, for working (PPh: *bulud₁)

b-um-ūŋotbecome angry (PWMP: *buŋet)

bunbunsecond crop rice seed planting season, in which rice seeds (billuŋan) are planted in dry seedbeds; for someone to plant rice seeds in a dry seedbed (PMP: *bunubun) *bunabun

būŋathe pulpy fruit of a plant, tree, vine, with or without seeds or pits; for a plant or tree to bear fruit, seed vessel, grain (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋbuŋdynamite, used to break large rocks, especially in a pond field; for someone to put dynamite on something to blast something, as a stone, sheet rock (PPh: *buŋbuŋ₂)

būŋotanger (PWMP: *buŋet)

būŋuga low-pitched sound, as of someone talking in a bass, somewhat rough voice; as of the sound of a truck, bus, propeller driven aeroplane; group of men chanting a song; for someone or something to make a low-pitched sound such as this (PWMP: *buŋug)

būŋutfor someone to muzzle an animal (dog, carabao, pig) (PWMP: *buŋut)

bútafor a foreign substance to lodge in the eye, as dirt or a hairy thorn; for a foreign substance, such as a hairy thorn, dust or ashes to irritate the eye by lodging in it (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butá-onto blind (PMP: *buta-en mata) *buCa

Ifugaw (Batad) (100 / 325)

butífor someone to pop corn in coals or hot ashes of a fire with a stir stick (PPh: *butíq)

bútigwart, mole on the body (PMP: *buteliR)

butiʔicalf of the leg (PWMP: *butiqes)

būtoŋfor someone to be drunk to the extent that the person can still control his or her actions; typically of a person who shouts or wants to fight (PMP: *buteŋ)

butúlfor part of the body to be raised in a welt as the result of an insect bite or allergic reaction (PMP: *butequl)

būtusvoting time for the election of government officia (LOAN)

būutspider web (NOISE)

buyuta lacy-leaved grass, Drymaria cordata Caryophyl. (NOISE)

buʔbúʔfor termites, weevils, etc. to extensively destroy something, as corn, rice, wood (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

buʔbúʔfor someone to pour out a solid such as rice into something, such as the hand, a container, or onto something such as the ground (PMP: *buqbuq)

buʔbuʔ-anplace into which something is poured (PPh: *buqbuq-an) *buqbuq

dadánold; long-time, as an old jar, a long-time position of an agricultural leader (PMP: *dadan) *dadaN

dagāmirice stubble, i.e. stalks remaining after the upper stalks with rice panicles ... have been harvested, either standing in a pond field, or removed to allow for a second planting (PWMP: *zaRami)

dālablood (PAN: *daRaq)

dala-dālabloody (PMP: *daRa-daRaq) *daRaq

dālana way, habitually used in going from one place to another; to walk (person or animal); make a path through a given area by clearing it with a bolo, walking back and forth over the same area; for the sun, moon, stars, water in a river, spirit beings, to follow a set course (PMP: *zalan)

dālomthe lower belly of an animal, person; the lower flank cut, of a butchered animal (PMP: *dalem)

danúma liquid, such as broth, juice of fruits and plant stalks, milk, rice beer, tree sap, water, wine (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dāpatfor three or more animals, people to be lying side by side, as in sleeping; of pigs, trussed and waiting to be sacrificed (PPH: *dápat)

dapulashes; for something to become ashes, of any combustible material (PMP: *dapuR)

Ifugaw (Batad) (120 / 325)

datoŋfor someone to arrive at a given place or time (PMP: *dateŋ)

DāyaThe Heavens (includes the earth’s atmosphere, touched by mountain peaks, where birds fly; it is the location of clouds, and the source of meteorological events, as rain, hail, thunder and lightning, storms and the like. The territory also includes outer space and involves spirits relating to, and named after various celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, numerous named stars, sunlight and so forth) (PAN: *daya)

dāyuna blanket or mat hammock (as for a child to sleep in); a hammock is suspended from a horizontal pole and carried on the shoulders of two men to transport someone unable to walk; it is sometimes suspended from two vertical poles and used for sleeping (PPH: *dúyan)

domdoma large flying fox, black with grey flecks (PAN: *demdem₂)

dopaa unit measure of an arm span, i.e., a distance measured between the fingertips of two outstretched arms (PMP: *depa)

dūgua roof-ridge rafter of a traditional house; a corner line of a box, building basket (reference is to the exterior or interior line where two converging walls of a building meet; a horizontal or oblique line where two sides of a box or basket meet, as of a colander basket (PWMP: *zuRu)

d<um>ālato bleed (nose, teeth, a wound, etc.) (PAN: *daRaq)

d<um>anumto urinate (used euphemistically) (PMP: *danum) *daNum

d<um>apulfor dust to cover a surface (PPH: *d<um>apuR) *dapuR

d<um>oŋolfor the ear to hear, and thus to function properly (PWMP: *d<um>eŋeR) *deŋeR

d<um>uwa-yto become two (PPH: *d<um>uhá) *duSa

duwathe number two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

gahúta unit of a hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

galíta black and white speckled cat or dog (PMP: *garit)

gomgomfor someone to grasp something tightly in one or both hands to prevent escaping, as an animal, or a piece of meat someone is trying to wrest from someone else (PAN: *gemgem)

gūluna coarse spear grass, Imperata exaltata, commonly called cogon grass; used for roof thatch (PMP: *guRun)

gūyudfor someone to pull something along, as to drag a tree, a sledge; to lead an animal on a leash (PWMP: *guyud₃)

hābuŋa plant bud, which develops into a flower (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

hādagto lean something against an erect object, as to lean a load against a tree or house post so it stands on end (PWMP: *sandaR)

hakayfor someone to ride on an animal, such as a horse or carabao (PMP: *sakay₁)

