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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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L

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Label
Labu
Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan
Laghu
Laghu
Laghua
Laha
Lahanan
Lakalai
Lakona
Lala
Lalau Bare'e
Lamaholot
Lamaholot (dialectal)
Lamasong
Lamboya
Lamenu
Lametin
Lamogai
Lampung
Langalanga
Lara'
Lara Land Dayak
Lara' Land Dayak
Larevat
Larike
Lau
Lauje

Laura
Lavongai
Lawangan
Lebu’ Kulit Kenyah
Lehali
Lehali
Lehalurup
Leipon
Lelak
Lele
Lelepa
Lemanak Iban
Lemeting
Lenakel
Lengo
Lenkau
Lepo’ Tau Kenyah
Lepu Tau, Kenyah (Lepo’ Tau)
Letemboi
Leti
Letinese
Levei
Leviamp
Leviamp
Lewo
Lihir
Likum
Limbang Bisaya

Lindrou
Lingarak
Lingkabau
Li'o
Lironesa
Lironesa
Litzlitz
Lobu Lanas
Lobu Tampios
Lolak
Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi
Long Anap Kenyah
Long Atip
Long Atun
Long Dunin
Long Glat Modang
Long Ikang
Long Jeeh Kenyah
Long Jegan
Long Labid
Long Labid Penan
Long Lamai Penan
Long Luyang
Long Merigam Penan
Long Napir
Long Nawang
Long San
Long San Kenyah

Long Selaan
Long Semado
Long Semadoh
Long Terawan
Long Terawan Berawan
Long Teru
Long Wat
Longgu
Loniu
Lonwolwol
Lotud
Lou
Low Balinese
Lowland Murut
Luangiua
Luang-Sermata
Luilang
Luka Tetun
Lukep
Lukep (Pono)
Lun Bawang
Lun Dayeh
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh)
Lun Dayeh (Long Semado)
Lundu
Lungga
Lusi
Luwu Bare'e

311. Label (71) OC (Peekel 1929-30) [lbb] Papua New Guinea

adefinite and indefinite article (PMP: *a₁)

aligature between nouns; also binds possessive pronouns and adjectives with nouns; genitive particle (PAN: *a₅)

aa binding particle between nouns; genitive particle (PMP: *ha₂) *Sa₁

anu-kmine (POC: *anu-ku) *-nu

anu-mmine (POC: *anu-mu) *-nu

anu-nahis/hers (POC: *anu-ña) *-nu

asawhat? (PMP: *ajan)

balastomach (NOISE)

balbala tree: Erythrina indica (NOISE)

balusblue dove (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

bua-ibetel palm, betel nut (POC: *buaq)

bualbush (NOISE)

buto-navel (POC: *buto)

hain, at, on, during (POC: *pa₂) *ba₃

haito plait (as basket) (POC: *pai₂)

hala, some, somewhat (PMP: *bala₃)

hango, go away; come (POC: *pana)

ha-na-isahow often? (POC: *pica) *pijax

hanuahomestead, place where one lives (POC: *panua) *banua

hara-isprouting tissue of a coconut (PMP: *para)

Label (20 / 71)

hēkaxe (NOISE)

hillightning; to flash, of lightning (ROOT)

hil, pillightning; to flash, of lightning (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

hua-ibloom, bear fruit (as a coconut tree) (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hua-nablossom, bud, fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hutpluck (feathers), pull out (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

ih-a-manifeather of a bird (POC: *ipu-)

ih(i)-hair (POC: *ipu-)

i-hisseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

irimutree sp.: Octomeles sumatrana (POC: *iRimo)

isahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

isopto drink (POC: *isop) *hisep

isopto drink (PMP: *qisep)

kasbasket (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

kilto dig up (PCEMP: *keli)

kil ~ kelto dig (POC: *kili)

kotto cut off (through) (POC: *koti)

kotolegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

kotol a manibird egg (Ross 1988:281) (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

loŋorto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

Label (40 / 71)

mal-malihlaugh (POC: *mali-malip) *malip

mama-ito chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

masursatiated (POC: *masuR)

matdie; be dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

mata-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ŋaschew (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

palhouse, men's house (POC: *pale) *balay

palshell, peeling, skin (POC: *bwala)

palshell, peeling, skin (POC: *bwara)

par, pa-parto swim (NOISE)

pararthunder (POC: *parara)

pirto plait, braid (as cords to make a net) (PMP: *pirit)

pul a kokchicken feather (POC: *pulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

sawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

sakabad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

sa-ŋa-huluten (PMP: *ŋa)

saŋahuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

soto spear (POC: *soka)

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

taŋisto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

Label (60 / 71)

tāsisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

tiananpregnant (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

tohsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tukshort (POC: *tuku₂)

tuncook, burn (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tun-tunto cook, to burn (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

wagacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

wakirtree root (PCEMP: *wakir)

waleight (PAN: *walu)

warstingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

war-reciprocal prefix (PEMP: *paRi-)

312. Labu (1) OC

kusuto spit (POC: *kusu₂)

313. Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan (1) WMP [aka: Kadazan (Labuk-Kinabatangan)]

-noalready, no longer, not anymore, now (particle with negatives) (PAN: *na₄)

314. Laghu (2) OC [aka: Laghua]

tiheto sneeze (POC: *tise)

to-tonustraight (POC: *tonuq)

Laghu (1) OC. see: Samasodu

Laghua (2) OC. see: Laghu

315. Laha (2) CMP [lhh] Indonesia (Maluku)

manuchicken (PMP: *manuk)

manu ei-ŋoutrigger fastening (lit. ‘its chicken foot’) (PMP: *manuk)

316. Lahanan (8) WMP (Rousseau n.d.) [lhn] Malaysia (Sarawak)

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

aranname (PMP: *ajan)

bavuy levudomesticated pig (PMP: *babuy lebu) *babuy₃

buvwaŋthe Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

dawday (PMP: *qalejaw)

laʔablood (PAN: *daRaq)

liandurian (PWMP: *duRi-an)

ŋ-areksniff, smell (PWMP: *meŋ-hajek) *Sajek

317. Lakalai (257) OC [nak] (Nakanai) Papua New Guinea [aka: Nakanai]

-a3rd person sg. object pronoun, suffixed to verb (PMP: *-a₂)

-apassive formative, suffixed to verbs (NOISE)

abitake, catch, get (POC: *abi)

alato bite a thing or animal; by extension, to catch a pig, of a dog or a man hunting with dogs (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

ala-isa ~ al-isawhen? (in the past) (PAN: *ijan)

ala-laviyesterday (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

alito eat, to chew (POC: *kani) *kaen

ali-alito eat, to chew (POC: *kani kani) *kaen

ami-lua1dl. excl. subject and object pronoun (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

ami-teu1pl. excl. subject and object pronoun (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

amu-lua2dl. subject and object pronoun (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

amu-tou (*k > zero)2pl. subject and object pronoun (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

asoto sniff, smell (something) (POC: *acok) *Sajek

-ataup (PMP: *atas) *aCas

balasuspend from a pole, hang between posts (as a pig) (NOISE)

balaa tree: Intsia bijuga. Its wood is used to make slit-gongs (NOISE)

bibipestle or stone used for pounding almonds (NOISE)

bilua fish (PMP: *atas) *aCas

bisismall, little, narrow, young, insignificant (POC: *bitiq₂) *bitiq

boi, boiboidivide food for a feast; collect and bundle up food (POC: *boi₁)

Lakalai (20 / 257)

bolo-laneck (NOISE)

boto-shorten (POC: *boto)

boto, bo-botoshort (POC: *boto)

bubudrive pig into net (POC: *bubuR₂)

buburub on (POC: *bubu₅)

buku-aswollen, protruding (POC: *buku-an) *buku

buli, buli-buliroll across the ground; teeter; roll back and forth; turn over and over; push or roll something too heavy to carry (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

buli galoturn something away from another person, turn something aside (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

buli tavuturn something towards someone or something else (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

butu, butu-bututo sound a slitgong, especially to beat it loudly and call out at the same time (POC: *putuk) *butuk

e-auI, me (PAN: *aku)

e-bebebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

e-boluturtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

e-latuchild; child of Ego’s sibling (PCEMP: *natu)

e-mata-rikisquare, fine-mesh net for catching small fish (PMP: *mata) *maCa

e-puaa fish (NOISE)

e-sukathe making of fire with the fire-plow; a fire-plow (POC: *suka₃)

e-talahakind of fish (PMP: *taRaqan)

e-tulu-luhot taro (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

e-ua-guparent-in-law (woman speaking); daughter-in-law (PMP: *uaʔ)

Lakalai (40 / 257)

e-valua-gumembers of my sib (POC: *panua) *banua

e-viria malevolent spirit which causes twisted limbs (PMP: *pirit)

e-vulua constellation: the Pleiades (POC: *puluq₂) *buluq₁

e-vulua constellation: the Pleiades (POC: *punuq₂) *buNuq₁

ga-isawhen? (in the future) (PMP: *ŋa-ijan) *ijan

gala, gala galato crawl (PMP: *kanap₁)

g-o-atago up, ascend (PMP: *atas) *aCas

g-o-laugo seaward (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

halulushadow; reflection; photograph; occasionally spirit of a human being (POC: *qanunu)

harosun; day; goodday! (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

hate-liver or solar plexus (seat of emotion); internal organs in general; sometimes spleen (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

hatihosneeze (NOISE)

hatotoluegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

hiexclamation of excitement (PMP: *qi₁)

hiloto see (POC: *qiro)

holomend a net (POC: *qono₂)

hugucarry on the head (PMP: *qusuŋ)

humucook on the hearth by covering food with heated stones (PMP: *qumun)

huticopulate with (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

iprefix to numbers in counting (PCEMP: *i₄)

Lakalai (60 / 257)

iainterrogative used at the end of phrase or sentence to indicate question similar to French "N'est-ce pas?" (PMP: *ias₁)

iamild affirmative indicating that one has understood something just said (PAN: *qia)

ilithwarts of a canoe (POC: *ili)

ilothe inside, the interior; interior of the body, interpreted as the seat of emotions (POC: *ilo)

ioexclamation: well, all right (PMP: *qio)

isa-name, identity (POC: *isa₂)

isiscrape, grate (as coconut); to scrape wood smooth (POC: *isi₄)

isualmond which is yellow on the end (NOISE)

iva-BW (w.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

ka-kesagreen, ultramarine, turquoise (POC: *keja)

kaluvucome to an end; finished (ROOT)

kasito scratch (POC: *kasi)

ka-vuras-ito spit a spray into the air (POC: *puRas)

laarticle prefixed to the majority of nouns (PMP: *na₁)

la abevine used for cordage (POC: *kabe₁)

la-arorafter of a house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

la-boicut-up portions of feast food (POC: *boi₁)

la-bolopig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

la-buaareca palm and nut: Areca catechu; heart; gall bladder (POC: *buaq)

la bu-bukuknot in a tree (POC: *buku)

Lakalai (80 / 257)

la bugaplate-shaped coral (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

la-haraplant used for wrapping of coiled basket: Lygodium circinnatum (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

la haro-aro tomievery day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

la hate kuruliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

la hate-la mamasihe is angry ( = 'his liver is burning') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

la hate-la mamasi(lit. 'his liver is burning') he is angry (PMP: *X₂ + qatay) *qaCay

la hate-la ragahe is startled ( = 'his liver leaps') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

la hate malailai, la hate makilakilalungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

la-havulime for chewing with areca nut, made from clam shell (PAN: *qapuR)

la-huea thorny rattan, Calamus sp. (POC: *que) *quay

la-humuhearth; "earth oven" in which only hot stones, without earth, are employed (PMP: *qumun)

la-hurarain; rain clouds (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

la-huta-hutageneral term for small plants and leaves; trash (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

la-hutipenis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

la-huviyam (PMP: *qubi)

la-iafish (generic) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

la-ivu-lahis head hair; plumage of a bird (POC: *ipu-)

la-kara-kobetinea, ringworm; fish scales (POC: *karak₂)

la-kasimussel or clam; mussel shell used as knife (POC: *kasi)

la kaurularge bamboo, imported from the Tolai area (POC: *kauru)

Lakalai (100 / 257)

la-kudehourglass drum (POC: *kude)

la-kukufinger; toe; leg of crab; twig or small branch (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

la kuliouter husk of coconut (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

la kuli-kuliskin (a piece rather than the whole); bark; peel; cloth (introduced) (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

lalato hold over a fire, to wilt (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

la lagisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

la lahiacultivated ginger (Zingiber sp.); by extension, a warrior (PMP: *laqia)

la-lalufresh water; stream; river; coconut shell water jug (POC: *ranum) *daNum

la liucoconut tree, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

la logonight; after dark; day, as a time unit (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

la-lololarge red ant (POC: *loRo)

la-lova-laa fathom (POC: *ropa) *depa

la-lova-la i-saaone fathom (POC: *ropa) *depa

la-lumafamily house, domicile (as opposed to men’s house) (PAN: *Rumaq)

la-luma-lumahouses (collectively), village (PAN: *Rumaq)

la-lumumoss, including Psilotum nudum and Microsorium spp. (PMP: *lumut)

la-malubird (general term); insect, butterfly (rare) (POC: *manuk)

la-malu-maluant; insect (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

la-mataa hole; a channel, passage; a doorway or door; kind, variety (PMP: *mata) *maCa

la-mata-laits eye; the top of it, especially if a cap or something similar; its point; a time for it, its date (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Lakalai (120 / 257)

la-mata-la-harosun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

la-mata-la-havishelf above fireplace (‘eye of fire’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

la-mata-la hulumu‘the door of the men’s house’: circular bottom of frame for ebiribiri mask (PMP: *mata) *maCa

la-mata-la-lumadoorway of the house (PMP: *mata) *maCa

la-mata-la-togthe point of a hook (‘eye of fishhook’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

la mavotaro (general term; Colocasia esculenta) (POC: *mwapo)

la-mola-molathe fat of an animal (POC: *moña-moñak) *meñak

la-pitamud, swamp (PCEMP: *bitak₂)

la-pitamud, swamp (PMP: *pitak₁)

la-putuscrotum; elephantiasis of the scrotum; cluster of nuts (POC: *putuq) *buCuq

la-putua tree: Barringtonia asiatica (POC: *putun₁) *butun

la sabakaa large tree with milky sap: Alstonia sp. (POC: *sabakap)

la susumilk (PAN: *susu₁)

la susu-breast (PAN: *susu₁)

la-tabuburucoconut beetle (makes a whirring noise); a toy noisemaker (LOAN)

la tahe la magowart (lit. ‘feces of the sea’?) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

la-taliŋasmall edible fungus (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

la (ta)-tahefeces; leftover trash (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

la-tia-gumy belly, stomach (of human being); occasionally, my emotions, desires (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

la-tia-lamiddle, center (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Lakalai (140 / 257)

la tilafemale of the species (animal) (PMP: *tina) *taina

la titaa tree, Parinarium corymbosum (POC: *qatita)

la ti-tiromirror, glass; spectacles (POC: *ti-tiro) *tindaw

la tovusugarcane (generic; Saccharum sp.) (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

la tuha-bone (POC: *tuqa₂)

la tuleear-wax (POC: *tule)

la-tulu-knee joint, knee (PCEMP: *turu₁)

la-tumaflea, house louse, bedbug (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

la-tuvaa vine (Cassytha filiformis) (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

-lautoward the sea (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

la-ulubreadfruit, Artocarpus incisa; by extension the soursop, Anona muricata (PMP: *kuluR)

la-utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

la vaha-leg, foot (PAN: *paqa₁)

la valuathe men (POC: *panua) *banua

la-vasaa plant: Vitex cofassus (POC: *pasa(rR))

la-vatacorpse (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

la vilaŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

la-vilu-vilusawfish (POC: *piRu-piRu)

la-viroa reed: Phragmites spp. (POC: *piso₁)

la-visoknife (PMP: *pisaw)

Lakalai (160 / 257)

la-vitolofamine (POC: *pitolon)

la-voivoia variety of pandanus (POC: *poipoi)

la-vorecanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

la-vuhu-latrunk or base of a tree; stem of a leaf; base of a pearl shell; first part of a story; the reason; because of; origin, story of one’s ancestry (PMP: *puqun)

la vuofishnet or seine; base of fish trap (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

la-vuvukind of fish trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

lihosee, look at (POC: *qiro)

-limafive (PAN: *lima)

livo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

lovoto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

lovo-lovoto fly (POC: *Ropo-Ropok) *Rebek

-luatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

lusocuttlefish (POC: *nuso)

magiri-talito wait (standing) (POC: *tari)

mahatibe out, of the tide; low tide; dry season (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

ma-huli(huli)be in good health; come to life; to live, survive (of a sickly baby or the victim of an attack) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

maito me; hither (POC: *mai) *ai₃

malaladancing ground; garden cleared but not planted (POC: *malala)

mamato chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-marato boil away or dry up, of water (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

