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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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M

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Ma'anyan
Madak
Madurese
Mae
Mae-Morae
Maewo
Mafea
Maga Rukai
Magori
Maguindanao
Mailu
Makasarese
Makasarese (Bantaeng)
Makasarese (Salayar)
Makatea
Makura
Malagasy
Malagasy (Merina)
Malagasy (Provincial)
Malagasy (Sakalava)
Malagasy (Taimoro)
Malango
Malaweg
Malay
Malay (Ambon)
Malay (Baba)
Malay (Borneo)
Malay (Brunei)
Malay (Deli)
Malay (Jakarta)
Malay (Java)
Malay (Johore)
Malay (Kedah)
Malay (Kedah, Kelantan)
Malay (Kelantan)
Malay (Middle)
Malay (Orang Laut)
Malay (Pahang)
Malay (Pattani)
Malay (Penang)
Malay (Perak)
Malay (Riau)
Malay (Sarawak)
Malay (Sumatra)
Malay (Trengganu)
Malay (Ulu Pahang)

Malay (W.Sumatra)
Maleu
Malfaxal
Malmariv
Maloh
Maloh (Palin)
Mamanwa
Mambae
Mambai
Mamben
Mamboru
Mamuju
Manam
Mandar
Mandaya
Mangap-Mbula
Manggarai
Manggarai (Central)
Manggarai (Mulu)
Manggarai (Pacar)
Manggarai (West)
Mangili Kambera
Mangseng
Manobo (Agusan)
Manobo (Ata)
Manobo (Dibabawon)
Manobo (Ilianen)
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)
Manobo (Sarangani)
Manobo (Tigwa)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon)
Mansaka
Mantauran Rukai
Manusela
Maori
Mapos
Mapos Buang
Mapremo
Mapun
Maragus
Maranao
Marau
Maringe
Marino
Marovo
Marquesan

Marshallese
Marshallese (Eastern)
Marshallese (Western)
Masbatenyo
Masiwang
Maskelynes
Matae
Mataso
Matu Melanau
Maxbaxo
Mayá
Mayrinax Atayal
Mbula
Medebur
Mekeo
Mekongga
Melanau (Balingian)
Melanau (Matu)
Melanau (Mukah)
Melanau (Sarikei)
Melanau Dalat
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan)
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh)
Mele-Fila
Mendak
Mengen
Mengen (Poeng)
Mentawai
Merig
Merina
Merlav
Middle Malay
Minangkabau
Minansut
Minigir
Minokok
Minyaifuin
Miri
Misima
Misool
Moa
Modang (Long Glat)
Moken
Mokilese
Molbog
Moli

Molima
Mondropolon
Mongondow
Mono
Mono-Alu
Moor
Mor
Morella
Mori
Mori Atas
Mori Bawah
Moronene
Morouas
Mortlockese
Mosina
Mota
Motlav
Motu
Mouk
Mpotovoro
Mukah Melanau
Mukawa
Muna
Munggui
Murik
Murnaten
Murung
Murut (Highland)
Murut (Kalabakan)
Murut (Kolod)
Murut (Lowland)
Murut (Nabaay)
Murut (Paluan)
Murut (Papar)
Murut (Serudong)
Murut (Tagol)
Murut (Timugon)
Mussau
Mutu
Mutu
Muyuw
Mwotlap
Mwotlap

374. Ma'anyan (70) WMP (Hudson 1967) [mhy] Indonesia (Kalimantan)

ak-ensibling's child (PWMP: *kam-anak-en) *aNak

aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

andrawday (PAN: *qajaw)

anipesnake (PMP: *anipa)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

aripost (PAN: *SadiRi)

ateluyegg (PMP: *qateluR)

ayempangolin, anteater' (PAN: *qaRem)

babeiwoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

danawlake (PAN: *danaw)

datu-ʔgreat grandparent (PaPaPa) (PMP: *datu)

dimefive (PAN: *lima)

g-um-apuŋfloat (PWMP: *ga(m)puŋ)

hapawroof (PAN: *sapaw)

harimauŋleopard (PWMP: *qari-maquŋ)

hiewho? (PMP: *sei)

i-rurato spit (PMP: *ludaq)

isaʔone (PWMP: *isa-q) *isa₁

itithis (PAN: *-i-ti) *-ti

iwanwife's sister, brother's wife (m.s.) (PMP: *ibah-an) *ibaS

Ma'anyan (20 / 70)

ka-marker of past participle or achieved states: ka-reŋey ‘heard’ (cp. reŋey ‘to hear’); ka-ituŋ ‘remembered’ (cp. ituŋ ‘to remember’) (PMP: *ka-₇)

ka-kautree (PMP: *kahi-kahiw) *kaSiw

kariŋdry (PWMP: *kaRiŋ)

ka-waluʔeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

kawileft (side) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

ke-enemsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

kenahfish (PMP: *kenas)

kitawe (plural excl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kuditskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

k<um>anto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

laβuʔto fall (PWMP: *labuq)

lawaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lawitfar (PWMP: *alawid)

lelaʔtongue (PAN: *zelaq)

ma-kapanthick (PWMP: *ma-kapal) *kapal

mama-ʔparents’ brother, parents’ sister’s husband (PMP: *mama) *mamah

matuehold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

nahiʔcooked rice (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

naŋɛmouth of a river} (PMP: *binaŋa)

Ma'anyan (40 / 70)

naŋeriver mouth (PMP: *naŋa₁)

niuycoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ŋaranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋ-ikitbite (PWMP: *i(ŋ)kit)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

punsibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

rawenleaf (PMP: *dahun)

raʔiforehead (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

rikutgrass (PWMP: *rikut)

ruehtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ruyandurian (PWMP: *duRi-an)

saŋitangry (PWMP: *saŋit)

tadirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tahiksea, ocean (PMP: *tasik)

taneʔearth (PMP: *taneq)

taŋanhand (PMP: *taŋan)

tata-ʔelder sibling (PAN: *tata₁)

tataʔelder sibling (NOISE)

taʔulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

telothree (PAN: *telu)

Ma'anyan (60 / 70)

tetuŋporcupine (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

tukatsteps (=ladder) (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tutuŋto burn (PMP: *tutuŋ)

ukato open (Ray 1913) (PMP: *u(ŋ)kaq)

ulu ʔalepknee (PAN: *qaleb)

vavuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

vayuaŋbear (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

wadianshaman (PWMP: *balian)

wakatroot (PMP: *wakat)

watustone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

Madak (35) OC. see: Mendak

375. Madurese (158) WMP (Safioedin 1977) [mad] (Madura) Indonesia (Java and Bali)

abeŋobstruct, block (PWMP: *hambeŋ)

acarpickle (usually pepper or onion which is pickled with vinegar) (LOAN)

accemtamarind (tree and fruit) (PWMP: *qalesem)

accensalted (PAN: *qasiN)

accen-ansaltier; something that has been salted (PWMP: *qasin-an) *qasiN

a-dharato bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

agemhold (PWMP: *agem₁)

a-gunteŋto cut with scissors, cut the hair (LOAN)

a-juwalto sell (LOAN)

alas alasjungle (PMP: *halas) *Salas

alas rajāprimeval forest; virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest') (PWMP: *halas Raya) *Salas

anaʔchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

antetwisting, twining, making thread or string (LOAN)

anteŋstill, calm, quiet (not speaking much) (PWMP: *anteŋ)

añamplaiting; braiding (PMP: *añam)

añam-anwhat is plaited or braided (PMP: *añam)

añoʔcarried away by the current (PAN: *qañud)

aŋenwind (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋsekbe crowded out of place by another person; nudge, jostle (PMP: *hasek₂)

apoyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

Madurese (20 / 158)

asatdried up (of stream or well) (PMP: *asat)

asepsmoke (PWMP: *asep)

a-sompato swear an oath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

assimsneeze (NOISE)

a-taletied with rope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

aterescort, accompany (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

attashigh; above (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ayuʔcome on! lets go! (LOAN)

babbaʔbark of a tree (PMP: *bakbak₁)

badhabe, have (PMP: *wada)

balakaŋback (PWMP: *balakaŋ)

balakbaktie or handcuff hands and feet (NOISE)

balanaʔmullet (PWMP: *balanak)

balikatshoulder blade (PWMP: *balikat)

baliliŋfall with a spiraling motion (PWMP: *baliliŋ)

baliŋbiŋa tree and its edible fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

baliraŋsulphur (LOAN)

balurikspotted (ROOT)

ban-ourine (LOAN)

Madurese (40 / 158)

bariʔyesterday; twilight, sundown (PAN: *waRi₁)

daʔwaaccusation (LOAN)

dharablood (PAN: *daRaq)

dharakkaŋsit with legs wide apart (ROOT)

dhaunleaf (PMP: *dahun)

diriʔself, oneself (LOAN)

duŋketstaff, walking stick (ROOT)

ebbundew, mist (PWMP: *qembun)

egemshut the mouth (PMP: *eŋgem)

ejektrample until crushed (NOISE)

ejjenpress down (to defecate) (PMP: *qezen)

ellekto swallow (NOISE)

ellokcurve (in a kris blade) (PWMP: *qeluk)

emmaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

empaʔfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

ennemsix (PAN: *enem)

entepto close, shut (PMP: *qentep)

eñekstep on (to crush) (PMP: *qeñek)

erremhide oneself; sit on eggs (PWMP: *qerem)

esepinhale, suck in (PAN: *qesep)

Madurese (60 / 158)

etekto pound, of the pulse (in fear) (PWMP: *etek)

gatelto itch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gunteŋscissors (LOAN)

jaufar, distant (PMP: *zauq)

juwalto sell (LOAN)

kato (PAN: *ka₃)

ka-empaʔbe four, number four (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

ka-rato-npalace (PMP: *datu)

karemfounder, be engulfed, of ships (PWMP: *kaRem)

ka-tono-nburned (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

keneʔ atediscouraged ( = 'small liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

keneʔ ate(lit. 'small liver') feel sore; bear a grudge (PMP: *X₅ + qatay) *qaCay

ke-patey-andeath (PWMP: *ka-p-atay-en) *aCay

kokona tree: Schoutenia ovata (PMP: *kukun)

lirisstriped, of batik (ROOT)

ma-empaʔdivide into four (PMP: *ma-epat) *Sepat

ma-jaudistance oneself (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

manoʔbird (PMP: *manuk)

ma-odhiʔgive life to, bring to life (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Madurese (80 / 158)

mata aresun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

matedie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-telloʔadd up to three, total three (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

ma-telloʔsplit into three parts (PAN: *ma-telu) *telu

ma-toronto lower something, let something down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

men-daʔwato accuse (LOAN)

naseʔcooked rice (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

nekkaŋwalk with the legs wide apart (PWMP: *tekaŋ)

noronto descend (PMP: *tuRun₁)

ñekoknock with the elbow (PAN: *sikux)

ñompaadminister an oath to someone (PWMP: *sumpaq)

ŋ-akoadmit, confess (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ŋalaʔ ate(lit. 'fetch the liver') win someone's affection (PMP: *qalap qatay) *qaCay

ŋ-añamto plait or braid (PWMP: *maŋ-añam) *añam

ŋ-apoy-eapply fire to, heat with fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy-i) *Sapuy

ŋ-ogato shake, make something shake or wobble (PWMP: *ugaq)

ŋ-otaʔto vomit (PWMP: *maŋ-utaq) *utaq

obusfinished (ROOT)

odhiʔliving, alive; flame (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

ogawobbly because it is not firmly embedded (of tooth, housepost, stake, etc.) (PWMP: *ugaq)

Madurese (100 / 158)

olarsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

oleswrapping; sarong (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

ombaʔwave, swell, billow (PWMP: *humbak)

oncuytobacco pipe (LOAN)

ondhak-ondhakhouse ladder (PWMP: *undak-undak) *qundak

ondhemcloud (PAN: *qudem)

onjurdirection of the flow of a river (PMP: *qunzur)

onosto withdraw, draw out (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

oŋkélpry or lever up (PWMP: *quŋkil)

opaspoison, venom of a snake (PMP: *upas)

orétscratched (PMP: *qurit)

osérpursue (PAN: *qusiR)

osoŋcarry on the shoulder, as a litter between two people (PMP: *qusuŋ)

otavomit (PAN: *utaq)

panas ateangry ( = 'hot liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

pandhanpandanus (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

par-apad-anone quarter of something divided; cross-roads (PWMP: *paR-epat-an) *Sepat

par-tello-na path that branches three ways (PWMP: *paR-telu-en) *telu

patesomething that is dead (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pate-ñahis death, his corpse (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

Madurese (120 / 158)

pelesointment applied to forehad to soothe and relieve pain (PWMP: *pilis)

pittuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pittu-ŋ-puluseventy (PMP: *ŋa)

poŋkasbeginning (ROOT)

poserumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

pote ate(lit. 'white liver') upright, honest (PMP: *X₆ + qatay) *qaCay

rabukpowder (PMP: *Rabuk)

raja ate(lit. 'big liver') presumption (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

ramoʔroot (PMP: *Ramut)

ratoking (PMP: *datu)

rekasquick (ROOT)

rosoʔribs, rib bones (PAN: *Rusuk)

sakeʔ ate(lit. 'sick/painful liver') resentment; annoyance; anger; ill-will (PMP: *X₄ + qatay) *qaCay

salagaplough (LOAN)

sekoelbow (PAN: *sikux)

sembiredge, border, outskirts (ROOT)

sesselinsert, slip in (PAN: *selsel₁)

soletextremely stingy, selfish, reluctant to share or give (PWMP: *sulit₁)

sompaoath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sonarray of light, radiance (ROOT)

Madurese (140 / 158)

soroŋglide forward, push forward, push (PWMP: *suruŋ)

tabuʔbelly (PWMP: *tambuk)

talerope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

talonfallow swidden land (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

ta-mataa spy (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

taseʔsea (PMP: *tasik)

tebbeŋclosed off with a wall (of an entrance) (ROOT)

tekkaŋbe wide apart, of the legs (PWMP: *tekaŋ)

tekkaŋstraddling wide (ROOT)

tekketpress down (PMP: *teked)

telloʔthree (PAN: *telu)

tempakto stamp, kick (PMP: *tepak₁)

teŋeldeaf (ROOT)

ter-atercontribution or gift which is taken to the home of the recipient (usually consists of food) (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

tonoto burn (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

torondescend (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tumalouse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

wal-juwalselling, commerce (LOAN)

376. Mae (2) OC

sum-ito suck (NOISE)

vra-khand (POC: *paRa₃) *baRa₁

377. Mae-Morae (1) OC

luma-ŋhand (POC: *luma)

378. Maewo (2) OC

kami1pl. excl., focal, subject, and object pronoun (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

-mami1pl. excl. possessive, our (PMP: *m-ami) *ami

379. Mafea (7) OC [mkv] Vanuatu

tai-excrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai-laŋisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

taŋito cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

taur-ito hold (POC: *taur)

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

v"atifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

Maga Rukai (17) Form.. see: Rukai (Maga)

380. Magori (2) OC [zgr] Papua New Guinea

nau1sg. (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

tumalouse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

381. Maguindanao (1) WMP

kaand (PAN: *ka₁)

382. Mailu (19) OC [mgu] Papua New Guinea

aniwind (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aru-aito drift (PMP: *qaRus)

aru-aruto flow (PMP: *qaRus)

ata-natop; up (POC: *atas-ña) *aCas

atoroof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

avaranorthwest monsoon (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

banifood of animal or bird; bait (POC: *baniŋ) *paniŋ

bulabubble, foam (POC: *buraq) *budaq₁

ilimobig, softwood tree from which some small canoes are made (POC: *iRimo)

mamifresh water (POC: *mamis) *hemis

matuhard, as a dry coconut (PCEMP: *matu)

okoto cough (POC: *qokok) *qekqek

okocough (NOISE)

onesand; country; land (POC: *qone) *qenay

one-onesandy (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

orohill, mountain (POC: *oro)

tumalouse, bug (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

waratable for smoking fish (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

waruwild cotton or hibiscus tree, affording fibre bark for rope, etc.; fibre from wild cotton tree (POC: *paRu) *baRu

383. Makasarese (1014) WMP (Cense 1979) [mak] (Makasar) Indonesia (Sulawesi) (dialects: Bantaeng 2, Salayar [sly] 12)

aexclamation: ha! See what I told you! (PMP: *a₃)

a-prefix used before adjectives (mostly in 17th and 18th century texts) (PMP: *ha-₁) *ha-

ababaŋkind of tree: Colbertia (NOISE)

abu-abugray (of substances) (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

a-buʔbuʔtoss sand over oneself, bathe in the sand, of birds (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

acaraʔpickled, of raw fruits (e.g. grated papaya), thin-sliced cucumber, peeled onion, Spanish pepper and flying fish eggs rolled into marble-sized balls and steeped in vinegar (LOAN)

adechin (PMP: *qazay) Salayar

agamareligion (LOAN)

agaʔ-agaraʔkind of edible seaweed which is sold in blocks in stores (LOAN)

akaʔroot (PMP: *wakat)

ak-kambuthrust into the body, as a piercing weapon (PMP: *kambu)

ak-kutuseek out lice, pick lice from the hair (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

alasaʔforest, jungle (PMP: *halas) *Salas Salayar

alintaleech (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

alipaŋcentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

allaʔinterval, intervening space, unhabited area between two inhabited areas (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

alloday; sun (in some expressions) (PMP: *qalejaw)

allo-allodaily (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

allo ka-anakk-aŋbirthday (PWMP: *ka-anak-an) *aNak

al-luato spit out (as the pit of a fruit) (PMP: *luaq)

Makasarese (20 / 1014)

alluŋcoffin (LOAN)

alurice pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

amalaʔperform good works in the expectation of a reward in the Hereafter (LOAN)

amaratree with strong wood used to make the shafts of lances and pikes, and also formerly used to make the finishing planks of royal canoes (PWMP: *amaRa)

ambaŋbelly strap of horses (PWMP: *amben)

am-baŋuŋstand up from a reclining position; to construct, build a house, erect a mast, found a society, rouse a reclining or sleeping person, rouse the dead from their graves on Judgement Day (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

ambaraʔhaving lost its taste or force (as wine, cajuput oil, perfumes, vinegar, salt, glue that has lost its adhesiveness, magic formula that no longer works, etc.) (PMP: *qambaR)

ambaraʔambergris, used in medicines and perfumes (LOAN)

ambaraʔ-sibatuambergris-ball, kind of ornament (LOAN)

am-barrasaʔappear in large numbers all at once (of pimples, pock marks); having kernels that are already visible in the husk (of corn; if the kernels are somewhat larger they are referred to as aʔmata-doaŋ) (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

ambaʔtry to hit something in a game (one marble with another, billiard ball, etc.) (PMP: *ambak)

am-bulaʔstart to become round, swell a little (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

am-buʔbuk-i ballaʔ-napull his house up and put it down elsewhere (PMP: *butbut-i) *buCbuC

ammafather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

ammallibuy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

ammanashoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

am-manaʔ buŋasaʔgive birth for the first time (PMP: *buŋas)

am-mantiŋhang up laundry on a line (PMP: *bantiŋ)

am-mantuŋpull up, raise, hoist (of fishing rod, fish, sail, etc.) (PMP: *bantun)

ammaŋhold in the closed mouth; hold in the lips, as a pencil (PAN: *qemqem)

Makasarese (40 / 1014)

amm-aŋiŋhang in the wind to dry (PMP: *haŋin)

am-marroʔsqueeze something out (PWMP: *ma-meRes) *peRes

am-masaʔdrive a wedge into wood in order to split it open (PAN: *pacek)

ámmasaʔgold (LOAN)

amma-ʔmother (reference and address) (PMP: *ema-ʔ) *ema₁

am-maʔdiliʔto shoot (LOAN) Salayar

am-mileto choose, select, pick out (PAN: *piliq)

amminra buluchange in color, of hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

am-misaʔto split, hack to pieces (firewood or coconut husk) (PMP: *biseqak)

am-muaŋto drop, discard, throw out; to lower (prices) (PWMP: *maŋ-buqaŋ) *buqaŋ

am-muaŋ daducast dice (PWMP: *maŋ-buqaŋ) *buqaŋ

am-mukaʔfish with a pukaʔ net (PWMP: *ma-muket) *puket₁

am-mulaŋbind an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock (PWMP: *maŋ-bulaŋ) *bulaŋ

am-munokill, extinguish, do away with, rub out with an eraser; leave undone (work) (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

am-muno-i jaŋan-nahis fighting cock has killed (its opponent), has won (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

ammuŋaltogether, everyone (PWMP: *emuŋ)

am-muʔbuʔpull out, as rice seedlings to be transplanted, a sword from its scabbard (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

ampallasaʔa tree the broad leaves of which are used to sand wood smooth: Ficus Ampelas (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

ampallasaʔtree with broad leaves used to sand wood smooth: Ficus Ampelas (PWMP: *qampelas)

ampasaʔcoffee grounds; dregs (LOAN)

Makasarese (60 / 1014)

ampuowner of something (PMP: *ampu) *apu

ampuowner, possessor (PMP: *empu)

ampugrandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu Salayar

ampugrandchild (PMP: *empu) Salayar

(am)pu-nnathe owner of (PWMP: *empu-ni-a) *empu

anaŋplaiting, weaving (PMP: *añam)

a-naŋkisiʔward off a blow, parry (PWMP: *taŋkis)

anaʔchild; son, daughter; young of animals, young plant; smaller part of a larger thing (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaʔ anaʔchild (immature person), young man, young woman; servant, follower; doll of native manufacture; part of a casting net (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anaʔ aostepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaʔ asesmall rice haulm (PMP: *anak i kahiw) *aNak

anaʔ atachild of one's own slaves (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

anaʔ baʔdiliʔbullet (PMP: *anak i sumpit) *aNak

anaʔ bua-na paʔrasaŋaŋainhabitant of an area (PMP: *anak buaq) *aNak

anaʔ buniillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaʔ buniillegitimate (of a child) (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

anaʔ buŋasaʔthe first child (PMP: *buŋas)

anaʔ keraeŋprince's children (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaʔ-lilauvula (lit. ‘child of the tongue’) (PWMP: *anak nu dilaq) *dilaq₁

anaʔ rarayoung girl from 10-12 years of age (PWMP: *anak daRa) *aNak

Makasarese (80 / 1014)

anaʔ rarayoung girl from about nine to thirteen years of age (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

anaʔ rara suntiŋyoung girl who has had her menarche (11-12 years of age) (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

an-nambaʔstrike with something flexible, as a whip or length of rattan (PMP: *tambak₁)

an-nanaŋplanting of young seedlings in the rice paddy (after they have been pulled up from the seedbed) (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

annaŋsix (PAN: *enem)

an-nimbaŋto weigh; to consider (PWMP: *ma-nimbaŋ) *timbaŋ

annoŋkoʔto cover, cover up (a roof with reeds, grass or leaves; a table; a pot; damage) (PWMP: *tuŋkup)

an-numpato pour out (PWMP: *tumpaq)

annuruʔto follow orders (PWMP: *ma-nuruʔ)

an-nususuck at the breast (PWMP: *ma-ñusu) *susu₁

an-ñassalaʔto reproach someone (PWMP: *selsel₂)

an-rakaʔto embrace (PAN: *dakep)

anroŋ tau mappoŋchiefs who have a pedigree of chiefs (PMP: *puqun)

ansoroʔ(harbor language) move a heavy load bit by bit (LOAN)

an-tamato enter, go inside (PMP: *tama₂)

antaŋbe still, keep quiet; remain, reside (PWMP: *anteŋ)

antaraʔgive presents at the end of the fasting month, and on Chinese and European New Year's Day; what one has brought back from a trip (fruits, etc.) to give as presents to the neighbors (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

antewhere? (NOISE)

antiŋ-antiŋring-shaped ear ornament; pendulous flesh under the ears of certain kinds of goats (LOAN)

anuaŋrare large ruminant found in mountain areas: Anoa depressicornis (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