Ifugaw (Batad) (140 / 325)

hāloŋpitch pine root of a pine tree, bolbol, heavily saturated with pine resin; a pitch-pine torch (PAN: *saleŋ)

hālopthe activity of dam-fishing in a river (PPH: *sáRep)

halp-onfor someone to dam a river for fishing. A relatively deep place in a river is chosen; below the area arrow-grass canes (bilāu) are placed, held by stones as a screen (hābay), to allow water, but not fish, to pass. Above the area a dam (bātug) is constructed to stop the flow of water into the area, which is then scooped out. River fish, eels, crabs, and edible tadpoles are caught in the shallow water. (PPH: *sáRep)

haŋlaga roasting spatula (made of wood or tin with a blade about fifteen centimeters long and ten centimeters wide, and with a handle about one meter long; used for roasting grains in a vat); the roast-quality of cereal grains (PMP: *saŋelaR)

haŋlag-onto dry-roast cereal grains (maize, peanuts, young rice grains) in a pan or vat, without fat; it is usually stirred with a stirring spatula; to fry cooked rice, pork fat (PWMP: *saŋelaR-en) *saŋelaR

hāpada unit measure of a hand of bananas (PPH: *sápad)

hayūtia chayote vine or fruit (LOAN)

haʔitthe pain of a body part; of an affliction specifically located, as the pain of a boil, a headache, stomachache, a wound (PMP: *sakit)

hia personal noun determiner (PAN: *si₁)

hibula brothy moistener for cooked rice or sweet potatoes; for someone to moisten food such as rice or sweet potatoes with a brothy moistener, either in a spoon or in the mouth (PMP: *simbuR)

him-pūluthe number ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

hīnagan afterglow emitted by the sun’s rays after sunset (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

h<in>aŋlagfine roasted cereal (PMP: *s<in>aŋelaR) *saŋelaR

hiŋ-gahútone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

hiphipfor someone to clean a dry pondfield or seedbed of weeds, stubble, or vegetation with the use of a suitable implement, as a digging stick or sickle (done during the preparation of seedbeds and fields for planting and transplanting) (PPH: *sipsíp)

hīpita cane thatch clamp made of arrow-grass canes placed horizontally two or three together on top and near the top edge of a thatch row, and tied securely to two or three cane purlins; for someone to clamp thatch with a thatch clamp (PAN: *sipit)

hīʔadfor someone to brace the foot, as when walking in a swift current, or pushing something heavy (PPH: *sikad)

hīʔuthe elbow of a person (PAN: *sikux)

huluŋfor someone to go upstream along a brook or river (PWMP: *suruŋ)

h<um>aʔitfor something to pain (PWMP: *s<um>akit) *sakit

Ifugaw (Batad) (160 / 325)

huŋhuŋan odor, either pleasant or foul; for something to emit an odor; for someone, an animal to smell something with the nose; for the nose to be able to smell (PPH: *suŋsuŋ₃)

hūʔayfor a pig to root up soil (PPH: *sukáy)

īagto shout yəhə əy in a long drawn out fashion by many people at a dance (PMP: *iag)

i-ānudthat floated (downstream) (PPh: *i-qañud) *qañud

i-āyatfor someone to climb with someone or something carried (PPH: *i-kay(e)qat) *kay(e)qat

i-āyiwto take someone along in gathering firewood, e.g. when men take along women to get firewood during the post-transplanting holiday season (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

i-bōbodthat with which one binds something, as bark (PPh: *i-bejbej) *bejbej

i-boŋboŋthat with which a dam is made, as stones, dirt (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

íduhto spoon something, as in eating (PAN: *qidus)

íhuwash one or all of the following: the face, the hands and arms, the feet and legs (PMP: *hisuq)

in-dālato menstruate (PAN: *daRaq)

in-y-āli-nwas brought to (recipient) (PAN: *aRi)

ipa-datoŋ-nafocus is on an unnamed agent which causes an epidemic sickness to arrive, such as influenza (PMP: *dateŋ)

ītibclench the teeth, bite down on something (NOISE)

i-tuduto explain something, as directions to a visitor, a subject to school children (PWMP: *i-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

iumclose the lips (PPh: *hium)

īwalmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as the soil), by moving the object back and forth, as for the wind to make a space between the foundation post of a house and the soil around it by shaking the house; to wiggle a tooth to loosen it from the gum (PWMP: *hiwal)

kabana miniature house sepulchre for the dead, of traditional design (used only for a rich person) (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kalutfor someone to dig or scrape something from something else with the hands, paws, or suitable instrument, as to scrape food remains from a container; for a dog to dig a hole (PAN: *karut₁)

kamātisa tomato plant, Lycopersicum esculentum (grown in upland fields and dry pond fields; the fruit of a tomato plant (LOAN)

Ifugaw (Batad) (180 / 325)

kamatis-anfor someone to add tomatoes to something as a condiment (LOAN)

kaŋkáŋthe whine of a dog in fear; to whine in fear (of a dog) (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

kelkela file rasp; a ridged tool for smoothing surfaces of metal or wood (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kikia laugh (NOISE)

kukufingernail, toenail of a monkey, person; the claw of an animal, bat, bird, chicken (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kumpaya broad-leafed creeping grass (grows in fertile soil around dwellings, pond or upland fields, or wooded areas (PPH: *kumpay)

labimidnight (i.e. about 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m.) (PMP: *Rabiqi)

labiy-onduring the night (PMP: *Rabiqi)

labiy-onduring the night (PPH: *Rabi-en) *Rabiqi

lāgathe work of weaving (PWMP: *laja)

lākia male pig, domestic or wild, either castrated or uncastrated (PMP: *laki)

lāloga common housefly (refers to most flying insects with transparent wings, including the large blowfly) (PMP: *lalej)

láŋawa rice-beer fly (a small brown fruit fly that is partial to rice beer and breeds and multiplies in wine jars if not tightly covered (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋhiodor produced by fishes (NOISE)

lāŋitheaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lāyaginger (grows chiefly in upland fields); ginger root, i.e. the rhizone (used chiefly as a food condiment, and sometimes as a side dish) (PMP: *laqia)

lemathe number ‘five’ (PAN: *lima)

lema-lemaalways five; five by five (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

liyaŋa natural cave, found where there is large sheet rock (PMP: *liaŋ)

lūhithe glans of a man or animal (a socially offensive word) (PPH: *lusiq)