Lakalai (180 / 257)

ma-mara-tidammed up, of water; finished, of water in the hollow of a tree; dry, of water; very low tide (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mamia yam: Dioscorea alata (POC: *mamis) *hemis

maosacooked, ripe (POC: *maosak) *esak

maosacooked, done (PEMP: *ma-qosak) *qesak

matato look, to look at; to appear; to turn face or eyes toward; sharp (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-rikiclose, of net mesh (‘small holes’) (POC: *mata riki) *maCa

matauafraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

mateout, of a fire (POC: *mate) *aCay

matuhafull-grown (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

meand (PMP: *mai)

mola(mola)sweet (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

o-locative marker (in expressions such as o-ata 'up, on top of', o-hulu 'in the men's house', o-luma 'in the family house', o-mai 'here, hither, toward me', and o-muli 'to the left as one faces inland') (POC: *o₁)

o-ataabove (PMP: *atas) *aCas

o-maihere (POC: *mai) *ai₃

o-talodown (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

pilufold up; fold under, as a leaf apron when sitting down (POC: *binu)

pisito break wind (POC: *pisi₂)

pou-talito wait (sitting) (POC: *tari)

pupugrandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) (POC: *bubu₉) *bubu₆

pupu-bladder (POC: *pupu₃) *pupu₂

Lakalai (200 / 257)

pu-pusopumice (POC: *puso₁)

-rivahow many?, how much? (POC: *pica) *pijax

sa-latuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

sa-latu saaone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

salito flow (PMP: *saliR)

savulugroup of ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

savulu saaten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

se-sēflower; blossom; (tobacco seeds) (POC: *see)

sipato cut, of hair; to shred leaves for (POC: *siba)

sisishellfish (PMP: *sisi₁)

sivoto descend, go down (POC: *sipo)

s-o-maiin my direction (POC: *mai) *ai₃

suapush up the stone of the la-humu[earth oven] with a stick (PMP: *suqan)

suato push up the stones of la-humu (earth oven) with a stick (PMP: *suaR₁)

susuto nurse, of a baby (PAN: *susu₁)

suvito peel taro (PEMP: *supi)

ta-prefix marking action that takes place of its own accord (gole ‘to pluck leaves’ : ta-gole ‘to fall off, of a tree branch’) (PMP: *ta-₂)

-talito wait for (only in compounds) (POC: *tari)

tali mugatali muga (POC: *tari)

-talodown; westward (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

Lakalai (220 / 257)

taluto put in; to plant; to put down on the ground, as a bundle carried on the head (PMP: *taRuq)

taluto put in, to plant (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tama-father, FB (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

taŋato look up(ward) (POC: *taŋar) *taŋad

ta-tahoto set a snare (POC: *taqon) *taqen

tauman, person (used only in connection with sib and village affiliation and in expressions showing relations between two or more persons; in both cases it is in apposition to a pronoun, usually expresssed) (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tau rivahow many men? (POC: *pica) *pijax

-toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tovoto try out (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

tuluto wade (POC: *tuRu₁)

tulu-luto burn (of a burn); be burned (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

turito point to; to point out, indicate (POC: *dusiq)

tututo heat stones for cooking (PMP: *tutuŋ)

tututo tap, as with a tattooing needle; to strike with the finger; to bump, of heads (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

ututo cut, as with a knife, cut off (PMP: *utus₁)

valito mourn (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁

valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree (POC: *paRi₃) *paRi

valiapply paint, feathers, or other surface adornment to the head or body (POC: *wali)

valito apply paint, feathers, etc. to the head or body (POC: *pani₂)

valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree (NOISE)

Lakalai (240 / 257)

valialaa vine: Ipomoea sp. (POC: *paliaRua)

vali (OG)apply paint, feathers, or other surface adornment to the head or body (POC: *bani₁)

v-il-aŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

vilu-vilufan palm: Licuala sp. (POC: *piRu) *biRu

virito constrict, as a python; be mixed up or twisted, of a child's speech; twist, wind up, wind around; too much, a great deal (PMP: *pirit)

viroa hollow-stemmed reed: Phragmites spp. (POC: *pijo)

vitolohungry (POC: *pitolon)

-vituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

voloto work sago, squeeze the water out (POC: *poRos) *peRes

volufull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

vore muli-muliengage in a canoe race (POC: *pose) *beRsay

vore-voreto paddle (POC: *pose pose) *beRsay

(vo)-vuoto fish with a net (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

vuato seed; bear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vuhirinse; baptize (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

vuhito rinse, to baptize (?) (POC: *puqi)

vuleCrinum sp. (POC: *puRe₂)

vuvuwasp and wasp-like insects (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

318. Lakona (1) OC

matudry coconut (PCEMP: *matu)

319. Lala (1) OC [aka: Nara]

voigardening (generally); clear garden in grassland after burning (POC: *poki)

Lalau Bare'e (1) WMP. see: Bare'e (Lalau)

320. Lamaholot (122) CMP (Pampus 1999) [slp] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) (dialects: dialectal (Pampus 1999) [slp] 2)

ahodog (PAN: *asu₁)

amafather (used only in traditional ceremonies) (PAN: *amax)

amutroot (PMP: *Ramut)

ana-nchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

apulime, calcium (PAN: *qapuR)

apunfog, mist, dew (PMP: *hapun₁) *hapun

asaorigin, lineage (LOAN)

asaʔonly if, provided that (LOAN)

ataperson (PMP: *qaRta)

ate-nliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

auʔbamboo (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

bato stream, flow (PCEMP: *baaq) *baSaq

bajoto pound, pound rice (PAN: *bayu)

balikreturn (PMP: *balik₂)

baliw-anmake war, take revenge (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

dapeʔalmost in contact; bump up against (PMP: *dapet)

dəŋəʔto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

dəpãto measure in fathoms (PMP: *depa)

dikəʔgood, true, genuine (character) (NOISE)

Lamaholot (20 / 122)

emamother (PMP: *ema₁)

ge-mumurinse the mouth, gargle (PMP: *muRmuR)

hama ~ samalike, same as; as if (PWMP: *sama)

hiku ~ sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

hiwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

iahere (PMP: *ia₂)

ikanfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

iku-ntail (PAN: *ikuR)

ilémountain (PCEMP: *qili) *qilih

ilusaliva (PMP: *iluR₁)

inaM (PCEMP: *ina) dialectal

ina-ama-nparents (PMP: *ina ama) *ina

ina-nfemale (of animals) (PCEMP: *ina) dialectal

ipentooth (PMP: *ipen)

irunnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

kame1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kawifishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

(kə)-puhurnavel (PMP: *pusej)

kímashellfish, mussel, oyster (PMP: *kima)

kumãhermit crab (PMP: *kumaŋ)

Lamaholot (40 / 122)

lajasail (PAN: *layaR)

lakehusband; male (PMP: *laki)

lero-nday (PMP: *qalejaw)

ləwo tanavillage (PMP: *taneq)

liaginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia)

loto(r)knee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₁) *tuduS

loũtears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luãeject from the mouth (as food, or the pits of fruits) (PMP: *luaq)

lulũto roll up (as a sleeping mat) (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

mamãmother’s brother; wife’s father (PMP: *mama) *mamah

manukchicken, poultry; bird (PMP: *manuk)

matadead, deceased (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

miaʔshy, ashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

m-ori-nlife (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

m-ori-tto live (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

nani loūto shed tears (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

naŋeto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

narãname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nələ̃to swallow (PMP: *telen)

nuhaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

Lamaholot (60 / 122)

oli-nreturn (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

paitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

paluto hit, beat (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

panago (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

patfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

pənũto fill, fill up (PMP: *penuq)

pileʔpluck; pick up; choose (PAN: *piliq)

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

puloten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

pulu təlothirty (POC: *tolu-ŋa-puluq) *telu

rarãpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

ratūhundreds, a multitude (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ratu toʔuone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

raʔablood (PAN: *daRaq)

ribuone thousand (PMP: *Ribu)

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rua ruatwo each (PCEMP: *dua-dua) *duSa

sawiʔcut grass with a sickle (PMP: *saqebit)

s<ən>əŋeʔroasted (PMP: *s<in>aŋelaR) *saŋelaR

səŋeʔto roast (PMP: *saŋelaR)

Lamaholot (80 / 122)

sukudescent group, clan (PMP: *suku)

suku amanon-aristocratic clan (lacking rights to the soil) (PMP: *suku)

suku ile jadiautochthonous clan (PMP: *suku)

suraɁletter, written communication (LOAN)

tabato mend, repair, patch (PMP: *tambal)

tahakripe (PMP: *tasak)

tahiksea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

takutbe afraid (PAN: *takut)

tamato enter (PMP: *tamaq₂)

tanaearth, land, district, territory (PMP: *taneq)

tanito weep, cry; to complain (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tatafather; older man (PAN: *tata₁)

taʔoto place, put, set, lay down (PMP: *taRuq)

taʔoto put, place, deposit (PMP: *taRuq)

taʔūthe indigo plant (Pogostemon cablin), used for dyeing woven fabrics (PMP: *taRum)

təkaat, to, toward; in the direction of (PMP: *teka₁)

təlothree (PAN: *telu)

təməlafleas on dog (PAN: *qatimela)

t<əm>uhũsuck at the breast (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

t<ən>uruʔa sleeping person (PMP: *t<in>uduR) *tuduR

Lamaholot (100 / 122)

təpakhit with the open hand, slap; clap on the ears (PMP: *tepak₁)

təpakto slap (PMP: *tepak₁)

(tə)-ratuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

təwuãwasp (PMP: *tabuqan)

timueast (PMP: *timuR)

tobãto fell trees (PMP: *tebaŋ)

tuaold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tubakstab (PCMP: *tubak)

tuho ~ tusobreast, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

tuhukto pierce, bore through (PMP: *tusuk)

turuʔlie down, sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

tutuʔto speak, talk, converse (PMP: *tutur₁)

tuʔdry (PMP: *tuquR)

ulaʔsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

utanbean, pea (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

waiwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wananright (side) (PMP: *wanan) *waNan

wananright (side) (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

wau-kodor, aroma (PMP: *bahu)

waũ-ʔits odor (PMP: *bahu)

Lamaholot (120 / 122)

waʔa-nember (PMP: *baRah)

wewa-nmouth (PMP: *beqbeq)

Lamaholot (dialectal) (2) CMP (Pampus 1999) [slp] (Lamaholot) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

inaM (PCEMP: *ina)

ina-nfemale (of animals) (PCEMP: *ina)

321. Lamasong (2) OC

patiklesser yam (POC: *pwatika)

to-kodosstraight (POC: *kodos)

322. Lamboya (51) CMP

ahawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

aliyounger sibling (probably parallel) (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

amafather (PAN: *amax)

atapeople, person (PMP: *qaRta)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

bamouth (PMP: *bahaq₁) *bahaq

bahato wash (PMP: *baseq)

baurotten; smell (PMP: *bahu)

i-aiwho? (PMP: *i-sai) *sai

iñamother (PCEMP: *ina)

ka-buluten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

kalitaskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

ka-wanaright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kikutail (PAN: *kikuR)

kukclaw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

ladoday (PMP: *qalejaw)

laihusband (PMP: *laki)

laŋtasky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lararoad (PMP: *zalan)

la-waiwoman (PCEMP: *bai) *bahi

Lamboya (20 / 51)

limafive; hand (PAN: *lima)

mahisalt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

maito come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-raufar (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

matedie, dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

morhalive, be alive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

nami1pl. excl., we (PAN: *n-ami) *ami

naŋito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

nipesnake (PMP: *nipay)

ŋaraname (PMP: *ŋajan)

paluto hit (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

pan-tanaearth (PMP: *taneq)

patafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

pirasqueeze (PAN: *peReq)

pu yayutree (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

rablood (PAN: *daRaq)

ribone (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

roleaf (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

taluegg (PMP: *qateluR)

tanaiguts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

Lamboya (40 / 51)

tibelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

urarain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

watustone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

wewater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wufruit (PMP: *buaq)

wulamoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulufeather (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

y-authou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

yidathey, them (PMP: *ida)

yitawe (plural incl.) (Fox n.d.) (PAN: *ita₁)

323. Lamenu (1) OC

luma-uhand (POC: *luma)

324. Lametin (1) OC

sulu-ito burn (POC: *sulu₁)

325. Lamogai (4) OC [lmg] Papua New Guinea

-gu ~ ŋu1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ŋa1sg.: I (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

ŋa1sg.: I (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

oromountain (POC: *koro₃)

326. Lampung (132) WMP (Walker 1976) [ljp] (Lampung Api) Indonesia (Sumatra)

acaŋ-acaŋdove, pigeon (PWMP: *acaŋ)

adasplant whose seed is used to produce an oil: Foeniculum vulgare (PWMP: *hadas)

akuʔtake something (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

-ana noun + -an, most often a reduplicated noun, specifies a large variety of the thing signified by the single-morpheme noun' (e.g. bataŋ 'tree' : bataŋ-bataŋ-an 'all kinds of trees'; verbal roots combine with -an to form nouns signifying the result of the action of the verb: cinciŋ 'carry (something light)' : cinciŋ-an 'that which is carried', aji 'to chant' : aji-an 'the chant', xatoŋ 'to come' : xatoŋ-an 'guests, the people coming'; partial reduplication + -an functions as a circumfix, combining with some intransitive verb roots meaning to cook, expressing a variety of ingredients used in the cooking process: gulay 'to make soup' : ga-gulay-an 'vegetables', pajaʔ 'to boil something' : pa-pajaʔ-an 'greens for boiling'; this combination also occurs with a few adjective and intransitive verb roots to give the abstraction of the root meaning: taway 'to teach' : ta-taway-an 'teaching, instruction', demon 'like' : da-demon-an 'a liking' (PAN: *-an)

anaʔchild, offspring (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

apaymat (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

atasabove (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ataw(a)conjuction: or (LOAN)

atotcarry (rice) (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

awancloud (PWMP: *hawan)

babuypig (PAN: *babuy₃)

balosreturn something (PAN: *bales₁)

banibrave (PMP: *baRani)

basohwet (PMP: *baseq)

baturock (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

bayohswollen (PAN: *baReq)

belahcut something (PAN: *belaq)

Lampung (20 / 132)

-belasnumeral formative: -teen (LOAN)

belibuy something (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

benoxtrue (PMP: *bener)

betoŋstomach (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

betoŋ-betoŋsatisfied, stuffed (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

bexuʔkind of monkey (LOAN)

biasrice (hulled) (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

biasausual; usually (LOAN)

bijiseed (LOAN)

binataŋanimal (LOAN)

bintaŋstar (LOAN)

biŋinight (PMP: *beRŋi)

buahfruit (PMP: *buaq)

bubaxdispersed (LOAN)

budiʔtrick someone (LOAN)

buhacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bujuʔcoerce (LOAN)

bukaʔopen something (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

buktievidence (LOAN)

bulubody hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

Lampung (40 / 132)

buluŋleaf (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

buñimake a noise (PMP: *buñi)

buoʔhair (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

busuʔrotten (PMP: *busuk)

buxuŋbird (LOAN)

danawlake (PAN: *danaw)

diat (PAN: *di)

esaʔripe (PAN: *qesak)

(h)alawhunt (game) (PWMP: *halaw)

haxoŋblack (PMP: *qajeŋ)

haxuscurrent (of river) (PMP: *qaRus)

hiasdecorated (LOAN)

hisoʔsuck something (PMP: *qisep)

holon tuhaparents (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ikoʔtie something (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

iluysaliva, spittle (PMP: *iluR₁)

inothat (PMP: *i-na) *-na

inoʔspend the night (PAN: *qinep)

inumto drink (PMP: *inum)

Lampung (60 / 132)

iohurine (PAN: *iSeq)

isawintestines (PWMP: *isaw)

isifill something (PAN: *isiʔ)

ixuŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

jilatoŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp. (PMP: *zilateŋ)

juyuback side (PWMP: *zuRu)

ka-belah-belahother side (PAN: *belaq)

ka-buñisounded (as a gong) (PMP: *buñi)

ka-paʔall four (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

k-asih-anit is too bad (PMP: *ka-qasiq-an) *qasiq

kawilfishing pole/line (PAN: *kawil₁)

ke-benox-ancoincidence (PWMP: *ka-bener-an) *bener

kudulblunt (PWMP: *ku(n)dul)

kutubedbug (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuyaturtle (LOAN)

laŋiʔsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋuyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

laŋuy-laŋuy-anto be in the habit of swimming; (several) to be swimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

ma-iohurinate (PAN: *iSeq)

Lampung (80 / 132)

mandibathe (intr.) (PWMP: *um-andiʔ) *andiʔ

manuʔchicken (PMP: *manuk)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata xanisun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

m-atidead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-ʔmother (PMP: *ema-ʔ) *ema₁

m-ina-naunt, parents' younger sister (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina

missweet (PMP: *emis₁) *emis

missweet (PMP: *hemis)

nipossessive marker (PAN: *ni)

ñakI (coarse form) (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

ñeñikmosquito (PMP: *ñikñik)

ŋ-anaʔhave children (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

ŋawilto go fishing (PWMP: *ma-ŋawil) *kawil₁

ŋ-ipeyto dream (PWMP: *maŋ-hipi) *Sipi

pagimorning (PWMP: *pagi)

pa-ŋanfood to be eaten (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

pasaŋpair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

p-atikill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

paʔfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

Lampung (100 / 132)

penuhfull (PMP: *penuq)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu xanicelebration of the seventh day (e.g. after a death) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pixahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

puluh-anby tens (PWMP: *puluq-an) *puluq

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

sa-biŋi-anthe whole night long (PMP: *beRŋi)

sa-biŋi-nalast night (PMP: *beRŋi)

(sa)-biŋi-nalast night (PMP: *beRŋi-na) *beRŋi

salahwrong (PMP: *salaq₁)

sapawho/which? (PMP: *sapa)

sa-pasaŋone pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

sa-puluhten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

sa-xatusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

sexomant (PWMP: *sejem)

siperson marker (PAN: *si₁)

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

susulto follow something (PMP: *sulsul₁)

ta-bukaʔopened (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

tahluyegg (PMP: *qateluR)