Makasarese (100 / 1014)

añ-ñikutreat with a carpenter’s square; knock with the elbow (PAN: *sikux)

a-ñukkiɁpick fruit from a tree with a bamboo pole that has a hook on the end (PMP: *su(ŋ)kit)

-aŋ1. suffix used to form passive nouns: that on which, in which, with which something is done (e.g. doŋkoʔ 'back (anat.)' : doŋkok-aŋ 'carriage', at-taʔgalaʔ 'to hold, keep ahold of' : taʔgall-aŋ 'handle', enteŋ 'stand, stand up' : enteŋ-aŋ 'place where one stands, position'); 2. suffix used to form deverbal adjectives or nouns with a passive sense, and carrying an implication of possibility or desirability; 3. suffix used to form adjectives with the meaning 'afflicted with, suffering from' (e.g. kaluara 'ant' : kaluar-àŋ 'covered with ants', bulalaʔ 'white spot on the cornea' : bulalakk-aŋ 'have a white spot on the cornea'; 4. substitute for the more commonly used -aŋŋaŋ, which expresses the comparative; here also belong indications of place and time in comparison with other place and time indicators; 5. suffix in connection with siapa and piraŋ- 'how much', with the meaning 'how much not'; 6. verbal suffix with the meaning 'do something for the benefit of, do something with something, do something because of something, do something at a certain point in time' (PAN: *-an)

aŋ-anaŋto plait, weave (PWMP: *maŋ-añam) *añam

aŋaŋ-attaʔmake notches in (as a coconut palm to climb it) (PWMP: *etak)

aŋgaboundary, limit placed on something which one must observe (PWMP: *haŋga)

aŋgi-anaʔadd a third strand in making rope (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

aŋ-giliŋturn something around; turn words around; wind up, as a large clock; grind fine with a grindstone (PWMP: *maŋ-giliŋ) *giliŋ

aŋiŋwind (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋiŋ-aŋiŋwild rumor (PMP: *haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

aŋkakk-aŋlift or raise something for someone (PWMP: *aŋkat-an) *aŋkat

aŋkaʔlifting, raising (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋŋ-akuadmit, confess (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

aŋŋ-allosuffer from a warm feeling in the body (PWMP: *maŋ-qalejaw) *qalejaw

aŋŋ-antaraʔgive presents at the end of the fasting month, and on Chinese and European New Year; offer to one's neighbors what one has brought back from a trip (as fruits or other things) (PWMP: *maŋ-hateD) *SateD

aŋŋ-aŋkaʔlift up, lift and carry away (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

aŋŋ-apa-iwhy? (PWMP: *maŋ-apa) *apa₁

aŋŋ-apà-ido something to someone (PWMP: *maŋ-apa-i) *apa₁

aŋŋ-arreʔtighten firmly (PWMP: *maŋ-heRet) *SeReC

aŋŋ-assaʔpress against something, push or press something in, cram in with force (PWMP: *maŋ-hasek₂) *hasek₂

Makasarese (120 / 1014)

aŋŋ-atoroʔto arrange, order, classify (LOAN)

aŋŋ-ayaʔto sift (only of dry substances) (PWMP: *maŋ-ayak) *ayak₂

aŋŋeraŋ-battaŋpregnant (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

aŋŋ-oloroʔlet slide through the hand, pay out (rope) (PWMP: *maŋ-huluR) *SuluR

aŋŋ-usiriʔdrive off, put to flight (PWMP: *maŋ-usiR) *qusiR

apawhat; something, of unique significance (PMP: *apa₁)

apa apathing(s) (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁

apalaʔknow by heart, memorize (LOAN)

apaŋkind of rice cake (LOAN)

aparaʔspread out (as a carpet) (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

api apitree that grows on swampy ground and riverbanks, used as firewood (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

apiuŋopium (LOAN)

appa-silohold the hand over the eyes (as to peer toward the sun) (PMP: *silaw)

appaʔfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

appaʔ appaʔfour at a time (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

appiʔsplice together (rope strands) (PWMP: *epid)

apuŋdew that has not yet condensed, but which still appears as a mist (PMP: *hapun₁) *hapun

arreʔfirm, firmly tightened (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

arruŋdull roar (of wind, approaching rain, rushing of river current, etc.) (PWMP: *heRuŋ)

Makasarese (140 / 1014)

arusuʔcurrent, flow; gulf stream (PMP: *qaRus)

asa-aŋwhetstone (PMP: *hasaq-an) *Sasaq Salayar

asaraʔtime of the afternoon prayer (LOAN)

ase buluhairy rice (PMP: *bulu₁)

ase tanaŋrecently transplanted rice seedlings (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

asitreat someone with respect and awe (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi

assakk-ipress against something (PWMP: *hasek-i) *hasek₂

assalaʔorigin; provided that (LOAN)

assaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

assaʔpress against something, push something into a place, forcefully cram something in (PMP: *esek)

assaʔpress against something, push or press something in, cram in with force (PMP: *hasek₂)

assicontents (PMP: *hesi) *Sesi

as-sikutriangular (PAN: *sikux)

assi-turuʔcome to an agreement with someone (PWMP: *tuRut)

as-suliŋto play the flute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

assuŋmortar, rice mortar (PMP: *esuŋ)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ataslave, servant, subject of a ruler; still present in polite expressions (PMP: *qaRta)

ata-ntayour servant (used by women or children toward persons deserving respect) (PMP: *qaRta)

ataʔthatch (PMP: *qatep)

Makasarese (160 / 1014)

ateliver, the inner self, seat of the emotions (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate riŋaŋ(lit. 'light liver') lung (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ator-aŋorder regulation (LOAN)

atoroʔkind of poem (LOAN)

(at)tar-attuʔbreak wind (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

attaʔnotch; area under the glans penis (PWMP: *etak)

attaʔto notch; underside of the glans penis (PMP: *hetek) *Setek

atteʔnotch in a post or stick, notch in a coconut tree used for climbing (PMP: *hetek) *Setek

attik-idrip on, to drip (PWMP: *etik)

at-timbaŋ-aŋstand in an equal relationship with one another (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

attiʔa droplet, a little, a very small amount (PWMP: *etik)

at-tuato catch fish with the use of tua (PAN: *tuba)

attuk-ifart at someone (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

at-tunu rotito bake bread (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

attuʔfart, flatus (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

auash, dust (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

au-auedible seafish, shining white and unspotted, the mackerel: Scomber neglectus (PWMP: *abu abu)

awaŋ-awaŋatmosphere (PMP: *awaŋ)

ayamother (for persons of high rank), mother's younger sister (PMP: *aya₂)

ayakk-aŋsieve, made of thin cloth or plaited bamboo (PWMP: *ayak-an) *ayak₂

Makasarese (180 / 1014)

ayaʔsifted flour (PWMP: *ayak₂)

ayokayoke for water buffalo (LOAN)

aʔ-ballaŋ-ballaŋwith light discoloration, with white spots (as a french-polished table which has gotten wet), with brown spots (as a manuscript) (PWMP: *belaŋ belaŋ) *belaŋ₂

aʔ-bantaŋstretched taut (PMP: *benteŋ)

aʔ-bantiŋbeat wet clothes on a plank or stone, as in washing them; suddenly flip over, of an automobile or bicycle (PMP: *bantiŋ)

aʔ-bayaraʔpay something or someone (PMP: *bayaD)

aʔ-bicarato speak, talk; administer justice, adjudicate (LOAN)

aʔ-biluʔsteer a car, turn a car to left or right (PMP: *biluk)

aʔ-biriŋstep aside, yield the way (PMP: *bidiŋ)

aʔ-biriŋstep aside, yield the way (PMP: *biriŋ₁)

aʔ-bua-buajaact like a crocodile, greedily devour everything; children's game in which a boy wrapped in a sarong with arms and legs outstretched creeps forward on the ground in order to catch the other boys (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

aʔ-bulaʔcylindrical (as a pencil); in its entirety (not in pieces) (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

aʔ-bulu kapasaʔwith nest feathers (of doves); downy, showing the first signs of pubic hair (humorously for pubescent boys and girls) (PMP: *bulu₁)

aʔ-bumbuŋplateful; heaping full, of a measuring cup with rice, etc.; raised up, banked up, of a place (PMP: *bunbun)

aʔbuŋablossoming, flowering; strew flowers on a grave; the first signs of an illness (PMP: *buŋa)

aʔ-busahave foam or lather, as soap) (PMP: *busa₁)

aʔ-busa-i bawa-ya'the mouth foams', said of someone who has spoken a long time, as in admonishing another (PMP: *busa₁)

aʔ-buttaown land, be housed in a certain district (PMP: *buRtaq)

aʔ-buttube bumpy, have an uneven surface (PMP: *butequl)

aʔ-gasiŋto spin a top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

Makasarese (200 / 1014)

aʔ-jujuŋtake or carry on the head (as a basket full of rice) (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

aʔ-laŋeto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

aʔ-linruŋprotected, sheltered; shaded; be in the lee of something; shelter from the rain; give protection or cover (PAN: *liduŋ)

aʔ-ñawato breathe, have vitality (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

aʔ-ŋaŋawide open; have the mouth wide open; open the mouth, gape (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

aʔ-raraŋto shine, of the sun; warm oneself by a fire or in the sun (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

aʔ-rereto bubble; to boil (intr.); (fig.) boiling, as someone’s mind, feelings (PMP: *diqdiq)

babaʔname for Chinese born in Indonesia (LOAN)

babuʔkind of jacket (LOAN)

badaŋbody (LOAN)

baguGnetum gnemon; a tree which yields bast fiber used in making cordage (PWMP: *baguh)

baine katalaʔa lascivious woman (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

bajushirt, blouse, bodice (LOAN)

bakkaraʔto open, unfurl something that is rolled up (mat, rolled leaf) (PWMP: *bekaj)

bakkaraʔto open, unfurl, of something that is rolled up (mat, leaf that is rolled) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

bakukuŋlarge edible sea fish with a tough skin: Sparus hasta (PWMP: *bakukuŋ)

bakuŋkind of lily, Crinum asiaticum (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

bakuʔbasket (PWMP: *bakul)

balabalaplan, design, project (NOISE)

balanaʔa sea fish, the mullet (PWMP: *balanak)

Makasarese (220 / 1014)

balanjaspend to meet costs; expenses (LOAN)

balaŋaearthen rice pot with small opening (PMP: *balaŋa)

balaŋgufetters, shackles (specifically iron shackles for the feet) (LOAN)

balaorat, mouse (PMP: *balabaw)

balasaʔwhat is reciprocated; revenge; answer (to a letter or request) (PAN: *bales₁)

b-al-aʔbaʔa package, specifically a packet of sago wrapped in sago leaves (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

balikashoulder (PWMP: *balikat) Salayar

baliraweaver's sword (PMP: *balija) *baRija

baliraŋsulphur; phosphorus (on the tip of a match) (LOAN)

baliʔturn oneself around (PMP: *balik₂)

ballasplitting (in various words) (PAN: *belaq)

ballaŋmulti-colored, spotted, speckled; white, of the legs of a horse, the eyes of a fowl or a horse; kind of skin affliction, white with spots (as after having suffered a burn) (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

ballasaʔsuffer greatly, have much difficulty with something; be miserable (NOISE)

balle-balleto lie, be mendacious (PMP: *beliq₁)

balli(purchase) price (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

balli-aŋwhat can be bought, things that can be purchased; buy for, purchase for the benefit of (someone); purchase for a particular amount (PWMP: *beli-an) *beli

balliʔthe cross-cutting bamboo laths which project above the roof (PWMP: *belit₁)

balomulti-colored, with white spots (esp. of horses and dogs) (LOAN)

baluwidow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

baluluŋgo in crowds (as a herd of goats) (NOISE)

Makasarese (240 / 1014)

balumbuŋheap up earth over something (ROOT)

baluʔto sell (PMP: *baluk₂)

baluʔroll up (mats, cloth) (PWMP: *balut₂)

baluʔ-baluʔmerchandise (PMP: *baluk₂)

bambaŋaŋsea bass: Lutjanus erythropterus (PWMP: *bambaŋen)

banawalarge double-outrigger boat (LOAN)

banderaflag; one of the thirty kinds of cards in the patui and goaŋ-góŋ game (LOAN)

baniagaforeign merchant (LOAN)

bannaŋthread, yarn (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

bannaŋthread (PWMP: *benaŋ)

banoasheath (for a knife) (PMP: *banua)

banraŋanpike decorated with goat hair (PMP: *bandaŋan)

bansapeople, nation, class, kind (LOAN)

bantaŋstretched thread or cord (PMP: *benteŋ)

baŋakind of pandanus (PWMP: *baŋa₁)

baŋkalaʔa timber tree: Sarcocephalus undulatus (Cense (1979)); a tree: Nauclea orientalis (Mills (1975)) (PMP: *baŋkal)

baŋkasaʔswift, agile, energetic (PMP: *bakas)

baŋkulisiʔscaleless, striped marine fish about half a meter long, with forked tail fin (PWMP: *baŋkulis)

baŋkuŋcurved wooden piece on the outer end of the outrigger of an outrigger canoe used to hold firm the bamboo staves which run parallel to the hull and give it balance (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

baŋŋinight, evening (PMP: *beRŋi)

Makasarese (260 / 1014)

baŋŋi-baŋŋievery night (PMP: *beRŋi beRŋi) *beRŋi

baŋŋi-nnait is night (in nominal constructions) (PMP: *beRŋi-na) *beRŋi

baŋuŋ-aŋstand up with, lift up (PWMP: *baŋun-an) *baŋuN

baŋuŋ-baŋuŋ-antemporary scaffolding used when building a house (PWMP: *baŋun-an) *baŋuN

baraglowing coal (PMP: *baRah)

barafenced enclosure, animal pen (PMP: *baRa₂)

barafenced enclosure, animal pen (PMP: *bara₁)

barabasaʔfall suddenly and in a great quantity fall down together in a large circle (of fruit, leaves, rain) (PWMP: *barasbas)

barabasaʔsuddenly fall down in a mass (fruits, leaves, rain) (NOISE)

barakkaʔbless; receive a gift by being considered an exceptionally blessed person (LOAN)

baranibrave, daring (PMP: *baRani)

baraŋparticle that indicates uncertainty or indefiniteness with regard to an action or a thing, thus: perhaps, possible; also the expression of a wish: hopefully (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baraŋ-baraŋgoods, possessions (LOAN)

baraŋeŋrat-weed, arsenic (PWMP: *baraŋen₂)

barat-aŋbamboo outrigger connectors (PAN: *baRat₁)

barayaŋtree with partly upward- and partly downward-turning branches (PWMP: *barayaŋ)

baraʔwest wind, west monsoon (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barisour, musty, of prepared foods that have been left standing too long (PMP: *baRiw)

bariʔgrain (in wood), spots (of civet cat or panther), stripes (of tiger) (PMP: *barik)

barrisiʔline (of soldiers, books) (LOAN)

Makasarese (280 / 1014)

barrok-aŋgoiter, have a goiter (NOISE)

barroʔgoiter (NOISE)

barua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

barugabamboo shed on piles for festive gatherings (PWMP: *baruga)

barumbuŋdappled gray, esp. of horses and cocks (PWMP: *baRunbun)

basawet (PMP: *baseq)

basiŋ-basiŋbamboo flute (LOAN)

bassiiron; iron spear, iron tool for cutting wood (LOAN)

bassi baranibatu baranimagnet (LOAN)

bassoroʔfull from having eaten enough, satiated (PAN: *besuR)

basuŋfunnel-shaped basket made from the midribs of sago fronds, and used to carry sago (PWMP: *basuŋ)

bataŋ banoa, bataŋ banuatitle of the heads of certain districts (archaic and poetic) (PMP: *banua)

bataŋ bitisiʔthick part of the calf (PMP: *bities)

bataraʔmillet sp. (PMP: *batad)

bateʔbe given designs in the batik manner (PMP: *batek)

battacut off a piece or pieces of something, hack off (as by setting a knife or chisel against something and striking it, or through the use of areca nut shears) (PMP: *beta₂)

battaŋbelly, abdomen (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

battiʔspeckle, freckle (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

battucome, arrive (as rain, an asthma attack); something not belonging in a place and so arriving fortuitously (PMP: *betu)

batustone, rock; gemstone; weight; net weights; fetus in first month of pregnancy; wages paid for the performance of sacred duties; numeral classifier used in counting houses, ships, fruits, clothing, coins, etc. (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

Makasarese (300 / 1014)

batu karaŋcoral rock (PMP: *karaŋ)

batu paradared or yellow stone the scrapings of which are used ... to make paint rappo parada a fruit the seeds of which yield a red dye: Bixa orellana; to gild; to paint (LOAN)

bawa-na binaŋa-yamouth of a river, estuary (PMP: *binaŋa)

bawoshallow, shallow place (PWMP: *babaw₂)

baʔbalaʔstick used to beat; whip (PAN: *balbal₁)

baʔbaraʔunroll something that is rolled up (as a sail); come loose, of something that was previously stuck on; no longer taut (of an anchor rope) (PWMP: *bajbaj)

baʔbaraʔunfurl, as a sail (PMP: *barbar)

baʔbasaʔsprinkle with water (PWMP: *basbas₄) *basbas₂

baʔbaʔclick the lips to make a horse stand still (PAN: *bakbak₂)

baʔbaʔwind around something, wrap up with closely spaced loops (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

baʔdiliʔweapon (LOAN)

béa(harbor) duty, tax on incoming and outgoing goods (LOAN)

bémbégoat; mutton (LOAN)

beraŋ mateworn-out bush knife (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

beʔbereʔtremble or quiver from nervousness (PMP: *berber₂)

biasaaccustomed, used to; habit, custom (LOAN)

bibereʔlip; lips of the vulva (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibereʔhard edge of a wound; prominent rim of some pots (PMP: *birbir₁)

bibereʔlips, lips of the vulva (NOISE)

bibereʔ-irateupper lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

Makasarese (320 / 1014)

bibereʔ-irawalower lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibiʔaunt (used by Makasarese-speaking Chinese); also used of rice peddlars (originally mostly Javanese or Madurese women) (LOAN)

bicaraconversation, talk; judicial decision; lawsuit; quarrel; matter, affair; arranged so that (LOAN)

bicu-bicukind of ignorance or stupidity about certain things (LOAN)

bidadarinymphs (in stories translated from Malay), attendants of princesses from the spirit world (LOAN)

bidalaʔofficial of the mosque whose duties include calling the faithful to prayer; moreover, like other mosque officials he functions as a leader in all types of religious obligations where customary law requires the presence of one or more religious officials (as at funerals or weddings) (LOAN)

bidaraa tree: Zizyphus jujuba (PWMP: *bidara)

bidara paiʔwild bidara, the wood and bark of which is bitter, and is used as medicine against consumption and freckles (PWMP: *bidara)

bijiseed, as of a cucumber (LOAN)

bilakind of small tree, of which two types are distinguished: 1. the bila nikanre, Aegle marmelos, with sweet edible fruits and much used in making hedges, and 2. the bila paiʔ, Crescentia acuminata, bitter bila, the fruits of which are inedible but which when hollowed out can be used to fetch and store water; the flesh of this fruit is used to remove rust from weapons (PMP: *bila₁)

bilaŋnumber, quantity; act of counting; in counting fish and fruits: fish or fruit that are laid apart as a sign that one already has counted one hundred (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biliʔroom (usually with reference to Makasarese houses); hall; partition off a room in which to sleep (PMP: *bilik)

biloroʔwheal (caused by a blow) (LOAN)

biluduvelvet (in stories translated from Malay) (LOAN)

biluʔto luff, sail with the wind; swerve to left or right (of a kite) (PMP: *biluk)

biluʔkind of boat that may be used only by the Prince of Goa (LOAN)

bimbaŋin an excited or exuberant state of mind, chaotic, restless (LOAN)

binaŋariver (PMP: *binaŋa)

bincanaangry that someone is implicated; insult; slander (LOAN)

bineseedling, rice plant that will be transplanted; in some expressions also the seed rice (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

Makasarese (340 / 1014)

bintaŋsign of distinction, decoration, medal; star on old coins (LOAN)

bintapukind of water fowl with broad beak and red comb (PWMP: *bintapu)

bintaʔkind of pirate ship with two tripodal masts, a bulwark, generally two cabins on top, and two rows of oars on either side (LOAN)

bintiŋcarry something with the hand dangling (as fish); lift up; promote (PMP: *bintiŋ)

bintuŋstar (PAN: *bituqen)

biŋkuŋhoe, mattock, implement used to loosen the soil (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

biŋkuŋ-kayuadze, carpenter's implement used to shape a plank before planing it (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

biŋkurukind of tree the roots of which yield a red dye: Morinda citrifolia (PWMP: *biŋkudu)

biolaviolin (LOAN)

birawild taro with inedible tuber: Alocasia macrorrhiza; the cylindrical stalks contain a sap that causes itching (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

birahiinfatuated, passionate (LOAN)

biraŋnatively manufactured coarse, white cloth; measure of material for sarongs or sails (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

biri-birisheep (only in stories translated from Malay; the animal is unknown to most Makasarese) (LOAN)

birin-na laŋikaedge of the sky = horizon (PMP: *bidiŋ)

birin-na laŋikaedge of the sky = horizon (PMP: *biriŋ₁)

biriŋside, edge (PMP: *bidiŋ)

biriŋside, edge (PMP: *biriŋ₁)

birittanews; fame (LOAN)

birua tree whose leaves are used to prepare madaʔ (opium), and to wrap sirih in chewing areca-nut: Licuala Rumphii (PMP: *biRu)

bisahave a powerful effect (as a medication) (LOAN)