Ifugaw (Batad) (200 / 325)

lūlugthe knee of an animal, person (PMP: *luluj)

l<um>abifor it to be midnight (PMP: *Rabiqi)

l<um>abifor it to be midnight (PPH: *R<um>abiqi) *Rabiqi

l<um>āgato weave a basket (flexible material such as thin strips of bamboo or rattan is used (PPH: *l<um>aja) *laja

ma-baturocky, of a land area (~ ma-batu) (PWMP: *ma-batu) *batux

ma-bīʔahstrong, fast (PWMP: *ma-bikas) *bikas

ma-būŋotangry (PWMP: *buŋet)

ma-buʔbúʔfor something (as corn, rice, wood) to be extensively destroyed by termites, weevils, etc. (PPh: *ma-bukbuk) *bukbuk₃

ma-duwa-yto be two unit measures of length, quantity, size, time, value, weight, etc. (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ma-māyadfor someone to pay for something (PMP: *bayaD)

ma-mīlifor someone to choose someone, something (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-múnahto wipe away, to wipe up something from a body part, object, an area with wiping material, as to wipe perspiration from the face, excretion from the eyes, mucus from the nose, charcoal from a table, water from a floor (PMP: *punas)

ma-mūtulfor someone to cut off the head of an animal, chicken or person with a bolo or head axe (PMP: *putul) *putun

ma-nāloŋfor someone to gather pitch-pine root (PAN: *saleŋ)

ma-nālopfor someone to go dam-fishing (PPH: *sáRep)

ma-nanumfor someone to water something, such as cooking food, plants, a pond field (PWMP: *ma-nanum) *daNum

maN-apuyset fire to; revive a fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

man-duwato divide a count object, such as a board ... into two more-or-less equal parts (PWMP: *man-duha) *duSa

man-haŋlagto dry-roast cereal grains (maize, peanuts, young rice grains) in a pan or vat, without fat; it is usually stirred with a roasting spatula (PWMP: *ma-naŋelaR) *saŋelaR

man-iduhto spoon up (PPh: *maŋ-qidus) *qidus

Ifugaw (Batad) (220 / 325)

ma-noŋolfor a person, a living thing with ears, to hear or listen to someone or something, as the call of a bird, a cry, music, noise, talking; to hear about someone or something; for someone to obey someone (PMP: *deŋeR)

ma-nuluto be able to produce three things in a specified period of time, as for stone walling to produce three pesos a day in earnings, or for a man to be a three basket per week weaver (PWMP: *ma-nelu) *telu

ma-nutufor someone to pound bark, bark fiber, or spun yarn with a pounding tool to soften it (PWMP: *ma-nutu) *tutuh

manuʔa domestic or wild chicken (PMP: *manuk)

maŋ-ahínthe one who salts (PWMP: *maŋ-qasin) *qasiN

ma-ŋanfor someone to engage in eating, especially a scheduled meal (regular meals are eaten in the morning and at night; a noon meal is more casual and irregular); for someone to eat with someone else (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋ-aplahto sandpaper with a rough leaf of an aplah tree (PWMP: *maŋ-qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

maŋ-āyiwgather firewood from a forest (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

mataeye of a person, animal, insect, living being (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tabafat, of a person or animal (PWMP: *ma-tabeq) *tabeq

ma-tuluto be three units of measure, of length, quantity, size, time, value, weight (PAN: *ma-telu) *telu

ma-ʔana main-dish food, either a staple food, normally eaten with a side dish, or a snack food, as fruits of various varieties, bread or pastries (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

mun-dapulsprinkle ashes on something, as on plants to make them grow (PMP: *dapuR)

mun-lūhifor someone to expose the penis by pulling back the prepuce (PPH: *lusiq)

na-pituseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ŋādana name by which something or someone is identified (people, spirits, geographical divisions, flora and fauna); what?, when?, where?, who? (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋatn-anfor someone to name someone or something (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan

ŋāyawfor a group of men … to go on a headhunting raid (a raiding party traditionally consisted of about five to ten men, usually from a single clan) (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw

ŋulŋulfor someone to wail in crying, especially in grief (PWMP: *ŋulŋul₂)

ŋ-um-āyawwaylay an enemy … for the purpose of taking a head in revenge (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw

Ifugaw (Batad) (240 / 325)

o-baylarge female animal (PMP: *bahi)

ohado something alone, do something with one item (PAN: *esa)

ohóʔplants seeds such as corn with a dibble stick (PAN: *hesek)

okókto cough, cough up something, cough on something (PMP: *qekqek)

olómunduly jealous or suspicious (PWMP: *elem₂)

olótdo something by exertion, strength (PWMP: *elet₂)

onacatch something by a trap; throw something accurately with the object of hitting a mark (as in throwing a spear, a stone) (PMP: *ena)

onomm-ánthat which six people do together (PPh: *enem-an) *enem

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pāitthe austere taste of old wine, ginger, salt, onion, garlic, red pepper, lemon, tobacco; of the stinging sensation of smoke (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-lemathe fifth time; to do something five times (PAN: *lima)

pa-múŋaa unit measure of a bunch of fruit; relatively low interest on something borrowed, as on money, a pig, carabao (PPh: *paŋ-búŋa) *buŋa

pa-nālopfor someone to use stones for damming up a river for fishing (PPH: *sáRep)

pa-napūl-ana fireplace (PMP: *dapuR)

paN-apuywhat is used to make a fire (PWMP: *paŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

panniʔa bat: Pteropus Leucopterus (PMP: *paniki)

paŋ-ahínwhat is used to salt something (PWMP: *paŋ-qasin) *qasiN

paŋ-ālainstrument used to get something (PWMP: *paŋ-alaq) *alaq₁

pa-ŋanfor someone to feed someone something (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

paŋ-ānudway in which something drifts (PPh: *paŋ-añud) *qañud

Ifugaw (Batad) (260 / 325)

paŋ-anupthat used to hunt, i.e., a dog (PPh: *paŋ-qanup) *qaNup

pa-paʔuan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

patoykill any kind of animal life including man (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patoy-onthat killed (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pa-ʔana weft thread; transverse strips of certain baskets; to weave a weft thread onto warp threads (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pikufor a linear object to be crooked (PAN: *pikuq₁)

pīlitfor someone to insist on doing something with someone or something, or to someone or something (PPH: *pílit)

pilit-oninsist on doing something with someone or something, or to someone or something (PPH: *pilit-en) *pílit