Lampung (120 / 132)

tajomsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tanohland (PMP: *taneq)

tanomto plant something (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

tiuŋeggplant (LOAN)

tuhaold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuxuncome down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

xaniday (PAN: *daqaNi)

xatushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

xatus-anby the hundreds (PWMP: *Ratus-an) *RaCus

xuatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

327. Langalanga (1) OC

bulus-iturn (POC: *bulos)

Lara' (2) WMP. see: Lara Land Dayak

328. Lara Land Dayak (2) WMP [lra] (Bakati’, Rara) Indonesia (Kalimantan) [aka: Lara', Lara' Land Dayak]

barakbanana (NEAR)

nukasopen (PWMP: *tukas)

Lara' Land Dayak (2) WMP. see: Lara Land Dayak

329. Larevat (1) OC [lrv] Vanuatu

irithat (POC: *iri) *-di

330. Larike (35) CMP (Laidig 1993) [alo] (Larike-Wakasihu) Indonesia (Maluku)

amilst pl. excl., we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aninuwind (PMP: *haŋin)

asodog (PAN: *asu₁)

ataperson (PMP: *qaRta)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

dupiasago (PMP: *Rumbia)

hahapeak, top of something (PAN: *babaw₃)

hahopig (PAN: *babuy₃)

hakacanoe (PMP: *baŋkaq)

hata-naclassifier for trunks, logs (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

hinafemale, woman (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

huafruit; classifier for fruits, buildings, eggs, general objects (PMP: *buaq)

ihu-tilothick (PCEMP: *təlu)

inamother (PCEMP: *ina)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

iʔanufish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

laelandward (PAN: *daya)

lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

Larike (20 / 35)

manuachicken (PMP: *manuk)

mata-naclassifier for coins, holes, and round or circular objects (PMP: *mata) *maCa

meteblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

ntuaold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

sana-nabranch of something (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sina-naclassifier for stripes, rays, long thin strips (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

teifeces (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tiabelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tido-naclassifier for eggs (PMP: *qateluR)

tiduthree (PAN: *telu)

urebanana (PAN: *punti₁)

utepenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

waleyounger sibling (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

waʔa-naroot of something (PMP: *wakaR)

weifoot (PAN: *waqay)

331. Lau (502) OC (Fox, C. 1974) [llu] Solomon Islands

ābutaboo, holy (POC: *tabu) *tambu

a-buloto turn around, turn back, turn aside (POC: *ta-bulos) *bulos

adato see, to look (POC: *tadra)

ada alāto look up, etc. (POC: *tadra)

a-faŋato open wide, gape, uncover, open up (POC: *paŋa₃) *paŋa₂

afaŋaopen wide, gape; uncover (< *-ŋaq?) (ROOT)

afolawide (POC: *tapola)

ākwaspecies of hardwood: Pometia pinnata (PMP: *tawan)

alasplit across (ROOT)

ala-alacracked, as a plate (ROOT)

alitwine round, encircle; surround; coil a rope, wind a line; coil up like a dog; curled, tangled, of hair; make a loop, bend string or rope; strand of a rope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

alito twine round, encircle; to surround; to coil a rope, wind a line; to curl up like a dog (POC: *tali₂) *tali

alotaro (POC: *talos) *tales

alugarden ground, last year's garden (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

aluto place, put, lay down; to give, send; to bury; to have, to be; to become, change into (PMP: *taRuq)

aluto bury (POC: *taRu)

ama-nafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

anoto bury (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

anoearth, land; garden land (rarely used) (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-anolow, as a house (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

Lau (20 / 502)

ano-ano-alow, humble, subject to (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-midig heel in ground (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

ano-mi-laburying (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

aŋaa bag (POC: *taŋa₂)

āŋito cry, produce a sound, e.g. bird singing, trumpet, thunder (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

āŋi-āŋito cry (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

āŋi-sito cry for; follow about, as a woman a man (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

a-ŋ-itawhen? (past or future, and not always interrogative) (PMP: *ŋa-ijan) *ijan

aŋo-aŋo rake, rake aŋo-aŋoanger (rake = 'stomach') (PMP: *qaŋet)

ārasoutheast trades, violent wind (POC: *karak₁)

asisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

aʔo saufish for bonito in special small canoe (POC: *qatun)

babalong side board of canoe; the side (POC: *babaR) *papaR

babaflat; a board; lower part of back; a wooden door (POC: *baban) *papan

babadoor (NOISE)

ba-babaa board, flat object (POC: *baban) *papan

baba-laflatness (POC: *baban) *papan

baba-nalong side board of canoe (POC: *baban) *papan

balawhite from scars (face, body) (POC: *balaR₂) *balaR

balawhite from scars, of the face or body (ROOT)

Lau (40 / 502)

balatree sp.: Evodia Elleryana (NOISE)

balaa tree: Evodia Elleryana (NOISE)

balaturtle sp. (NOISE)

balawhite scars on face or body (NOISE)

balipart, side, portion, half; disunited, on the other side; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

balipart, side, portion, half; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided (PCEMP: *pali₁) *pali

bali ʔana geni, bali ʔana wanebride's people, bridegroom's people (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

barashelf for firewood crosswise (lengthwise: gwegwela) (POC: *barat, parat) *barat₁

barafence; enclosure, hedge (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

bebebutterfly; fish sp.: Chaetodon (POC: *bebe)

to cook in a stone oven; a bambooful of cooked food, etc.; packet, parcel, bundle (LOAN)

bibito crush, weigh down (POC: *bibit) *pitpit₂

bibicrush, weigh down (NOISE)

bibiŋ-icrush it (NOISE)

bilastale, as long standing water in bottle; musty, of food; body smell; sediment in washing tapioca (POC: *biRaq₄) *biRaq₂

bilaroe of fish, yolk of egg (POC: *piRa₁) *biRaS

bilastale, as long standing water in bottle; musty, of food; body smell; sediment in washing tapioca (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

biluspecies of large flattish fish with yellow fins (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

binawoodpecker (POC: *binam)

bina-binaa flash of lightning flashing; reflected light; to flash with a glass (PMP: *binaR)

Lau (60 / 502)

bina ufibooby (POC: *binam)

boboshut, enclose (POC: *boboŋ₁) *beŋbeŋ₁

bo-boŋitomorrow (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

bonoclosed (POC: *bonot)

boŋinight; days, in reckoning time (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

buato plan, invent, create; make an island (POC: *buat) *buhat₂

buabegin, do for the first time, be the first to do (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

bua-anewly made, invented, created (POC: *buat-an) *buhat₂

bua buaspecies of vine used for tying thatch and for decorative work with bamboo (POC: *bua bua)

bubufish sp. (POC: *bubu₇)

buliwhite cowrie, Ovula ovulum, ornament for canoes and men (POC: *buliq₁)

buloto turn, twist (POC: *bulos)

bulos-ito twist around (POC: *bulos)

bulos-iatwisted (POC: *bulos)

bulua star (POC: *puluq₂) *buluq₁

bulublack, dark blue, brown (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

bulutorch (POC: *bulut) *pulut

bulu-ladarkness (color) (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

bulu ngalitorch of nut gum (POC: *bulut) *pulut

burithe back; behind, after, stern, rear (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

Lau (80 / 502)

buri ʔaeheel (POC: *m-uri qaqe, m-uri waqe) *udehi

butamake a parcel, wrap up in a parcel; a parcel, packet, roll; dead man wrapped up for burial (POC: *busa₃) *busa₂

damamate, fellow, corresponding part; exactly like, the same (POC: *jama) *sama

daniday, daylight; weather (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

dia-nagood, beautiful (PMP: *diqaq)

doŋaa pair; to follow; together (POC: *doŋan) *deŋan

doŋa-ato join (POC: *doŋan) *deŋan

e-taone (PAN: *esa)

e-ta-nafirst (PAN: *esa)

fā-causative prefix which also makes transitive verbs from intransitive verbs, adjectives and nouns (roŋo ‘to hear’ : fā-roŋo ‘to tell’; mamagu ‘fear’ : fā-mamagu ‘loathsome’; ŋū ‘to sing’ : fā-ŋū ‘teach to sing’) (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

fā-ābuconsecrate (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

fafacarry on shoulders, pick-a-back; carry a bag round the neck (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

fā-faŋato feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

fā-faŋato feed (PMP: *paŋan)

fafiput leaves on oven in cooking (POC: *papi)

fafothe top; on, above (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

fafo-asifoothills (lit. ‘above the sea’) (PMP: *tasik)

fafo-na asisurface of the sea (PMP: *tasik)

fafo-ʔilebeyond the reef, outside (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

faifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

Lau (100 / 502)

faka-causative prefix, rarely found (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

falaa fishing stage, or platform for drying nuts (POC: *pala)

falatarabbitfish: Siganus sp. (POC: *palaja)

falistingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

fālunew, fresh; recent (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

fanashoot with bow and arrow; fana-si shoot at (PAN: *panaq)

fana talashoot and miss (PMP: *salaq₁)

fanerise up in sky, of sun, moon, or cloud; high, as a hill; tall, of a tree or house; rise, swell, or ferment, as of bread or a pudding, or a boil (POC: *panek) *panahik

fanualand, earth; weather (POC: *panua) *banua

faŋato eat, have a meal; a meal, food; to bite, nibble, of fish (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

faŋato eat, have a meal; a meal, food; to bite, nibble, of fish (PMP: *paŋan)

faroscraper for grating yams (POC: *paro)

fā-rodoto darken (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

fā-rodo māto blindfold (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

fasito plant (POC: *pasi)

fataspecies of hardwood: Vitex cofassus (POC: *pasa(rR))

fele bobo-ito throng (POC: *boboŋ₂) *beŋbeŋ₃

to feel pain; to hurt (PMP: *pi(n)tik)

fi-filaa white scar (POC: *pilat₂) *bilat₂

filito choose, prefer (PAN: *piliq)

Lau (120 / 502)

fili-achosen (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

fili-s-iachosen (PAN: *piliq)

filotwist together, as strands, twist round (POC: *piro)

filo-faidiscuss, talk a thing out thoroughly (POC: *piro)

filos-i, filos-iatwisted round (POC: *piro)

filuumbrella palm; leaves sometimes dyed red for decorations; grasses dyed red, decorating canoes; leaf ornaments of warriors dyed red with kikiri (POC: *piRu) *biRu

fiolohungry (POC: *pitolon)

fiolo-ahunger, famine, scarcity of food (POC: *pitolon)

firitwist round, coil round; twist tobacco; tie up, tie up a door (PMP: *pirit)

fitahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

fiuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fiu-naseventh (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fofoweed with a knife (POC: *papo₂) *babaw₄

fogasplit, rend, burst (POC: *pokaq) *bekaq

folato spread (POC: *polac) *bekelaj

folasplit, break in two, tear in two (POC: *polaq) *belaq

foli-abuy, hire, pay wages (POC: *poli-a) *beli

foli-folibuy, hire, pay wages (POC: *poli poli) *beli

foloacross; cross over (river, sea); cut across, sever (POC: *polos₁)

fonusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

Lau (140 / 502)

fotea paddle, to paddle; shoulder blade (POC: *pose) *beRsay

foustone, rock (POC: *patu₂) *batux

fou-lastony; flint; limestone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

fou manu-manupumice (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

(fou) nagiflint (POC: *nadi)

species of tree: Barringtonia asiatica (POC: *putun₁) *butun

to cough, clear the throat (POC: *buu₄)

stock, root, origin (PMP: *puqun)

fuato, for, to his advantage or disadvantage; to, towards; for the purpose of; in order to; to; that; with; by means of (POC: *puat₃) *buhat₂

fūato carry, as a haversack (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

fua-nafruit, nut, seed for planting (POC: *puaq) *buaq

fuasacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

fuasa ni ʔafuseahorse (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

fudibanana (bou substituted in recent times because fudi occurred in name of a well-known woman) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

fufupick fruit (POC: *puput) *buCbuC

fufunoise of someone coming or knocking (POC: *pupuk₁) *bukbuk₂

fufumason wasp (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

fufuto swell, distend body, have a swollen stomach; sp. of fish swollen like a football (POC: *pupuŋ) *buŋbuŋ₄

fufupluck fruit (PMP: *pupu₁)

fufupluck fruit (PMP: *puqpuq₁)

Lau (160 / 502)

fu-fuafruit (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

fufu-roŋoto listen; to hear; disciple (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

fufus-ipluck (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

fufus-ito scatter, powder and scatter (POC: *pupus-i) *busbus

fuicluster, clump (POC: *pui₁) *pui

fulaa spring of water (POC: *buraq) *budaq₁

fulathe moon (but only in naming a month) (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

fū-lāa cough, coughing (POC: *buu₄)

fulosponge (POC: *puro₁) *budeq

fuluto clean, wipe, rub off dirt, wash away earth (of rain) (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

funito hide one's tracks (POC: *puni₂) *buNi

funuperish, come to nothing, destroy utterly, be destroyed; destruction, extinction; excessive, immense; excessively; complete, completed (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

fura-furaspring up, of water; to boil; to gargle; noise in the throat of a dying man (POC: *puraq puraq) *budaq₁

fūs-ipluck leaves, flowers, fruit; twitch off fruit with a pole (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

futabe born, originate, create (POC: *pusa₁)

futa feranative place, home, one's country or island (POC: *pusa₁)

futa lāa generation (POC: *pusa₁)

-gawe, us (1pl. incl., suffixed to some nouns and prepositions) (POC: *-da₂) *-ta

gafuindistinct, blurred, of writing or distant object; mist (POC: *kaput₂) *kabut

gami1pl. excl., we; subject or suffixed (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

Lau (180 / 502)

gamu2pl., you all; subject or suffixed (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

ga-raŋinear (POC: *raŋi) *daŋi

gomuhold in the mouth, eat with the lips (POC: *gomu)

-guI; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

gwau-head (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

ilocative preposition, at (used before names of place, position, time) (PAN: *i₂)

-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂)

i-instrumental prefix (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

īabelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

īanapregnant, of a woman; enlarged stomach, of a man (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

i-fafoabove (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

i fafo-naon the top (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

i-fai(= 'at where?') 'where?' (PMP: *pai₁)

ifia bed (mat spread out) ifi-tai spread out, open out, as cloth or a mat (NOISE)

ifuto uproot or be uprooted by wind (PMP: *ibut₁)

ifu, ifu-nahair (POC: *ipu-)

ifu-lahairy, covered with cast hairs (POC: *ipu-)

i lalowithin (POC: *i rarom) *dalem

iludrink with a spoon, sup, drink soup (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

iluf-i(trans.) (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

Lau (200 / 502)

iluf-ia(passive) (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

irolook at fixedly, look for (POC: *qiro)

iroto look at fixedly, look for (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iro-fi(a)look for, spy out (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iro-irotranslucent pool, still and clear; looking glass, pearl shell of nautilus (POC: *iro iro)

iro-irosearch for; a translucent pool, still and clear; a looking glass; pearl shell of nautilus, mother-of-pearl (POC: *tiro-tiro) *tindaw

iro-iroa translucent pool, still and clear; looking glass (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iro-iro-areflected light, dazzling, silver light of the moon on white clouds, moonshine (POC: *iro iro)

iro-iro-airidescent; reflected light, dazzling; silver light of moon on white clouds, moonshine (POC: *tiro-tiro) *tindaw

isuprow and stern erections of a canoe (PMP: *ijuŋ)

kadi ~ ka-kadibulldog ant (POC: *kadik)

kakas-ito split open (POC: *kakas(-i))

kamuchew (betel nut) (POC: *kamu₃) *kamu₂

kanato hum; to sing old songs (POC: *kanam)

kana fāfito hum or sing a lullaby to a child (POC: *kanam)

kasito adze, chop; to knock a nut with a stone on another stone (POC: *kakas(-i))

kauto be caught in, as hook in mouth (POC: *kau₂)

kila ~ kila-kilagreen parrot (POC: *kiRak)

kili-kili-ato tickle so as to make a person laugh (PMP: *kilik₁)

kiokioa kingfisher (PAN: *kiaw)

Lau (220 / 502)

kiutail of animal, fish (not bird) (PAN: *ikuR)

kokof-ito cover a baby from the sun (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

kokof-iaprotected from the sun (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

korito scrape; to shave (POC: *korit) *kerit

kouaway (PMP: *wa-tu) *-Cu

kua ~ kuakuaa hen (POC: *kua kua)

kulaboLethrinidae sp. (POC: *kulabo)

kuruto roar, the sound of thunder or surf (POC: *guRuŋ)

kuruto roar, the sound of thunder or surf (PMP: *kuruq)

kuru-laroaring (POC: *guRuŋ)

kururuto roar, the sound of thunder or surf; to roar, as a waterfall (POC: *kururu₁)

kwaiwater (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

kwaispouse; husband or wife (POC: *wati₂)

kwaliold, worn out (house, net, etc.) (POC: *waRi₂)

kwalito be old, worn out (house, net, etc.) (POC: *tuaRi)

kwali-nadescendant (POC: *tuaRi)

kwalovine of yam, sweet potato, etc. (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

kwalueight (PAN: *walu)

kwategive, give up, hand over, present (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

kwi-kwīa bird, the snipe (POC: *pwipipi)