Makasarese (360 / 1014)

bisaʔsplit off a piece (of firewood or coconut husk); firewood (PMP: *biseqak)

bisiʔ-bisiʔwhispering (PWMP: *bisik bisik) *bisik₃

bissaclean with water, as a house or the body (without bathing) (PMP: *biseq)

bitisiʔcalf of the leg (PMP: *bities)

biuŋcrooked (as the mouth, a house that doesn't stand up straight) (PWMP: *biquŋ)

bomboŋfirst stage in the sprouting of tree leaves (second stage is marawantiŋ, third stage is karoppoʔ(-toa) or lekoʔ-toa); figuratively of young girls (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₃)

bomboŋ pandaŋyoung pandanus leaves that are vivid green (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₃)

boncoroʔleak (as a bucket) (LOAN)

bonekadoll (LOAN)

bone-kambuintestines (PMP: *kambu)

boroŋ-aŋaccept a certain job for a previously determined remuneration, either for the entire job, or in proportion to the amount accomplished (LOAN)

botademon (known only in stories translated from Malay) (LOAN)

boyoŋsway gently back and forth (LOAN)

boyoŋsway gently back and forth (NOISE)

boʔboroʔcooked rice, cooked ground corn (PMP: *buRbuR₁) Salayar

boʔboʔa hole made in something (e.g. in a housepost, in a sack by a mouse gnawing); opening, hollow, small round cavity in an oblong block of rice; emerge, come out, of an egg being laid or a baby chick hatching, (NOISE)

bufish trap (PWMP: *buʔu)

bualiver (PMP: *buaq) Salayar

buajacrocodile; greedy as a crocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

buaja-bontoland crocodile -- used of someone who eats in a greedy fashion (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

Makasarese (380 / 1014)

buaŋto drop (of prices),become slack (of trade) (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buasaʔvent one's anger on someone (PWMP: *buas)

buaʔto sacrifice, make an offering at the gables of a house (PWMP: *buhat₁)

buaʔprofitable to use, of something that lasts long, or from which much can be distributed; grow rapidly, of something which requires little effort; what one mutters at the inception or setting-up of something (to insure its success); to make (Salayar; poetic); benefit, use, profit (archaic) (PMP: *buhat₂)

buaʔrising of the sun; pick up, put one leg over the other (PMP: *buhat₃)

bubaraʔdisperse, break up (of a meeting, a crowd being dispersed by police, etc.) (LOAN)

buburuʔrice porridge with water but no coconut cream; delicacy made of soft-cooked sticky black rice, brown sugar and sweet wood (PMP: *buRbuR₁) Salayar

bubusuk-i anaʔ-naher child was delivered of its own accord, without the intervention of a midwife (PMP: *busbus)

bubusuʔrelease and fall, fall out of something, fall through, sag or cave in (floor) (PMP: *busbus)

buijail (LOAN)

bui-buiedible fish about 10 cm. in length: horse mackerel, Caranx leptolepis (NOISE)

buisiʔassessment of the value of a piece of land (PWMP: *buhís)

bujaŋbachelor; also used humorously of a man whose wife is away, as on a trip (LOAN)

bukabreak the Moslem fast at the end of each day, between sunset and sunrise (PMP: *buka)

bukaraʔto open, as the mouth (PMP: *buŋkaR)

bukéʔmountain, hill (PAN: *bukij)

bukkuluʔbegin to swell, of the breasts of a girl of 11 to 12 years of age; emerge from the ground all at once, of maize plants; begin to bud, of jambu blossoms (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bukkuʔwith a hump; bent, of the back; with an arched back or chest; warped, of wood; arched awning on a boat, made of bamboo and palm-leaf matting or of wood (PMP: *buŋkuk)

bukubone; seed of a mango; knot, gnarl (PMP: *buku)

bulaletrunk of an elephant (found only in tales translated from Malay) (LOAN)

Makasarese (400 / 1014)

bulaŋmoon, lunar month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaŋmanner in which an artificial cockspur is bound to the leg of a fighting cock (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bulaŋ-bulaŋ-aŋbe under the influence of the moon, of someone who is moody or capricious (PWMP: *bulan bulan-en) *bulaN

bulaʔ anaŋ-bulaʔplaitwork in the round, as opposed to flat plaitwork (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

bulimake bitter and strong, of sago starch (NOISE)

bulleʔcarry on a pole between two or more persons (PWMP: *bulig)

bulobamboo (generic); barrels of a gun (PAN: *buluq₂)

bulubody hair, fur, down, fluff, wool, feathers, plant floss, quill of a porcupine (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

buluʔmountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

buluʔ-buluʔhill (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

bumbuŋa piece of somewhat elevated ground; in playing tag it serves as a stopping place (home base), where one may not be tagged; by extension any home base in the game of tag, as a tree or a stone (PMP: *bunbun)

bumbuŋbamboo container used to fetch water (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bumbuŋ-ifill heaping full; heap up earth, bank up earth around something (PMP: *bunbun)

bumbuŋ-i battannaher belly is bulging, the moment of the delivery is near (PMP: *bunbun)

bumbuŋ taŋŋaa little higher in the middle (as a road) (PMP: *bunbun)

bunduʔwar (LOAN)

buno-an-na bilayathe hindmost compartment of a large bamboo fish trap in which fish are caught and scooped out (PWMP: *bunuq-an₂) *buNuq₂

buno-aŋkill someone with; kill someone in a certain time; place of killing (PWMP: *bunuq-an₁) *buNuq₂

bunrekind of scoop net made of plaited bamboo (LOAN)

Makasarese (420 / 1014)

buntalaʔfish that is abel to inflate itself, box fish: Ostracion turritus, Diodon hystrix; fig. an unreliable person (PMP: *buntal)

buntiŋbride, bridegroom; wedding feast (LOAN)

buntiŋbride, bridegroom; wedding feast (NOISE)

buntisiʔFrench beans: Phaseolus vulgaris (LOAN)

buŋsound of something that falls (PMP: *buŋ)

buŋaflower, blossom; flower motif; bow, knot (as in a waistband); refined expression for the vulva; maidenhood (poetic) (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa batukind of sea plant: sponge (PMP: *buŋa na batu) *buŋa

buŋa-buŋalittle flower, figurative for a young girl that one has at home (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa-buŋa bicaraflowery talk, highly embellished speech with many digressions (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa-istrew with flowers (PWMP: *buŋa-i) *buŋa

buŋa-ŋ-kumy flower (but in names: buŋa-ku) (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa raʔraʔred flower of the Indian coral tree (PMP: *dapdap₁)

buŋasaʔthe first, and hence the most important, the quintessence of something; used for the first time, take place for the first time; maidenhood (PMP: *buŋas)

buŋkusuʔclassifier for things that come in packages (tea, cigarettes, etc.); basket containing steamed rice and eggs and a packet made of banana leaves; an apparition that takes the form of a bundle rolling across one's path (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋoroʔkind of tree which produces a good grade of timber: Lagerstroemia speciosa (PAN: *buŋuR)

burasaʔkind of rice croquette made of steamed rice mixed with boiled coconut cream which is then wrapped in a banana leaf, tightly bound and cooked (LOAN)

burassiŋto sneeze (PWMP: *buresin)

burassiŋto sneeze (NOISE)

burintiʔsmall white, black or red spots or speckles on the skin (ROOT)

buriʔwith multicolored feathers (PWMP: *burik)

Makasarese (440 / 1014)

buruŋ-buruŋkind of small red insect (LOAN)

buruŋ garejasparrow (LOAN)

buruŋ matibird of paradise (known only from nonliving specimens imported from eastern Indonesia) (LOAN)

burusuʔpull off (sarong, shirt over the head, belt from the belt-loop of the pants); remove, slip off (as ring from finger) (PWMP: *burus₁)

busafoam (on water, milk, beer, mouth of an animal; the frothy sweat between the hind legs of a horse that has run hard (PMP: *busa₁)

busa-kanrefoam that appears when boiling rice (PMP: *busa₁)

busaʔrotten (of wood); weak, soft and mushy (fruit) (PWMP: *bucek)

bussuŋswollen belly, dropsy (PWMP: *busuŋ)

butablind; dull, of a mirror which has lost all or most of its quicksilver (and hence its reflectivity); dry, of a well (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta-butakind of fish, a small kakap (Lates spp.) (PWMP: *butaq₁)

butoscrotum; sack of a fish net; rear portion of a large fish trap; point of a nail; (fig.) most prominent part of a business matter or a feast; someone who gives support to, or from whom the impetus comes for some piece of work (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

buttaearth, ground, land (PMP: *buRtaq)

butta basawetlands (as defined by the land tax administration) (PMP: *buRtaq)

buttulump, knot, bump, unevenness; round kemiri pit (one per fruit) (PMP: *butequl)

buttu-kalloŋAdam's apple (PMP: *butequl)

buttuk-ihammer it in! (PMP: *butuk)

buttuʔknock something in (as a nail); drive or ram something in (as ammunition into a gun) (PMP: *butuk)

buwufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

buwuŋ-aŋridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

buyaŋkind of bark cloth used to wrap packages, and as writing paper (PWMP: *buyaŋ)

Makasarese (460 / 1014)

buyaŋplaying cards; banknote (LOAN)

buyaŋ buŋa-buŋathin colored paper used to make decorative paper flowers (PWMP: *buyaŋ)

buyaŋ layaŋ-layaŋkite paper; Chinese paper made of bamboo and used among other things to manufacture kites (PWMP: *buyaŋ)

buʔbuk-aninfested with wood worms, decayed (PMP: *bukbuk-an) *bukbuk₃

buʔbuluʔkind of tree with edible fruit, somewhat like those of the katondeŋ Vitex cofassus) (NOISE)

buʔbuʔpull out (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

buʔbuʔwood worm; the powder or dust that falls out of wood or bamboo being eaten by this insect (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

buʔneedible berries of the pokoʔ-buʔne, a large tree (PWMP: *buRnay)

buʔne maricakind of Antidesma, smaller than the ordinary Antidesma and very sour after ripening (PWMP: *buRnay)

buʔne reakind of buʔne: Antidesma Rumphii (PWMP: *buRnay)

buʔne-tedoŋAntidesma bunius, somewhat larger than the usual buʔne and, after ripening slightly bitter (PWMP: *buRnay)

caʔcaʔgecko, house lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

dadabreast of birds, chickens and ducks (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

dataraʔflat, level (PAN: *dataR)

datuBuginese princely title (PMP: *datu)

dillaʔglitter, sparkle (metal), glisten (skin), flicker (fire) (PMP: *dilap₁)

dukkubend over, duck down (PMP: *duku)

dukkubend over, duck down (<*-ku) (ROOT)

duyuŋdugong; its tears are used as an aphrodisiac (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

gaduŋkind of tuber used as medicine: Dioscorea hispida (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

Makasarese (480 / 1014)

gallaŋ-gallaŋworm; earthworm; intestinal worm (PWMP: *gelaŋ)

gammisucker fish: Echeneis naucrates (PMP: *gemi)

gannaʔcomplete, full (of a certain quantity or a certain duration of time; sufficient; to complete with something; even, of numbers; never satisfied, difficult (of a person) (PWMP: *genep)

gannaʔ-mi si-tauŋa full year has passed (PWMP: *genep)

gan-tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

gantuʔknock against with any body part except the foot (PMP: *ga(n)tuk)

gaŋgaŋhold tightly in the fist (PAN: *gemgem)

gasiŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gayaŋkind of weapon, long and pointed and sharp on both sides (PAN: *gayaŋ)

giliŋthe reverse of something (PMP: *giliŋ)

gioʔmovement, the way that one moves in walking, manner of doing something, way of acting (NOISE)

girito tickle (PMP: *giri)

gonciŋscissors (LOAN)

gulim-papatree with strong wood (PMP: *pa(m)pa)

ia3sg. and pl. (PAN: *ia₁)

iademonstrative (postnominal), that (PMP: *ia₂)

iaŋmay not (PWMP: *ian₁)

i bukkuʔthe humped one, a nickname for someone with an arched back or chest (PMP: *buŋkuk)

i-lalaŋin, inside; at, upon, by (PMP: *i dalem) *dalem

ilaŋlose in the toŋkó (dice) game; deceased (of princes or prominent persons) (PMP: *qilaŋ)

Makasarese (500 / 1014)

i-lauk-annawestward, the west side of something (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

i-lauʔin the west, of the west (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

iliŋturn the head sideways, bend the head to left or right (PWMP: *iliŋ₃)

illaʔbe wide open, of the eyes (PMP: *hilat)

iloroʔmoisture in the mouth (PMP: *iluR₁)

inaM (poetic) (PMP: *ina)

inraŋdebt, money that has been lent to someone (PWMP: *hinzam)

inruʔthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera; the flower spadix is tapped to make palm wine (PWMP: *izuk)

intaŋdiamond (LOAN)

inuŋto drink (PMP: *inum)

inuŋ-aŋdrink something with something else (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

inuʔ-inuŋ-andrinks, ususally applied specifically to liquor (PMP: *inum-inum-an) *inum

iŋaʔmindful of; remember; return to consciousness (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋkoŋtail (PMP: *ikuŋ)

ioyes, affirmative (PMP: *qio)

iparaʔHB, HZ, WB, WZ (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipiʔpress hard on something; pinch, squeeze (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

iraŋcrave foods, of a pregnant woman (PWMP: *qidam)

iriʔto fan, to blow (of the wind) (PMP: *irid₁)

iruʔsip, slurp (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

Makasarese (520 / 1014)

isoʔsuck, sniff, slurp up; to smoke (tobacco) (PMP: *qisep)

ituŋthink about something (PWMP: *qituŋ)

iʔjaspelling (LOAN)

jaiʔsewing (PMP: *zaqit)

jangaŋ bulu auash-colored, gray (of chickens) (PMP: *bulu₁)

jaŋaŋ buriʔa cock with multicolored feathers (PWMP: *burik)

jaraŋhorse (LOAN)

jaraŋ bulu dareʔmouse-colored horse (PMP: *bulu₁)

jaraŋ matehorse that doesn't want to run any more (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

jaruŋneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

jujuŋ-aŋload to be carried on the head (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ-an) *zuŋzuŋ

ka-prefix that forms adjectives carrying a sense of being caused or brought about: ka-mallaɁ-mallaɁ ‘struck with fear’ (cp. mallaɁ ‘afraid’) (PMP: *ka-₇)

ka-anakk-aŋbirth; be born at a certain time (PWMP: *ka-anak-an) *aNak

ka-baŋŋi-aŋovercome by darkness, benighted (PWMP: *ka-beRŋi-an) *beRŋi

ka-gannakk-aŋcompleteness (PWMP: *ka-genep-an) *genep

kairileft, left side, port side of ship (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister; sometimes used by a woman as a term of address to her husband (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

kakkasaʔshake out, spread out (a towel, mat) (PMP: *kaskas₁)

kali-mataʔkind of leech that enters the nose and ears to drink (PWMP: *kali-matek) *-matek

kali-moʔmoroʔrinse the mouth, gargle (PWMP: *kali-muRmuR) *muRmuR

Makasarese (540 / 1014)

kaliwaraant (PAN: *kali-)

kallaŋobscure, dark (PAN: *kelem)

kalutuʔ bomboŋcigar or cigarette made of the young leaves of the nipah palm (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₃)

ka-mate-aŋdeath; end of the lunar cycle (PWMP: *ka-m-atay-an) *aCay

ka-mate-idie somewhere; die with someone (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

kambaŋswelling, boil (PWMP: *kembaŋ)

kambaraʔa pair or a whole formed of two or more things or persons that resemble one another; twins (LOAN)

kambuthe innermost part of something; pith of palms (PMP: *kambu)

kammamami jukuʔ ilalaŋ buno-aŋhe is like a fish caught in the back of a fish weir (said of someone who is trapped with no route of escape) (PWMP: *bunuq-an₂) *buNuq₂

kampiŋextra work, second job, to "moonlight" (PWMP: *kapin)

kananright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kanaŋatree with redolent flowers: Cananga odorata (PMP: *kanaŋa)

kanawakind of tree (PMP: *kanawa)

kanukunail, claw, hoof (PMP: *k<an>uhkuh) *kuSkuS₁

kaŋkoŋa plant: Ipomoea aquatica (LOAN)

kapuʔfastened shut, of a chest; buttoned, of a jacket; closed, of the mouth, eyes (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput

karaŋcoral (PMP: *karaŋ)

ka-ratu-aŋ(old and poetic) princely quality (PMP: *datu)

k-arraŋcry out, shout (PMP: *heReŋ)

karrasaʔfearsome, imposing; evil, ill-omened (PMP: *keRas)

Makasarese (560 / 1014)

ka-siaŋŋ-aŋbe overcome by daylight (as when oversleeping) (PWMP: *siaŋ)

kasorafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kasuaricassowary (LOAN)

katalaʔitch, itchy; lascivious (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kattaŋwood plane (LOAN)

katumbaraʔcorinander seed, used in preparing spices (LOAN)

kau-kaukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

kayuwood; classifier for counting animals, rolls of goods, pieces (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu aŋina tree, Casuarina spp. (PWMP: *kahiw haŋin haŋin)

kayu busaʔdecayed wood (PWMP: *bucek)

kayu saŋawood of the Stagnaria verniciflua; it has a sap that causes strong itching (PWMP: *saŋa₂)

kayu si-bisaʔone piece of firewood (PMP: *biseqak)

kedismall (PAN: *kedi) Salayar

kekeʔto croak, of frogs (PMP: *ke(k)kek)

kémpaŋlame (PWMP: *kimpaŋ)

keŋkeŋbark (of a dog) (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

kidito tickle (PMP: *kidi)

kilak-ilightning is flashing (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kilaʔlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kiloreflected light, glitter, glint (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

Makasarese (580 / 1014)

koŋkoŋdog; also used as a call; waterfowl named from its cry (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

kotaearlier: fort; in stories translated from Malay, a city (LOAN)

kotachewed food (such as given to a young child) (LOAN)

kuato speak, to say (PWMP: *kua₂) *kua₁

kuliʔhide; skin; leather; peeling; scale (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kuŋkuŋshrink, contract (PMP: *kunkun)

kuŋkuŋshrink, contract (PMP: *kuŋkuŋ₃)

kuritaoctopus (people believe that these animals can sink large ships) (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kurruword by which chickens are called (PMP: *kuru₁)

kutulouse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu-aŋto have lice (PWMP: *kutu-an) *kuCux

kuʔruʔclucking sound of hen used to call chickens or used by hen to call her chicks (PWMP: *kuruk)

labusunk, as a ship; driven in, as a thorn in the sole of the foot or a dagger in someone’s body (PWMP: *labuq)

labu batuanchorage (‘the sinking of the anchor stone’) (PWMP: *labuq)

laiaginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia)

lalaŋin, inside, inmost (PMP: *dalem)

lammaweak, soft, slack (also of leadership); flexible, supple; inner part of bread (PWMP: *lemeq)

lammasaʔto sink under, drown; suffocate (as in smoke) (PMP: *lemes)

lammassaŋto hold under water, drown (someone or something) (PWMP: *lemes-en) *lemes

lamuʔmosquito (PMP: *lamuk₂)

Makasarese (600 / 1014)

laŋe-iswim toward something, swim in something (PWMP: *laŋuy)

laŋiʔsky, firmament (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋiʔ-laŋiʔpalate (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

lappasaʔloose, liberated, free; dismissed, discharged; come to an end, past (PWMP: *lepas)

larisea fish with five stripes, much relished because it is not oily and has few bones (PMP: *lajih)

larirun, run away, flee (PAN: *laRiw)

lassuʔbe born (PWMP: *lecut)

lauʔwest (in Goa); south (in Bantaeng) (PAN: *lahud)

layaŋto glide through the air, as an object that has been thrown; to vaporize, as the bouquet of wine or the power of a medicine (PWMP: *layaŋ)

laʔbimore (than); remainder (PWMP: *lebiq)

leaŋcave, grotto, cavern, den (PMP: *liaŋ)

leaŋŋ-iexcavate a cave (PMP: *liaŋ)

likueddy, whirlpool in a river (PMP: *liku₁)

lilatongue; tongue-shaped object (e.g. the needle of a scale for weighing) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lila-lilakind of fish (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lila macaŋkind of cactus (lit. ‘tiger tongue’) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lila-pepeʔtongue of flame that darts upward (PMP: *dilaq₁)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-limaall five (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

luasomething that one has spat out (PMP: *luaq)

Makasarese (620 / 1014)

luaraʔwide (as nostrils); stretched out, expansive; upper surface (PMP: *luqaR)

lua-sawakind of gemstone (lit. ‘spat out by a python’) (PMP: *luaq)

luasaʔspacious, wide; neighborhood, vicinity (PMP: *luas)

lumuʔmoss, green mould on walls during the rainy season (PMP: *lumut)

luraŋload, cargo (PMP: *lujan)

ma-iŋaʔmindful of, remember (PWMP: *ma-iŋat) *iŋat

maka-appaʔfourth (PWMP: *maka-epat) *Sepat

maka-appaʔ-nathe fourth (PWMP: *maka-epat) *Sepat

maka-lima-nathe fifth, at the fifth (PAN: *maka-lima) *lima

maka-ruasecond (PMP: *maka-duha) *duSa

maka-talluthird (PWMP: *maka-telu) *telu

maka-tallu-nathe third (PWMP: *maka-telu) *telu

mali-malia shrub, Leea aequata (PMP: *mali-mali) *mali

mamaa betel chew, betel quid (PMP: *mamaq)

m-anaʔget a child (of father and mother), bear, give birth (PMP: *ma-anak) *aNak

man-n--ereʔstench, especially of fish or blood (NOISE)

maŋiwaŋshark (NEAR)

m-arraŋto cry (deer), to bark (dogs), to moo, bellow (cattle) (PMP: *heReŋ)

mataraw, unripe, uncooked (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mataeye; also used for anything that resembles an eye, such as: round holes in a rice block; anus; mesh of a net; opening in plaitwork or weaving; coin; blade (of knives and weapons); iron part of a tool; point of a needle; marks on a scale (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Makasarese (640 / 1014)

mata allosun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata aŋiŋfull force of the wind, full wind (PMP: *mata nu haŋin) *maCa

mata assuŋround holes in a rice mortar (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata baraʔprecise direction of the west (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata jalamesh of a net (< Malay) (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mata jaruŋeye of a needle (PWMP: *mata nu zaRum) *maCa

mata lalaŋguide, pilot (PMP: *mata nu zalan) *maCa

mata-mataa memento, souvenir; a spy (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata pasaraʔchief market day, busiest market day (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata uaŋsilver, coins that ‘clink’ (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedead; die; new moon; paralyzed (of limbs); having lost its force (as glue that is no longer adhesive); beaten (in a game); completely done (of a matter) (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate-aŋdeclare someone dead (PMP: *m-atay-an) *aCay

mate-i aŋiŋ-athere is no wind, the wind has died (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate matedie in throngs (in times of epidemic); total (with verbs) (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

ma-toavillage head in Buginese and Makasarese lands (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

mattuŋmake a dull sound (as a heavy fruit falling to earth), rumble, roar (as distant cannon) (ROOT)

miññaʔoil; deliciously fatty, delicious, of feeling and taste (PMP: *miñak)

naand (PAN: *Na)

naelement used to introduce consecutive senses, the connection of words in addition and comparison (the introduction of the second part of a comparison); and (NOISE)