pitpita short, shrill cry of an omen bird, īdaw; the cry resembles the sound ‘pit, pit, pit’ (this cry does not signal an omen, as do numerous other cries of the omen bird) (PWMP: *pitpit₁)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pūhogthe navel of a person or animal, the umbilical cord; exclamation: Rascal! (this is a set expression consisting of a noun, pūhog, followed by a possessive pronoun or possessive noun; it is a non-vulgar expletive, classed as mild scolding) (PMP: *pusej)

pūhuthe heart of a person, animal, bird, chicken; the heart of a banana plant, i.e. the inflorescence (PMP: *pusuq₁)

p-um-atoythat with which one kills, as a bolo (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

p<um>ílifor someone to choose someone, something (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

p<um>ūtulfor someone to cut off the head of an animal, chicken or person with a bolo or head axe (PMP: *putul) *putun

púnahwiping material, as a cloth, paper, rice straws, leaves (PMP: *punas)

pūtulthe neck stump of an animal, chicken, person, after the head has been removed (PMP: *putul) *putun

tawe two (PAN: *-ta)

tasubordinating conjunction, “so that”, “in order that” (PPH: *taq₁)

tabaanimal fat, of the body fat of an animal or person; rendered lard of an animal; coconut meat (PWMP: *tabeq)

Ifugaw (Batad) (280 / 325)

tabāʔutobacco (LOAN)

tadtádfor someone to slash down a slender-stalked plant or tree, especially sugarcane, with a single slash using a bolo; for someone to chop meat into small pieces for cooking (PWMP: *tadtád)

tāgipfor someone to slice a vegetable, fruit, tuber into chips with the use of a knife (PPH: *tájip)

tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

taluŋeggplant, Solanum melongena (grown chiefly in dry pondfields and upland fields) (LOAN)

tanómseed rice, selected during main-crop rice harvest for planting main-crop rice (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tapafor someone to smoke meat over a fire (as beef, catfish, venison, eel, frog, mudfish) (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tawónyear, unit time measurement (PMP: *taqun)

t-in-apasmoked meat (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa

tobalfor someone to respond to a question (or to being called); for someone to promise to give something to someone as an inheritance, a gift; to promise to sell a field to someone (PPH: *tebáR)

togtogfor someone to pound something in a downward motion with something, as a stone to crush another stone; a heavy piece of wood or stone to tamp soil; for someone to use something for pounding as described above (PMP: *tegteg) *CegCeg

topoŋa bundle, linear or volume measure of something (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tūbaa cultivated bush, Meliaceae Dysoxylam; fruit of the tuba bush, used as a poison for catching fish (PAN: *tuba)

tūbunew growth, of a plant, weed, grass, tree growing from a seed; of a branch or plant stalk; of a fingernail, hair, tooth (also refers to new growth issuing from a pit, nut or fruit such as coconut (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tūdufor something to leak (as a rain hat, a water pot) (PAN: *tuduq)

tudúfor someone to point at something with the use of the index finger; the index finger of a person, monkey; for someone to explain something, as directions to a visitor, a subject to school children (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tudu-onbe pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁

tugia lesser yam: Dioscorea esculenta; the root is boiled and eaten as a staple (PPH: *tugíq)

tugtugbullfrog (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

tuluthe number three (PAN: *telu)

Ifugaw (Batad) (300 / 325)

tūluyfor someone to continue on doing something, as going someplace, talking, working (PMP: *tuluy₁)

tūmaa small white blood sucking clothing louse which infests soiled clothing; rascal! a jocular expletive (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t-um-ūbufor something to issue new growth (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

t<um>ulufor something to become three, especially through natural processes such as reproduction (PPH: *t<um>elu) *telu

tuntunfor someone to arrange the presentation of something in order, as ritual prayers during a religious ceremony, a genealogy, a description of events and arguments in presenting a case for decision (PWMP: *tuntun)

tuŋala bone of the skeletal structure of an animal, bird, person (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tutua bark-pounding tool, used to pound bark or bark fibers (made of wood, about 25 cm. long, or of stone) (PAN: *tutuh)

ukukto cough (NOISE)

um-ālito come towards the speaker or hearer (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

um-ānudone who floats something downstream (PWMP: *q<um>añud) *qañud

-um-anupthat with which one hunts, i.e., a dog (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup

um-āpalfor someone to chase someone, something with the intention of catching or driving him or it away; to chase a thief, a pig (PPH: *hápaR)

um-aplahthat with which one sandpapers, i.e., a leaf of an aplah tree (PWMP: *q<um>a(m)pelas) *qapelas

um-apuythat with which something is burned, i.e. a fire (PMP: *h<um>apuy) *Sapuy

ūtua louse or flea, a generic term for parasitic insects infecting warm-blooded animals and humans; a head louse, infesting the hair of humans (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uwaya climbing palm (Palmae Calamus mindorensis) used for making baskets; for tying materials together as in constructing a roof, etc. (PAN: *quay)

wahíwayfrighten away flies from food, and esp. from the dead while tied in a death chair during preburial ritual by a continual waving back and forth of a stick (PPh: *wasíwas)

wahwáhlift up and down in the water to wash off mud, as of the feet, a vegetable, in washing off soil from the root (PPh: *waswás₁)

walu-an(with gemination of the second consonant to indicate reciprocal action), that which eight people do together (PPh: *walu(h)-an) *walu

walwálmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as soil) by moving the object back and forth and then removing it (PPH: *walwáR)

Ifugaw (Batad) (320 / 325)

walwálmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as soil) by moving the object back and forth and then removing it (PPh: *walwál)

wigwígto shake, of the body or parts of the body, as with palsy, when frightened, nervous, exhausted (PPh: *wigwíg)

-ʔu1sg genitive pronoun (marks possessor and non-focus agent or actor of the action of a verb) (PAN: *-ku)

Ifugaw (Bayninan) (1) WMP [ify] (Kallahan, Keley-i) Philippines

ŋa-nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu)

Ilianen Manobo (10) WMP. see: Manobo (Ilianen)