Lau (240 / 502)

kwisito splash (PMP: *picik)

labustrike, hit with a blow, strike down (PMP: *lambuk)

lafupull out, pull up, as weeds (POC: *Raput) *RabuC

lafuto be worn out, old (as clothes) (PMP: *Rabuk)

lagosticky, viscous; pasty, as badly cooked bread (PMP: *la(ŋ)ket)

lakʷaspecies of large yellow spider and large web (PMP: *lawaq₂)

laliroot, small roots (POC: *ralic) *dalij

lalocenter, middle, as of a garden; inner room, yard, enclosed space; between two things, not one or the other (as between black and white) (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo-ito pity (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo-nacentral, inner (POC: *ralom) *dalem

laŋofly, mosquito (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋo bulucommon fly, bluebottle (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

launorth; open sea to the north (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

leospeech (only in names in genealogies) (POC: *leqo)

liato change appearance, in color or from wearing different clothes or beard or hat; to change in appearance like a chameleon and some fish; to change nature, a throwback in plants (PMP: *lian)

liāunrecognizable (PMP: *lian)

lifo-tooth, tusk, porpoise tooth used as money (POC: *lipon) *lipen

lifo-na kwaŋameteorite (lit. ‘lightning/thunder tooth’) (POC: *lipon) *lipen Lau

liliside posts (POC: *ariRi) *SadiRi

limafive (PAN: *lima)

Lau (260 / 502)

lima-nathe fifth (PAN: *lima)

liovoice (only in compounds) (POC: *liqo) *liqə

lisicut short, cut fingernails (PMP: *Risi)

lisicut short, cut fingernails (PMP: *Risiq)

lisi-acut short, cut fingernails (PMP: *Risi)

lisi-acut short, cut fingernails (PMP: *Risiq)

litepupae of lice in the hair (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

liuto go beyond; excessive; to exceed; very (PMP: *liu₁)

lofojump, fly (PMP: *Rebek)

lolosp. of ant (POC: *loRo)

luahigh tide; unusually heavy sea, big waves; to flow in, of tide (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

lua-nathe neck (POC: *Ruqa)

ludato carry in a canoe, carry as cargo; to load a canoe or ship; a coconut tree loaded with fruit (PMP: *Rujan)

ludato carry in a canoe, carry as cargo; to load a canoe or ship (PMP: *lujan)

luda-icarry cargo (PMP: *Rujan)

luka, lukas-ialoosen, untie (PMP: *lu(ŋ)kas)

lumaa family house, house for married people (PAN: *Rumaq)

lumumoss, growth on tree; lichen; weeds on keel (PMP: *lumut)

lumu-lumumoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

lusuthwart of canoe, curved like U; ribs, ribs of pork (PAN: *Rusuk)

Lau (280 / 502)

maand (PAN: *maS)

eye, face, aperture, mesh; door, porch, gate, mouth; point, edge, spout of a jug (the part that does the work); point of pen, edge of knife; bow of a ship; operculum of a mollusc; hand, wrist; time, season; to eye, to stare at (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maewithout motion, still; unconscious, numb, paralyzed; to faint; die; stop (of a clock), go out (of a light); be eclipsed, of sun or moon; tired out, weak, very ill, ready for rest; war; rainbow (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae-adeath, sickness (POC: *mate-an) *aCay

mae-ladanger (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae-la-nadying, death; death feast (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae-likill (POC: *mate) *aCay

mā-fafoa covering (fafo = ‘on top’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mafoto be healed (POC: *mapo)

mafo i kiluincurable (POC: *mapo)

maiebb tide; reef; dry reef; to ebb (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

mā-lumaa porch (luma = ‘house’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-maluto cast a shadow (PEMP: *maluRu)

ma-manaefficacious (of medicine), spiritually or magically powerful; grow well, of trees; good, of news; be prosperous, lucky, in good health; be true, come true, be fulfilled; to impart spiritual or magical power (POC: *mana₂)

ma-mana-latruly, really (POC: *mana₂)

ma-mana-ŋafertility (POC: *mana₂)

manua bird, any creature that flies (bee, beetle, etc.) (POC: *manuk)

manu-manuto float (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

matai ~ ma-mataito be ill (POC: *masakit) *sakit

matai-a ~ matai-ŋaillness (POC: *masakit) *sakit

Lau (300 / 502)

mauafull grown; ripe, of ngali [Canarium] nut (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mauli, moulileft hand; left handed (POC: *mauRi) *wiRi

melalight brown, reddish-brown (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

misismack the lips; call a dog with sucking sound (PMP: *misik)

misismack the lips; call a dog with sucking sound (POC: *misi)

mouto fear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

mouafull grown (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mo-urialive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mo-uri-alife (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mo-uri-sisurvive, escape alive from (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mou-taiafraid, afraid of (POC: *matakut) *takut

species of white reef fish, good eating (PMP: *muquŋ)

munocaterpillar (POC: *muno)

-nahe, she, it, him, her, after nouns and prepositions, usually called a possessive pronoun (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nathe, a (na noni-na ‘his/her body’, na kui ‘a dog’) (PMP: *na₁)

nafosurf, wave of sea (PAN: *Nabek)

namothe lagoon inside a reef, near the reef (the deep) pools towards the shore (PMP: *namaw)

nanathat, those (POC: *nana)

na-namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

naoface; in front of; before; first (POC: *nago)

Lau (320 / 502)

nao-naoformer, earlier (POC: *nago)

nauI, me (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

nau-nauself-assertive, egotist; strong and violent, of a person (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

nau ni touachildish (PCEMP: *natu)

nau satato own (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

niof, belonging to (fote ni fera ‘native paddle’ [paddle of home]; in order to, for; according to, in the matter of, with; forms adverbs (PAN: *ni)

ninisp. of shrub; stems used in thatching (PMP: *niniq)

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu-niu-latasting of pork or coconut (PMP: *niuR)

nunu-(na)shadow, shade; a likeness, photograph, picture, image (POC: *qanunu)

nutosquid; smooth, as a squid (POC: *nuso)

ŋarato creak, of trees rubbing together (POC: *ŋara)

ŋeŋeto dispute, contradict, disobey, argue with; to creak by rubbing against (POC: *ŋeŋe)

ŋoŋō (length unexplained)to hoot, of an owl (PMP: *ŋeŋeŋ)

ŋūhum, chant, sing (PMP: *ŋuŋ)

odo-odogo in a direct line, straight (POC: *oto)

odo-odogo in a direct line, straight opposite (POC: *kodo)

odo-odoto go in a direct line, straight (POC: *kodos)

ofube together; pile up, amass; a bundle (POC: *opun) *ebun

ofupile up, amass; bunch, group of people (PMP: *hebun)

Lau (340 / 502)

ofusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

ofupile up, amass; bunch, group of people (Also Nggela ovu 'crowd, heap, pile, flock') (ROOT)

ogasmall intestines (POC: *topwa)

ogasmall intestines (POC: *tobwa₂)

olaa canoe built of planks sewn together (POC: *tola)

oloto come, go (POC: *oRo)

ōlosink down, as a stone sinks in water (< *-lep?) (ROOT)

oluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

olu-na ~ ou-nathird (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

onastake in a hole to impale an enemy (POC: *ona₂) *ena

onahard part at base of a palm; spines of echinus or crayfish; stake in a hole to impale an enemy (POC: *ona₁) *ona

onesand (POC: *qone) *qenay

oneonetree sp.: Heritiera littoralis (LOAN)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

ono-mito swallow, swallow whole (POC: *toñom)

otaspecies of shrub with large leaves and large white flowers, on swampy ground (NOISE)

rabubeat, hit, flog (PMP: *ra(m)buk)

rarato shine; to be hot, warm (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

raraspecies of tree with scarlet leaves, Erythrina fasca (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

rodonight (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

Lau (360 / 502)

rodo-adark; blind (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

roŋo-ato hear, listen to; to perceive, to smell (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-lahearing, perceiving (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-nasecond; alternative; again; a friend, closer in relationship than English friend; lover; to be friends with, be in love; wife’s sister’s husband (POC: *rua) *duSa

ru-rua ~ rua-ruaundecided (POC: *rua rua₂) *duSa

sapersonal article, now obsolete (PMP: *a₁)

saethe core of a thing; carcass skinned, feathers removed; meat of an egg; peeled yam or orange; kernel of nut; think, suppose (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sae-fouliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

safaogrub that eats sago palms (POC: *qapator) *qabated

safaogrub that eats sago palms (POC: *qapatoR) *qabateR

safilacentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

safulime, used in magic; smear with lime (PAN: *qapuR)

safu-safunative tobacco (first obtained from Savo Island) (PAN: *qapuR)

saiasp. of tree, Parinarium glaberrimum; the nut, and vegetable putty made from it to caulk a canoe (POC: *qatita)

salusp. of tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

salu-tolosp. of tree: Casuarina nodiflora (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

saneshite ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

sane-aeaten by white ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

saosago palm; leaf of the palm as thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

Lau (380 / 502)

saoluegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

(sa)-satechin; jaw; beard (POC: *qase) *qazay

sasugall bladder; ink of cuttlefish (POC: *qasu₂)

sasusmoke; to smoke; to burn, of fire; steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

sasu-lasmokiness (PMP: *qasu₃)

sataname; namesake; friend (PMP: *ajan)

sataspecies of climbing fern, used for tying canoes (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

satarub, rub down, sharpen by rubbing (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

satosun (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

saua bonito fish (POC: *qatun)

saubeat, pound; injure, do harm to, kill; to blow, of wind (POC: *qatu)

sifoto go down; downcast, of face (POC: *sipo)

sifo-li(a)to let down (POC: *sipo)

sikograsshopper (POC: *siko)

sikwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sikwa-naninth (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sinato shine, give light; meteor (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sina-fito shine on (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sina-fiasunburn (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sina-sinato glow; glowworm (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

Lau (400 / 502)

sirispecies of small bird (POC: *siri)

siu, siu-fibathe, wash standing in water (PMP: *ziuq)

si-ʔaifirewood, bundle of firewood (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

set, of sun, moon and stars; dive, swim under water (PMP: *surup₁)

suaa spear (POC: *sua₁)

sufito shave with a razor, to cut hair (PEMP: *supi)

suli-nabone (POC: *suRi₁)

sululiquid, oil, juice, sap (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sululiquid, oil, juice, sap (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sulu-awatery; to melt (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sulu-awatery (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sulu-nagreen, of timber; melted, running, liquified; to melt (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

surusmall species of reef fish (Lethrinidae) (POC: *surup₂)

susuto prick; impale, pierce; pick out, poke with a stick; to sting; to darn; to accuse (PAN: *suksuk)

susu-ia wasp (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

su-sukagimlet (POC: *suka₃)

su-suka-ito bore (POC: *suka₃)

susu-nathe breasts; milk; to suck the breasts (PAN: *susu₁)

bad, evil (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

tabāa species of tree (POC: *sabakap)

Lau (420 / 502)

taeembark (PMP: *sakay₁)

taeto rise, ascend, get up, climb; to lift up; to exhume (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

tae doŋahitchhike in canoes, travel by successive canoes (PMP: *sakay₁)

tae-liembark on a ship or a canoe (PMP: *sakay₁)

tafawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

tafuto brush off, brush against (PMP: *sapu)

tafuluspecies of mollusc (POC: *sapulu)

tagoto think (ROOT)

taito sew (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

tai ~ teiwho, whoever (PMP: *sai)

tai ~ teiwhoever (PMP: *sei)

tai-ato sew (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

tai-lāa sewing, a seam (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

talapath, road; opportunity; to begin; the Milky Way (POC: *salan) *zalan

talato miss a mark, fail; amiss, wrongly (PMP: *salaq₁)

talato shine, of sun or moon (ROOT)

tala alaŋiato call (someone) by mistake (PMP: *salaq₁)

talaf-isweep (s.t.) (POC: *salap-i) *salap

talaf-ishine on, enlighten, lighten up (ROOT)

tala fītōdistrust (PMP: *salaq₁)

Lau (440 / 502)

talito cut undergrowth, clear a garden, especially for taro (POC: *sali)

ta-ŋa-fuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ta-ŋa-fuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

ta-ŋa-lauone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

taŋasito splash, sprinkle, wet with rain (ROOT)

ta-talabroom made from midribs of sago palm (POC: *salap)

taua long way, far off; a long time, always (POC: *sauq₁) *zauq

tauto wash, to clean; to steep, soak (POC: *sau₂)

tau-fiato wash, cleanse; to draw water (POC: *sau₂)

ta ʔaianyone (POC: *kai)

to futarelatives by birth (POC: *pusa₁)

tōlapersons of same age, two brothers, two sisters, man and wife; fellow, one of a pair (POC: *soRa)

tola-naa cup, a saucer (POC: *soRa)

tolomountain, hill country, interior of island (POC: *solos)

tō melaPolynesians (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

tototo sink into the ground, of liquids (POC: *sosop) *sepsep

totof-i(a)to suck up (POC: *sosop) *sepsep

toucrane (POC: *sou)

ū-boŋiearly morning (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

uf-ifill a vessel, dip and fill; get water in a vessel (POC: *qutup-i) *qutub

Lau (460 / 502)

ufiblow with the mouth; blow a conch or panpipes (PCEMP: *upi)

uf-iafill a vessel, dip and fill; get water in a vessel (POC: *qutup-ia) *qutub

ulifruit-bearing tree (PCEMP: *quRi)

uluto wade (POC: *tuRu₁)

uluf-ito wade to (POC: *tuRu₁)

ulu-naofirst-born, elder, senior (POC: *qulu) *quluh

ulu-ulu-natopmost branch of a tree (PAN: *qulu qulu) *quluh

umunative oven (hill word) (PMP: *qumun)

ūnua torch of dried coconut leaves tied together (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

uothe float for a net (POC: *uton) *utem

uracrayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

usuto push (POC: *qusur) *qunzur

usurub, wipe, rub off (PMP: *usuq)

usu-arub, wipe, rub off (POC: *usuq-a) *usuq

usulito follow along, beside (POC: *usuri)

usuli-ato copy; to take after, resemble (POC: *usuri)

utarain; to rain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uta-ŋ-ito rain on, wet with rain (PMP: *quzan-i) *quzaN

utocore of fruit (POC: *uso)

wā-wāgeneric for all creatures on or in the ground (POC: *mwata)

Lau (480 / 502)

wawakisp. of octopus (POC: *mwamwaki)

ʔaiwood; a mast (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ʔaia person, individual; a woman; thing; kind, sort; another, different (POC: *kai)

ʔai burijunior; second wife (buri = ‘after, behind’) (POC: *kai)

ʔai manua flock of birds (POC: *kai)

ʔai naosenior; first wife (POC: *kai)

ʔakʷasia tree used for blackening teeth: Rhus taitensis (POC: *tawasi)

ʔalagaseaweed (POC: *karagwam)

ʔatorafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

ʔelito dig (PCEMP: *keli)

ʔeli-ladigging (PCEMP: *keli)

ʔetedifferent, of another sort or kind; strange, foreign, queer, odd, curious; various; alone, apart, for oneself only; keep food for oneself (PCEMP: *kese)

ʔete-ʔetevarious (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

ʔilooyster (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

ʔoduseaworm, Palolo (NOISE)

ʔototo poke, thrust, jab; to pierce, insert (POC: *kojom)

ʔotopierce, insert (ROOT)

ʔoto-maito plant cuttings, poke in, insert into (POC: *kojom)

ʔūlouse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ʔuahow? (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

Lau (500 / 502)

ʔulafuspecies of large fish, up to six feet long, brown or blue spots, grouper (PMP: *kuRapu)

ʔuta-ahow? in what way? of what sort? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

332. Lauje (32) WMP [law] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

a-ansipity (PMP: *qasiq)

ambebeckon with the hand (PWMP: *ambay)

bagalungs (PAN: *baRaq₁)

gaʔit-anraft (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

gimbalEdrum (PWMP: *gimbal)

-iundergoer-oriented imperative: ugas-i 'do the dishes!' (PAN: *-i₁)

iŋkasquick, fast (ROOT)

labiasago (PMP: *Rambia)

layagsail (PAN: *layaR)

loŋohear, listen to (PMP: *deŋeR)

lumutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

ma-gatusone hundred (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

mo-layagto sail (PAN: *layaR)

mon-jauŋto sew (PAN: *zaRum)

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

oyabyawn (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

poñusea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

pusenavel (PMP: *pusej)

saɁoyguest (PWMP: *sakay₃)

si amafather (PAN: *si amax) *amax

Lauje (20 / 32)

so-m-puluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

tonuŋto weave cloth (PAN: *tenun)

tuŋodog flea (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

tuutto follow (PWMP: *tuRut)

ugasto wash (dishes, spoons, etc.) (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

ulagsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulecaterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

unapfish scale (PMP: *quhenap) *quSeNap

uŋachild (PWMP: *uŋaq)

utañaask (PMP: *kutaña)

utañato ask (PMP: *utaña)

333. Laura (2) CMP [lur] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

lamandekaleech (PMP: *qala-matek) *-matek

luaspace outside a house (PMP: *luqaR)

334. Lavongai (6) OC

katilarge outrigger canoe 50 or more feet in length (PMP: *katiR)

katilarge outrigger canoe 50 or more feet in length (POC: *katiR)

pasalto walk (POC: *pajale)

polokto grow (plants) (POC: *polok)

sa-ŋa-uliten (PMP: *ŋa)

tuasa tree: Rhus taitensis (POC: *tawasi)

335. Lawangan (30) WMP [lbx] Indonesia (Kalimantan)

a-kaʔif (PAN: *ka₂)

alaswoods (PMP: *halas) *Salas

apoilime (PAN: *qapuR)

aruhthat (NOISE)

bawewoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bawuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

daninear (PMP: *adani)

danolake (PAN: *danaw)

danumwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa) (PMP: *datu)

dayablood (PAN: *daRaq)

gampoŋfloat (PWMP: *ga(m)puŋ)

kai-n1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kam2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kɨkɨtto bite (PWMP: *ketket)

koo2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

lipisthin (materials) (PMP: *lipis)

lokuʔlie down (PWMP: *lekuq)

lolatongue (PAN: *zelaq)