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

Makasarese (660 / 1014)

naraŋaccustomed; tame, of animals (PAN: *najam)

natotree with wood that isn’t strong (planks are made from it) (PMP: *ñatuq)

niaʔ laiana(‘he sits in ginger’) = ‘He is of noble descent’ (PMP: *laqia)

ni-biŋkurudyed red with biŋkuru (PWMP: *biŋkudu)

nipaa swamp palm: Nipa fruticans, the leaves of which are used as roof thatch (PMP: *nipaq)

nipisiʔthin, of flat objects; light, in the sense of not being of a serious nature (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

-nu2sg possessor (PWMP: *-nu)

ñawabreath, breath of life, life-force; temperament, character; lively, spirited, temperamental (of racing horses) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ñoʔñoʔslurp, sip, drink as animals do (PMP: *ñepñep)

ŋísito grin, snigger (in anger, while laughing); lie open, of a wound; to whinny loudly, of a horse (thought of as the raising of the upper lip of a whinnying horse) (PMP: *ŋisi)

-ŋku1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

obusfinished, gone; dispersed (PMP: *qubus)

cry with which one hails someone else (PMP: *huy)

olofront part; prow of a boat; earlier, the first, do before others; (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

olor-aŋfishing pole (PWMP: *huluR-an) *SuluR

oloʔworm, caterpillar (humorous: children) (PMP: *qulej)

opuSir, Madam; title of traditional community leader (PMP: *umpu) Salayar

otiŋ(humorous) penis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

otiŋiron pin at the base of the blade of a kris used to bind blade and hilt together (PMP: *utiŋ)

-pastill, yet (PAN: *pa₁)

Makasarese (680 / 1014)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

p(a)-aŋiŋhang up in the wind to dry, as laundry (PMP: *pa(ka)-haŋin) *haŋin

pa-aŋkaʔbearer, carrier (PWMP: *pa-aŋkat) *aŋkat

pa-ballisell; buy something with something (PWMP: *pa-beli) *beli

pa-balli-aŋbuy something for something (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

pa-balliʔlaths to which the /rakka-rakka/ laths are attached; also the ties of rattan or lontar palm bast fiber (PWMP: *belit₁)

pa-baŋŋistay overnight (PMP: *beRŋi)

pa-baŋŋispend the night, stay overnight (PWMP: *pa-beRŋi) *beRŋi

pa-baŋuŋmake someone stand up (PWMP: *pa-baŋun) *baŋuN

pa-biriŋa coastal dweller (PWMP: *pa-bidiŋ) *bidiŋ

pa-boroŋ-andock worker (LOAN)

pa-bunokiller, one who kills; kill; use something to kill (PMP: *pa-bunuq) *buNuq₂

pa-gannaʔto complete something; replenish (PWMP: *pa-genep) *genep

pagaraʔfence (PMP: *pager)

pa-inraŋlend (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

pa-inraŋto lend (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

pa-inuŋa drinker -- someone who regularly imbibes alcohol (PMP: *pa-inum) *inum

pa-inuŋ-aŋgive someone something to drink (PWMP: *pa-inum-en) *inum

pa-iŋaʔmake mindful, warn (PWMP: *pa-iŋat) *iŋat

paiʔgall; bitter; difficult (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

Makasarese (700 / 1014)

pa-jujuŋpeople (especially women) who carry loads on their heads (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

paka-prefix for adjectives or stative verbs (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

paka-gannaʔto make complete (PWMP: *genep)

pakaŋcross threads in weaving (PMP: *pakan)

pakaŋŋ-iweave a weft thread through the warp (PMP: *pakan)

pakufern, of which certain types are eaten as vegetables (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pakuspike, nail (LOAN)

pa-kutusomeone who is skilled at delousing, louse-seeker (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

palanutmeg (LOAN)

palanasaddle (LOAN)

palaŋlowest crosspiece of a ladder on the ground (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

palaŋeflowery cloth (worn over the shoulder by women at festivals) (LOAN)

palaŋ-palaŋwooden support on the weather side of the mast on which the sail is laid when struck in bad weather (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

palapamidrib of palm fronds and banana leaves; leafstalk of papayas and some other trees (PMP: *palaqpaq)

pa-larirunner, running, flight (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

pa-lari-aŋrunning, running away (PWMP: *pa-laRiw-an) *laRiw

palu-paluhammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

palu-paluhammer; cudgel, club; tool for beating (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

pa-matemistake for dead (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

pam-baŋuŋ-aŋstand up somewhere; raise something for someone, erect something at a certain time (PWMP: *paŋ-baŋun-an) *baŋuN

Makasarese (720 / 1014)

pamm-anakk-aŋuterus, womb (PWMP: *paR-anak-an) *aNak

pamm-aŋiŋ-aŋsomething used to dry things in the wind, clothesline (PMP: *haŋin)

pam-masaʔwedge (PAN: *pacek)

pam-milechoice (PAN: *piliq)

pam-mile-aŋwhat is left over after a choice is made; remainder (PWMP: *pa-miliq-an) *piliq

pam-munokilling; means of killing, etc. (PWMP: *paŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

panabow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

panasaʔa plant: Amomum acre. The pith of the large stems and fruits is minced and put in vinegar; the taste is pungent; the plant is also used as a medicine (PMP: *panas₂)

pandaŋname of various types of pandanus (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

pannofull (PMP: *penuq)

panospots on the skin (sometimes regarded as a sign of beauty) (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

pano-aŋcovered with skin spots (PWMP: *panaw-en) *panaw

pañikiflying fox (PMP: *paniki)

paññusea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

paŋbanging sould (as a gun firing, inner tube bursting) (PMP: *paŋ)

paŋaŋ-aŋkaʔthe lifting, raising (PWMP: *paŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

paŋgaŋroasting of chicken (or a piece of chicken) (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋitree with large fruits each of which contains two or three seeds: Pangium edule; after the seeds are cooked, one obtains a black mucilaginous substance from them which is used in the preparation of certain dishes (PWMP: *paŋi)

paŋkaʔrank, class, age-grade (LOAN)

paŋŋ-anaŋweave bamboo or rattan around something (PMP: *añam)

Makasarese (740 / 1014)

paŋŋ-anaʔthe third strand added in making rope (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

paŋŋ-antaraʔexchange presents at the end of the fasting month, or at Chinese or European New Year (PWMP: *paŋ-hateD) *SateD

paŋŋ-apiʔyoung women who flank the bride; young men who flank the groom (PWMP: *paŋ-hapit) *Sapit

paŋŋ-inuŋ-aŋanything used for drinking, as a drinking glass or beaker (PWMP: *paŋ-inum-an) *inum

paomango (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pa-panashoot with (something) (PAN: *panaq)

papaŋplank, board (PMP: *papan)

pa-pilelet someone choose something (PWMP: *pa-piliq) *piliq

pa-pile-pilefastidious, squeamish (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

pa-pukaʔfishermen who fish together with a dragnet (PWMP: *pa-puket) *puket₁

paragerm of the coconut that remains in the nut and later sprouts (PMP: *para)

paraall, both (in composite expressions) (PMP: *paRa₂)

paraall, both (in combinations); same, equal (mostly in combinations) (PWMP: *pada)

paraattic, loft (PAN: *paRa₁) Bantaeng

parallakk-eŋfarmyard, compound (PWMP: *parelak)

paramatagemstone (LOAN)

paraŋfield, treeless plain (PWMP: *padaŋ)

paraŋenature, character (LOAN)

para-paratrellis for tendrils to creep up (PWMP: *paraq paraq)

para-paragrill on which a cooking pot is set (PMP: *paRa paRa) *paRa₁

Makasarese (760 / 1014)

parapaʔone fourth (PWMP: *paR-epat) *Sepat

parapaʔone fourth (LOAN)

parappaʔa tree with a fruit shaped like an apple: Sonneratia oborata (PWMP: *paRatpat)

parerice in the field (PAN: *pajay)

parrohoarse (PWMP: *peRaw)

parroʔuse pressure to squeeze something out (as on a mother’s breast, a wound or a boil) (PAN: *peRes)

pasaŋpair, couple, set (LOAN)

pasaraʔmarket (LOAN)

pas-sukkiɁsupply a bamboo pole with a hook in order to pick fruit from a tree, or a bucket from the well; to pick, pluck (PMP: *su(ŋ)kit)

pasuprominent cheek bones (PAN: *pasu₁)

pa-suloilluminate with a torch in order to find something; use as a torch (PMP: *suluq)

pat-aNfour (in 40, 400, 4,000) (PWMP: *pat-aŋ) *Sepat

pa-tetecross over something (as a plank bridge); walk shakily, as people do (PMP: *taytay)

pattaŋdarkness as of night; also darkness during the day, as when an earthquake strikes (PWMP: *peteŋ)

pat-taʔmisito sweeten, make something sweet (PMP: *taq(e)mis)

pattichest, box (LOAN)

pat-tunu-aŋoffering feast; place where burnt offerings are made (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

pattuŋkind of large bamboo (PWMP: *patuŋ)

pa-turuŋ-aŋtime of descent, of the falling of the rain; landing strip, airfield (PMP: *tuRun₁)

pa-uriŋ-uriŋ-anto separate, of a married couple (PMP: *kudin)

Makasarese (780 / 1014)

payuŋparasol, umbrella; parasol as a sign of high rank (PWMP: *payuŋ)

paʔa chisel (PMP: *paqet)

paʔ-balaŋgu-aŋimprisonment, confinement in shackles (LOAN)

paʔ-baŋŋi-aŋaccommodation for the night, place where one spends the night (PWMP: *paR-beRŋi-an) *beRŋi

paʔ-batuturn to stone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

paʔ-bine-aŋseed bed for young rice plants (PWMP: *paR-binehiq-an) *bineSiq

paʔ-biriŋset aside, put on the side (PMP: *bidiŋ)

paʔ-biriŋset aside, put on the side (PMP: *biriŋ₁)

paʔ-bisiʔ-bisik-aŋwhisper about someone (PWMP: *bisik bisik) *bisik₃

paʔ-bulisubstance used to make sago starch bitter and strong, namely the bast fiber of certain trees (NOISE)

paʔdaŋsword (LOAN)

paʔŋisiʔgrin (as a monkey that shows its teeth) (ROOT)

paʔ-rinriŋpartition off (with curtain, etc.) (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

paʔrisiʔpainful, smarting, laborious, difficult; pain (PMP: *hapejis)

peraʔsilver (LOAN)

pi-katusend (PAN: *pa-kaCu) *kaCu

pi-katuto send (PAN: *kaCu)

pile-aŋchoose something for someone (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

pilisiʔcheeks (Cense 1979); temples (Mills 1975) (PWMP: *pilis)

pinrachanged (PWMP: *pindaq)

Makasarese (800 / 1014)

pintalaʔintertwined thread; sewing thread (PWMP: *pintal)

pin-tallu(-ŋ)three times (PWMP: *pin-telu) *telu

pintaraʔclever, knowledgeable (LOAN)

pippiʔsmall bird similar to a sparrow (PWMP: *pitpit₁)

pira-ŋhow much?, how many? (in combination forms) (PAN: *pijax)

pokacut into pieces (PMP: *pu(ŋ)kaq)

pokacut into pieces (PMP: *pukaq)

pokoʔ raʔraʔa tree, Erythrina indica (PMP: *dapdap₁)

pooŋtree trunk (PMP: *puqun)

puaŋroyal or princely father or mother; royal uncle or aunt (if older than one's father or mother; if younger than one's father or mother then puto is 'uncle' and aya is 'aunt') (PMP: *puaŋ)

puasathe Muslim fasting period (LOAN)

pucuʔtop of a tree, tip of the tongue (PAN: *qapucuk)

pucuʔyoung, not yet fully opened leaves; tip of a leaf that is thinner and finer than the rest (PWMP: *pucuk)

puiʔ-puiʔa wooden wind instrument: clarinet (LOAN)

pukaʔkind of large fishnet without a sack that is spread out over the sea or across a river and is then hauled in (PMP: *puket₁)

pulu-aŋgroup of ten (PWMP: *puluq-an) *puluq

pune-punekind of wild dove with metallic green feathers; considered a delicacy (PMP: *punay punay) *punay

pu-nna-ihave or possess something (PWMP: *empu-ni-a) *empu

puppuk-aŋblowpipe (PWMP: *puput-an) *putput₂

puppuluʔto gather in, specifically of fruits and crops (as jambu, peanuts, pepper) (PWMP: *pulpul₁)

Makasarese (820 / 1014)

puppusuʔto run out, get low (in supply); remainder (PWMP: *puspus₁)

rabuk-itorn to tatters (PMP: *Rabuk)

rabuʔbroken to bits; in rags, tatters (PMP: *Rabuk)

rakaʔunit of measure: as much as a man can encircle with both arms (as a tree) (PAN: *dakep)

rakik-aŋa raftful (in counting the quantity of bamboos or houseposts) (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

rakiʔraft of wood or bamboo (PMP: *Rakit)

rampasaʔrob, plunder (PMP: *raŋ(e)pas)

rapaʔtightly spaced (as plaiting); joined closely or tightly; bound closely to something; close to the ground (PMP: *dapet)

rappafathom, distance between the tips of the middle fingers of the outstretched arms (PMP: *depa)

rappuŋcome together, assemble (PMP: *rempun)

rarablood (PAN: *daRaq)

raraŋradiation (of sunlight) (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

ratuold word for karaeng, prince (PMP: *datu)

rauŋleaf (PMP: *dahun)

rere-uriŋfoam that rises to the surface when cooking rice (PMP: *diqdiq)

riin, at, on; toward; from (PAN: *di)

rimpuŋhave an arthritic pain in the loin, thigh, knee (as pregnant women sometimes have); unable to stand up, as a bound pig (PMP: *rimpuŋ)

rinriŋwall (of planks, thatch, woven bamboo (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

rinriŋ-iwall in, surround with walls (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

ri-oloin front, go before; earlier, the first to come; do something before something else (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

Makasarese (840 / 1014)

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rumbiasago palm (PMP: *Rumbia)

runtuʔpounding of the heart (Also: Bare'e rutu 'sound of pounding or knocking') (ROOT)

sagusago, edible palm pith (PMP: *sagu₁)

saladeviating from what it should be: mistake, error, fault; guilty, and because of it needing to pay a fine; something resembling a thing that it really is not; not true, pseudo; accidental; useless, in vain; preliminary, not definitive; fine, penalty (for offense) (PMP: *salaq₁)

salagaharrow, of which one with short, thick teeth is used to plough, and one with long, slender teeth is used to rake up grass and stubble (LOAN)

salaŋgashoulder (NEAR)

sallataŋland wind (PWMP: *salatan)

sallaʔstrait, narrow sea passage between landmasses; pass between islands or between an island and the mainland (PWMP: *selat)

saluʔbamboo water conduit (from well to kitchen, etc.) (PWMP: *saluD)

saluʔbamboo water pipe from a well to the kitchen or a spring to the house (PWMP: *saluR)

saluʔ-kayuroof gutter of wood (PWMP: *saluR)

sam-paŋkaʔof the same rank, of the same class (LOAN)

sampewooden saddle hung over the back of a pack animal, to which the load is hooked (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

sa-m-puloten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

saŋgaraʔbaked, roasted; scorched, singed (of rice standing in the field) (PMP: *saŋelaR)

saŋgarr-aŋto bake for, to bake with or in (PWMP: *saŋelaR-an) *saŋelaR

saŋŋotalk through the nose (PWMP: *seŋ(e)qaw)

sa-pala-palaif it must be (LOAN)

sapohouse (PAN: *sapaw)

Makasarese (860 / 1014)

sappuʔblowpipe; childrens’ blowpipes are made of bamboo (PWMP: *seput)

saro m-asefeeling of commiseration for another person which leads to sympathy or compassion; compassionate condition (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

sarrekind of tussock grass: Andropogon nardus; a medicinal oil is extracted from the roots, and the stalks are used as a condiment (PWMP: *seray)

sattuluʔtree with sour fruit the size of a tennis ball and bark used medicinally: Sandoricum koetjape (LOAN)

sattuluʔtree with sour fruit the size of a tennis ball and bark used medicinally: Sandoricum koetjape (LOAN)

sattuluʔtree with sour fruit the size of a tennis ball and bark used medicinally: Sandoricum koetjape (LOAN)

sauruɁconquered; what is subdued or made to give up; no longer able to resist; no longer able to perform (as through old age); having become useless (PWMP: *saur₂)

sawaŋuse magical means to cause sickness in infants, resulting in convulsions; to have convulsions (PWMP: *sawan)

sekeʔnarrow; oppressed; stifled; sit in a cramped position (PWMP: *seket)

siaŋdaylight (PWMP: *siaŋ)

sikkiɁto pick or take up, as a cock in the cockfight, the rolled-up part of a sarong in order to fasten this tightly over the breast; also, to acquire a good name (NOISE)

sikuelbow; carpenter’s square (PAN: *sikux)

siloglimmer (of sun, moon, lamp, fire) (PMP: *silaw)

siŋaraɁclear, bright; daylight; glow of a lamp; clear (of a concept) (PMP: *siŋaR)

sipiʔtongs, pincers (as for picking up hot coals), claws of a crab (PAN: *sipit)

sisosmall mollusk found in fish ponds (PWMP: *sisuq)

sombatitle of princes; mark of homage made by bringing the palms together in a gesture of respect (LOAN)

subaŋlong ear ornament (button with a tube) (PWMP: *subeŋ)

sulaŋembroidery (formerly found only in stories translated from Malay) (PMP: *sulam)

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

Makasarese (880 / 1014)

suliʔrare (PWMP: *sulit₁)

sulotorch (PMP: *suluq)

sumaŋaʔimmaterial body, essence, soul; consciousness (people claim that the sumaŋaʔ has the same form as the material body, but never dies; it can take flight, endangering the body it occupies, and when this happens it must be called back) (PMP: *sumaŋed)

sumiʔmoustache (PWMP: *sumit)

sumpiʔblowpipe (PMP: *sumpit) Bantaeng

suramantrap; sharpened bamboo spikes in a pit trap for pigs (PMP: *suja)

suraɁwriting, letter (< Malay) (LOAN)

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susuŋlayer, stack, shelf (as of bookrack) (PMP: *susun) *susuN

susuruɁrun along the edge; sail along the coast (PWMP: *susuR)

taena niciniʔ bulu mata-nnahe is not to be found (lit. 'there is not an eyelash to be seen of him') (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

tagaŋgood proof against; well able to endure (NOISE)

taiwaste, dregs; feces; rust (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai arusuʔkind of black, slippery and shiny seaweed from which whips or armrings are made (PWMP: *taqi qaRus) *qaRus

tai bintuŋshooting star (PWMP: *taqi ni bituqen) *Caqi

tajiartificial spur for a fighting cock (LOAN)

takkato come (PMP: *teka₁)

takka luppa mate-matetotally forget (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

takkaŋstick, staff, walking stick (PMP: *teken)

takkaŋ bodohumorous for ‘penis’ (lit. short stick) (PMP: *teken)

Makasarese (900 / 1014)

talaŋ-talaŋmiddle growth stage of the lari (sea fish with five stripes) (PWMP: *talaŋ-talaŋ)

tali(in combination forms) cord, string (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali-tali-aŋmoor a large boat by tying in various places (as at prow and stern), esp. during the west monsoon; fig. restrain a furious person from every side (PWMP: *talih-an) *CaliS

tallaŋsink, sink away (PWMP: *teleŋ)

tallaŋto sink, sink away (PMP: *telem)

talluthree (PAN: *telu)

tallu-talluall three; only three; three, in games of cards and dice (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

taluŋpast the time of bearing (of fruits); bear no more fruit (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tamanaŋsterile, childless (PWMP: *tamanaŋ)

tambagared copper (LOAN)

tambakotobacco (LOAN)

tambanunukind of fish, lighter-colored than barrukaŋ (barrukaŋ = kind of fish that lives in river mouths and swamps, smooth, shiny and scaleless, gray and black with barbels on the mouth and poisonous spines on the back) (PWMP: *tambaŋuŋu)

tambaraʔantidote (PMP: *tambar)

tambaraʔantidote (PWMP: *tabaR)

tambaraʔ rappo-rappoa shrub with leaves that are used as medicine: Clerodendron inerme (PMP: *tambar)

tambuŋheap, pile (PMP: *tabun₂)

tammuall around, surrounded (PMP: *temu₁)

tammutype of Curcuma (turmeric), the grated roots of which are pressed to yield a yellow dye used in weaving (PWMP: *temu₃)

tanaland, wet ricefield (PMP: *taneq)

tan-aŋ (< *taqan-an)to maintain balance, not waver (PWMP: *taqan₂)

Makasarese (920 / 1014)

tanaʔcoconut milk from which oil is boiled out; smelting of tin or lead (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

tannuŋloom; threads for weaving (PAN: *tenun)

tannuŋ-aŋwhat one has set up to weave with; kind of indicator for counting the quantity of threads (PAN: *tenun-an) *tenun

tantaŋstretched taut; steadfast (ROOT)

taŋaŋ-taŋaŋRicinis communis; the fruits yield castor oil; two varieties occur, one purple, the other white (PWMP: *taŋan-taŋan)

taŋŋacenter, middle; keep to the center (PMP: *teŋaq)

tapesteamed and then fermented stick rice (PWMP: *tapay)

tappaʔwithout variation; usual; precise (of calculations) (PWMP: *tepet)

tappusuʔcompletely, entirely, all over (PAN: *tapus)

taraŋsharp (of something pointed); sharp, of taste, sight, or understanding (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tar-aŋkaʔbe lifted or raised (cp. Bahasa Indonesia ter-aŋkat) (PWMP: *taR-aŋkat) *aŋkat

taraŋ matasharp-sighted, sharp-eyed (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

taraŋŋito sharpen (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tarimathank you (in the expression tarima-kasi, from Malay) (LOAN)

taruŋa plant resembling the indigo plant, but yielding no indigo; probably Cassia tagera (PMP: *taRum)

tasiʔsea (PMP: *tasik)

tat-taito defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tau katalaʔa lascivious person (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

tauŋyear (PMP: *taqun)

tauŋ-tauŋ matareflection of a person in someone’s eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Makasarese (940 / 1014)

taʔbaŋto cut down, fell (as a banana tree past its prime yielding) (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

taʔbusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

taʔ-buʔbuʔpulled out, extracted (kris, tooth, nail, etc.) (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

taʔ-limafive each, five together (PWMP: *taR-lima) *lima

taʔmisivery sweet, of food (PMP: *taq(e)mis)

tedoŋ tunu-aŋbuffalo fattened for sacrifice (PAN: *tunuh-an) *CuNuh

teraʔbelching, a belch; to belch (PMP: *teRab) *CeRab

teteplank bridge, a plank or tree trunk laid across a stream or ravine (PMP: *taytay)

tian-aŋpregnant (also applied to the rice plant when the grains are full) (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

timbaŋthe weight of something (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timbaŋ-aŋbalance scales; result of consideration, advice (PWMP: *timbaŋ-an) *timbaŋ

tippuluʔdull, blunt (ROOT)

tirostare, look into the distance (PMP: *tindaw)

tisiʔmake a hissing sound with the mouth when eating hot foods, such as chili peppers (ROOT)

tittiʔtrickling out (of liquid substances such as sweat or blood) (PMP: *tiktik)

toa-kumy grandfather or grandmother (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

toaʔgrandfather, grandmother (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

toŋkoʔ uriŋlontar leaf cover for a cooking pot (PWMP: *tuŋkup)

tuakind of plant with roots from which a an intoxicant is prepared (PAN: *tuba)

tualucky (PWMP: *tuaq)