227. Ilokano (3004) WMP (Rubino 2000, Carro 1956) [ilo] (Ilocano) Philippines

a-anak-ánwomb, uterus, matrix (PWMP: *a-anak-an) *aNak

abágashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

abakáManila hemp (PPh: *abaká)

abal-ábalkind of brown burrowing June beetle or June bug. Many people eat it. (PPh: *abal abal)

ábaŋrent, rental, hire, interest (PWMP: *abaŋ₃)

abáŋ-anto rent, hold under a lease, hire (PWMP: *abaŋ₃)

ábaskind of tumor or swelling that grows in the mouths of animals (PPh: *hábas)

ábatintercept, stop on the way (PMP: *qambat)

abátira grub that attacks wood, bamboo, etc. (PMP: *qabatiR)

abbédobstacle, hindrance (mostly used for material obstruction) (PWMP: *habed)

abéltextile, (woven) cloth, web, texture, tissue, woven fabric (PWMP: *habél)

áberkind of marine fish of about the size and shape of a sardine (NOISE)

abídayto throw (a blanket, etc.) over the shoulder (PPh: *qambiday)

ábigto copulate (usually applied to adultery) (PPh: *abij)

abígaythrow a blanket over the shoulder (PPh: *abijay)

abígayto throw (a blanket, etc.) over the shoulder (PPh: *qambijay)

abíratbrother-in-law, sister-in-law. A term confined to persons who are married to two brothers or sisters (NOISE)

áboash-gray; cock with gray plumage and reddish tail (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ábugdrive, drive away, incite (PPh: *ábuR)

ábutreach, be within one's reach, overtake, understand (PPh: *qabut)

Ilokano (20 / 3004)

ad-adúmore (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

adanínear (PMP: *adani)

adaw-anto go far away from, get away from, keep one’s distance (PPH: *adayuq)

adayófar, distant (PPH: *adayuq)

adígipost; pillar. Any of the principal posts on which the whole frame or skeleton of the house is built; any of the four posts that support the frame of a loom (PAN: *SadiRi)

adúmany, much, plenty (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

ag-ábayto stand, etc. side by side; to sing in unison (PWMP: *abay)

ag-abélto weave (PPh: *maR-habel) *habél

ag-adúto augment, increase (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

ag-alipugpógto have a whirlwind (PPH: *qali-pugpug)

agámalarge white crabs breeding in reefs (PWMP: *qaRama)

ag-anákgive birth, be delivered, bring forth young (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

ag-ananáyto moan from pain (PPH: *ananay₁)

ag-ánito reap, harvest (grain) (PWMP: *q<aR>anih) *qanih

ag-anítoworship the spirits (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ag-apúycook rice (PWMP: *maR-hapuy) *Sapuy

agáw-ensnatch away, off; carry off, take away by violence; obtain by robbing (PPh: *qaRaw-en) *qaRaw

ag-awerto roar (streams, wind) (PWMP: *awer)

agay-àyamto play, amuse oneself, to toy (PWMP: *qayam₃)

ag-baénto sneeze (PPH: *bahen)

Ilokano (40 / 3004)

ag-bágayto be well matched; well suited (PWMP: *bagay₁)

ag-baka-bakáto be vague; perplexed; anxious; stupid; hesitant (PPH: *bakáq)

ag-báliwchange, vary, alter, fade, be inconstant, fickle, unstable (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

ag-b-an-egbégthe sound of the pestle in the mortar (PWMP: *begbeg)

ag-batéŋhunt wild animals with a net (PPH: *batéŋ)

ag-bátugto match, be in line with each other (PPH: *batuR₂)

ag-bekkágdehisce, burst open, said of cotton bolls (PWMP: *bekaj)

ag-bekkágto dehisce, burst open, said of cotton bolls (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

ag-beŋŋátstart talking (said of children in some districts) (PPh: *beŋát₂) *beŋát

ag-berbérexpose oneself to the wind (PMP: *berber₁)

ag-biágto live (PWMP: *bihaR)

ag-b<in>aklágto be scarred by bruises or bites (Rubino) (PWMP: *bakelag)

ag-bokágive birth (PMP: *buka)

agbu-bussóghaving a pot-belly (said of children) (PWMP: *busuR₃)

ag-búkarto open, burst open, break open (flowers, fruits, etc.) (PMP: *buŋkaR)

ag-bukélto form, take form (the seed stone, fetus, etc.) (PWMP: *bukel)

ag-búligcarry between two (PPh: *maR-búlig) *bulig

ag-búlosgush out, gush forth (liquids, blood, etc.) (PPh: *maR-búlus) *bulus

ag-dadáŋgo near a fire, go near the heat (PPH: *maR-daŋdaŋ) *daŋdaŋ

ag-dáitto sew (PMP: *zaqit)

Ilokano (60 / 3004)

ag-daképto embrace; catch; copulate (animals) (PAN: *dakep)

agdánladder; stairs, staircase; flight of stairs, steps (PMP: *haRezan)

ag-dárato bleed (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq

ag-datárto make a bamboo floor (PAN: *dataR)

ag-dáwato develop spikes (rice) (PAN: *zawa₂)

ag-dekkétto stick; stick to each other (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

ag-deŋdéŋto boil vegetables (PPH: *deŋdeŋ)

ag-deppáto extend the arms (PPH: *maR-depa) *depa

ag-di-dippîtcrowd, press together, throng, be crushed (PWMP: *diq(e)pit)

ag-dígostake a bath, bathe (PAN: *diRus)

ag-dílatstick out the tongue (PWMP: *dilat)

ag-dua-duábe in doubt, be undecided (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

ag-du-dúmavarious, several, different (PAN: *duma)

ag-dúmato differ (PAN: *duma)

agékto kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

ag-gakgákto croak (frogs); change voice at puberty (PWMP: *gakgak)

ag-g<an>akgákthe sound of broken bells; quacking of ducks (PWMP: *gakgak)

ag-gemgémto clench the hand (PAN: *gemgem)

ag-gígirbe apprehensive, fearful of what is coming; be careful (PWMP: *gigir)

ag-gunáyto move (PPH: *gunay)