ŋ-utato vomit (PWMP: *maŋ-utaq) *utaq

Lawangan (20 / 30)

oripost (PAN: *SadiRi)

oroʔfar (PMP: *zauq)

piakchick (PMP: *piak)

piutgreat grandchild (PMP: *piut)

putiʔbanana (PAN: *punti₁)

toluʔthree (PAN: *telu)

tukarsteps (=ladder) (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tuwutsit (NEAR)

upakskin (PWMP: *upak₁)

Lebu’ Kulit Kenyah (2) WMP. see: Kenyah (Lebu’ Kulit)

336. Lehali (2) OC

ŋʷatsnake (POC: *qumata)

ŋwatsnake (POC: *mwata)

Lehali (3) OC. see: Lehalurup

337. Lehalurup (3) OC (Tryon 1976) [aka: Ureparapara, Lehali]

epfire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

n-okcanoe (POC: *waŋka)

sapwhat? (PMP: *sapa)

338. Leipon (73) OC [lek] Papua New Guinea

antermite, white ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

brudrbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

bruhbasket trap for fish and eels (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

burtail end (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

calsea urchin (POC: *salaŋ)

calpath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

ce-marto dry up, as rice in a pot that has been boiling too long (PMP: *maja)

cihircockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

dranfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

dran-dranbranch of a tree (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

drayblood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

elmaŋmangrove crab (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

heŋen-ito feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

hi-ñawwidow (POC: *ñao)

hi-ñawwidow (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

i methe is dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

ka-mawleft (side) (POC: *mauRi) *wiRi

kanfood (keykay < Tok Pisin kaikai used by younger speakers) (POC: *kani) *kaen

kanfood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

kelilarge sea fish, grouper (POC: *kalia)

Leipon (20 / 73)

kelilargest kind of grouper (POC: *kalika)

kem-bruto-navel (POC: *buto)

ke-pleymast (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

keytree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

kimelman, male (PMP: *kamaliR)

kitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

koŋlarge brown or yellow four-cornered fish (POC: *koŋa)

korvillage (POC: *koro₂)

laltrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

laskind of flat, silvery fish (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

lisnit, egg of a louse (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lo kimelmen’s house (lit. ‘in the men’s house’) (PMP: *kamaliR)

low keyleaf of a tree (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

ma-culo-hthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ma-lme-hfive (PAN: *lima)

ma-rwe-htwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ma-s-ŋ-etone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

menderto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

monsmall canoe without outrigger (POC: *mona)

mwatsnake (POC: *qumata)

Leipon (40 / 73)

mwatsnake (POC: *mwata)

ndassea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

ndelisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

ndohsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

netu-child (PCEMP: *natu)

ni-nihdream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

ñattall tree with small leaves and large sweet fruit with seeds that are white when unripe and black when ripe (PMP: *ñatuq)

ñoñtree with inedible fruit; the roots yield a pink dye: Morinda citrifolia (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋidre-nhis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

ŋo-anyellow (POC: *aŋo)

padrkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

patstone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

pererthunderclap (POC: *parara)

pinahsmall blue and white fish with needle-nose (POC: *panapa)

po-ñawwidower (POC: *ñao)

po-ñawwidower (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

ratwhale (POC: *rato)

suhto peel yams (PEMP: *supi)

teŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

time-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

Leipon (60 / 73)

tolawnorth wind; north (POC: *tokalaur)

tolaw e heynorthwest monsoon (POC: *tokalaur)

uhkind of red yam with hard flesh (PMP: *qubi)

-w1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

we-lawspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

wilarge tree with green fruit that turns yellow when ripe (PCEMP: *quRi)

wumhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

wurshrimp, lobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

wuridolphin (POC: *kuriap)

wuti-penis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

y-episago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

yeritthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

yo1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

339. Lelak (1) WMP

jiagood (NOISE)

340. Lele (5) OC [lle] Papua New Guinea

drak-lowlarge spider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

kem-bruro-navel (POC: *buto)

ŋo-yawspall spider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

suhilcockatoo sp. (POC: *supiri)

yew-yewsugar ant (POC: *loRo)

341. Lelepa (5) OC

laospiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

matuaright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

msaksick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

-ŋu1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

wiagood (PMP: *pia₂)

Lemanak Iban (2) WMP. see: Iban (Lemanak)

342. Lemeting (1) WMP

jiagood (NOISE)

343. Lenakel (8) OC [tnl] Vanuatu

-k1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

-kənto eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

kurlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

məneand (POC: *mana)

nə-ktree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

nə-pwaŋhole (POC: *pwaŋa)

nɨ-ta(a)blood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

no-unfish poison (POC: *punat) *bunat

344. Lengo (8) OC

kikismall (PMP: *kikit)

kikismall (POC: *kiki₂)

maand (PAN: *maS)

maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

manaand (POC: *mana)

ŋgururuthunder (POC: *kururu₁)

tuto stand (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

umatasnake (POC: *qumata)

345. Lenkau (32) OC [ler] Papua New Guinea

aŋo-anyellow (POC: *aŋo)

asoa-husband (PAN: *qasawa)

a-weymango (POC: *na wai, na waiwai) *wai

haŋto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

ho-yepafternoon, evening (POC: *paka-Rapi) *Rabiqi

hue-ptwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

huydugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

kalaprain cloud (POC: *kadapuR)

kehetrsago grub (PMP: *qabatiR)

kelilarge sea fish, grouper (POC: *kalia)

koplime (PAN: *qapuR)

koplime for betel chew (PMP: *kapuR)

kumsouth wind (LOAN)

lalatrstinging nettle: Laportea spp. (POC: *la-latoŋ) *laCeŋ

laŋlaŋhousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lum-lummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

merihto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mimiurinate (PMP: *miqmiq)

mimi-aurine (PMP: *miqmiq)

notrtall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

Lenkau (20 / 32)

nunbanyan (PMP: *nunuk)

1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ŋaha-name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

pa-pa-matraw, unripe (POC: *mataq) *hataq

pwikfruit bat, flying fox (POC: *bweka)

sahwhat? (PMP: *sapa)

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sokto stab, shoot (with an arrow) (POC: *soka)

tressaltwater (PMP: *tasik)

trikto plait, weave (as a mat) (POC: *tiki)

trolaweast wind (POC: *tokalaur)

trukto hammer, pound (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

trunfreshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

Lepo’ Tau Kenyah (3) WMP. see: Kenyah (Lepu Tau)

Lepu Tau, Kenyah (Lepo’ Tau) (3) WMP. see: Kenyah

346. Letemboi (2) OC [nms] Vanuatu

n-aitree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

na-vara-ŋhand (POC: *paRa₃) *baRa₁

347. Leti (195) CMP (Jonker 1932) [lti] Indonesia (Maluku) [aka: Letinese]

aemphatic particle used to indicate a question (PMP: *ha₁) *ha

aiwood, in combination forms; tree (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

ai rarmeheartwood (PMP: *dalem)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anachild; small (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anni rainorth wind (PCEMP: *raki)

an-walifamily, consanguineal relative (PMP: *anak) *aNak

arkaarrack (LOAN)

arkaarrack, strong liquor (LOAN)

arnacharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

ārulime, calcium (PAN: *qapuR)

asnagills of a fish (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ataslave (PMP: *qaRta)

atiheart in the literal sense (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atrustring together (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

au wo-ifruit of a tree (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

awuash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

enusea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

Leti (20 / 195)

erugall (PAN: *qapeju)

ida (< *insa)'one; each, every' (PAN: *isa₁)

ikrutail (in combination forms: in-ikru 'fish tail', etc.) (PAN: *ikuR)

ilidwelling of the monarch (PCEMP: *qili) *qilih

inaM (PCEMP: *ina)

ina atifish heart; also in a figurative sense (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

inéOh! wow! (PMP: *qina)

irathey, them (PMP: *ida)

irnunose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

isicontents; flesh (PAN: *isiʔ)

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

iushark (PAN: *qiSu)

katlaitch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kernadry (as grass, the land, one’s throat from thirst) (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

kernamiddle-sized marine turtle with prized shell: Chelonia imbricata (PCEMP: *keRan₂)

-ku1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

kukufingernail, claw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

larasail (PAN: *layaR)

lare tal-lirope of a sail (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

larirun (PAN: *laRiw)

Leti (40 / 195)

lerasun; day (PMP: *qalejaw)

let-ilidwelling on a mountain, because the dwelling of a monarch originally was on an elevation (cf. leta village, country, land) (PCEMP: *qili) *qilih

liaginger (PMP: *laqia)

liantisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lienacave, grotto (PMP: *liaŋ)

loke wali-liopposite side of the river (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

luitears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lumtumoss (PMP: *lumut)

madabandicoot (PCEMP: *mansar)

madebandicoot (PCEMP: *mansər) *mansar

mahusmoke (PCMP: *masu)

maito come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

mak-wunuthe one who kills (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

malilaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

mal-irileft (side) (PAN: *wiRi)

mal-w~annaright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matidie; dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mat-mataraw, not cooked (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mat-ne wuk-nueyebrow (PCEMP: *buku)

Leti (60 / 195)

mat-ne wul-lueyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

ma-wuniwe are hiding (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

mérared (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

mér-mérared (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *ma-iRaq

m-etitide (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

m-etmablack, dark (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

minafat, as from a pig; sweet, tasty (PMP: *miñak)

m-orilive, grow; give life (said of God) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mtatuto fear, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

naand (PAN: *Na)

nānaname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nanito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

nanna (< nana-na)pus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

naraa man’s sister, a woman’s brother (PMP: *ñaRa)

na-ririhe is standing (PAN: *diRi)

nasuto cook (PMP: *nasu) *Nasu

na-woabear fruit (PMP: *buaq)

na-wuku-wukuknobby, bumpy, covered with lumps, joints, etc. (PMP: *buku buku) *buku

na-wunihe is hiding something (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

Leti (80 / 195)

-ne3sg. possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

nenua tree: Morinda citrifolia (PCEMP: *ñəñu)

nia-wunumurderer (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

n-inalie down, sleep (PAN: *qinep)

nituspirit, ghost, spectre (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

n-susuto suckle, suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

nuawound (PMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

nuawound (PMP: *nuka) *Nuka

nunubanyan (PMP: *nunuk)

nuracoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

nusaland, earth (PMP: *nusa₁)

onicrow of a cock (PMP: *huni) *Suni

orabamboo (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

osrichase, pursue, follow (PAN: *qusiR)

paluspinster, widow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

pansawarm season; warm (as bread); sick, painful; sickness (PMP: *panas₁)

paruhibiscus tree (PMP: *baRu)

penufull (PMP: *penuq)

piknaplate (LOAN)

ptunastar (PAN: *bituqen)

Leti (100 / 195)

puprurinse the mouth (PCEMP: *pupuR)

rainorth (PCEMP: *raki)

rarablood; menses (PAN: *daRaq)

rarafemale, of animals that haven’t yet borne young (PMP: *daRa₂)

raram-riarmawill, desire (PMP: *dalem)

rarmathe interior, what is inside; fig. heart, feelings; in, inside (PMP: *dalem)

rasuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

reafathom (PMP: *depa)

retnasteps, ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

ri-matacorpse (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

ririhouse post (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

salafault, guilt, sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

sanunu ~ snunuten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

saputo sweep (thought to be from Malay) (PMP: *sapu)

sospouse (PAN: *qasawa)

soraneedle (PCMP: *sora)

sulithe taro plant (PMP: *suli₁)

sulutorch (PMP: *suluq)

Leti (120 / 195)

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tanot exist; no, not (PMP: *taq₃)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

taskisaltwater, sea (PMP: *tasik)

teifeces; rust (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tennuto weave (PAN: *tenun)

tersehard (PMP: *teRas)

tewusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tiwladrum (PCMP: *tibal)

tomnato plant; to bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tumaclothes louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tunuset on fire, burn, roast or bake; shoot a firearm (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tutuknock, pound, stamp (PAN: *tuqtuq)

tutuknock, pound, beat (PAN: *tutuh)

tutwuto close, shut (PMP: *tutub)

tuwaplant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica (PAN: *tuba)

ukmupunishment, penalty (LOAN)

ultiskin, hide, bark (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

uluin front, first (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

umruage (LOAN)

Leti (140 / 195)

urtavein; sinew; muscle; the fibers of a lontar palm (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

utan annirainy season (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utnadebt; in debt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utnarain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

walaspeak, talk, say (NOISE)

wa-larirun (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

waliturn oneself, go back; back again, once again (PMP: *balik₂)

waliside, half; partner, companion; opponent like (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

waliagain, once more (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

walsarepay, requite, answer (PAN: *bales₁)

wanibee, honeybee (PMP: *wani)

wannuwake up, get up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

wanuwash the hands (NOISE)

waracarry on the shoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

wāraroot (PMP: *wakaR)

warnubush dove (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

warsawhite (of horse, hair, sand) (NOISE)

wartawest, west wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

warunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

Leti (160 / 195)

wawacarry in a basket on the back (PMP: *baba₁)

wawamouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

wawipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

waw-naon, upon (< *wawa-na) (PAN: *babaw₃)

weito say, to sound (PCMP: *bei)

welibuy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

wel-lithe price (of something) (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

welsamachete, bush knife (PCMP: *belas)

wenasay (PCMP: *beŋa₂)

w̃erawater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wertato consider (PMP: *beReqat)

wesipaddle (PMP: *beRsay)

wetkisnap or flick with the fingers (PAN: *betik₁) *betik

wetmamillet (PMP: *betem)

winiseed for planting (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

wisito peel, shell, skin, flay (PCEMP: *bisik₁)

wislusore, ulcer, boil (PMP: *bisul)

wonumeral classifier (PMP: *buaq)

woafruit (PMP: *buaq)

wo-atafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

Leti (180 / 195)

wo-ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

wo-sia ~ wo-siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

wo-teluthree (PAN: *telu)

wuaacrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

wuinecklace (as of coral), armband (as of gold) (PCMP: *bui₂)

wukuknot, knob, node, joint (PCEMP: *buku)

wullamoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulla (lera) n-matithe moon (sun) is eclipsed (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

wulubody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

wunuthe Seven Sisters, Pleiades (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

wunuhit, give a thrashing or drubbing; kill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

wuraoil (PCMP: *bura)

wurito clean, wash, rinse off (PMP: *buRiq)

wuwufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

yeifather (PMP: *aya₂)

Letinese (195) CMP. see: Leti

348. Levei (25) OC [tlx] (Khehek) Papua New Guinea

coŋslitgong (POC: *drali)

cuhsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

e-tæŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

im-mihdream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kaaliprock cod, grouper (POC: *kalika)

kanafood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kan-afood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

kwiŋclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

loŋtrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

mesiŋto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

moto-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

moto-pusu-ŋhis/her navel (POC: *pusoc) *pusej

moto siʔikhearth (‘eye of trivet’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

naktall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

napwidow(er) (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

o meCome here! (= ‘you come’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

pepstingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

puŋbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

pwashelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc. (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

Levei (20 / 25)

pwiki loŋtrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

sipihcockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

tolaweast wind (POC: *tokalaur)

ulu boheadwaters of a river (POC: *qulu) *quluh

ʔiha tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

349. Leviamp (1) OC

m̈aand (PAN: *maS)

Leviamp (5) OC. see: V'ënen Taut

350. Lewo (3) OC

kapwocatfish (POC: *kaboRa)

le-popofirefly (POC: *qali-popot) *qali-petpet

tou-towato measure; to imitate (POC: *toa)

351. Lihir (4) OC

curu(bian)a fish: Lethrinus harak (POC: *surup₂)

kamicspittle (POC: *kamisu)

pot-potmountain (POC: *potu₂) *potu

silCaesionidae (generic) (POC: *sulik) *sulig

352. Likum (70) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [lib] Papua New Guinea

ahlime (PAN: *qapuR)

akroof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

alo-stomach, belly, abdomen (POC: *qarop) *qadep

ansun (POC: *qalo₁)

ate-heart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

cahconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

camakperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

canslitgong (POC: *drali)

concanoe (POC: *tola)

con e m-uhstern of a canoe (POC: *muri) *udehi

cudugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

cui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

dopunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

esugall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

e-sunto burn (POC: *sulu₁)

gwayfresh water (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

gway seloriver (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

heluhto paddle (POC: *paluca) *aluja

iha tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

issound made to frighten off dog or pig that tries to enter house (PMP: *qisaq)

Likum (20 / 70)

jehfire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kaano-lewspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

kana-yfood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kaytree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

kay pelepmast (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ketikthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qatita)

ketikputty nut: Parinari laurinum (POC: *katita)

ki-directional: to, toward (ki-mi ‘to or toward the speaker’) (POC: *ki₁)

kohvillage (POC: *koro₂)

kumeast wind (NEAR)

kupʷenrectangular fishnet (POC: *kupwena)

kuruhthunder (POC: *kururu₁)

lato go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lantrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

leʔu kayleaf of a tree (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lihnit, egg of a louse (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lolong fishnet made of coconut leaves (PMP: *lawaq₁)

lokboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

low-lowsmall stinging black ant (POC: *loRo)