Makasarese (960 / 1014)

tu-baranihero, champion (PMP: *baRani)

tujudirection, destination (PMP: *tuzu)

tuju baŋŋi-nathe seventh night after someone's death (PMP: *beRŋi)

tukaʔstairs, ladder (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tulicontinuing, lasting; continuous, constant (PMP: *tuluy₁)

tu-ma-i-lalaŋtitle of the highest official in the pre-Islamic Kingdom of Goa (PMP: *i dalem) *dalem

tumpaejaculate, spurt out semen (PWMP: *tumpaq)

tunruʔto comply with someone’s will, submit to someone (PWMP: *tunduk)

tunuto burn, lay in the ashes; light (a lamp), bake in an oven, roast over a fire; lay in a fire (of golden ornaments, as one of the operations needed to make them beautiful; to heat up (stones); slaughter (of buffalos, goats (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tunu-aŋwhat can or will be offered in sacrifice (as a burnt offering); to sacrifice something for someone (PAN: *tunuh-an) *CuNuh

turo-aŋto leak (as a roof) (PAN: *tuduq-an) *tuduq

turuŋto descend, to land (as birds, an airplane); to go down (of a path); hang far down (of a kebaya blouse) (PMP: *tuRun₁)

turuʔsail before the wind (PWMP: *tuRut)

turuʔ riaccording to (PWMP: *tuRut)

úexclamation of astonishment (PMP: *qu₁)

uaŋgray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

uaŋin earlier usage: ten duit; currently: money, coin (LOAN)

uaŋŋ-aŋturning gray, of the hair (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

uaʔfather; uncle, aunt (PMP: *uaʔ)

ubaʔgunpowder (LOAN)

Makasarese (980 / 1014)

ubuŋfontanel, crown of the head (PMP: *hubun₁)

ubuŋfontanel, crown (PWMP: *ubun (ubun))

ujitest, examine (PWMP: *uzi)

ujuŋpoint, as of a mountain peak, needle, dagger, tongue; cape of land (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ukiriʔwriting; write, engrave, put figures on (as a gravestone) (PMP: *ukir)

ularaʔsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ularaʔ sawapython (PMP: *sawa)

ulaʔ-ularaʔkind of child's toy that looks like a snake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulaʔ-ulaʔgrater made of wood or bamboo root, used to grate Spanish pepper fine (LOAN)

uléto and fro, roll round and round on the ground (PMP: *uliq₁)

uloroʔlet drop or slip down, as with a pulley; pay out (rope) (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

uluhead; upper course of a river (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulu-afirst-born, eldest, of children (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ulu-aŋgo before, lead the way (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

ulu ateabdominal region (PWMP: *qulu ni qatay) *qaCay

-um-unproductive infix found in verbs that designate a certain state or movement (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

umbaŋlift up, raise by placing something underneath, as a pregnant woman stretched out over cushions; boat raised by wooden floats for repair at a wharf (PWMP: *umbaŋ)

umbusmoke (NOISE)

umuruʔlifespan, age (LOAN)

unduruʔslacken, decrease, as anger; not remaining by, given up (PWMP: *undur)

Makasarese (1000 / 1014)

unjuruʔstretched out straight; outstretched corpse (PMP: *qunzur)

untetwist or turn around (as someone's neck), make a rope by twining strands together (PWMP: *quntay₂)

unti baraŋeŋbanana sp. (PWMP: *baraŋen₁)

uraŋcompanion, fellow (LOAN)

uraʔmuscle; tendon, sinew; lines in the hand; fiber; blood vein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uriŋcooking pot (PWMP: *kurin)

uriŋcooking pot (PMP: *kudin)

uriŋ bassiiron cooking pot (PMP: *kudin)

uriŋ buttaearthenware cooking pot (PMP: *kudin)

urusuʔregulate, adjust, arrange (LOAN)

uruʔto massage, as a sprain, or as a midwife does (PMP: *quRut)

usiriʔhunt, chase, pursue (PAN: *qusiR)

utasaʔstrand, as of silk; piece of a fishnet (PWMP: *qutas)

uyuŋbundle of long objects, as sugarcane stalks (PWMP: *uyun)

warisiʔheir; inheritance (following Islamic law) (LOAN)

Makasarese (Bantaeng) (2) WMP

paraattic, loft (PAN: *paRa₁)

sumpiʔblowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

Makasarese (Salayar) (12) WMP [sly] (Selayar) Indonesia (Sulawesi)

adechin (PMP: *qazay)

alasaʔforest, jungle (PMP: *halas) *Salas

am-maʔdiliʔto shoot (LOAN)

ampugrandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

ampugrandchild (PMP: *empu)

asa-aŋwhetstone (PMP: *hasaq-an) *Sasaq

balikashoulder (PWMP: *balikat)

boʔboroʔcooked rice, cooked ground corn (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bualiver (PMP: *buaq)

buburuʔrice porridge with water but no coconut cream; delicacy made of soft-cooked sticky black rice, brown sugar and sweet wood (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

kedismall (PAN: *kedi)

opuSir, Madam; title of traditional community leader (PMP: *umpu)

384. Makatea (30) OC

afifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

asu-afismoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

e-fiahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

fafinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fonusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

futibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

kaif (PAN: *ka₂)

kamalimen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

ma/mareand (PAN: *maS)

matauright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

nifotooth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

nu-maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

nusito spit (POC: *qanus-i) *qanus₂

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

pitonavel (POC: *bito)

ra-kautree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

raŋisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

refudust (LOAN)

Makatea (20 / 30)

rotoheart (POC: *loto₂)

siβanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

taeexcrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

taŋito cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tarotaro (POC: *talos) *tales

tauyear (PMP: *taqun)

tinaeguts (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

tinaeguts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

toruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tuaiold (POC: *tuaRi)

tuŋ-iato burn (PMP: *tutuŋ)

Makura (29) OC. see: Namakir

385. Malagasy (956) WMP (Richardson 1885) [mlg] Madagascar (dialects: Sakalava [skg] 1, Taimoro 1, Provincial 8) [aka: Malagasy (Merina), Merina]

a-a verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb. Thus from fafy, sowing, we get a-fafy, used of the seed sown, in correlation to the passive verb fafazana from the same root, used of the ground sown (PMP: *ha-₁) *ha-

a-a prefix used like an-, am-, and i-, to make a noun into a preposition; e.g. morona '(the) edge', amorona 'at the edge'; nosy 'an island', anosy 'on an island' (PAN: *qa₁)

a-a prefix used like an-, am-, and i-, to make a noun into a preposition; e.g. morona '(the) edge', amorona 'at the edge'; nosy 'an island', anosy 'on an island' (PMP: *ha₃) *Sa₂

a-verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb (NOISE)

ábafather, chiefly used by children (PAN: *aba₁)

adya fight, combat, quarrel, contention, battle, dispute, contest, attack, assault, war (NOISE)

áfa-bóvokadishonored (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

aférobile, gall, gall bladder; bitterness; costly (PAN: *qapeju)

afi-afya tree (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy Sakalava

áfitrastopped, hindered, or impeded (PWMP: *aped)

afitrastopped, hindered, impeded (NOISE)

afofire; calamity (fig.) (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-fófokoato be beaten (PAN: *pukpuk)

áfonarest on the water, float, swim (PMP: *apuŋ)

a-hásinato be twisted (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

ahoI, myself (used chiefly after the predicate) (PAN: *aku)

a-hua-nahow? what? (used in answering a call); why? What is the cause of it? (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

aínalife, animal life, strength (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

ákatraascent, upward progress (PWMP: *aŋkat)

a-kiushark (NOISE)

Malagasy (20 / 956)

álaremoved, taken away, released, fetched, withdrawn, freed from (PAN: *alaq₁)

alaa forest, a wood (PMP: *halas) *Salas

ala bea great or thick forest (lit. 'big forest') (PWMP: *halas Raya) *Salas

ala-ìnabe fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred (PAN: *alaq-en) *alaq₁

ala-ìnabe fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred (PAN: *ala-en) *ala

ála maízinadense forest (lit. 'dark forest') (PMP: *halas + "dark") *Salas

álinanight, darkness; pertaining to the night (PMP: *halem)

álo-álofosse, ditch, precipice (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alonawave, billow (PMP: *qalun)

álon-àlonasmall waves (PWMP: *qalun qalun) *qalun

álo-n-ònyriverbed (óny = 'river') (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

álo-n tsàhathe bottom of a ravine; the bed of a river (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

a-lúato be vomited (PMP: *luaq)

ámbanamenacing gestures with the hand or arm (NEAR)

ámbatratongue-tied (PMP: *qambat)

ambi-roathe ghost of the dead; the spirit of the living (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ámbohigh, lofty, long, overhead (PWMP: *ambuq)

amíanashrubs with large stinging hairs (PWMP: *amiaŋ)

ampalèsinabe smoothed with the ampály leaves (PWMP: *qa(m)pelas-en) *qapelas

ampalyshrub or tree the leaves of which are used as a substitute for sandpaper: Ficus soroceoides Baker (PWMP: *qampelas)

Malagasy (40 / 956)

ampálya shrub or tree, the leaves of which are used as a substitute for sand-paper: Ficus soroceoides Baker (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

ámpatrastretched out, as the legs, or a corpse immediately after death (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

ámpya shrub (or tree?) from the fibre of which a kind of string is made (Betsimisaraka) (NOISE)

-anapassives in -ana are often similar in meaning to those in -ina, and are used simply as passives of verbs active transitive in mi- and man-. Often, however, passives in -ina and -ana are made from the same root, and used in different senses, thus: from tàmpoka ('suddenly, unexpectedly') are formed tampóh-ina 'being surprised', and tampóh-ana 'having cold water added'; the passive in a- is of very frequent occurrence. Its primary meaning is said to be that an object is placed in such and such a position...The most difficult use, however, to a learner is when it is made a correlative of the passive in -ana...Many verb that govern two accusatives, one of an object to which something is done, and the other of the instrument, means, etc., with which the action is effected, make the former the nominative case of a passive in -ana, and the latter of a passive in a-... Thus in the sentence manóso tsólika ázy àho 'I anoint it with oil', the body anointed would be made nominative case of the passive hosór-ana ..., and the oil of the verb a-hòsotra (PAN: *-an)

ana bavyZ (m.s.) (PMP: *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi) *aNak

ana-dahia woman’s brother; used also of men when women are speaking (PMP: *laki)

ana dahyB (w.s.) (PMP: *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki) *aNak

ánakachild, the young of anything; anyone treated with affection; affectionate and respectful mode of address (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak-anakaan allowance made for a loan or debt (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ának-andríanapetty princes among the various tribes (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaka-ndri-masopupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

a- nárananame, appellation, honor; rank, position (PMP: *ŋajan)

andraroot of andra-ina on high (NOISE)

andria-matoathe eldest son, a title of respect (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

androday; daytime; a period (PAN: *qajaw)

andrypillar, post (PAN: *SadiRi)

andzanaimpressive in form (NOISE)

áninabreeze, wind (PMP: *haŋin)

anívonaa palm used in house-building. The wood is also used as a torch by the queen's messengers who travel by night (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

ano anopraise, blessing; a guess, anything done at random (PWMP: *anu-anu) *-nu

Malagasy (60 / 956)

á-no-nasuch a one, such a thing, so-and-so (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

antòh-inabe assented to by a nod (PWMP: *qantuk)

ántokaa nod of assent (PWMP: *qantuk)

ánythere (distant and unseen) (PAN: *qa-ni) *-ni

a-orí-anaback, behind, backward, passed (PWMP: *udehi-an) *udehi

aràh-inabe followed, be pursued, be prosecuted, be sued, as for debts (PMP: *aRak)

árakaaccording to, following (PMP: *aRak)

árakarum (Provincial) (LOAN)

árak-áfoimmediately, in immediate succession (PMP: *aRak)

a-réhitrato be made to burn, as a match, etc. (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

árinacharcoal, soot (PMP: *qajeŋ)

arythere, yonder (PWMP: *qadi)

áryexisted, formed, produced; being (NOISE)

arýthere, yonder, signifying a distant place not seen (PMP: *a-di) *-di

asawhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asa-ìnabe sharpened, be whetted, be pointed (PWMP: *hasaq-en) *Sasaq

ásyrespect, veneration (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi Provincial

a-támbatrato be joined to, to be connected to something (LOAN)

a-tána-tánato be made wide open (of a door, the mouth, etc.) (PMP: *taŋa) *taŋa₁

atèr-anaused of the person to whom anything is sent, etc. (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

Malagasy (80 / 956)

atèr-inabe offered, be presented, be sent, be returned (PWMP: *hateD-en) *SateD

atitrapresented, conducted, conveyed, sent, returned (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

atodyegg (PMP: *qateluR)

a-tsidikato be put in a position to be seen (LOAN)

átsy, atsýthere, yonder; used of a place well known and conceived of, but not seen at the time of speaking (PWMP: *ati₂)

atythe liver, the inside (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atýhere, in this place (PWMP: *ati₂)

avato weed (NOISE)

avakaseparate, sever (NOISE)

avanarainbow (PWMP: *hawan)

avaratranorth (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

avohigh, lofty, eminent (PMP: *abaw)

ávohigh, lofty, eminent (PWMP: *ambuq)

ávonapride, haughtiness, arrogance (PWMP: *ambuŋ)

avósaa heap (NOISE)

ávotraplucked up, rooted up, eradicated (PMP: *abut)

a-vúnibe hidden (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

babafather (PMP: *baba₂)

bámbanaboundless space (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₁)

banashrubby plant with edible fruit: egg-plant, Solanum Melongena L. (NOISE)

Malagasy (100 / 956)

baro, varoa shrub or small tree from which a fiber used for string is obtained (PMP: *baRu)

bay, vaywound, hurt, boil (PAN: *baReq)

bodoinfantile, childish, young; in one’s dotage (LOAN)

bodoinfantile, childish, young, simple; in one's dotage (NOISE)

dabokabeat, thump (PMP: *dabuk₁)

dabókabeat, thump (ROOT)

dana-danawide open (door, box, etc.) (PWMP: *daŋaq)

didiam poitrato be cut, as the navel string; also a euphemism employed in speaking of circumcision in the presence of women (PMP: *pusej)

dídya cut (PAN: *disdis)

difiturning aside; a mode of plaiting the hair by dividing it on the forehead and carrying it behind the ears; a border plaited in mats, baskets, hats, etc. (PAN: *lipet)

dímaa small wooden vessel used in bailing water out of a canoe (PMP: *limas)

dima-inato have the water bailed out (PWMP: *limas-en) *limas

dima-n-polofifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

dimatysmall leech found in forest (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

dímyfive (PAN: *lima)

dínitrasweat, perspiration (PWMP: *liŋet)

díntaa leech (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

dítygum, resin, anything viscid (PMP: *liteq)

dzuluka (<L?)a bar to prevent entrance (NOISE)

èfakaanything branching like a fork (PWMP: *hepak)

Malagasy (120 / 956)

efàr-inabe divided into four (PWMP: *epat-en) *Sepat

éfatrafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

élak-élakamiddle, intermediate space, that between (PMP: *elak)

elanathe middle, intermediate space or time between; a mediator, an intermediate (PMP: *qelaŋ)

èlatrawing (PMP: *qelad₂)

éninasix (PAN: *enem)

éŋganawings of birds (Prov.) (NOISE)

éranafull, complete measure, that which fills (LOAN)

éronaa growl, a roar (PWMP: *heRuŋ)

érotraa snore (PWMP: *erut)

ésinabreathe hard through the nose, sniff (PMP: *eseŋ)

étotrabreaking wind downwards (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

évotraplucked up, retracted; be withdrawn, recanted (PMP: *hebut) *SebuC

fafor, but, therefore, because, that (PAN: *pa₁)

fadyabstinence, fasting, prohibition; unlawfulness, incest; anything tabooed (PAN: *paliSi)

fafasweeping, cleaning off (PWMP: *paspas₂)

fáfanaa piece of board for writing on, a lesson-board, a blackboard (PMP: *papan)

faha-dimythe fifth; five fathoms (PMP: *paka-lima₁) *lima

faha-firiwhat number is it? (PMP: *paka-pija) *pijax

faha-fitothe seventh; seven fathoms (PMP: *paka-pitu) *pitu

Malagasy (140 / 956)

fá-hananourishment, strength; ration; subsistence (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

fáhan-ténunathe weft in weaving (PMP: *pakan)

faha-roathe second; two fathoms (PMP: *paka-duha) *duSa

faha-sivithe ninth; the ancestors; the spirits of the ancestors (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

faha-tahor-anafear, dread (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

faha-telothe third; three fathoms; an enemy (PMP: *paka-telu) *telu

faha-valoeighth (PMP: *paka-walu) *walu

fah-èfatrathe fourth; four fathoms (PMP: *paka-epat) *Sepat

fah-éninasixth (PMP: *paka-enem) *enem

faikind of fish with a rough skin; rough (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

faitrabitterness, as the taste of quinine (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

fakaa root (PWMP: *paŋkal)

fala-palm of hand, sole of foot (PMP: *palaj₁)

falavulva (Prov.) (PWMP: *palaq)

falafamidrib of the banana leaf, taro leaf (PMP: *palaqpaq)

fa-matoa charm (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

fampanaa precipice, an abyss (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

fanaheat (PMP: *panas₁)

fan-deven-anafuneral, funeral ceremonies (used more frequently than leven-ana) (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

fandranashrubs, from the stems of which gutters for carrying water ... are made, hence an aqueduct. Two or three species are known by this name, from which a kind of potash is obtained. The leaves are used for thatching. Pandanus sp. (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

Malagasy (160 / 956)

f-andrif-anabed (NOISE)

fandzaswampland (LOAN)

fanenitraspecies of mason wasp (LOAN)

fanihya bat, probably a species of Pteropus (PMP: *paniki)

fáninagiddy, dizzy (LOAN)

fa-nndruthe index finger, lit. the pointer (PWMP: *pa-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

fántatraknown, recognized (LOAN)

fántokaa nail, a brad, a spike (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

fántsi ~ fatsispur of a cock (LOAN)

fántsonaa spout, a water pipe, the means of carrying off water (LOAN)

fa-ŋadia spade (PWMP: *pa-ŋali) *kalih

faŋ-etòr-anaa person who is in the habit of breaking wind downwards (PWMP: *paŋ-qetut-an) *qetut

farascraped, scratched, smoothed (PWMP: *paras₁)

fara-farabedstead; stone shelves in native tombs on which corpses are laid (PMP: *paRa paRa) *paRa₁

fara-tanithe close of funeral ceremonies (fara = ‘last’) (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

fáronaa black spot on the face (NOISE)

f-átycorpse; death (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

fenofull, complete (PMP: *penuq)

feno-inato be filled or made complete (PWMP: *penuq-en) *penuq

feno mantabrimful, wastefully running over (as a cooking pot in which too much rice has been placed to boil) (PMP: *penuq)

Malagasy (180 / 956)

fi-alèm-anathe last meal at night; night time (PMP: *halem)

fídichoice, preference, permission to choose (PAN: *piliq)

fíficheek (PAN: *pipi₁)

fíhitraa grasp, a catch, a grip, as is made by a person holding to something to prevent him from falling (PMP: *pikit)

fíhitraa large stinging fly (PWMP: *piket₁)

fíndrachange of place (PWMP: *pindaq)

f<in>ídiwas chosen (PWMP: *p<in>iliq) *piliq

f-inom-anadrinking (in Imerina it only means to drink the taŋena ordeal) (PWMP: *pa-inum-en) *inum

fíntanaa hook on a string (PWMP: *pintal)

fiŋganaa trip up, a stroke by which a person is tripped up (NOISE)

fírakalead, pewter (LOAN)

firihow many?, how often? (PAN: *pijax)

firi-nato be divided into how many? (PAN: *pijax)

fítoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fito-inabe divided into seven (PWMP: *pitu-en) *pitu

fito-poloseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fitsóh-anato be beaten, to be struck (LOAN)

fi-voya paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

fóanaempty, vain, void; freely, foolishly, uselessly (NOISE)

f-odyreturned, sent back; withdraw from a bargain, retract (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

Malagasy (200 / 956)

fofóh-inato be beaten (PWMP: *pukpuk-en) *pukpuk

fófokaa blow (PAN: *pukpuk)

fófotrathe blowing of the bellows, etc. (PWMP: *putput₂)

foitrathe navel, the central part of a thing (PMP: *pusej)

foles-inato be spun (PMP: *pules)

fólisilk thread or yarn (PMP: *pules)

foloten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

folo-inabe divided into ten (PWMP: *puluq-en) *puluq

fósaa small and graceful catlike animal peculiar to Madagascar; formerly classed among the Viverridae, but now considered to form a distinct family between the cats and civets (LOAN)

fota-fotaslaver, spittle. Generally used of such as is produced in anger or from eating ravenously (PAN: *puCaq)

fotakamud, slime, bog (ROOT)

fótatraa large tree: Butonica apiculata (PMP: *putat)

fótsiwhite; disregarded, vain, worthless, disparaging (PMP: *putiq)

fotsíanato be made white (PWMP: *putiq-an) *putiq

fotsí-nato be made white (PWMP: *putiq-en) *putiq

futhe heart, physical and moral; the will, sentiment, desire; intention, disposition (PMP: *pusuq₁)

funia species of pigeon belonging to a genus peculiar to Madagascar Alectroenas madagascariensis (PAN: *punay)

funi maitsua species of pigeon: Columba Polleni Schleg. (‘green pigeon’) (PAN: *punay)

fútitrareversement, turning about (PWMP: *puteR)

ha-formative added to adjectives to make them into abstract nouns: ha-tsara ‘goodness’ (cp. tsara ‘good’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