Ilokano (80 / 3004)

agi-kútoto delouse oneself (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ag-impapa-ŋínato play hard to get; to pretentiously show off material wealth although poor (PPH: *ŋina)

aginʔa-ayto pretend to come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ag-isbóto wet one’s bed (PAN: *sibu)

ag-kabá-kabáto be anxious, perplexed (PPH: *kabá)

ag-ka-báŋato have a mutual báŋa; to share meals when living together (from the same pot) (PPH: *baŋaq₂)

ag-káburto boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger) (PPH: *kabuR)

ag-káburto boil (water agitated by fish); to worsen, intensify (anger) (PPH: *kambuR₂)

ag-kadaŋ-kádaŋto walk on stilts (PPH: *kadaŋ-kádaŋ) *kazaŋ₁

ag-kagkágto bask in the sun (PPH: *kagkag)

ag-kákatwo siblings together (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

ag-kalásagto wear a shield, use a shield (PWMP: *kalasag)

ag-kálito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

ag-kamátisto become swollen like a tomato (said of a circumcized penis) (LOAN)

ag-kambórto mix together (various substances) (PMP: *kambur)

agk-ánto kiss (PPh: *hajek-an) *Sajek

ag-k<an>uskústo rub the head with something rough (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

ag-ka-pásaŋto form a pair, to match (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

ag-kapkápto grope in the dark (PAN: *kapkap)

agka-rabiíto stay out late at night (PMP: *Rabiqi)

Ilokano (100 / 3004)

ag-karasákasto make a rustling sound (PPH: *kaRaskas)

ag-kátaŋ-kátaŋto drift, randomly float; to not have a permanent house to live in; to live from house to house (PPH: *kataŋ-kataŋ)

ag-ka-tugáŋ-anthe relationship between parent-in-law and child-in-law (PMP: *tuRaŋ)

ag-kawílto cross the legs; interlace, intertwine (PWMP: *kawil₂)

ag-kayab-káyabto flutter in the air (PWMP: *kayab)

ag-kebbá-kebbáto gasp for breath; be out of breath; to rise and fall strongly (said of a chest out of breath) (PPH: *kebá)

ag-kebkébto embrace, clasp tightly (PMP: *kebkeb)

ag-kepképto fold the arms over the chest (PWMP: *kepkép₁)

ag-kettélto pick with the fingers (PPH: *ketél)

ag-kiákto shriek (said of chickens when being caught, etc.) (PMP: *kiak)

ag-kidémto close the eyes; be new (moon) (PWMP: *kidem)

ag-kililíŋto ring a small bell (PPH: *kililíŋ)

ag-kíliŋto lean; be about to capsize (PMP: *kiliŋ)

ag-kiskísto shave; scrape (PAN: *kiskis)

ag-kítato see each other; meet by chance (PAN: *kita₂)

ag-kitáŋto fish using the kitáŋ (PPH: *kitáŋ)

ag-kitíkto tick (said of a clock) (PMP: *kitik₂)

ag-kiwíkiwto wag the tail (LOAN)

ag-kiwkíwto wag the tail (PAN: *kiwkiw) *kiwkiw₁

ag-kokkókto cluck (chickens); to knock (PWMP: *kukkuk)

Ilokano (120 / 3004)

ag-kudkúdto scratch oneself (PMP: *kuDkuD)

ag-kulámboto use a mosquito net (LOAN)

ag-kulasísito have a mistress (PPH: *kulasísi)

ag-kulilíŋto ring (PPH: *kuliliŋ₂)

ag-kúmutto wrap oneself completely in a blanket (PPH: *kumut)

ag-kúpasto fade, change color (PPH: *kupas)

ag-kupkópto go bald (PPH: *kupkup₄)

ag-kuppítclose, shut (a wound, the mouth, etc.) (PAN: *kupit)

ag-kúraŋto be short (in supply); to be in need (LOAN)

ag-kuretrétto wrinkle; crease; frown (PPH: *kuretret)

ag-kútib-kútibto gnaw (PPH: *kútib)

ag-kutímto peel with the teeth; uproot with the teeth; remove the outer shell of nuts, etc. with the teeth; purse the lips (PPH: *kutím)

ag-kutkótto dig, scratch, exhume (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

ag-kutog-kutógto shake repeatedly (contents in a jar, passengers in a car, etc.) (PWMP: *kutug)

ag-kutókto knock at the door (PWMP: *kutuk₂)

ag-kutók-kutókto rattle contents (PWMP: *kutuk₂)

ag-labáto wash clothes (LOAN)

ag-lábasto pass by, skip, omit (PPH: *labas)

ag-labas-lábasto come and go, pass back and forth (PPH: *labas)

ag-lágato weave baskets (PWMP: *laja)

Ilokano (140 / 3004)

ag-la-laókto intermingle; blend; fuse (PWMP: *lahuk)

ag-laŋóyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

ag-latáwto float; drift (PWMP: *la(n)taw)

ag-layónto continue moving; continue to be in an office; remain, stay (PPH: *layun)

ag-líkawto go around (PAN: *likaw)

ag-líkaw-líkawto go in circles, zigzag (PAN: *likaw)

ag-lipitto crowd (PMP: *lip(e)qit)

ag-luáto shed tears, cry (PMP: *maR-luheq) *luSeq

ag-luábto be lifted away by the wind (thatch); to bubble, boil; rise (PMP: *luab)

ag-luásto set out; commence (a voyage) (PPH: *luás)

ag-lu-luáto be tearful (PMP: *maR-luheq) *luSeq

ag-lúmotto grow moss (PMP: *lumut)

ag-lúnitto close, heal (wounds) (PPH: *luqnit)

ag-lúnoyto wallow in water (PPH: *lunuy)

ag-luóbto live together (PPH: *luqúb)

ag-luslósto slip, slide; pull back and forth (uncircumcised penis); (fig.) masturbate; to have a hernia; slip, slide backwards (PPH: *luslús)

ag-lútabto foam up; froth (PPH: *lútab)

ag-lútoto cook (PWMP: *lutuq)

ag-mamáto chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

ag-man-manókto raise chickens (PWMP: *maR-manuk) *manuk

Ilokano (160 / 3004)

ag-matáto be watchful, alert; open one’s eyes; bear fruit; result in, be the result of; be realized (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ag-nákemto be reasonable, to have sense (PPH: *nákem)