Likum (40 / 70)

maand (PAN: *maS)

metinto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mita-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mita jehhearth (‘eye of fire’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mitasu-buto-navel (POC: *buto)

mohtaro (POC: *mwapo)

moneyunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

mwaksnake (POC: *qumata)

naktall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

ni-koklarge grouper, with marks like a snake (PMP: *keRteŋ)

nohstonefish, lionfish (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nohafraid (POC: *nopo-nopo)

ña-ñawwidow(er) (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

paapuGF (NOISE)

panahsmall blue and green marine fish with projecting lower jaw (POC: *panapa)

pokstone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

puhbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

pukfishnet float (POC: *puta)

puka tree: Barringtonia sp.; fishnet float (PMP: *putat)

pwisi-lime-kfingernail (POC: *bwisi)

Likum (60 / 70)

rakwhale (POC: *rato)

sa:kowlong variety of Malay apple (POC: *sakau)

se-n-ohten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sihihyellow-green cockatoo with red neck feathers (POC: *sipiri)

sonhungry (POC: *soŋe)

susoup (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

uridolphin (POC: *kuriap)

yahaywest wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

ya-ʔanto eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

Limbang Bisaya (65) WMP. see: Bisaya (Limbang)

353. Lindrou (59) OC [lid] (Nyindrou) Papua New Guinea

ade-heart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

alisthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

ansun (POC: *qalo₁)

asi kandrahrain cloud (POC: *kadapuR)

asu-gall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

ba-leysail (PCEMP: *pa-layaR) *layaR

bandove with gray tail feathers (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

banapsmall dotted fish with needle nose (POC: *panapa)

bani-nwing (POC: *banic) *panij

beia plant: Falcataria Moluccana (POC: *pail) *bail

bekstone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

bennight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

beystingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

bo-komhermit crab (POC: *koba)

boscanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

boysea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

bubasket trap for fish and eels (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

burbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

bwisi minefingernail (POC: *bwisi)

dranslitgong (POC: *drali)

Lindrou (20 / 59)

drine-abdomen (PAN: *C<in>aqi) *Caqi

droncanoe (POC: *tola)

drudugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

drui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

gwafresh water (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

j-abisago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kahewkind of Malay apple with fruit shaped like a sheep bell (POC: *kapiku)

kakthatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

kaliksmall to medium-sized groupers (POC: *kalika)

kamenmen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

kiesoutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

kumsoutheast monsoon; east (NEAR)

lato go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lantrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

laʔu keyleaf of a tree (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

leyginger (PMP: *laqia)

lokboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

madasu-budonavel (POC: *buto)

madinto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

Lindrou (40 / 59)

mekreef; low tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

mimurinate (PMP: *miqmiq)

moneyunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

mwahtaro (POC: *mwapo)

nohafraid (POC: *nopo-nopo)

ñawwidow(er) (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

ñektall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

onsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

onsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

ri-n-ekone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

saɁMalay apple with flower-shaped fruit (POC: *sakau)

sakasakstarfish (PMP: *saŋa-saŋa) *saŋa₁

sa-sahwhat? (PMP: *sapa)

sonhungry (POC: *soŋe)

talo-hthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tinanbig, wide; older (of siblings) (PCEMP: *tinana)

tolawnorth wind (POC: *tokalaur)

unto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

354. Lingarak (1) OC [lgk] Vanuatu

n-uaŋkcanoe (POC: *waŋka)

355. Lingkabau (9) WMP

kau2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = ikaw) (PMP: *ka₄)

-ku1sg genitive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

k<um>amaŋto crawl (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

muyu2pl. genitive, your (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

sədəmant (PWMP: *sejem)

siwə-ynine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

s<um>əndiwlean on wall (PMP: *sendiR)

356. Li'o (76) CMP (van Dierendonck n.d.) [ljl] (Li’o) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

ae apufog, mist, dew (PMP: *hapun₁) *hapun

ae lasetesticles (PMP: *laseR)

ae lutears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

ale tanaask (PMP: *utaña)

alupestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aŋiwind (PMP: *haŋin)

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ataperson, people (PMP: *qaRta)

ateroof, thatch (PMP: *qatep)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

awuash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

balarge boil (PAN: *baReq)

faifemale, woman (PCEMP: *bai) *bahi

fenato sneeze (PMP: *beñan)

ijunose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ilalamp (PMP: *qilaw)

inathis (PMP: *i-na) *-na

ipasister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

Li'o (20 / 76)

kato eat (PAN: *kaen)

kayuwood (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

keratortoise, land turtle (PCEMP: *keRa)

lalumale (of birds), cock (PMP: *laluŋ)

lau wenadownriver (PMP: *bena)

lejaday (PMP: *qalejaw)

lekufold (PMP: *leku)

likoaround, round about, encircle (PAN: *likaw)

lukutree with edible fruit (PAN: *lukuC)

lurasaliva (PMP: *ludaq)

matadie, dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

matéleech (PAN: *-matek)

mbanago, walk (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

mbukuknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

meaashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

m-etagreen (PCEMP: *ma-qetaq₂) *qetaq

misweet (PMP: *emis₁) *emis

misweet (PMP: *hemis)

m-oato yawn (PCEMP: *mawab) *Suab

m-uriliving, alive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

Li'o (40 / 76)

nakasteal (PMP: *nakaw)

nanasap, latex (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

nikibat (PMP: *paniki)

otebrain (PMP: *hutek)

parericeplant, rice in the field (PAN: *pajay)

pasucheek (PAN: *pasu₁)

perikind of bamboo (PMP: *periŋ)

peyugall (PAN: *qapeju)

pukivagina (PAN: *puki)

pusenavel (PMP: *pusej)

rablood (PAN: *daRaq)

rakidirty (of the body) (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

rikétie together (ROOT)

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

sa-m-buluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

susubreast (PAN: *susu₁)

suʔucarry on the head (PAN: *suquN)

taruindigo (PMP: *taRum)

tawato laugh (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

Li'o (60 / 76)

taʔifeces; to defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

timucucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

tuliear wax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

tuʔudried up (PMP: *tuquR)

unaichthyosis (PCEMP: *qunap₁) *quSeNap

uravein, vessel (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

utavegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utipenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

uwiyam (PMP: *qubi)

valirestore, equalize a loss, win back what was lost in a game (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

warashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

waustink (PMP: *bahu)

wawipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

welibrideprice (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

wenalower part (PMP: *bena)

wiwimouth, lips (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

357. Lironesa (1) OC

kaand (PAN: *ka₁)

Lironesa (42) OC. see: Paamese

Litzlitz (6) OC. see: Naman

358. Lobu Lanas (2) WMP

genitive of personal names (plural) (PAN: *na₃)

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

359. Lobu Tampios (1) WMP

s<um>ondiwlean on wall (PMP: *sendiR)

360. Lolak (7) WMP

ahechin, jaw (PMP: *qazay)

dodobchest (PAN: *debdeb)

hoŋitmosquito (PWMP: *reŋit)

iyokarmpit (PWMP: *ilek)

kuwonwhatchamacallit (PWMP: *kuan₂)

sohomant (PWMP: *sejem)

upahen (PMP: *qupa)

Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi (26) OC. see: Northeast Ambae

Long Anap Kenyah (100) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Anap)

Long Atip (6) WMP. see: Kayan (Long Atip)

Long Atun (2) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Atun)

Long Dunin (11) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Dunin)

Long Glat Modang (2) WMP. see: Modang (Long Glat)

Long Ikang (1) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Ikang)

Long Jeeh Kenyah (4) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Jeeh)

Long Jegan (17) WMP. see: Berawan (Long Jegan)

Long Labid (19) WMP. see: Penan (Long Labid)

Long Labid Penan (19) WMP. see: Penan

Long Lamai Penan (1) WMP. see: Penan (Long Lamai)

Long Luyang (19) WMP. see: Sebop

Long Merigam Penan (3) WMP. see: Penan (Long Merigam)

Long Napir (7) WMP. see: Kelabit (Long Napir)

Long Nawang (1) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Nawang)

Long San (8) WMP. see: Kenyah

Long San Kenyah (8) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long San)

Long Selaan (1) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Selaaʻn)

Long Semado (2) WMP. see: Lun Dayeh (Long Semado)

Long Semadoh (301) WMP. see: Lun Dayeh

Long Terawan (132) WMP. see: Berawan (Long Terawan)

Long Terawan Berawan (132) WMP. see: Berawan (Long Terawan)

Long Teru (4) WMP. see: Berawan (Long Teru)

Long Wat (43) WMP. see: Kenyah (Long Wat)

361. Longgu (21) OC [lgu] Solomon Islands

araa cool, pleasant wind from the southeast (POC: *karak₁)

gere-usulicopy writing (POC: *usuri)

iku-ikutail (PAN: *ikuR)

iku-ikutail (POC: *siku)

kikismall (POC: *kiki₂)

la maiCome here! (= ‘walk hither’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mauruto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

na vanuathe people (POC: *panua) *banua

ravuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

sali-salirip a leaf along its midrib (POC: *sasaRi)

souheron (POC: *sou)

surulong-nosed emperor: L. elongatus (POC: *surup₂)

ta-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

vanuapeople (POC: *panua) *banua

vaolunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

vavaspeak (POC: *papaq₂) *baqbaq

va-vaolurenew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

vuito wash (PMP: *puRiq) *buRiq

vuito wash (POC: *puqi)

ʔarua coconut ready to drink and eat (POC: *karut₂)

Longgu (20 / 21)

ʔuraMorinda citrifolia (POC: *kurat)

362. Loniu (152) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [los] Papua New Guinea

amatperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

a-mutto vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

antermite, white ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

atayside of canoe opposite the outrigger (POC: *qatai)

cahwhat? (PMP: *sapa)

camoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

cansea urchin (POC: *salaŋ)

canpath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

cani-to clear, cut down bush or sugarcane (POC: *sani)

cihicockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

cundried coconut frond (PMP: *suluq)

cuncook fish on wood or coconut leaf placed on the fire (POC: *sulu₁)

cuysoup (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

dowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (POC: *toRas) *teRas

eitthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

elimaŋmangrove crab (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

episago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

epi uythorny sago (epi = sago) (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

etIheart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ha-ŋahone fathom (POC: *ŋapa)

Loniu (20 / 152)

haŋin-ifeed him! (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

hatbreak up (firewood), pick or break off (corn, but not fruit) (POC: *pati₁)

he-puŋone cluster (as of areca nuts) (PAN: *puŋuN)

he-puŋone cluster (as of areca nuts) (PMP: *puŋuh)

hetsago grub (PMP: *qabatiR)

hi-ñawwidow (POC: *ñao)

hi-ñawwidow (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂)

isexpression of disbelief or mild contempt (PMP: *qisaq)

i-sis/he farts (POC: *si₂)

i-sis/he farts (POC: *siki)

kamanman, male (PMP: *kamaliR)

kanfood (POC: *kani) *kaen

kanfood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

kanaskind of fish (PAN: *kaNasay)

kanawblack bird similar to sea gull (POC: *kanawe) *kanaway

kapstring made of vine fiber (POC: *kabe₁)

katahfrigate bird (POC: *katapa)

kaʔahrain cloud (POC: *kadapuR)

kelismallest type of grouper (POC: *kalika)

Loniu (40 / 152)

kiecoutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

kovillage (POC: *koro₂)

kopowcatfish or catfish eel (POC: *kaboRa)

kotmedium-sized rock cod or grouper (PMP: *keRteŋ)

kowfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kuclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kunbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

kupsoutheast monsoon; east (NEAR)

kupsoutheast monsoon (LOAN)

kupʷen na kanaslarge rectangular net for catching mullet (POC: *kupwena)

kupʷen na tenihlarge triangular net for catching sardines (POC: *kupwena)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lato go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

lama-ndeep sea just beyond the reef (POC: *laman)

lantrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

laŋsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lasflattish fish similar to a mackerel (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

lawkind of long, narrow fishnet (PMP: *lawaq₁)

lawkind of long, narrow fishnet (PMP: *lawan)

leke-n a yumy wound (POC: *lake)

Loniu (60 / 152)

lo komanmen’s house (lit. ‘in the men’s house’) (PMP: *kamaliR)

lotboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

ma-colo-hthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

mahtaro (POC: *mwapo)

ma-lime-hfive (PAN: *lima)

ma-lime-ŋ-onfifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

ma-sa-ŋ-atone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

(ma)-sa-ŋ-at100 (PMP: *ŋa)

(ma-)so-ŋ-onten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

(ma-)-so-ŋ-onten (PMP: *ŋa)

matlow tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

mata-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-nlid, cover (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata susu-nipple of the breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

ma-w-ono-hsix (POC: *onom) *enem

ma-wono-ŋ-onsixty (POC: *onom ŋa puluq) *enem

maʔu-ŋehtwo fathoms (POC: *ŋapa)

meto come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

metito sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mi-mimurine (PMP: *miqmiq)

Loniu (80 / 152)

monoylong-snouted unicorn fish: Naso unicornis (POC: *monoRe)

mupearl-spotted spinefoot: Siganus spinus (PMP: *muquŋ)

m-uʔu tunstern of a canoe (POC: *muri) *udehi

mwatsnake (POC: *qumata)

mwatsnake (POC: *mwata)

-n3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nohlionfish (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

noho-noafraid (POC: *nopo-nopo)

nu-nunearthquake (POC: *nu-nunu) *nunu₁

ña-cuna fish, fusilier (POC: *sulik) *sulig

ñam-onmosquito (sandfly?) (PMP: *ñamuk)

ñattall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

ŋahfathom (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋaʔa-nhis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

ŋusu-lips (PAN: *ŋusuq)

opitch black, of a cloudy or moonless night (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

pakind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

pa-hena (< *pa-penako)steal (POC: *penako) *Cakaw

pandove sp. (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

panahbarred garfish: Hemirhamphus commersoni Cuv. (POC: *panapa)

Loniu (100 / 152)

patstone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

pata-nstem, trunk of (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

pata niwtrunk of a coconut tree (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

paysmoking rack for fish and storage rack above the hearth (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

pe-leysail (PCEMP: *pa-layaR) *layaR

pihinwoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

pitowa shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

pomseaweed used to paint canoes (POC: *poma)

pono-sani-to clear out, sweep, straighten up a garden after heavy clearing is completed; trim trunk of tree before chopping up (POC: *sani)

poñsea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

pubanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

puhbasket trap for fish and eels (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

punbetel pepper: Piper betle (POC: *pu-pulu) *bu-bulu

puo-kophermit crab (POC: *koba)

putfishnet float (POC: *puta)

puta tree: Barringtonia sp.; fishnet float (PMP: *putat)

pʷaha-mouth (POC: *papaq₂) *baqbaq

pwi-nher vulva (PAN: *puki)

saputyellow-spotted emperor: Lethrinus kallopterus (POC: *sabutu)

-siŋsneeze (NOISE)

Loniu (120 / 152)

susu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tahconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

tanearth, ground, soil; down (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

taŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tassea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

tawtree with red fruit --- bark used to poison fish (PMP: *tawan)

taycatch fish (POC: *tail)

tefeces, excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

teleŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tenihsardine (POC: *tanipa)

teʔe-wonsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

tito plait, weave (as a mat) (POC: *tiki)

tiwthe Samoan goatfish: Mulloidichthys samoensis (POC: *tiqo) *Ciqaw

tiwthe Samoan goatfish: Mulloidichthys samoensis (PMP: *tiqaw₁) *tiqaw

topunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

tolaweast (POC: *tokalaur)

topu-ntaboo (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

tuhousepost (POC: *tuRu₂)

tuhsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

udugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

Loniu (140 / 152)

umhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

umʷe-n wɨ-lawspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

unmaggot (PMP: *qulej)

uti-penis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

we-wimango (POC: *na wai, na waiwai) *wai

weʔi-ysing (PCEMP: *wari)

witall tree with small green fruit (PCEMP: *quRi)

wɨ-lawspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

yeli-ma-wyawn (POC: *mawap) *Suab

1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ʔanfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

ʔayblood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

ʔa-ʔanbranch of a tree (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

363. Lonwolwol (60) OC (Paton 1973) [crc] Vanuatu

aand, (but) (PMP: *a₂)

babaused of a baby, to ride (on its mother's back), or of the mother to carry by slinging on the back (NG) (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

balhibiscus (POC: *(bp)alu) *balu₁

balfight, be damaged, meet damage or trouble or even death (POC: *(bp)ala₂)

bEllightning (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

buthe sound of the (holed) conch shell being blown, as a signal, especially in faŋ-kOn and other ceremonies, for the killing of pigs, etc., and in canoes, boats, launches as they approach the shore, or to summon villagers (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

bufull-grown male (castrated) pig (NOISE)

busong (NOISE)

bUlbamboo (POC: *buluq₃) *buluq₂

bülflame; burn a light, search by torchlight (POC: *bula₁)

faunder, below, down, deep, far out at sea; North (POC: *papaq₃) *babaq₁

famake a sudden and alarming noise, to startle, jerk, to shock, cause shock, etc. (POC: *pa₁) *ba₂

fefacarry a baby (or child) slung on the back (OG) (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

fεnshoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

furoll, roll over, turn over (POC: *pui₂) *bui₃

furto appear, come clear, come 'out' (as when a cloud covers the moon) (POC: *pura)

fur-furto appear, come clear, come ‘out’ (as when a cloud passes over the moon) (POC: *pura)

haltrack, road; road for thinking about, the faculty of being able to forecast events (POC: *salan) *zalan

halto gush out, of liquids (PMP: *saliR)

hamoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

Lonwolwol (20 / 60)

hema-outrigger of (the suffix-taking form) (POC: *saman) *saRman

horoto go down, disappear; to set (of sun, stars, etc.) (POC: *sorop) *sedep₁

huhbreast; suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

iathus, in this or that way (PMP: *ia₂)

ih-name (POC: *isa₂)

imhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

iryonder, over there (POC: *iri) *-di

-k1sg possessive suffix: my (directly attached to many relationship terms, and some names of bodily parts) (POC: *-gu) *-ku

lɔŋ-nεto hear, to feel (not only hearing, but general personal feeling, and sense of smell, are expressed by lɔŋ-nε) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ma-urise up, grow up; (of a person) to recover from illness; be alive, be growing (of plants, etc.); be better (from a sickness) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

ma-u-anlife (spirit) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mɛrdie; (be) dead; numb, unconscious, apparently dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

mɛra-ndeath (POC: *mate) *aCay

mɛr-mɛrbe faint; to faint, be half-hearted (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