Malagasy (220 / 956)

ha-dimi-anafive days (PWMP: *ka-lima-an) *lima

hadínoforgotten (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

hadinó-inabe forgotten, neglected (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

hadyditch, trench, moat, fosse (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

ha-firi-anahow many days? (PWMP: *ka-pija) *pijax

ha-fito-anaseven days (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

hálaa spider, a scorpion (LOAN)

hán-inafood, victuals, viands, nourishment; to be eaten, to be devoured, to be consumed (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

hántsinaan odor as of dead bodies, a stench; infection (LOAN)

haotrascratching (PWMP: *gaut)

háramother-of-pearl (NOISE)

háramother-of-pearl (NOISE)

háranaa rock, a rocky prominence, hill or mountain; also used for shells, coral, coral reefs, etc. (PMP: *karaŋ)

hárunaa medium-sized basket, a pannier (LOAN)

hatafanaa large tree, the kernel of whose fruit is edible: Terminalia catappa (PMP: *katapaŋ)

ha-tahor-anafear, dread (PWMP: *ka-takut-an) *takut

ha-tavéz-anafatness (PWMP: *ka-tabeq-an) *tabeq

ha-telo-anathree days (PWMP: *ka-telu-an) *telu

haten-inaaffected with the itch, having the itch (PWMP: *gatel-en) *gaCel

hátinathe itch, scabies (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

Malagasy (240 / 956)

hávanathat which is void or open (open space in an assembly, etc.) (PWMP: *kawaŋ)

hávanaa relation, an alliance, a friend (PWMP: *kaban₁)

havananaright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

haván-inato be entered into relationship with; to be consorted with (PWMP: *kaban₁)

havileft (side) (Hudson 1967) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

havi-athe left side (Richardson 1885) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

havihavioscillation, suspension, hanging (PMP: *kaway₁)

havit-inato be hooked, as a canoe by a boathook, or an eel by a fishhook (PWMP: *kawit-en) *kawit

hávitraa pointed iron, a poker, a spit; in the provinces a hook, a boat hook (PAN: *kawit)

ha-vitsi-anafewness in number (PMP: *bitiq₁) *bitiq

ha-vitsi-nabe reduced to few (PMP: *bitiq₁) *bitiq

hayburning (a word not used alone, but in compounds) (NOISE)

házotree or shrub; wood of all kinds; (fig.) hard (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

héhitraa grasp, a clutch, a bite; seizure (PWMP: *ketket)

heléh-inato be seized under the armpit (PWMP: *kilik-en) *kilik₂

hélikathe armpit (PWMP: *kilik₂)

henabeef; flesh meat (PMP: *kenas)

henih-inato be made satisfied, to be made to have all one wants (PWMP: *genep)

henikafull of, complete, having all (PWMP: *genep)

herutra ~ kerutracream (NOISE)

Malagasy (260 / 956)

híhiscraped, as the flesh from bones, or as the skin scrapted from roots, etc.; erased (PAN: *kiskis)

hihìs-anabe scraped (PAN: *gisgis₁)

híhyscraped, as the flesh from bones, the skin from roots, etc. (PAN: *gisgis₁)

himaa kind of shell (provincial) (PMP: *kima)

híndonatake shelter from the rain or sun (ROOT)

hindzakadance (PMP: *ki(n)zak)

hirasinging; a song (NOISE)

hítaseen, found, perceived (PAN: *kita₂)

híta másoclearly seen, seeing by oneself, undoubted, undisputed (máso = ‘the eye’) (PAN: *kita₂)

hoálaa great swampy plain (LOAN)

hodir-anato be skinned, flayed (PWMP: *kulit-an) *kuliC

hoditraskin; bark (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

holár-inahaving scars (PWMP: *kulad)

hólatraa scar (PWMP: *kulad)

h<óm>anato eat, to consume a meal; to expend; to bite, as a saw, etc. (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

hónitraa creeping plant used by the Betsimisaraka as a red dye (PMP: *kunij)

honoit is said, it is reported, so report says (PMP: *kunu₂)

hótaanything chewed (LOAN)

hota-inato be chewed (LOAN)

hozonashaking, trembling, agitation (PWMP: *kuyuŋ)

Malagasy (280 / 956)

hula-báratraprobably a kind of mushroom growing immediately after rain (varatra = ‘lightning’) (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

húlatraa generic name for fungi (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

hundrupumpkin (PWMP: *kundul)

húnkunaa ferrule (metal ring) (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

husénanato be besmeared (NOISE)

iprefix used to make a noun into a preposition (e.g. maso 'eye', i-maso 'before the eyes', voho 'the back', i-voho 'at the back of') (PAN: *i₂)

ipersonal article, generally joined to words making a proper noun (PAN: *i₃)

i-a prefix used before names of places, tribes (PMP: *hi-) *Si-₂

i-àno-nawhat's-his-name (PWMP: *i-anu, si-anu) *-nu

idinăpoured out, let down, taken out (PMP: *iliŋ₁)

ilotorch (PMP: *qilaw)

ilov-inasearched for by candle light (PMP: *qilaw)

im-bálo (in-valo)eight times (PWMP: *in-walu) *walu

imboa strong and offensive odor, but less strong than hantsina (PMP: *imbu)

im-pitoseven times (PWMP: *im-pitu) *pitu

im-poloten times (PWMP: *im-puluʔ) *puluq

in-dimyfive times (PWMP: *iŋ-lima) *lima

indràm-anaused of the person from whom something is borrowed (PWMP: *hinzam-an) *hinzam

indràm-inaused of the thing which is to be borrowed (PWMP: *hinzam-en) *hinzam

índranaborrowed (PWMP: *hinzam)

Malagasy (300 / 956)

in-droatwice (PWMP: *in-duha) *duSa

in-èfatrafour times (PWMP: *iŋg-epat) *Sepat

in-éninasix times (PWMP: *iŋg-enem) *enem

inowhat? how? (PAN: *inu) Provincial

inóm-anato drink (relative form) (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

inòm-inato be drunk by (PWMP: *inum-en) *inum

inóm-ydrink (imper.) (PWMP: *inum-a) *inum

ino-nawhat? how? (PAN: *inu)

in-teluthree times (PWMP: *in-telu) *telu

in-tsivinine times (PWMP: *in-siwa) *Siwa

inythat, this. It is always used of something thoroughly known to both speaker and spoken to (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

iraa hank of cotton or silk prepared for weaving (PWMP: *idas₂)

írinathe border of a piece of cloth (PWMP: *qiriŋ₁)

íryardent desire; covetous desire (PWMP: *qiRih)

irýthat, there, yonder, at some distance but seen (PMP: *i-di) *-di

isaone (PAN: *isa₁)

isam-batanaevery one, individually (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

ísybe, exist; there is (PAN: *isiʔ)

isyan expression of dislike, disapproval, or denial (PMP: *qisaq)

i-taniout of doors (PMP: *taneq)

Malagasy (320 / 956)

ítothis (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

ito-nythis (PAN: *-ni)

itýthis (near at hand) (PAN: *-i-ti) *-ti

i-valow, not high (PMP: *ba₄)

ivakabe disjointed, as boards or planks in a flooring; be apart (PMP: *ibak)

ivi-vinausea in the stomach (NOISE)

ivysaliva, drivel, slabber (PMP: *ibeR)

iz-ahoI, myself (used chiefly before the predicate) (PAN: *aku)

izanythat; this; these (PAN: *ia-ni) *-ni

ízinadark (PWMP: *qiem₂)

ízinadark (PWMP: *qiReŋ)

izy3sg. and pl. (PAN: *ia₁)

jelakaclearness, brightness, sudden glitter, as a torch at night (ROOT)

jokokacattle whose horns turn down (Provincial) (PMP: *zuŋkuk)

kámbanatwins; union of two; fig. resemblance (LOAN)

kiki-kikigiggling, a titter (PMP: *kikik)

kintanastar (NEAR)

-kua suffixed pronoun of the first person added to nouns and passive and relative verbs; it is the sign of possession when joined to nouns, and the agent of a passive or relative verb (PAN: *-ku)

kúhakaa cough, coughing (NOISE)

kútrukathe thunder (LOAN)

Malagasy (340 / 956)

láfikaa bed, mattress, bedding or anything put under one, as a carpet, a sheet, litter for cattle, etc. (LOAN)

láhimale, masculine (much used in the names of plants, etc.) (PMP: *laki)

laláhyman (provincial) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

lálinadeep, profound (PMP: *dalem)

lalin-tsainadeep, profound, sagacious, shrewd, sensible (saina = ‘the mind’) (PMP: *dalem)

lálitraa fly (PMP: *lalej)

lálitra ómbia cattle fly (PMP: *lalej)

lálugone beyond, passed (LOAN)

lamasmoothed, made slippery (NEAR)

lámakamat, mattress (PMP: *lamak) Provincial

lampigreat flat stones, slabs of marble, etc. (PWMP: *la(m)pis)

lánitrasky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lanuswimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

lanus-inato be swum in (PWMP: *laŋuy)

lánysmell, stench (NOISE)

larua tree, the juice of which mixed with the Sakalava use as a fish poison; it yields a kind of India-rubber (NOISE)

laúkaany relish or meat eaten wth rice (on the coast it almost always means fish or vegetables) (PWMP: *lahuk)

lavalong, tall (PMP: *laba)

lávitrafar, distant (PWMP: *alawid)

laya tent; a sail (PAN: *layaR)

Malagasy (360 / 956)

lazofading, withering (leaves, grass, wood) (PAN: *layu)

lefagone, run away (PWMP: *lepas)

lelatongue; blade of a knife, sword, etc. (PAN: *zelaq)

lel-afoa flame, a blaze (< lela + afo ‘fire’) (PAN: *zelaq)

lela-natalkative, vociferous (PAN: *zelaq)

lemisoftness, meekness, gentleness (PWMP: *lemeq)

leven-anaa funeral (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

lindonaa shadow (said to be ‘provincial’) (PAN: *liduŋ)

lolobutterfly, moth (NOISE)

lomór-inaovergrown with moss; blackish green (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

lomótraa generic term for water plants of the order Algae, more especially the species Vaucheria sessilis (PMP: *lumut)

lúavomit, the matter ejected (PMP: *luaq)

l<um>anuto swim (PWMP: *l<um>aŋuy) *laŋuy

ma-fafaexhaused, empty, gone (PWMP: *paspas₂)

ma-faitrabitter, brackish, disagreeable (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

maha-fàtykill; put out a lamp (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

maha-tozoto gain strength after illness, to make progress steadily toward health (PMP: *tuzu)

ma-hífitranarrow (of planks, calico, a road, etc.) (PAN: *kipit)

ma-hítato see, to find, to view, to discover; it is also used adjectivally of a very clever person (PWMP: *ma-kita) *kita₂

ma-inty, ma-itinablack (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

Malagasy (380 / 956)

ma-izinadark, gloomy, dismal (PWMP: *qiem₂)

maizin-kelya provincial word for an eclipse (PWMP: *qiem₂)

ma-lemisoft, mollient, meek, gentle, paralytic (PWMP: *lemeq)

ma-mafato sweep, to wipe, to clear away (PWMP: *paspas₂)

ma-máhato untie, to loosen, etc. (PMP: *bakas)

mamáhanato feed, to tend, to treat hospitably (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-maspasto shake out, beat out dust from clothing (PWMP: *paspas₂)

mamelatrato spread out, open out, as of things rolled or folded, or which shut in folds, as an umbrella; in speaking of mares it means ready for the stallion (PWMP: *maŋ-bekelaj) *bekelaj

ma-menoto fill, fill up (PWMP: *maŋ-penuq) *penuq

ma-mitranamake a seam, sew two pieces of cloth or two mats lengthwise; to tongue planks together (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

ma-mitsokato beat, to flog, to strike (LOAN)

ma-mivitralift up, as on a sharp point; pick up by the finger and thumb (PWMP: *maŋ-bitbit) *bitbit

ma-mòabear fruit (PWMP: *maŋ-buaq) *buaq

ma-mófotrato blow a fire with a pair of bellows, etc. (PWMP: *putput₂)

ma-móhato open (PWMP: *maŋ-buka) *buka

ma-mònokill, murder, assassinate, beat; rub out; obliterate (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

ma-mònybe in flower, to blossom (PWMP: *maŋ-búŋa) *buŋa

ma-móryto foam, to froth (PWMP: *maŋ-bujeq) *bujeq

ma-mótsito whiten (PWMP: *ma-mutiq) *putiq

ma-móvoto cast the vóvo in fishing, fish with a vóvo, (fig.) intend to retaliate (PWMP: *maŋ-bubu) *bubu₂

Malagasy (400 / 956)

ma-móvokato raise a dust, cover or sprinkle with dust (PWMP: *maŋ-bukbuk) *bukbuk₃

mamysweet, delicious (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

ma-nadito twist, make a rope by twisting; bind with cords (PWMP: *ma-nalih) *CaliS

ma-nadínoto forget, to neglect (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

man-àlatake away, remove from, subtract, withdraw from (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₁) *alaq₁

mana-lávato lengthen (PMP: *laba)

man-àlonato swell, as the sea, rise in billows (PWMP: *maŋ-qalun) *qalun

ma-námbatrato join, to connect, to place together (LOAN)

ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town (PMP: *tama₂)

ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town (PMP: *tamaq₂)

man-ampàlypolish wood with the ampály leaves (PWMP: *maŋ-qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

man-àndropractice judicial astrology; calculate or foretell lucky days (PWMP: *maŋ-qalejaw) *qalejaw

man-àno-naliterally to "so-and-so" anything (PWMP: *maŋ-anu) *-nu

man-árakafollow, pursue, obey, agree to, prosecute (PWMP: *maŋ-aRak) *aRak

ma-nárukahaving shoots (PWMP: *taruk)

man-àsasharpen, whet, grind, put a point on (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

ma-násinato twist; to make very round; to turn in a lathe (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

man-atòdylay eggs (PWMP: *maŋ-qateluR) *qateluR

ma-navitrato hook a canoe, an eel or a drowning person (PWMP: *ma-ŋawit) *kawit

man-dalinato deepen, make deep, aggravate guilt (PMP: *dalem)

Malagasy (420 / 956)

man-dáluto pass by (LOAN)

man-danuto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

mandátsa bovoput the vóvo in water (PAN: *bubu₂)

man-defato set at liberty, to release, to send off, to set off, to fire off (PWMP: *lepas)

man-demito soften (PWMP: *lemeq)

man-doa vóryto froth at the mouth (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

man-drárito plait mats, etc.; fig. to arrange or set in order anything; and in the provinces to regulate one’s life; to follow order and equity (PWMP: *man-laja) *laja

man-drávinato bud, as leaves, to bear leaves (PWMP: *maŋ-dahun) *dahun

man-drenito hear; to perceive a scent (PWMP: *man-deŋeR) *deŋeR

m-andrylie down, be lying down, go to sleep (NOISE)

man-dúato vomit; to pay, to discharge a debt (PMP: *luaq)

man-èfakabranching, forked, as trees, etc. (PWMP: *hepak)

ma-nélinato swallow (Provincial) (PMP: *telen)

ma-nena-tenato reach the half of the length; to hit in the center (PMP: *teŋaq)

ma-nénonato weave (PAN: *tenun)

ma-néranato fill a place, to pervade (LOAN)

man-èronagrowl at, snarl at; murmur, grumble (PWMP: *heRuŋ)

ma-nésikato push in by force (PWMP: *ma-ñeksek) *seksek₁

ma-nifithin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

man-im-pitoto do seven times (PWMP: *im-pitu) *pitu

Malagasy (440 / 956)

ma-nípakato kick (LOAN)

ma-nísikato remove the scales of fish (PMP: *siksik₂)

man-ìsycreate, produce, make, put into something (PWMP: *maŋ-isiʔ) *isiʔ

man-javunamisty, foggy (PWMP: *Rabun)

man-òfapay rent for, hire anything (PWMP: *maŋ-upaq) *upaq

man-òranato rain (PWMP: *maŋ-quzan) *quzaN

man-òritrato mark, to engrave (PWMP: *curit)

ma-nototo butt (PWMP: *ma-nutu) *tutuh

man-òzato wash, to cleanse (PWMP: *maŋ-huRas) *SuRas

ma-núhanato support, to prop (PMP: *tukaŋ)

ma-núhatrato measure, to compare (PWMP: *ma-ñukat) *sukat

ma-nu-núfito dream (PWMP: *nupi)

ma-núratrato write; to arrange silk of different colors in the loom (LOAN)

ma-nuruto point out a road, etc. to someone (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

mányfetid, rank. Used only of the odor from human beings who are filthy (NOISE)

ma-ŋadito dig, to delve (PMP: *ma-ŋali) *kalih

maŋ-àvokadried up, dusty (PMP: *qabuk)

maŋ-èto-màndrya shrub or tree (Betsimisaraka) (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

maŋ-etotrato break wind downwards (PWMP: *maŋ-qetut) *qetut

ma-ŋilu-hiluof a deep shining black, as a button, a bead, paint, etc. (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

Malagasy (460 / 956)

másakaripe, cooked (PMP: *ma-esak) *esak

másakaripe; cooked; agreed upon; matured, of thoughts or intentions (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

másakaripe, cooked; agreed upon; matured, of thoughts or intentions (PAN: *ma-Sasak) *Sasak

ma-sésikafrequent (PWMP: *ma-seksek) *seksek₁

ma-sìrasaltish; dun-colored (PWMP: *ma-qasiRa) *qasiRa

ma-táhotrato dread, fear, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

ma-tavifat, corpulent (PWMP: *ma-tabeq) *tabeq

ma-tévinathick, dense (PMP: *tebel₂)

ma-tezadurable, permanent, lasting (PMP: *ma-teRas) *teRas

máti-ny hiańya phrase used to express the setting of one's heart upon something: very desirous of, eagerly wishing for; lit. simply killed by it (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

matoathe eldest son or daughter; it is used in the provinces to express the ripeness of fruit, etc. (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ma-túaif it so happens, if by chance (PWMP: *tuaq)

ma-turito sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

m-átydead, gone out, as a lamp or a fire; in danger; set, as the sun; beaten in a game (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

máty-hénabenumbed, torpid, deprived of sensation (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-vanycontemptuous, audacious (PWMP: *ma-baRani) *baRani

ma-vikastrong, vigorous, athletic, energetic (PWMP: *ma-bikas) *bikas

m-avobrown; grey? (PWMP: *ma-qabu) *qabu

ma-vozolazy; ill, without energy (PMP: *ma-buRuk) *buRuk

mena-draharahaan ointment extracted from the fruit of a certain tree and used as a remedy for scabies (PMP: *meñak)

Malagasy (480 / 956)

menakafat melted down (PMP: *meñak)

mi-àfitrato stay, to halt, to be arrested in one's progress (PWMP: *ampet)

mi-aìnalive, have life; respire, breathe (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

mi-àkatraascend, go up, mount up (PWMP: *maR-aŋkat) *aŋkat

mi-ànakaused in speaking of parent (father or mother) and child (PAN: *maRe-anak) *aNak

mi-àntokato nod assent (PWMP: *qantuk)

mi-àrakago together, accompany, associate (PMP: *aRak)

mi-àrakago together; accompany; associate (PWMP: *azak)

mi-àsyshow respect, honor (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi Provincial

mia-vóvonaheaped to the top, in a heap (PMP: *bunbun)

mi-dimyto divide into five (PWMP: *maR-lima) *lima

mi-duru-duruto be very high, as the masts of a ship (NOISE)

mi-èfatradivide into four parts, be in four (PWMP: *maR-epat) *Sepat

mi-èrotrato snore (PWMP: *erut)

mi-fafato sweep, to wipe, to clear away (PWMP: *paspas₂)

mi-fántsonato milk from the udder into the mouth (LOAN)

mi-fídito choose, to select, to prefer (PWMP: *maR-piliq) *piliq

mi-fífito press against a door, a partition, a wall, etc. (PAN: *pipi₁)

mi-fítoto divide into seven, be in sevens (PWMP: *maR-pitu) *pitu

mi-fómponato assemble, gather (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₂)

Malagasy (500 / 956)

mi-fonabeg pardon, to entreat, to solicit (NOISE)

mi-fota-fotato slaver, to foam, to rave (PAN: *puCaq)

mi-hadito dig, to delve (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

mi-hávanato be in a state of friendship with, to be on friendly terms with, to show friendship towards (PMP: *maR-kaban) *kaban₁

mi-h<ín>anato eat, to consume, to spend (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

mi-h<in>an kán-inato eat (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

mi-honoto hear a report only (PMP: *kunu₂)

mi-húnkunahaving a ferrule on (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

mi-húsinato besmear oneself (NOISE)

mi-kútrukato thunder (LOAN)

mi-layto go upon the sea, as a ship or canoe carried by sails (PWMP: *maR-layaR) *layaR

mi-lefato run away (PWMP: *lepas)

mi-levinaburied; to stay for a long time (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

m-ìnonato drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

mi-ofoto scale off, to cast the skin or slough (NOISE)

mi-òrikaascend, go up against the stream (PWMP: *udahik)

mi-ovachange, alter (LOAN)

mi-òvakaskinned, peeled, stripped (PWMP: *ubak)

mi-réhitrato set on fire, to burn (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

mi-rindrinato shut, close (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

Malagasy (520 / 956)

mi-roato divide into two (PWMP: *maR-duha) *duSa

mi-sala-salato be in doubt, to hesitate (PMP: *salaq salaq) *salaq₁

mi-sarunato cover oneself; to have a lid, to be covered (PWMP: *saruŋ)

mi-síokato whistle (PMP: *siuk)

mi-sivito divide into nine parts, to be in nine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

misondro drato be very angry, to faint (lit. ‘the blood rushes up’) (PAN: *daRaq)

mi-súsunahaving a lining (PMP: *susun) *susuN

mi-susu-susuto be forward (NOISE)

mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack (PMP: *tama₂)

mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack (PMP: *tamaq₂)

mi-tána-tána vavato wait idly about; to be struck with amazement (lit. ‘to have the mouth wide open’) (PMP: *taŋa) *taŋa₁

mi-tanikato boil, to cook (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

mi-tárikato drag, to draw, to lead, to entice (LOAN)

mi-tárunato converse (LOAN)

mi-téhinato walk with a staff; to lean on a person in walking (PMP: *teken)

mi-télinato swallow (PMP: *telen)

mi-téloto divide into three (PWMP: *maR-telu) *telu

mi-ténito speak, to proclaim, to tell; to harangue; to advise (PWMP: *teneR)

mi-tepu-tepupulsate, palpitate (LOAN)

mi-tetito walk through, to pass through, to go from place ot place, as houses or towns, to tread on (PMP: *taytay)