ag-nánato fester (wounds, boils) (PWMP: *maR-nanaq) *naNaq

ag-ŋádasto have a sore palate; to be unable to pronounce (said of dying people) (PWMP: *ŋadas)

ag-ŋalŋálto chew (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

ag-ŋawŋawto meow (said of the cat), speak softly, under one’s breath; gossip (PAN: *ŋawŋaw)

ag-ŋerŋérto growl, snarl (dogs) (PAN: *ŋerŋer)

ag-pa-baŋlóto wear perfume, perfume oneself (PPH: *baŋ(e)lu)

ag-pa-búlodto lend (PPh: *bulud₁)

ag-pádato be the same, equal; to match (PWMP: *pada)

ag-pa-dálanto give way, make room for, go to the road (PWMP: *pa-zalan) *zalan

ag-pádisto be similar, equal; match (LOAN)

ag-paídto fan oneself (PAN: *paid)

ag-pa-kánto host a feast (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

ag-pa-kulótto have a perm (curl the hair) (PMP: *kulut)

ag-pa-kúyogto look for a companion (PPH: *kuyug)

ag-pa-lábasto let pass; tolerate; be understanding (PPH: *labas)

ag-pa-lákadto go by land, walk (PMP: *lakaj)

ag-pa-laudgo to the west (PAN: *lahud)

ag-pa-láudto go to the west (= go seaward) (PMP: *pa-lahud) *lahud

Ilokano (180 / 3004)

ag-pallatíkswing, sway (PWMP: *pale(n)tik)

ag-palóŋto create waves, undulate (PPH: *paluŋ₂)

ag-pánawto leave for good, evacuate (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

ag-pandóŋto wear a mantilla (PPH: *panduŋ)

ag-pandóŋto wear a mantilla (NOISE)

ag-pa-ŋátoto ascend; climb up; go up (PPH: *ŋatu)

ag-pa-ŋínato be vain; conceited; to assume to be more important than one actually is (PPH: *ŋina)

ag-pa-patáycommit suicide, take one's own life (PMP: *pa-p-atay) *aCay

ag-pas-pa-ságidto hang about the girls; haunt; (fig.) allude, insinuate (PPH: *saq(e)gid)

ag-pátawto swim by using a flotation device (PPH: *patáw)

ag-patáyfaint, swoon, die away (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

ag-pat-patísto turn into patís, ferment (LOAN)

ag-pa-túrogto put to sleep; order someone to sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

ag-páyoŋto use an umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

ag-paypáyto fan oneself (PPH: *paypáy)

ag-piárto have confidence in (LOAN)

ag-pídutto pick up; pilfer; steal little by little (PPH: *pidut)

ag-piko-pikovariety of girls’ hide-and-seek (PPH: *pikuq₂)

ag-pílito choose, to select (PAN: *piliq)

ag-pílitto insist (PPH: *pílit)

Ilokano (200 / 3004)

ag-pil-pílayto walk with a limp (PAN: *piNay)

ag-piŋgánto use a plate (LOAN)

ag-piŋkíto start a fire with flint; flash in one’s mind; flare up (anger) (PPH: *piŋkíq)

ag-pi-piákto make the sound of chickens (PMP: *piak)

ag-pítoto play the bamboo flute (LOAN)

ag-púlaŋto return to one’s original position; come to life; regain consciousness (PWMP: *pulaŋ)

ag-púloŋto gather together, assemble (PAN: *puluŋ)

ag-púnasto dust furniture, wipe (PMP: *punas)

ag-púnitto close, shut; heal (wounds) (PPH: *punit)

ag-putpótthe sound of a car horn (PWMP: *putput₂)

ag-púyatto stay up all night, to refrain from sleeping (PPH: *púyat)

ag-rákitto ride on a bamboo raft (PMP: *Rakit)

ag-ramótto grow roots (PMP: *Ramut)

ag-rebbáto break down, collapse, crumble down (PWMP: *rebaq)

ag-sabálito become different, to change (PPH: *sabáliq)

ag-sábatto meet; agree (PWMP: *sabat)

ag-sabáyto act simultaneously; to go, do, etc. together (PWMP: *sa(m)bay) *sabay₁

ag-sáboŋto blossom, bear flowers (PPH: *sabuŋ₂)

ag-sabsábto eat noisily (as a pig) (PAN: *sabsab)

ag-sagaysáyto come one’s hair (NEAR)

Ilokano (220 / 3004)

ag-ságidto collide; brush up against; touch accidentally or incidentally (PPH: *saq(e)gid)

ag-sagitsítto make a hissing sound (PPH: *sagitsit)

ag-sakítto be sick; to hurt, ail (PMP: *sakit)

ag-sakníbto lap over, overlap (PPH: *sak(e)níb)

ag-saksíto appear before the priest before marriage; appear as a witness (LOAN)

ag-salaksákto cry (said of the kingfisher) (PWMP: *salaksak)

ag-sandírto lean on one’s back (PMP: *sandiR)

ag-sáŋito have a toothache (PPH: *saŋi)

ag-sáŋitto cry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

ag-saóto speak, talk; converse (PPH: *sahuq)

ag-saóto speak, talk; converse (PMP: *sau₄)

ag-sáputto weave a web (PMP: *saput₁)

ag-sárepto catch fish floundering in a stream (PPH: *sáRep)

ag-sarigsígto move in a half circle; strut; attack from the side (cocks) (PPH: *sarijsij)

ag-seppalto swallow (said of animals) (PPH: *sepal)

ag-siámto reach the ninth day (of a novena, etc.) (PPH: *siám)

ag-síkadto strut, walk with the head erect and body bent backward; to peddle a paddleboat (PPH: *sikad)

ag-s<inn>arigsígto move around each other (as in boxing, etc.) (PPH: *sarijsij)

ag-s<inn>íkoto elbow one another (PAN: *sikux)

ag-s<inn>úratto write to each other (LOAN)