-n3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

tElrope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

tiŋto sound out, of a drum (modern usage: sound of engine, chimes of clock, etc.; (< *titiŋ-i)) (POC: *titiŋ) *tiŋtiŋ

tUnuto light, set fire to (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

vaːhand, arm (POC: *paRa₃) *baRa₁

vato go (POC: *pa₃) *ba₆

Lonwolwol (40 / 60)

vaːspongy kernel of a mature coconut (which is rich in oil, and nourishing) (PMP: *para)

vato go (PMP: *para)

vango, pass (and so also of time); to continue (to do ...); often; adverbially: away (POC: *pano) *paNaw

vera-hand of, arm of (POC: *paRa₃) *baRa₁

verɛ-handle of - (POC: *paRara) *paRada

virito plait (rope, etc.) (PMP: *pirit)

visiflesh (POC: *pijiko)

wabear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

walithe one (or other) of (a pair); the mate of (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

wEwater (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

wEl (ʔ)creek, ravine, water-hole (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

fruit of- (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wɔhpaddle (for canoe); modern use for oar (POC: *pose) *beRsay

wɔnsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

wɔnbe fast (shut), be closed, be tight (POC: *qonop) *qeNeb₁

wUnto come (to fight), prepare for fighting, approach aggressively, to plot (probable violence) (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

wuŋ-iflower of (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

wuŋ-i-balhibiscus flower (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

wUŋɔ-used by a small boy of his MBD, who also happens to be his FZD; wife's mother, wife's father (POC: *puŋao)

wUɔŋ-wife's mother of- (POC: *puŋao)

364. Lotud (5) WMP

dioblique case marker for singular personal names (PAN: *di)

dooblique case marker for common nouns (PMP: *daₐ) *da

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

sodomant (PWMP: *sejem)

tikusrat (LOAN)

365. Lou (149) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [loj] Papua New Guinea

aand (PMP: *a₂)

alimaŋmangrove crab (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

to feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

aŋusblow the nose (POC: *aŋusu)

aŋusblow the nose (POC: *paŋusi)

arawinblue-green (POC: *karawina)

asa-komhermit crab (POC: *koba)

asoa-husband (PAN: *qasawa)

aurwind (generic) (POC: *aura)

Inlie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

ka-marker of edible possession (POC: *kana-)

kakava: Piper methysticum (LOAN)

kahewlong white Malay apple (POC: *kapiku)

kal-moru-right side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

kamkind of fiber from a jointed vine, used to make cordage for nets (POC: *kabe₁)

kamusheath of coconut flower (POC: *kamu₁)

kanaseagull (POC: *kanawe) *kanaway

kanaskind of fish (PAN: *kaNasay)

karamdoor, doorway (PMP: *kataman)

karapfrigate bird (POC: *katapa)

Lou (20 / 149)

karI-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

karme-tongue (POC: *karamea)

katsago leaf (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ketree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

keiklarge variety of Malay apple: Syzygium gomata (POC: *kapika)

keliyrock cod, grouper (POC: *kalika)

keritthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

keritputty nut: Parinari laurinum (POC: *katita)

kiasoutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

kitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kofishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kɔlthick-bodied barracuda sp. (PMP: *qalu)

kolaŋimmature growth stage of unidentified marine fish (POC: *koraŋa)

koŋkind of squarish yellow or brown fish (POC: *koŋa)

kɔpdust (POC: *qapuk) *qabuk

kɔpdust (open 'o') (POC: *qapu) *qabu

kɔplime, lime gourd (PAN: *qapuR)

koplime for betel chew (PMP: *kapuR)

kɔp-kɔpdust; fog, mist (POC: *kopu)

kororbee (generic) (POC: *kororo)

Lou (40 / 149)

kosu monsmoke (POC: *kasu)

kulmaggot (PMP: *qulej)

kulbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

kumsuck on something, as a popsickle (PAN: *qumuR)

kumeast (wind) (NEAR)

kumnorth wind (LOAN)

kum-lannorthwest (NEAR) Lou

kum-lannortheast wind (LOAN) Lou

kum-ranortheast (NEAR) Lou

kum-ranorthwest wind (LOAN) Lou

kuna-skin, peeling, bark, scales (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

kuna-n nikscales of a fish (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

kup-kupwhite hair, as of the elderly (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

kurclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kururthunder (POC: *kururu₁)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lafishnet spread out by men working in two canoes (PMP: *lawaq₁)

lakto go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

laltrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

leiginger (PMP: *laqia)

Lou (60 / 149)

lisa-n kutnit, egg of a louse (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lotboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

lumripe (PMP: *lumu₂)

lum-lummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

mara-sachannel, passage between islands (PMP: *sawaq₁)

mara-sapassage between islands (POC: *mata ni cawa) *maCa

mara susu-nipple of the breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

matdie, dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

meto come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

meritto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

metreef; dry reef (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

mimi-aurine (PMP: *miqmiq)

moneunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

mon-monbird (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

mu-mutto vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

mwascooked (PEMP: *ma-qosak) *qesak

mwascooked (PAN: *ma-Sasak) *Sasak

mʷasbandicoot (POC: *mwajar) *mansar

noru-child (PCEMP: *natu)

nottall latex-yielding tree with good timber and large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

Lou (80 / 149)

1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ŋa1sg.: I (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

ŋara-nhis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

ŋusu-lips (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ono-ŋo-ulsixty (POC: *onom ŋa puluq) *enem

osto husk coconuts (POC: *kojom)

pa-matuncooked (POC: *mataq) *hataq

panapsmall blue fish with long needle-like mouth (POC: *panapa)

papcarry a person (as someone who is sick) on the back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

parkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

para-nstalk, stem, trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

para saŋa-nfork of a branch (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

pedo, make (POC: *pait) *bait₂

peinwoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

pifilariasis, swelling of leg (POC: *pwiRa)

pitsqueeze juice out (POC: *pite)

pɔldove sp. (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

potlarge thick bamboo variety (POC: *potuŋ) *betuŋ₁

pua-fruit; flower; seed; testicles (POC: *puaq) *buaq

puacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

Lou (100 / 149)

puetDioscorea bulbifera (POC: *pwatika)

pulmoon (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

puna vine which yields poison used to stun fish (POC: *(bp)una)

punvine used for fish poison (POC: *punat) *bunat

pupconical bamboo basket trap with mouth of converging splints used to catch fish (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

pupu-grandfather (POC: *bubu₉) *bubu₆

puro-navel (POC: *buto)

pwIkfruit bat, flying fox (POC: *bweka)

pwi-pwivine which grows on the sand (POC: *puRe₂)

pwokkind of broad-leaved pandanus of no practical use (POC: *pakum)

ramatperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

ran kebranch of a tree (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

ridugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rue-ptwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

salpath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

samoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

sa-ŋa-ulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sa-ŋa-ulten (PMP: *ŋa)

saŋesaŋstarfish (PMP: *saŋa-saŋa) *saŋa₁

setsea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

Lou (120 / 149)

sisoup (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

silbamboo on sail (POC: *jila)

sokto stab (POC: *soka)

sok matto stab to death (POC: *soka)

soŋotone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

so-ŋ-ot100 (PMP: *ŋa)

sou-n pwikneedle (lit. ‘needle of flying fox (bone)’ (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

sou-n pwIkwingbone of flying fox (used in sewing, tattooing, etc.) (POC: *saRu) *saRu₃

sou-n pwikwingbone of flying fox, used as a sewing needle (POC: *sau₃)

supto peel yams (PEMP: *supi)

susu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

taa tree with edible fruit: Pometia pinnata (PMP: *tawan)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tefeces, excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

telstring, rope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

teliŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

teli-pthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

telisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

teŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tia-nbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Lou (140 / 149)

tikto plait (mats or baskets) (POC: *tikV)

tikto plait, weave (as a mat) (POC: *tiki) Lou

tik-tikto squat, sit balanced on toes (POC: *tiko)

toa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (POC: *toRas) *teRas

tukto sit (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tuŋpunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

t-upuancestors (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

umhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

utfetch water, bail out (POC: *qutub)

wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

wefresh water (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

wɨriydolphin (POC: *kuriap)

Low Balinese (4) WMP. see: Balinese (Low)

Lowland Murut (1) WMP. see: Murut (Lowland)

366. Luangiua (1) OC

huiaa bird: Aplonis feadensis (POC: *pusiRa)

367. Luang-Sermata (1) CMP

welhemachete, bush knife (PCMP: *belas)

368. Luilang (4) Form.

sa-kaone (PAN: *esa)

suvafour (PAN: *Sepat)

tsusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

tuluthree (PAN: *telu)

Luka Tetun (1) CMP. see: Tetun (Luka)

369. Lukep (2) OC

pauto tie (PCEMP: *paqus₂)

puruto spew; whale (POC: *puRuk)

Lukep (Pono) (11) OC

kamatularge bottom-feeding reef fish that swims in groups and has a large protrusion on its head (POC: *kamatu)

kano-fruit (of, e.g.., breadfruit), inner substance (POC: *kanoŋ)

karak-asoutheast trade (POC: *karak₁)

koro-pubic hair (POC: *koRo)

kutabanana cultivar (POC: *kuta)

puruwhale (POC: *puRa-puRas)

sauneedlenose fish (POC: *sao)

sisgrasshopper (POC: *sisi(rR))

susula fish: emperor (POC: *susul)

-tuk-ato hang (as when climbing a tree trunk) (POC: *tuku₃)

tuncorrect (POC: *tuna)

Lun Bawang (301) WMP. see: Lun Dayeh

370. Lun Dayeh (318) WMP (dialects: Long Semado 2, Kemaloh (Ganang, Crain and Pearson-Rounds 2008) 15) [aka: Lun Bawang, Long Semadoh]

aagthe chopping of meat or bones into small pieces (PWMP: *sagsag₂)

aarbamboo bellows used during knife making (NEAR)

abaŋan ambush of an animal or enemy; a blocking, a guarding (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

a-dodistance (PMP: *zauq)

-adoget away from something; put distance between someone and some place (PMP: *zauq)

afuha broom (PMP: *sapu)

akalshrewdness, cleverness; deception; an excuse (LOAN)

a-kana meal, food supply (PAN: *kaen)

akaŋa pace, step, stride (PMP: *sakaŋ)

akaŋa pace, step, stride (PWMP: *akaŋ)

alaʔa miss (in shooting) (PMP: *salaq₁)

aluda boat (PWMP: *alud)

aŋeha variety of softwood tree preferred for making the tafiʔ, a two-string guitarlike musical instrument (PWMP: *saŋa₂)

arura small stream (PWMP: *saluR)

atedeath (PMP: *atay) *aCay

baliha lie (PMP: *bali₄)

baludgreen imperial pigeon: Ducula aenea (Comber 1971) (PMP: *baluj) *baRuj

bataŋlog, tree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ icuŋdorsum of the nose (PWMP: *bataŋ qijuŋ) *bataŋ₁

batuhstone, pebble, rock, boulder, gastric stone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

Lun Dayeh (20 / 318)

bawaŋlocality, village, state, place, city or country (Ganang, Crain and Pearson-Rounds 2006) (PWMP: *bawaŋ)

beruaŋbear (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

bigana dish, plate (LOAN)

buayehcrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bu-ənsmell, scent (good or bad) (PWMP: *bahu-en) *bahu

daatbad; ugly; wicked; cruel (PMP: *zaqat)

dadaŋwarmth, heat from a fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

dalanroad, route, street, way (PMP: *zalan)

dalemdepth; within (PMP: *dalem)

daraʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

dawaywire (LOAN)

dayehupriver, the source of a river on a mountain (PAN: *daya)

decemdark; night (PAN: *demdem₂)

dədaŋ-ənsomething will be put by a fire to warm it (PWMP: *daŋdaŋ-en) *daŋdaŋ

defeha measurement indicated by the span of both arms outstretched between the tips of the middle fingers; a fathom, six feet (PMP: *depa)

defuŋa short python (PAN: *depuŋ)

defuŋ refuka very poisonous snake with a color that resembles a rotten log (PAN: *depuŋ)

dəkətstick on; a suckerfish which feeds on moss at waterfalls (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

deket-enwill be pasted or stuck on (PWMP: *deket-en) *dekeC

delan-inpath to be taken (PMP: *zalan)

Lun Dayeh (40 / 318)

deŋanwith; company; friend (PMP: *deŋan)

d<in>adaŋput near a fire to warm (PWMP: *d<in>aŋdaŋ) *daŋdaŋ

diŋanwith (PWMP: *diŋan)

duehtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dueh-duehboth (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

dueh-duehundecided, ambivalent between two choices; fifty-fifty (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

duruʔhoney (PMP: *zuRuq)

efiɁplucking (as corn from the plant) (PAN: *sepiq)

efuta blowpipe (PWMP: *seput)

ereta piece of cloth or talun (tree bark) tied around the waist, normally worn by elderly women (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

fadeyrice, paddy (PAN: *pajay)

fafaga clap, a slap (PWMP: *pagpag)

fatara plain or flat land (PWMP: *pataR₂)

fe-daataccuse or blame one another; say bad things about one another (PMP: *zaqat)

fe-deketstick together; stick or paste on (PMP: *pa-deket) *dekeC

fefedthe end, the tip of something; destiny (PWMP: *pedped₂)

fefeka hammer; the driving or knocking of a nail into a wall or a long object into the ground (PAN: *pekpek₁)

fefelputting something in the mouth by force (PWMP: *pelpel)

fefena cover (PWMP: *penpen₂)

fefur-inwill be splashed with powder or sand (PWMP: *purpur)

Lun Dayeh (60 / 318)

fetood tumidliterally “hooking each other with the heels,” making love or engaged in a sexual act (PWMP: *tumid)

fe-tukeda standing object with a tip that reaches the ceiling (PAN: *tuked)

f<im>efelsomething used to force-feed a person (PWMP: *pelpel)

fuədnavel, umbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

fufuka knock on the head (PAN: *pukpuk)

fufuk-inwill be knocked on the head (PWMP: *pukpuk-en) *pukpuk

fufulcutting off a tree stump (PWMP: *pulpul₁)

fufurpowder, sand (PWMP: *purpur)

fufutspitting out liquid from the mouth (PWMP: *puput-an) *putput₂

fufuʔthe cleaning or washing of something (PWMP: *puqpuq₂)

fufuʔthe debarking of a tree by beating the bark, for making walls of a house, or a barrel for storing rice (PWMP: *puqpuq₃)

fuliŋdust or any foreign object in the eyes (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

gaiŋ ~ geiŋa windmill made to frighten birds in rice fields (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gayamlice found on chickens (NEAR)

gəramihstubble, hay, straw, rice stalk (PWMP: *gaRami)

gilegtickle, the feeling of being tickled (PWMP: *gilek)

gireta belt for a man (PWMP: *giret)

giretbelt (ROOT)

gi-timelbug (PWMP: *timel)

gugutfront teeth (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

Lun Dayeh (80 / 318)

i-apehwhere? (PMP: *apa₁)

ikaŋwas stepped over by someone (PWMP: *sikaŋ)

i-ko2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

ilada variety of palm tree with leaves used for making fans (PWMP: *silad)

ilehknowledge (PWMP: *ila₂) *ila

ilekarmpit (PWMP: *ilek)

iluha poisoning (PWMP: *hilu)

in-afuhswept with a broom by someone (PWMP: *s<in>apu) *sapu

inar-inara bright red color (as of a fire) (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

in-atewas killed (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

in-iluhsickened due to food poisoning (PWMP: *hilu)

kabansmall wooden box (PWMP: *kaban₂) Kemaloh

kafitsticking on (especially on a wall) (PMP: *kapit) Kemaloh

kafit-kafitsomeone holding onto another (PMP: *kapit) Kemaloh

kakarspreading of grains such as paddy or corn on a mat to dry in the sun (PWMP: *kaRkaR)

kalata piece of rope (PWMP: *kalat)

kalat sabutrope made of jute fiber (PWMP: *kalat)

kamaŋcreeping, crawling (as a very young child) (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

kanuy ~ kənuyeagle (NEAR)

kaŋ-en ~ kaŋ-inwill be stepped over (PMP: *sakaŋ)