Malagasy (540 / 956)

mi-tévito cut down trees to make a clearing in a forest (NOISE)

mi-todito arrive at a place, as a canoe or ship (PWMP: *tuli₂) *tuli

mi-tónoto roast (PWMP: *maR-tunuh) *CuNuh

mi-tumpato fall, as water from a pot (PWMP: *tumpaq)

mi-tundrato carry, to lead, to take (LOAN)

mi-tuzuto progress in a straight line (PMP: *tuzu)

mivádika ny trózonaa phrase used in speaking of an earthquake (lit. ‘the whales are turning over’) (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

mi-váhato be untied, to be open, as a parcel, etc. (PMP: *bakas)

mi-vana-vanawide, open, large (used of splitting wood) (PMP: *baŋa₂)

mi-vèna-vènato open; to dilate, as a wound (PMP: *beŋa₁)

mi-vidyto buy, purchase (PMP: *bili)

mi-vínitraangry (PMP: *biŋit)

mi-vìvitrabe held, lifted up or picked up; be twitched or pinched at one end, etc. (PWMP: *maR-bitbit) *bitbit

mi-vóhato open, be opened (PMP: *buka)

mi-vòntoswell out, puff up (PMP: *buntuʔ)

mi-vóntoswell out, puff up (PWMP: *bu(n)tu) *bu(n)tu₁

mi-vóvobe spiteful (PAN: *bubu₂)

mi-voyto paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

mi-vúnihide oneself, be hidden (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

m-odygo home, return home; pretend to be what one is not (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

Malagasy (560 / 956)

mohítradispute angrily (ROOT)

mo-noditrato flay, to break the skin only in hitting with a spear (PWMP: *ma-ŋulit) *kuliC

m-oranarainy (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

mótya morsel of dung; the excrement of the eyes (PWMP: *muteq)

náhiintended, designed, purposed, expected, wished (NOISE)

nana-nanaa cry, a scream, a shout (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

nátoa tree whose bark supplies a red dye (PMP: *ñatuq)

nató-inato be dyed red with the above dye (PMP: *ñatuq)

niarticle (ni andro ‘the weather’, ni dite ‘the tea’) (PMP: *na₁)

nosyisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

núfia dream (PWMP: *nupi)

odì-anago home, return home; pretend to be what one is not (PWMP: *uliq-an) *uliq₁

ófakascaling off, peeling off, as blistered skin (PWMP: *hupak)

ófakascaling off, peeling off, as blistered skin; to scale, peel off (PWMP: *upak₁)

ofoscaling off (NOISE)

ohàz-anabe dug, be scraped (PWMP: *hukay-an) *hukay

óhydug open, used of a re-opened tomb; be scraped (PWMP: *hukay)

ólatrasnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

olèr-inarotten, worm-eaten (PMP: *qulej-en) *qulej

ólikawinding, as a road, etc.; also Provincial for a rope, and the intestines (NOISE)

Malagasy (580 / 956)

ólitragrub, small worm; toothache, which is supposed to be occasioned by a small worm in the tooth (PMP: *qulej)

ólonaperson, somebody, human being (PMP: *qulun₁)

-om-rare infix used with intransitive bases, and to form adjectives (Richardson 1885:xviiff) (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

ombotraplucked up by the roots, plucked out, as thorns in the flesh, etc. (PAN: *ubuC)

óndanapillow, bolster, cushion (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

onkinashrink, be shrivelled (ROOT)

ontanyenquiry, question, interrogation, examination (PMP: *utaña)

óranathe Madagascar crayfish ... it belongs to a genus peculiar to the island (PAN: *qudaŋ)

óranarain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

orìh-inabe gone against, of a current (PWMP: *udahik)

orit-anabe divided by lines (PMP: *qurit)

óritrastroke, line, the parting of the hair, etc. (PMP: *qurit)

óronanose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

óronapromontory (PMP: *quzuŋ) Provincial

órotradrawn through the hands, as rushes, etc., to make them supple before being plaited (PMP: *quRut)

ovàh-anabe peeled or stripped (PWMP: *ubak)

óvakaa chip of wood (Prov.) (PWMP: *ubak)

óvi-házosweet potato (PWMP: *qubi kahiw) *qubi

óvotraan herb (PMP: *qubud)

óvygeneric term for yams and potatoes (PMP: *qubi)

Malagasy (600 / 956)

ozawashing some part of one's body (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

ozà-nabe washed, be cleansed (PWMP: *huRas-an) *SuRas

ozàt-inamuscular, strong, athletic, tough, hard; stringy (of meat) (PWMP: *uRat-en) *huRaC

ózatrasinew; vein, artery; muscle (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

oza-ywash (imper.) (PWMP: *huRas-i) *SuRas

paha-causative/multiplicative prefix with numeral bases (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

rablood (PAN: *daRaq)

ramia tree from which oozes gamboge [a gum resin], also called rami; it is burned sometimes by the Betsileo during the ceremony of Salamanga, and it is also used by them to anoint their idols (PAN: *damaR)

ranuwater (PAN: *danaw)

raránato be forbidden, to be prohibited (PAN: *laRaŋ)

rária plait; plaiting of mats, hats, etc. (PWMP: *laja)

rar-ínato be plaited (PWMP: *laláh-en) *laja

rátanaa plain, level country (PAN: *dataR)

rávinaa leaf; fig., thin, slender (PMP: *dahun)

rávitramade to hold together, as the leaves of a book, a chaplet, etc. (PWMP: *ra(m)bit)

rávitramade to hold together, as the leaves of a book, a chaplet, etc. (ROOT)

rávokapound rice (PMP: *ra(m)buk)

rávokapound rice (ROOT)

refia fathom, two yards, the measure from tip to tip of the fingers across the chest when the arms are spread out (PMP: *depa)

rehét-anato be lighted, as a fire by something already burning, i.e. a match, etc. (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

Malagasy (620 / 956)

reniheard; perceived, as a scent (PMP: *deŋeR)

réninadeafness (Also Kenyah deŋen 'deaf') (ROOT)

renymother (PMP: *ra-ina) *ina

rindrinawall of a house, side of a house (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

roatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

roa-hanahesitation, doubt (PMP: *duha) *duSa

roa sásakadivided into halves, cut into two equal parts (PAN: *saksak₁)

róhanasyphilitic rheumatism (ROOT)

róhonaa sound, as of thunder (ROOT)

róntonafired at with many guns, fired at by a volley (ROOT)

rufíaa palm used for various purposes; the midrib of the leaf is employed for the poles in making palanquins; the fiber from the young leaves is used as string, for which purpose it is exported under the name of raphia grass; from the stem a sweet liquid called harafa is obtained, which is drunk by the natives; the shell of the fruit is employed as a receptable for small articles (PMP: *Rumbia)

ruia generic name for prickly shrubs (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

sa-fidichoice (PAN: *piliq)

safi(ni)a dish cover; an edge, a border (NOISE)

sahathe country, out of town; an orchard (NOISE)

sahonafrog (generic) (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁)

sákua provincial word for Indian corn (PMP: *sagu₁)

sala-salamiddling, tolerable; doubtful, hesitating (PMP: *salaq salaq) *salaq₁

saláz-anabe roasted on a fork or a gridiron (PWMP: *salay-an) *salay

sália spit, a toasting fork (PWMP: *salay)

Malagasy (640 / 956)

salondonathe act of covering the head (ROOT)

salúbunaa veil, a canopy (LOAN)

samba-sambaa word uttered in wishing a blessing on the commencement of anything new (especially on eating the first fruit of the rice crop) (NOISE)

samba-samba-inato be blessed by the utterance of the word samba-samba (NOISE)

samiboth, each, every one; same (PWMP: *sama)

sampáz-anato be hung up upon, as garments placed across a line, the braces over the shoulders, epaulets, etc. (PMP: *sampay-an) *sapay

sampian idol, a charm, probably so called from its being carried or hung on the neck (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

sanatrees, species of Elaeocarpus (PWMP: *saŋa₂)

sana-sanaopen, unclosed (used of the mouth) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sárakaseparation, detachment; a calf separated from the cow (PWMP: *sarak)

sárakaseparation, detachment; a calf separated from the cow (LOAN)

sarom-bovón-anathatch or tiles over the ridgepole of a house (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

sarunaa cover, a lid (PWMP: *saruŋ)

sásakathe half (PAN: *saksak₁)

sásakaopen, frank, plain; having a white line on the forehead (NOISE)

sefhatrathe rest or support for a gun in being fired (ROOT)

séhatrathe rest or support for a gun in being fired (PWMP: *sekad)

sesér-anato be smoked, of hemp (NOISE)

sésikaanything pushed into another; stuffing; sausage meat; fig. stubbornness (PAN: *seksek₁)

sésitrathe act of smoking hemp (NOISE)

Malagasy (660 / 956)

siakaviolence, savageness, cruelty, fierceness (NOISE)

sífutraa snail, the common name given to many species of freshwater and land shells, which are very numerous in Madagascar (LOAN)

sióh-inato be whistled at, to be whistled for (PMP: *siuk)

síokawhistling (PMP: *siuk)

sírasalt. Also used for the embellishments of a speech, figures, similes, or alliterations (PAN: *qasiRa)

síra-házopotash (PAN: *qasiRa)

sira-ìnasalted (PAN: *qasiRa-en) *qasiRa

síra mámy('sweet salt') sugar (PAN: *qasiRa)

síranasloping (NOISE)

sisíh-anato be scaled, to be taken off, as the scales of fish (PWMP: *siksik-an) *siksik₂

sisih-anato be made to admit anything by pressure, as a hole admitting a peg by the force of the hammer; fig., to be bribed (PWMP: *sisip)

sísikathe scales of fish (PMP: *siksik₂)

sivinine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sombilislaughter in a ritual way (LOAN) Taimoro

sonadeath wail (NOISE)

soŋahaving the upper lip turned upwards (< *-ŋaq?) (ROOT)

soritraa mark, as of sculpture (PWMP: *curit)

sotrawish, desire; benediction, blessing (NOISE)

súdinaa pipe; a flute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

súkitraall work made by a pointed instrument, such as a graver, a chisel, etc. (PMP: *suŋkit)

Malagasy (680 / 956)

sulabald (LOAN)

súlua substitute (LOAN)

sulú-anato be substituted, to be replaced (LOAN)

súmbinaa fragment, a chip, a piece of something; mutilated, chipped, broken off (PWMP: *sumbiŋ)

suŋguɁplace on the head with long hair (LOAN)

surát-anato be written (LOAN)

súratrawriting; markings; color (LOAN)

surún-inato be put in or on, as fuel to a fire, etc. (PWMP: *suruŋ)

susúh-anato be added to, to be darned, to be replaced (PAN: *suksuk)

súsukaan appendix, something added (PAN: *suksuk)

súsunaa fold, a layer, duplication (PMP: *susun) *susuN

susu-susuforwardness, boldness (NOISE)

sútrua spoon; in the provinces, a plate (PMP: *sudu)

tathe sound of the beating of a hammer or the explosion of a rifle (PMP: *tak)

tádicord, rope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tadi-m poítrathe navel string (PWMP: *talih pusej) *CaliS

tadí-natwisted into a cord or rope; bind with cords (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tadínythe foramen of the ear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tafa-levinaburied unintentionally (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

taf-àrakagoing together (PMP: *aRak)

Malagasy (700 / 956)

tafa-réhitraset on fire, kindled (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

tafa-tsidikapeeped at, looked at through the door (LOAN)

ta-fofór-anabellows (PWMP: *puput-an) *putput₂

táhotrafear, dread, horror, terror (PAN: *takut)

taidung, excrement, refuse (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai-m-biiron slag, scoria (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai nifithe scurf on the teeth (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai-n kintanaa meteor, a shooting star (PWMP: *taqi ni bituqen) *Caqi

tai-n-kuhudirt under the nails (PWMP: *taqi nu kuku) *Caqi

tai-n-tadinithe wax from the ear (PWMP: *taqi nu Caliŋa) *Caqi

tákireclamation, dunning, pursuit (used primarily of debts) (LOAN)

takóf-anabe covered with a lid (PWMP: *takub-an) *takub

tákotrathe lid of a cooking pot (PMP: *takub)

tambákotobacco (LOAN)

tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand (PMP: *tama₂)

tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand (PMP: *tamaq₂)

tami-nato be attacked in front (PMP: *tama₂)

tami-nato be attacked in front (PMP: *tamaq₂)

tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’) (PMP: *tama₂)

tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’) (PMP: *tamaq₂)

Malagasy (720 / 956)

tampinastopped, corked, plugged (PWMP: *tampeŋ)

tampinastopped, corked, plugged (ROOT)

tamu-tamuthe turmeric plant (iintroduced); the root is pounded and used as a poultice for abscesses by the Betsileo, and along with some other things for hydrophobia; the leaves are used in the form of vapor baths for malarial fever; it also affords a yellow dye (PWMP: *tamu₂)

tánanahand, foreleg of quadrupeds (PMP: *taŋan)

tána-tánawidth of space (PMP: *taŋa) *taŋa₁

tanatanawide open (door, mouth, etc.) (< *-ŋaq?) (ROOT)

ta-ndíndonaa shadow (PAN: *liduŋ)

tandraa mole in the skin (LOAN)

tándrinaremembered (PWMP: *ta(n)dem)

tándrukahorn; horns of cattle; anything branching out as horns; fig. glory (LOAN)

taneh-inato be boiled, to be cooked (PMP: *tanek-en) *taNek

tanicrying, tears, lamentation (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taniearth, land, soil; a country, a kingdom (PMP: *taneq)

tanì-anato be cried for (PMP: *taŋis-an) *Caŋis

tani-be(‘big land’) the mainland of Madagascar, a word used to distinguish the mainland from the surrounding islands (PMP: *taneq)

ta-norayoung, juvenile (PMP: *ŋuda)

ta-nosyislander; name of a tribe on the southeast coast (PMP: *nusa₁)

tántanaheld and taken by the hand (NOISE)

taŋgustripped, denuded, used chiefly of locusts stripped of their wings and legs, and of herbs prepared for cooking (NOISE)

tápakabroken off, cut off, settled, finished (LOAN)

Malagasy (740 / 956)

tara-taraminute examination, close investigation (LOAN)

tarazú-inato be carried on one end of a pole, in contradistinction to lanja-ina (lanja), carried as two burdens at each end of a pole (LOAN)

tárukathe tender shoots of plants (PWMP: *taruk)

tárunaconversation (LOAN)

taúnayear, time, season (PMP: *taqun)

tavanaprisoners of war (PMP: *taban) *tabaN Provincial

tavifatness, corpulency (PWMP: *tabeq)

tavia washing basin (NOISE)

tavopumpkin (PMP: *tabuq)

tavónithe afterbirth, the placenta (PMP: *tabuni₁)

téfakaclapping the hands, applause by clapping of the hands (PMP: *tepak₁)

téfokaexplosion (PAN: *tepuk)

tehén-inato be pushed forward, used of a canoe (PWMP: *teken-en) *teken

téhinastaff, stick, walking stick (PMP: *teken)

télothree (PAN: *telu)

telo-ina ~ telo-vinato be divided into three (PWMP: *telu-en) *telu

tena-tenathe middle of the length of anything (PMP: *teŋaq)

tena-tena-inato be cut in the middle, to be cut across, to be halved (PMP: *teŋaq)

ténia word, speech, language; judicial examination (PWMP: *teneR)

ténitraabused, despised, spoken of contemptuously by a person of despicable character (ROOT)

Malagasy (760 / 956)

tenom-inato be woven (PAN: *tenun-en) *tenun

ténonathe warp and the weft; weaving (PAN: *tenun)

tetez-anaa bridge (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

tetih-inato be cut into small pieces (PAN: *tektek-en) *tektek₁

tétikaornamental cuttings in the skin; the act of cutting up small pieces (in the provinces it means ‘deforesting’) (PAN: *tektek₁)

tevásinato be cut at the roots, as a tree (LOAN)

teveh-inabe bored, be pierced (PWMP: *tebek-en) *tebek

tévito be cut at the roots, as a tree (NOISE)

tevikaa stitch; a bore in the lobe of the ear (PAN: *tebek)

tévinathickness, density (PMP: *tebel₂)

tevycut down trees to make a clearing in a forest (PMP: *tebah) *tebaS

tezasomething fixed firm, durability; the inside of a piece of wood, the outside of which is worm-eaten (Provincial); a pillar in a house (PMP: *teRas)

t-in-adiwas made into rope by twisting (PMP: *t<in>alih) *CaliS

t<in>etikabe chopped up (PAN: *t<in>ektek) *tektek₁

tohánanato be supported, to be propped (PWMP: *tukaŋ-an) *tukaŋ

t<om>anito cry, to weep, to lament, to complain (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

tonaa species of very large serpent; fig., an eel too large to be used as food because of its resemblance to a tona (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tónoroast, grilled (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tóntonathe act of knocking anything hollow so as to extract what is inside, as a bone to get out the marrow (PWMP: *tuŋtuŋ₁)

tótothe act of pounding with a pestle, as in pounding rice, etc.; dancing (PAN: *tuqtuq)

Malagasy (780 / 956)

totoa butt with the horns (PAN: *tutuh)

toto-inato be butted (PWMP: *tutu-en) *tutuh

tratrathe breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

tratra-inaconsumptive; asthmatic (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

trózonaa name given to the two species of whale occasionally seen off the coasts of Madagascar: the Cape whale, Balaena australis, and the sperm whale, Physeta macrocephalus (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

tsi-énina-éninasix by six, six at a time (PMP: *enem enem) *enem

tsíhia mat (LOAN)

tsihivitranatwo mats sewn together so as to make one (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

tsi-isa isaone by one (PAN: *isa isa) *isa₁

tsíndripressed, squeezed, impressed (PMP: *tindes)

tsinjugazed at from a distance, perceived (LOAN)

tsìofinabe blown (PWMP: *heyup-en) *Seyup

tsiókawind, breeze, air (PMP: *tiup)

tsipáh-inato be kicked (LOAN)

tsi-roa-roatwo and two, by two and two (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

tsi-telo-telothree by three (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

tuHit! struck! A word used of something exactly hitting the mark (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuakadistilled spirits, rum (< Malay) (PWMP: *tuak)

túdiretaliation, requital; return, approaching (NOISE)

túhanaa pillar, a support (PMP: *tukaŋ)

Malagasy (800 / 956)

túhia jointing, a joining of two or more things (NOISE)

tukanaone, single, alone (LOAN)

túkua trivet (LOAN)

tukú-anaa vessel on the fire with victuals in it (LOAN)

túlutraa present of beef, etc., given at a wedding; property given to a child above his proper share (NOISE)

tumpato be turned out, as water, tobacco from a box, etc. (PWMP: *tumpaq)

tumpumaster, owner; sir (PMP: *ta-umpu) *umpu

tundruthe index finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tundru-inato be pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁

turi (< *turuy)sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

turú-anato be directed, as to the road (PWMP: *tuzuq-an) *tuzuq₁

tutúf-anato be filled up, to be covered, as dead bodies in a grave, etc. (PMP: *tutup₁)

uhár-inato be measured, to be compared (PWMP: *sukat-en) *sukat

úhatrameasure, comparison; a parable, a proverb (PWMP: *sukat)

úraka ~ húrakaa noise, a clamor (LOAN)

vainterrogative particle (PWMP: *ba₅)

vaor, nor, though, whether, neither, if. It is also used to form several indefinite pronouns and adverbs (PMP: *ba₁) Provincial

vadikaoverturned; changed; turned upside down (PMP: *balik₂)

vadypartner, husband, wife; a companion, an associate; a mate, one of a set of two (thus the saucer is the vady of a cup) (PMP: *baliw₁)

vadypartner, husband, wife, companion, associate (NOISE)

Malagasy (820 / 956)

vadylahya friend (PMP: *baliw₁)

váhaloosened, untied, relaxed, as of parcels, burdens, etc. (PMP: *bakas)

vahóhofish sp. (PWMP: *bakuku) Provincial

vahónageneric for various plants of the genus Aloe, esp. A. macroclada Baker, and A. deltoideodonta Baker; also a species of Crinum (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

vahotrabenumbed; fig. confounded, perplexed, embarrassed (NOISE)

vahygeneric for plants used as withes, girdles, and in plaiting, rope-making, etc. (PAN: *bakes₁)

valathe wooden fence of a cattle pen (PMP: *bala₂)

valahanaloins (PWMP: *balakaŋ)

valálalocust, grasshopper (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

váloplant whose bark affords a useful fiber: Dombeya sp. (PMP: *balu₁)

valu, valuz-ichange, repent (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

valythe answer to a question or a letter; a reply; a revenge or recompense (PAN: *bales₁)

vana-vanawidth of space (PMP: *baŋa₂)

varatrathunder, thunderbolt (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

vátanaa body; trunk of a tree; the real thing (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

vatan-oronabridge of the nose (PWMP: *bataŋ qijuŋ) *bataŋ₁

vatostone; weights (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

vato afofireflint, generally a kind of siliceous sinter or common opal (PMP: *batu hapuy) *batux

vàto asànastone used for grinding knives, etc., a grindstone (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

vavamouth; fig. speech (PMP: *baqbaq)

Malagasy (840 / 956)

vavamouth (NOISE)

vavatraopened, untied (of something like a clasp-hold, or lid-fast or a fast knot) (PWMP: *bajbaj)

vávya female; feminine (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

vazadisdain, contempt (NOISE)

vazanadouble teeth, molars (PMP: *baReqaŋ)

véhanathe space from the end of the thumb to the end of the first finger when stretched out (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaŋ)

velar-anaused of that on which anything is spread, as a floor on which a mat is put; wide (PWMP: *bekelaj-an) *bekelaj

velarinabe spread, be opened, be spread out (PWMP: *bekelaj-en) *bekelaj

velatraexhibition of the inside of something by spreading it out (PMP: *bekelaj)

véroa tall grass: Andropogon hirtus L. (NOISE)

viiron (LOAN)

vialarge species of arum (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

vídyfish sp. (PWMP: *bilis)

vídyprice, value (PMP: *bili)

vílyturned aside from the road or from the point (Provincial) (PMP: *biliŋ₁) *biliŋ

vímbinacarried in the hand, led by the hand; to carry in the hand (PWMP: *biŋbiŋ₁)

vinantoson-in-law, daughter-in-law (LOAN)

vinánythe confluence of two or more streams or rivers, the mouth of a river (PMP: *binaŋa)

vínitraangry in looks, but not speaking; displeased; strutting in anger (PMP: *biŋit)

víntanatree sp. (PWMP: *bintaŋ)

Malagasy (860 / 956)

víntanafortune, fate, lot, destiny, luck (LOAN)

vintánoa tree (PWMP: *bintaŋuR)

víntsycrested kingfisher: Corythornis cristata L. (PWMP: *binti₁)

víŋitrataking hold of anything at the extreme edge by the finger and thumb (NOISE)

víŋycarried by taking hold of with the fingers only (NOISE)

vítranaa seam in a cloth; two planks or more tongued together so as to make the surface broader (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

vitranaa seam in a cloth; two planks or more tongued together so as to make the surface broader (LOAN)

vitsikaants, emmets. Fig. many, numerous, as ants (NOISE)

vítsyfew, small in number (PMP: *bitiq₁) *bitiq

vítythe foot; a limb (PMP: *bities)

vivìt-inabe lifted, be picked up by the thumb and finger (PWMP: *bitbit-en) *bitbit

vívitralifted up, as on a sharp point, or on the horn of a bull; picked up by the finger and thumb (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

vívyspecies of little grebe or dabchick: Podiceps minor L. (LOAN)

voaseeds or fruits of all kinds; the kidneys; element in the names of numerous fructifying plants (PMP: *buaq)

vóa-bazáhathe work introduced by foreigners (PMP: *buhat₂)

voa-fanawarmed (applied to food or medicine cooked and warmed the second time) (PMP: *panas₁)

voa-fólispun (PMP: *pules)

voa-háŋybeads of red coral, etc. (PMP: *buaq)

voa-hásinatwisted, or spun, as cotton (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

voa hazotall herb with edible seeds, sometimes called til-seed: Sesamum indicum L. (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