Ilokano (240 / 3004)

ag-sintíkto flick marbles (PPH: *sintík)

ag-siŋkítto close the eyes in slits (PPH: *siŋkít)

ag-sípato play this game (LOAN)

ag-sípiŋto grow together (PPH: *sípiŋ)

ag-sípitto use tongs, forceps or chopsticks (PAN: *sipit)

ag-síripto peep, peer (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

ag-sitsítto hiss, sizzle (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

ag-súbato be on the verge of death (PPH: *súbaq)

ag-sugígito clean the teeth (PWMP: *sugi)

ag-sukáto ferment (LOAN)

ag-súlamto embroider with untwisted silk (PMP: *sulam)

ag-sumpítto use a syringe; play with a syringe (PMP: *sumpit)

ag-súnogto smoke out bees from their honeycombs (PMP: *sunuR)

ag-súŋoto have a prominent snout (PPH: *suŋu₂)

ag-súratto write (LOAN)

ag-su-sunódto stand in a row; walk behind; retreat (PPH: *sunúd)

ag-tábonto be buried; to set (sun) (PMP: *tabun₂)

ag-takáto hesitate, vacillate (PPH: *taka)

ag-tákawsteal, pilfer, purloin, rob, plunder, pillage, loot, harry (-an, manaN-) (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

ag-takláto click the tongue (PPH: *tak(e)laq)

Ilokano (260 / 3004)

ag-tákoto dip to draw liquids (PAN: *taku₂)

ag-takúpto patch; to marry a girl who is no longer a virgin (PPH: *takúp) *takup

ag-talátalto revolve on an axis, turn over and over (PPH: *talátal)

ag-tálawflee, run away, hasten off, escape (PAN: *talaw)

ag-tálonto work a rice field; farm (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

ag-tambákto build a dike (PMP: *tambak₂)

ag-tambáŋto ambush; raid; attack; waylay; obstruct a voyage; hold up and rob; block one’s way (PPH: *tambáŋ)

ag-tantánto delay unnecessarily (PPH: *tantán)

ag-tanʔáwto look down (PPH: *taq(e)náw)

ag-taŋ-táŋadto walk with the head up; to be looking up (PMP: *taŋad)

ag-tapuákto plunge; jump down (PPH: *tapuák)

ag-tápusto end, finish (PAN: *tapus)

ag-tapʔílto be adjacent to each other; to touch each other (PMP: *taq(e)pil)

ag-taráokto crow, of a rooster (PPH: *taRaquk)

ag-tároto place a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

ag-tarústo go straight to without delay, move on; pierce, penetrate (PWMP: *tarus)

ag-taúlto bark (PPH: *taqul) *taqúl

ag-taúlto bark (PPH: *tahúl)

ag-tawátawto roam, wander (PWMP: *tawtaw)

ag-tawénto be so many years old, to have as age (PMP: *taqun)

Ilokano (280 / 3004)

ag-tebbáto cut a stem of bananas (PPH: *tebáq)

ag-temtémto make a bonfire (PPH: *temtem)

ag-teŋŋáto be in the midst, in the middle (PMP: *teŋaq)

ag-tiktíkto make the sound of a cutting axe (PMP: *tiktik)

ag-tiktíkto inform; spy on (PPH: *tiktík)

ag-tiktíkto make the sound of a cutting axe (PAN: *tiktik)

ag-tínato dye the hair (LOAN)

ag-t<inn>aúlto bark at each other (PPH: *taqul) *taqúl

ag-tiŋtíŋto make the sound of a small bell (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

ag-típonto assemble, unite, gather, convene, meet (PPH: *típun)

ag-tistísto saw; operate on (LOAN)

ag-togtógto knock (on a door, etc.) (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

ag-túdoto rain (PAN: *tuduq)

ag-tugáwto sit down; to be inaugurated, assume a political position (PWMP: *tujaw)

ag-tugtógto knock (PMP: *tugtug₁) *CugCug₂

ag-tugtógto knock (PWMP: *tugtug)

ag-tuktókto knock eggs against each other; to make a knocking sound (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

ag-túladto copy, imitate (PWMP: *tulad)

ag-túleŋto be deaf, hard of hearing (PPH: *tuleŋ)

ag-tulisánto rob, steal (LOAN)

Ilokano (300 / 3004)

ag-túloyto continue, proceed (PMP: *tuluy₁)

ag-túonto have one on top of another; copulate (PPH: *tuqun₁)

ag-túrsito finger wrestle, twist (LOAN)

ag-tútorto take one’s time; be patient (PMP: *tutur₁)

ag-tú-túladimitator (PWMP: *tulad)

aguásedible fresh-water fish; it is very similar to the puroŋ, but its scales are smaller (PMP: *qaRuas)

águdscraping the edge of a board of a strip of bamboo, etc. with the edge of a tool (PWMP: *aRud)

ag-úlogdecline, decrease in value; fail, languish, sink (PPh: *maR-huluR) *SuluR

ag-uniutter a sound, make a noise, to cry (animals), to sing (birds), to speak (men) (PMP: *huni) *Suni

ag-yánstay, dwell, abide, occupy a certain relative place or position (PWMP: *ian₂)

ag-yotto copulate (PPH: *iut₂)

ag-yútcopulate, unite in sexual intercourse. Said of male persons and animals (PAN: *qiut)

akkúbcover, wrapper, shell (of crab) (PMP: *aŋkub)

akóbjoin together two things of the same kind facing each other (two plates, two shells, two hands, etc.) (PMP: *aŋkub)

ako-énreceive, accept with both hands; receive graciously (a petitioner, etc.); to get (a reward) (PWMP: *aku-en) *aku

akúp-engather, collect. With both hands, two brooms, etc., as dirt (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

akut-ákutkind of hymenopterous insect resembling a bumblebee but more slender, and very thin at the junction of the abdomen and the thorax (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

álatake, get, go to and get (PAN: *alaq₁)

alá-entake, get, go and get (PAN: *alaq-en) *alaq₁

alá-entake, get, go and get (PAN: *ala-en) *ala

Ilokano (320 / 3004)

aldáwday (PMP: *qalejaw)

alimátekleech (generic) (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

ali-mogmógrinse the mouth, gargle (PMP: *muRmuR)

alintáearthworm; leech (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

alipugpógwhirlwind (PPH: *qali-pugpug)

ali-wadáŋcollar bone, clavicle (PAN: *wadaŋ)

allónwave, ripple forming no breakers, e.g. those produced by a swimmer or bather (PMP: *qalun)

áloglow land, low field; pool, puddle