Lun Dayeh (100 / 318)

kaŋ-en ~ kaŋ-inwill be stepped over (PWMP: *akaŋ)

karemcapsizing (PWMP: *kaRem)

katama wood plane (LOAN) Kemaloh

kay1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami Long Semado

kayuhwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kekeba cover, lid (PMP: *kebkeb)

kekeŋa muscle cramp (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₂) Kemaloh

kə-lawaʔ ~ kəkə-lawaʔspider (PMP: *ka-lawaq) *lawaq₂

kənəhhitting the target (PMP: *kena₁) Kemaloh

ketepan insect bite or sting (PMP: *ketep₁)

ketutpassing gas (PWMP: *ketut) Kemaloh

kiki-ithe shaving off of something (PAN: *kiskis)

kilatflames of a fire (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kilatawakened by someone (PMP: *kilat₂) *kilat Kemaloh

kilat-kilatfull of flames (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

kiluʔbending; obscuring (thought); making crooked (PMP: *kiluq)

kiluʔ-kiluʔbent; obscured; crooked (PWMP: *kiluq kiluq) *kiluq

kimutclosing and moving the mouth tightly with lips pointed together (PWMP: *kimut kimut) Kemaloh

k<in>anwas eaten by someone (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

kin-rayəhthe size of something (PAN: *Raya)

Lun Dayeh (120 / 318)

kiodthe movement of a belly dancer’s hips (PMP: *kiud) Kemaloh

kiod-kiodthe movement of the body after being tickled (PMP: *kiud) Kemaloh

kitəhwe (dual incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kudəhwhy? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

kulatmushroom (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

k<um>anto eat, have a meal (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

kutuhhair lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

labomouse, rat, squirrel; nickname for growing boys (PAN: *labaw)

lakolarge strides (PMP: *lakaw)

lamuda mixture of bəriŋan [an herb], təlakaʔ [tree with blisters on the bark that cause a skin rash when touched], and likuaa [a variety of ginger], used as ingredients for brewing burak [rice wine] (PWMP: *lamud) *lamuj

laŋitsky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lelun-enmat or sheet will be rolled (PWMP: *lulun-en) *luluN

leŋenarm (PMP: *leŋen)

liawneck (PAN: *liqeR)

liəhginger (PMP: *laqia)

lifentooth (PAN: *lipen)

lifen fureta small cylindrical stone, said to be the tooth of thunder which strikes tall trees during a thunderstorm (PAN: *lipen)

lifiithinness (PMP: *lipis)

likabtaken off, turned over by someone (PWMP: *likab)

likopassing by, not taking something into account; take an alternate way (PAN: *likaw)

Lun Dayeh (140 / 318)

liməhfive (PAN: *lima)

loodtoward the sea, downriver (PAN: *lahud)

luaba rising tide; an overflow (PMP: *luab)

lubaŋa hole, pit; nostril (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

luludthe shin of the leg (PMP: *luluj)

luluna roll of something (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

Lun Dayehinterior people, people from upriver (PAN: *daya)

m-adofar away (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

m-alaʔmiss the target (PWMP: *s<um>alaq) *salaq₁

mə-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

mə-baaʔwet (PMP: *ma-baseq) *baseq

me-balihlying, untruthful (PWMP: *ma-bali₂) *bali₄

me-batuhrocky (PWMP: *ma-batu) *batux

me-beruhnew (PWMP: *ma-baqeRuh) *baqeRuh

mə-bu-ənsmelly, having a strong smell (PMP: *ma-bahu) *bahu

me-dalemdeep (PAN: *ma-dalem) *dalem

me-daraʔbloody or bleeding (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

me-decemdark, gloomy; night (PAN: *ma-demdem) *demdem₂

mefekto drive or knock a nail (PWMP: *ma-mekpek) *pekpek₁

mefelforce something into another thing (PWMP: *pelpel)

Lun Dayeh (160 / 318)

mefento put a cover on something (PWMP: *penpen₂)

me-fuliŋblinded with dust, etc. (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

me-gilegticklish; squeamish (about bugs, etc.), repelled, disgusted with something (earthworms, snakes, etc.) (PWMP: *gilek)

me-kadaŋlong (PWMP: *kazaŋ₁)

mə-kənəhhit or be right on the target (PMP: *kena₁) Kemaloh

me-kilatin flames (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

me-kiodsway the pelvis (as if dancing) (PMP: *kiud) Kemaloh

me-kulatfull of mushrooms; infested with fungus (PWMP: *ma-kulat) *kulaC

mek-uratcan be cut, injured, or wounded with a sharp object; will be cut, injured or wounded with a sharp object (PWMP: *maka-suRat) *suRat

me-kutuhhaving (hair) lice (PMP: *ma-kutu) *kuCux

me-lakotaking large strides (PMP: *lakaw)

me-lamsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

mə-lamudleavened (bread) (PWMP: *lamud) *lamuj

mə-luabspilling (PMP: *luab)

me-lutakdirty (PWMP: *lutak)

mə-ŋadəlblunt (PWMP: *ma-ŋazel) *ŋazel

mə-raanlight in weight (PMP: *ma-Raqan) *Raqan

mə-rabunmisty; hazy (PWMP: *ma-Rabun) *Rabun

me-ratuone hundred (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

mə-ribuhone thousand (PMP: *Ribu)

Lun Dayeh (180 / 318)

me-tademsharp (PWMP: *ma-tazem) *Cazem

me-tanemable to bury (PWMP: *ma-tanem) *CaNem

me-tootafraid, have fear (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

m-iladto flatten palm leaves (PWMP: *silad)

m-iluhbe poisoned by something eaten (PWMP: *hilu)

m-inarbright red in color (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

mu-ənto smell with the nose (PWMP: *bahu-en) *bahu

mufukto knock on someone’s head (PWMP: *ma-mukpuk) *pukpuk

mufursplash powder or sand on someone (PWMP: *ma-murpur) *purpur

m-uratwounded or cut (PWMP: *ma-suRat) *suRat

muyuh2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

nabanto kidnap, abduct, take or carry away without the owner’s permission (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

nadaŋwarm something near a fire (PWMP: *maŋ-daŋdaŋ) *daŋdaŋ

nalanto walk, travel (PMP: *zalan)

n-alaʔmissed (as a shot) (PWMP: *s<in>alaq) *salaq₁

nanekto boil something (PWMP: *ma-nanek) *taNek

nanemto bury someone (PWMP: *ma-nanem) *CaNem

naraʔcut down trees to make a farm, fell trees (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq₁

naruʔto make, to do (PWMP: *ma-naRuq) *taRuq

natada field; a resting place made along a jungle trek; weed or clear grass before planting (PMP: *natad) *NataD

Lun Dayeh (200 / 318)

natad rumaʔthe lawn or cleared area around a house (PMP: *natad) *NataD

nawarto call someone, invite someone (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

ne-daatdied, passed away, became bad (PMP: *zaqat)

ne-fuliŋhad dust or foreign object in the eyes (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

nəkətto stick or paste something on (like a wall) (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

nə-kudəhwhat happened? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

nelento swallow something (PMP: *telen)

ne-tanekboiled by mistake (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

nitiʔto breastfeed an infant (PMP: *titiq)

nubehto poison fish (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

nukedto prop up something (PAN: *tuked)

nurunbring something down; descend from a place (PMP: *tuRun₁)

nutukto beat with a hammer (PWMP: *ma-nuktuk) *tuktuk₃

nutuŋset a fire to burn farmland (PMP: *tutuŋ)

ŋ-aarto pump air using a bamboo bellows (NEAR)

ŋ-abaŋlay an ambush, lay in wait for an enemy or animal; block, guard (soccer) (PWMP: *maŋ-abaŋ) *abaŋ₁

ŋadəblunt (PWMP: *ŋazel)

ŋ-afuhto sweep with a broom (PMP: *sapu)

ŋ-akaŋopen the legs to step forward, step over something (PMP: *sakaŋ)

ŋ-akaŋopen the legs to step forward, step over something (PWMP: *akaŋ)

Lun Dayeh (220 / 318)

ŋaŋaʔwide open (PWMP: *ŋaqŋaq)

ŋaremcause a boat to capsize (PWMP: *ma-ŋaRem) *kaRem

ŋ-arurto walk up towards the source of a river (PWMP: *saluR)

ŋatamto plane wood (LOAN) Kemaloh

ŋ-atekill (PMP: *atay) *aCay

ŋe-dalemto deepen (as knowledge) (PMP: *dalem)

ŋ-efutshoot with a blowpipe (PWMP: *ma-ñeput) *seput

ŋekebto put a cover or lid on (PMP: *kebkeb)

ŋekeŋto shorten (like a leech shortens itself) (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₂) Kemaloh

ŋə-lamudto make lamud (PWMP: *ŋa-lamud) *lamuj

ŋe-libutsurround game with people and dogs (PWMP: *libut)

ŋe-lubaŋto drill or make a hole (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

ŋe-luludhurt another person with your shin (PMP: *luluj)

ŋe-lulunto roll a sheet of something (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

ŋeŋergrowl, snarl (dog) (PAN: *ŋerŋer)

ŋe-ragemhold something tightly in the palm (PWMP: *maŋ-Ragem) *Ragem

ŋə-rayəhmake something big; celebrate; promote (PAN: *Raya)

ŋe-tootto scare or frighten someone (PAN: *takut)

ŋe-tudoto make to sit or settle down (PWMP: *tujaw)

ŋ-ilekcarry something by means of putting it under the arm (PWMP: *ilek)

Lun Dayeh (240 / 318)

ŋudəhwhat? (PWMP: *ma-ŋuja) *kuja

ŋ-uratto cut, wound, or injure someone (PWMP: *suRat)

padekhusk of rice grain after separation by pounding (cf. lipaŋ 'husk of rice grain before separation by pounding') (PWMP: *padek)

peperhitting, pounding (PWMP: *peRpeR)

pilatscar (PWMP: *pilat) Long Semado

pun kayuhtree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

raanlightness (PMP: *Raqan)

rabunmist; haze (PWMP: *Rabun)

rabutpulling, uprooting (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

ragemclenching of the palm (PWMP: *Ragem)

ramuta thick and untidy beard (PMP: *Ramut)

ratuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rayəhbig, grand, spacious, wide, large; loud (of sound) (PAN: *Raya)

r<en>iktrampling, threshing, walking on (such as rice to separate it from stalk) (PAN: *Riqek)

rik-enwill thresh, walk on, trample (PAN: *Riqek)

r<in>ikwas trampled on (such as by a water buffalo), threshed, walked on (PAN: *Riqek)

rinuha shallow open-weave square basket used to separate pounded rice from chaff (PMP: *niRu) *Rinu

r<um>iktrampling, threshing, waling on (such as rice to separate it from stalk) (PWMP: *R<um>iqek) *Riqek

ruukchest (PAN: *Rusuk)

si-daatpretend to be poor or no good (PMP: *zaqat)

Lun Dayeh (260 / 318)

suduʔspoon (PWMP: *suduq)

taansetting of a trap (PAN: *taqan₁)

tabana kidnapping, an abduction; a person who was caught during a headhunting raid and taken back by the person who caught him/her and made a slave (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tademsharpness of a blade (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

takubpocket (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kub)

tanaʔearth, soil; ground; land; the world (PMP: *taneq)

tanekboiling of something (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

tanema grave, a tomb (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taraʔclear-cutting of jungle for farming (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taruʔmake, do (PMP: *taRuq)

tawara call, an invitation (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

tawar mengeiʔa chant to call the omen bird mengeiʔ (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

teban-enwill be taken away without the owner’s permission (PWMP: *taban-en) *tabaN

tecehleftovers (food) (PAN: *teda)

tecuŋa black mourning cloth worn by a woman to mourn the death of her husband (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

(te)ke-lawaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

telena swallow (PMP: *telen)

təluhthree (PAN: *telu)

t<em>araʔclear-felling trees on the farm with an axe (PAN: *t<um>aRaq) *taRaq₁

t<em>urunto come down, descend (PWMP: *t<um>uRun) *tuRun₁

Lun Dayeh (280 / 318)

təŋaŋaʔopen wide (PWMP: *tiŋaqŋaq)

te-ŋaŋaʔto open wide (as the mouth, so that all the teeth can be seen) (PWMP: *ŋaqŋaq)

tere-ina place which is going to be cleared of wood (PWMP: *taRaq-en) *taRaq₁

terun-ina route to be descended; will be descended (PMP: *tuRun₁)

teruregg (PMP: *qateluR)

terutuŋporcupine (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

tetaduhcaterpillar (PWMP: *hantatadu)

tetaduhcaterpillar (PWMP: *qantatadu)

tetaduhcaterpillar (PWMP: *tatadu)

tetegbeating of something, a knock (PWMP: *tegteg)

teteg tawaksomething used to beat a gong (PWMP: *tegteg)

tə-təluhin groups of three (PAN: *telu)

t<in>adema blade that has been sharpened by someone (PWMP: *t<in>azem) *Cazem

t<in>anekboiled by someone (PMP: *t<in>anek) *taNek

t<in>anemburied by someone (PWMP: *t<in>anem) *CaNem

t<in>araʔfelled by someone (PWMP: *t<in>aRaq) *taRaq₁

t<in>aruʔmade or done by someone (PWMP: *t<in>aRuq) *taRuq

t<in>ubehpoisoned with fish poison by someone (PWMP: *t<in>uba) *tuba

t<in>uəhright side (PMP: *taqu₁) *taqu

t<in>ukedpropped up by something (PAN: *tuked)

Lun Dayeh (300 / 318)

t<in>utuŋwas torched or burned by someone (PMP: *tutuŋ)

titiʔthe sucking of something; feeding an infant with mothers milk (PMP: *titiq)

tootfear, fright (PAN: *takut)

tuba-ʔask someone to fish by poisoning the river (PAN: *tuba)

tubehfishing poison; varieties include: tubeh buayeh (cactus); tubeh enep, tubeh demacar, tubeh kutat (trees); tubeh feladeh, tubeh falaŋ, tubeh bilaaʔ buluʔ, tubeh kayuh yuŋ, tubeh tebayan, tubeh fadih (roots); tubeh war ilaŋ (vine) (PAN: *tuba)

tube-nwill poison with tubeh (PWMP: *tuba-en) *tuba

tudosit down; settle, live in a place, stay (PWMP: *tujaw)

tuduʔseven (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tukeda prop (PAN: *tuked)

tumidthe heel (PWMP: *tumid)

turuna descent, bringing something down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tutukmallet, hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tutuŋburning of the farmland; the field or farm burned (PMP: *tutuŋ)

ududa comb (PWMP: *sujud)

uduŋat the end, tip, or top (PMP: *quzuŋ)

uduŋ kayuhtop of a tree (PMP: *quzuŋ)

urata cut, a wound (PWMP: *suRat)

uukputting thread through the hole of beads (PAN: *suksuk)

Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) (15) WMP (Ganang, Crain and Pearson-Rounds 2008)

kabansmall wooden box (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kafitsticking on (especially on a wall) (PMP: *kapit)

kafit-kafitsomeone holding onto another (PMP: *kapit)

katama wood plane (LOAN)

kekeŋa muscle cramp (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₂)

kənəhhitting the target (PMP: *kena₁)

ketutpassing gas (PWMP: *ketut)

kilatawakened by someone (PMP: *kilat₂) *kilat

kimutclosing and moving the mouth tightly with lips pointed together (PWMP: *kimut kimut)

kiodthe movement of a belly dancer’s hips (PMP: *kiud)

kiod-kiodthe movement of the body after being tickled (PMP: *kiud)

mə-kənəhhit or be right on the target (PMP: *kena₁)

me-kiodsway the pelvis (as if dancing) (PMP: *kiud)

ŋatamto plane wood (LOAN)

ŋekeŋto shorten (like a leech shortens itself) (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₂)

Lun Dayeh (Long Semado) (2) WMP

kay1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

pilatscar (PWMP: *pilat)

371. Lundu (5) WMP [lra] (Bakati’, Rara) Malaysia (Sarawak)

adi-ʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

nanaŋsee (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

tariñekŋear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tidurto sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

tuaᵏŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

372. Lungga (11) OC [lga] Solomon Islands

γaratato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

γaroto scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

γelito dig (PCEMP: *keli)

γitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

ka-visahow many? (POC: *ga-pica) *pijax

manuγubird (POC: *manuk)

matuaright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

ñoñopoto suck (POC: *ñoñop) *ñopñop

soufar (POC: *sauq₁) *zauq

tuga-elder same sex sibling (POC: *tuaka)

vundibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

373. Lusi (42) OC [khl] Papua New Guinea [aka: Kaliai-Kove]

aheleg, foot (POC: *qaqe) *qaqay

alafence (POC: *qalar) *qalad

amlaŋocrab sp. (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

-anito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

antuspirit; ghost (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

arawaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

arosun; day; midday (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

avuŋ-avuŋfish net floats (PMP: *apuŋ apuŋ) *apuŋ

awamouth (POC: *qawa₂)

bo-boŋimorning (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

βuaareca palm and nuts (POC: *buaq)

βurarotten (POC: *pusa₂)

enosleep (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

-gu1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ihafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

ka-katoluegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

karaparrot (POC: *kaRa)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

malogirdle (PCEMP: *malaw)

manubird (POC: *manuk)

Lusi (20 / 42)

motasnake (POC: *qumata)

natuchild (PCEMP: *natu)

niucoconut (PMP: *niuR)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

patustone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

ponuturtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

porecanoe paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

puayacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

puribanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

sa-ŋa-oluten (PMP: *ŋa)

seiwho? whose? (PMP: *sei)

tanoearth, ground (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

-taŋito cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tarisea (PMP: *tasik)

tavurshell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

toaelder sibling (POC: *toka) *teka₂

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

toosugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tuekind of freshwater clam (POC: *tue) *tuay

tumalouse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

Lusi (40 / 42)

tuvafish poison (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

ulopottery vessel (PAN: *kuden)

Luwu Bare'e (1) WMP. see: Bare'e (Luwu)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-l_l.htm