Malagasy (880 / 956)

voa-lavorat (PMP: *buaq)

voa-levinaburied, interred (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

voa-n-kenathe kidneys of animals; /voa/ alone is used for the kidneys of human beings (PMP: *buaq)

voa-nósyname of an insect (PMP: *buaq)

voa-n-tandrokaname of a flying insect (PMP: *buaq)

voa-n-taythe name of a beetle, probably a scavenger beetle (PMP: *buaq)

voa-n-tséfotraname of a small insect (PMP: *buaq)

voáraa tree the leaves of which are pounded and used as poultices for abscesses. The wooden mortars for pounding rice are often made from the wood of this tree. The milky juice is made into bird-lime. Ficus sp. (PMP: *buqaR)

voa-réhitraset on fire, made to blaze (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

voa-tádimade into cord (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

vóatraprepared, arranged, made ready (PMP: *buhat₂)

voa-vítsycalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

voa-vóhaopened, as of a door or a cupboard; disclosed (PMP: *buka)

voa-vònokilled, murdered, slaughtered; rubbed out, as of writing; put out, as a candle or fire; obliterated, destroyed or stopped up, as a road, etc. (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

voa-vóvogot by a vóvo, as fish (PAN: *bubu₂)

voáycrocodile: Crocodilus madagascariensis Gray (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

vódyposterior, rump; hinder part, foot of a hill; bulbous and esculent roots; the lower part on which things rest, basis, pedestal, foundation, etc. (PMP: *buliq₂)

voha-inabe opened (PWMP: *buka-en) *buka

vohitraelevated ground, a hill, an enclosure, a village, a town (PAN: *bukij)

vóhothe back or the outside of anything, as of a picture, etc. (PMP: *buku)

Malagasy (900 / 956)

voiz-inato be paddled (PMP: *beRsay)

vókokahunchbacked, crooked, stooping (PMP: *buŋkuk)

vólanamoon, month; menses (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

vóloa generic name for various kinds of bamboo, from which are made various articles, as musical instruments and snuff boxes. They belong chiefly to the genus Nastus (PAN: *buluq₂)

vólohair, feathers; moss, lichen; color (PMP: *bulu₁)

volò-inahairy (PWMP: *bulu-en) *bulu₁

vólo-vólointention, purpose, relation, likelihood (NOISE)

voni-afolarge shed for keeping fuel, etc. (PMP: *buŋa ni hapuy) *buŋa

voni-fotsia variety of beads; a shrub (PMP: *buŋa)

voni-n hazoa flower (PMP: *buŋa na kahiw) *buŋa

vónkinacontracted, drawn up (as the limbs) (ROOT)

vonkinacontract, shrivel, shrink (ROOT)

vónokilling, murder, slaughter; putting out of fire (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

vonò-inabe killed; be rubbed out, be obliterated (PWMP: *bunuq-en) *buNuq₂

vóno sófinapretend not to hear; be deaf to orders (PWMP: *buŋug)

vóno sófinapretend not to hear, be deaf to orders (PWMP: *buŋul)

vóntoa swelling; soaked, wetted; much afflicted (PMP: *buntuʔ)

vóntoa swelling (PWMP: *bu(n)tu) *bu(n)tu₁

vóntoa swelling; soaked, wetted; much afflicted (LOAN)

vóntonathe center of a thing (LOAN)

Malagasy (920 / 956)

vónto ráno(lit. 'swollen with water') used of peaches almost ripe (PMP: *buntuʔ)

vonyflower, generally voni-ny its flowers, its petals; yellow (PMP: *buŋa)

voré-nafrothy; nappy, having on a nap (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

vóri-m bávasaliva, spittle (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

vóri-n dránofoam, spray (PMP: *bujeq ni wahiR) *bujeq

vóri-nósylong kind of bead (lit. 'goat bead') (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

vóritrahaving had the end cut off, as a plank or a board (PMP: *burit₁)

vóronaa generic name of all birds except fowls; initial component in the names of many birds (LOAN)

vorót-inahaving a rupture, having large testicles, used of people as well as cattle (LOAN)

vorót-inahaving a rupture, having large testicles, used of people as well as cattle (NOISE)

vorotrathe part around the testicles of oxe; (LOAN)

vorotrathe part around the testicles of oxe; (NOISE)

vóryfroth, foam (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

vótolong fruit or oblong tubercle; penis (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

votsia temporary small excrescence on the body (PMP: *buteliR)

vovokind of basket made of the stalks of the vero or fantaka grass and used for fishing (PAN: *bubu₂)

vovóh-inarotten, worm-eaten (used only of wood) (PWMP: *bukbuk-en) *bukbuk₃

vovó-inabe fished for by a vóvo; be treated spitefully (PAN: *bubu₂)

vóvokadust; worm-eaten (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

vovón-anaridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

Malagasy (940 / 956)

voythe act of paddling (PMP: *beRsay)

vozolazyiness (PAN: *buRuk)

vua-dimahaving had the water bailed out, as a canoe (PMP: *limas)

vua fidichosen, selected, preferred (PAN: *piliq)

vua-lazofaded, withered (PAN: *layu)

vua-lefaset at liberty; set off, fired off (PWMP: *lepas)

vua ráriplaited (PWMP: *laja)

vua-safu-safucoaxed, rubbed in, patted, tapped; to be spied out; to be brushed (PMP: *sapu)

vua-sáliroasted by the use of a fork (PWMP: *salay)

vua-sísikaforced in, pushed in; fig., bribed (PWMP: *sisip)

vua súkitraengraved; picked out, taken out, as a cricket from a hole (PMP: *suŋkit)

vua-súrunaput in, made to enter, as a piece of timber, etc.; put through a window or to be put in or on, as fuel to a fire (PWMP: *suruŋ)

vua-tárikadragged, drawn along (LOAN)

vua-télinaswallowed (PMP: *telen)

vua-tsípakakicked at (LOAN)

vua-tundrupointed at (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

vua-turupointed out, as a road, etc. (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

vua-tútutrafilled, covered over, as a hidden snare by grass (PMP: *tutup₁)

záhitraa bundle of rushes or bamboos tied together and used as a raft (PMP: *Rakit)

zavunamist, fog (PWMP: *Rabun)

Malagasy (Merina) (946) WMP. see: Malagasy

Malagasy (Provincial) (8) WMP

ásyrespect, veneration (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi

inowhat? how? (PAN: *inu)

lámakamat, mattress (PMP: *lamak)

mi-àsyshow respect, honor (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi

óronapromontory (PMP: *quzuŋ)

tavanaprisoners of war (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

vaor, nor, though, whether, neither, if. It is also used to form several indefinite pronouns and adverbs (PMP: *ba₁)

vahóhofish sp. (PWMP: *bakuku)

Malagasy (Sakalava) (1) WMP [skg] (Malagasy, Sakalava) Madagascar

afi-afya tree (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

Malagasy (Taimoro) (1) WMP

sombilislaughter in a ritual way (LOAN)

386. Malango (6) OC

kihaubush hen (POC: *kikau)

kiraEclectus parrot: Eclectus roratus (POC: *kiRak)

koe-caua bird, the Golden Whistler (POC: *sau)

segeBuff-headed coucal: Centropus milo (imm) (POC: *seke)

tualiold (of things or persons) (POC: *tuaRi)

vitih-iato flash, of lightning (POC: *pitik₂) *bitik₂

387. Malaweg (1) WMP

kaobjective and locative case marker for common nouns (McFarland 1977) (PAN: *ka₃)

388. Malay (3968) WMP (Wilkinson 1959) [zlm] Malaysia (Peninsular) (dialects: Borneo 1, Deli [zlm] 1, Kelantan [mly] 1, Orang Laut [dup] 1, Pahang [zlm] 1, Pattani [mfa] 1, Penang 1, Riau [zlm] 1, Trengganu [mly] 1, Ulu Pahang 1, Middle 1, Johore 2, Perak [mly] 2, W.Sumatra 2, Kedah, Kelantan [zlm] 2, Baba [mbf] 3, Sumatra [zlm] 7, Sarawak [zlm] 10, Java [bew] 11, Kedah [meo] 12, Brunei [kxd] 23, Jakarta (Wilkinson 1959) [bew] 63)

aba-hfather, papa (PAN: *aba₁)

abaŋ-anwater conduit of split pinaŋ stem (PWMP: *abaŋ₂)

acharpickle; preserve in acid (LOAN)

adaexistence; to be; present; to appertain to; (vulg.) to have (PMP: *wada)

adasfennel. Also (specifically) adas pedas or 'peppery adas' in contrast to adas manis ... 'sweet adas' or aniseed (PWMP: *hadas)

adé-kyounger sibling. Loosely, any young near relative such as a cousin; (affectionately) to a wife by her husband (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

adi-k ber-adi-kbe in a sibling relationship (PWMP: *maR-huaji) *Suaji

adi-ŋyounger sibling (vocative) (PWMP: *huaji-ŋ) *Suaji

adohoh! as an interjection of grief or pain (PMP: *aduq)

adoh ~ aduhoh! as an interjection of grief or pain (NEAR)

adupitting; matching one against the other; getting up a contest. Of any trial of strength or skill, or even of smartness and looks (PWMP: *adu)

agakguesswork; conjecture; more or less; about; at a venture (LOAN)

agamareligion (LOAN)

agar-agar(specifically) the so-called 'seaweed' from which seaweed-jelly is made; (generally) agar-agar jelly and things suggesting it such as 'Turkish delight' and gelatine (LOAN)

agassandfly (LOAN)

agas-agasa tree: Aporosa maingayi (PWMP: *agas)

aiinterjection expressive of interest and approval (PAN: *ai₂)

air, ayerwater; liquid; stream (PMP: *wahiR)

air bahfreshet; floodwater in motion; the seasonal flooding of the ricefields (PMP: *wahiR bahaq) *wahiR

air matatears (PWMP: *wahiR ni mata) *wahiR

Malay (20 / 3968)

air tawarfresh water (in contrast to salt) (PWMP: *tawaR₁)

ajaksuasion to action (PWMP: *azak)

ajak-kaninvite; press; incite (PWMP: *azak)

ajar buaya berenaŋ'to teach a crocodile to swim' = to waste pains on those who will return evil for good (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

ajia secret magical formula (Java) (LOAN)

akalwit; intelligence. Properly 'mind as the organ of thought' (in contrast to hati or 'mind as the subject of consciousness'); reasoning. In common speech: trick, dodge, stratagem (LOAN)

akalwit; intelligence (LOAN)

akarroot; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana (PMP: *akaR)

akarroot; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana (PMP: *wakaR)

akar jitaha liana, Willughbeia spp. (PWMP: *ziteq)

akar putatGnetum funiculare (PMP: *putat)

akar taliclimbers, Gnetum spp. (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

akar tunjaŋroots such as those of the mangrove that rise out of the mud and then re-enter it (LOAN)

akasdexterous; neat or quick in action (Also Old Javanese aŋkas 'hasty, hurried, tempestuous; do one's utmost') (ROOT)

akuI; me. The pronoun of the first person singular, but used in a double sense: (i) 'myself', used by a superior to an inferior, by an elder to a younger, or between equals talking so familiarly as to ignore etiquette. Also in prayer, (ii) 'my own', i.e. taking responsibility for or answering for (PAN: *aku)

akunclaim, admit (PWMP: *aku-en) *aku Sarawak

akut-aŋkutmason bee, ichneumon fly: Chalicodoma spp., or Eumenes gracilis (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

alahdefeat; being worsted in battle (PWMP: *alaq₂)

alaŋmediocre; medium; half-and-half (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ)

alaŋ-alaŋ-anhalf-hearted; in a mild way; of a man who is a poor hater, or lover (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ)

Malay (40 / 3968)

alapgather fruit by means of a long pole to which a knife or hook is attached (PAN: *alap)

alasjungle, forest (used in Java) (PMP: *halas) *Salas

aléhveer, change, shift one's position (PMP: *aliq)

alunlong rolling waves; surge or swell of the sea. In contrast to broken water (ombak, gelombaŋ). Of waves "rolling mountain-high" (PMP: *qalun)

alun-alunbooming. Possibly from the sound of the sea (PWMP: *qalun qalun) *qalun

alurgroove; cutting; furrow. With many varying or local applications: (Johore) the main channel of a stream between the mudbanks on either side; (Pahang) any channel in river or sea, and even a dry torrent-bed if water flows there sometimes; (Kedah) hollow or backwater scooped out by a stream, the main channel being geloŋ; (Minangkabau) channel, e.g. of relationship, and even of a wife "scooping" money out of her husband; furrow, beaten path made by wild animals (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alur-alurchannels made by maggots in fruit (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alur-angroove along horseshoe (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alur bibirhollow between nostril and center of upper lip (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alur didalam redaŋboat-channel through a swamp (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alur teŋgalaplough-furrow (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

alur teŋkokhollow at back of neck (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

amalputting into operation, esp. of practical piety, whether in religious observances or in good works (LOAN)

amaŋdefiance (PWMP: *amaŋ amaŋ)

amaŋ amaŋto challenge (PWMP: *amaŋ amaŋ)

ambaipurse-net attached to stakes in a tideway or river. The stakes hold its mouth open; the bunt trails away in the current (PWMP: *ambay)

ambarambergris (LOAN)

ambar ikantrue ambergris, believed by scientists to be a morbid secretion derived from the sperm-whale, but by Malays to be produced by fish that have eaten the sap of the pauh jaŋgi. Prized by Orientals for perfume-making (LOAN)

ambatnoose (PWMP: *ambet)

ambetchild's first garment; swaddling band (PWMP: *ambet) Jakarta

Malay (60 / 3968)

ambil hati(lit. 'fetch the liver') loveable (PMP: *qalap qatay) *qaCay

ambinstrap-support; carrying in a loop of rope or band of cloth (of a child in the fold of a sarong slung from the mother's shoulder); straps or ropes passed round a load (ambinan) swung on a coolie's back, etc. (PWMP: *hambin)

amokfurious attack; charge; amuck. Of desperate onslaughts in old romances (PMP: *hamuk)

ampaŋeasy, light (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

ampinswaddling-band for infant (PMP: *hapin)

ampuholding up from below, esp. in the up-turned palms of the hand (NOISE)

ampunpardon (of a royal or divine superior showing mercy; forgiveness between equals is maaf, mahap, tabek) (PMP: *ampun)

ampun-anpardon, apology (PWMP: *ampun-an) *ampun

anakchild; young (of animal); native (of a country); one (of a party, set or series); important component part; smaller of two (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak anjiŋlower part of calf-muscle (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak aŋkatadopted child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak buahfollowers; tribesmen; clansmen (PMP: *anak buaq) *aNak

anak buaŋ-anfoundling (PWMP: *buaŋ-an) *buqaŋ

anak bulanperson of uncertain temperament (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

anak damakblowpipe dart (PMP: *anak i sumpit) *aNak

anak daramaiden, virgin (PWMP: *anak daRa) *aNak

anak daraunmarried girl, maiden (PMP: *daRa₂)

anak gentaclapper of a bell (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak jarifinger (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

anak kembartwin (PMP: *anak apij) *aNak

Malay (80 / 3968)

anak lidahuvula (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak lidahuvula (lit. ‘child of tongue’) (PWMP: *anak nu dilaq) *dilaq₁

anak masborn slave (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

anak matapupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

anak panaharrow (PMP: *anak i panaq) *aNak

anak panaharrow (lit. ‘child of shooting’) (PAN: *panaq)

anak piatuorphan (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak rajaprince (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak suloŋfirstborn child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anak sumbaŋa child of incest (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

anak taŋgarung of a ladder (PWMP: *anak i haRezan) *aNak

anak tiristepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak tuŋgalonly child (LOAN)

anak uaŋinterest on money (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anay-anaywhite ants; generic for Termitidae (PAN: *aNay)

ancamthreat; menace (NOISE)

ani-aniharvesting knife (in Java) (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

aniayainjustice, oppression; wrong inflicted by the strong on the weak (LOAN)

anjiŋ kabuta dog with clouded markings (PMP: *kabut)

anjiŋ per-buru-anhunting dog (PAN: *buRaw)

Malay (100 / 3968)

antahhusk; sheath (of grain). The pieces of dry husk shaken off in the process of winnowing (PWMP: *ataq)

antéh, meŋ-antéhto spin. The meaning covers the whole process of spinning. Possibly from a root kantéh (LOAN)

antemhit, get angry with, thrash (PWMP: *qantem) Jakarta

anteŋgentle; quiet. Of children who play without disturbing their elders (PWMP: *anteŋ) Jakarta

anti-antiwait a moment (NOISE)

antiŋpendent; hanging and swaying (of long objects) (LOAN)

antiŋ-antiŋdrop earring. hantiŋ pendulous (LOAN)

antokbe drowsy (PWMP: *qantuk)

antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding (LOAN)

antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding (NOISE)

a-nuSo-and-So-, such-and-such (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

añamplaiting; braiding; making mats and baskets or wattled fences; interweaving (PMP: *añam)

añamplaiting, braiding, making mats and baskets or wattled fences; interweaving (PMP: *añem)

aŋan-aŋanthoughts; mind. Of a girl being always in her lover's thoughts ... and conversely of a girl's mind being centered on a man's good looks (LOAN)

aŋgapto look carefully at (PWMP: *a(ŋ)gap) Jakarta

aŋincurrent of air; wind; (fig.) windy, of talk (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋin-aŋintoy windmill (PMP: *haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

aŋin puyuwhirlwind (PWMP: *puyu₂)

aŋin səpuy-səpuygentle breeze (PWMP: *sap(e)quy)

aŋkatlifting up; (fig.) adoption (PWMP: *aŋkat)

Malay (120 / 3968)

aŋkat-anexpedition; generation (same age group) (PWMP: *aŋkat-an) *aŋkat

aŋkat-aŋkatgait, bearing (PWMP: *aŋkat aŋkat) *aŋkat

aŋkat kəniŋa hint or signal (lit. ‘a lift of the eyebrows’) (PWMP: *keniŋ)

aŋkuppincers, opening and shutting as tongs. Of an animal snapping its jaws, a person nipping with his fingers, a butcher seizing and tearing off the skin of a slaughtered animal (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

aŋkutcarrying away piecemeal. Of loading and unloading cargo, transporting water a pail at a time, a mason-bee bringing mud for its nest (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

aŋsa, gaŋsagoose (LOAN)

aŋsanaAnsenna tree: Pterocarpus indicus (LOAN)

aŋsura little at a time, in action or motion (LOAN)

aŋsura little at a time, in action or motion (ROOT)

apawhat; how; which; somehow. An idiomatic word giving a suggestion of indefiniteness or interrogation -- even contemptuous interrogation -- to the sentence in which it occurs (PMP: *apa₁)

apa-apaany, aught; any whatever (PMP: *apa₁)

apa apaany; aught; any whatever (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁

apamdough-cake; hopper; chupatty (but made of rice-flour, not wheaten flour) (LOAN)

apifire; flame; light (of lighthouse); fiery (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

api apia mangrove-class (Loranthaceae); Avicenna sp., esp. Avicenna officinalis, very bright-colored, almost fiery amid darker neighbors (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

apiunopium (LOAN)

apoŋfloating on water; driftwood (PMP: *apuŋ)

apoŋ-anfloats for nets; fisherman's marks (PMP: *apuŋ)

arahdirection (LOAN)

arakprocessional progress (PMP: *aRak)

Malay (140 / 3968)

arakarrack, distilled alcoholic liquor (LOAN)

arakarrack; distilled alcoholic liquor (LOAN)

araŋ batucoal (PMP: *qajeŋ i batu) *qajeŋ

aroŋto growl (dog) (ROOT)

asahope; trust (LOAN)

asahgrinding down; whetting; tooth-filing (the first rough filing is daboŋ; asah is the final smoothing with the point of the whetstone) (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (of stuffing food into the mouth, beating stones into a roadway, hammering earth to fill up interstices) (PMP: *hasek₁)

asalsource, origin; proviso or foundation for a statement; provided that (LOAN)

asamacid; sour; generic for acid fruits and preparations (PWMP: *qalesem)

asam-asam-ansour fruits and sour preserves for flavoring curries (PWMP: *qalesem)

asaŋgills of fish (Brunei, Sarawak) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asapvisible vapor; steam; smoke (PWMP: *asep)

asap-kanfumigate (PWMP: *asep)

asarafternoon (LOAN)

ashiklover; impassioned. Of sexual passion, religious ecstasy; over-devoted to some pastime, such as cockfighting (LOAN)

asikearnest (LOAN) Jakarta

asinsalt; salted (PAN: *qasiN)

asin asingeneric name for Euphorbiaceae of the genera Sauropus, Phylanthus and Breynia (PWMP: *qasin qasin) *qasiN

atasposition over or above (PMP: *atas) *aCas

atauor (LOAN)

Malay (160 / 3968)

atur-andisposition; regulation; method (PWMP: *qatuR-an) *qatuR

atur-andisposition; regulation; method (LOAN)

atur galaŋsticks laid horizontally in a ricefield to mark the divisions between different types of seedlings (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

atur galaŋsticks laid horizontally in a ricefield to mark the divisions between different types of seedlings (LOAN)

auyes, it is so (Brunei, Sarawak) (PAN: *auʔ)

awakbody; trunk of body; self; -- whence it is used as a pronoun (I, we, -- connoting a certain kindly superiority or authority; you -- as a pronoun in familiar use; sometimes in kindly speech) (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awancloud (PWMP: *hawan)

awaŋ-awaŋ(-an)airy interspace between earth and sky (PMP: *awaŋ)

awi bituŋlarge bamboo: Dendrocalamus spp. (Java) (PMP: *bituŋ₁) *bituŋ

aya-hfather; sire. More respectful than bapaʔ (PMP: *aya₂)

ayam biriŋa cock with a lot of bright yellow in its markings, deemed brave and lucky (PMP: *biRiŋ₁)

ayam borékspeckled fowl (PWMP: *burik)

ayam darapullet (PMP: *daRa₂)

ayam itékpoultry (PWMP: *itik₂)

ayam kuyua seedy-looking fowl (PWMP: *kuyut)

ayam kuyua seedy-looking fowl (PWMP: *kuyu)

ayam puŋgoktailless fowl (PWMP: *puŋguk)

ayer bekuice (LOAN)

ayer benatidal bore (PMP: *bena)

ayer ber-ondak-ondakthe water is in commotion (PWMP: *undak-undak) *qundak

Malay (180 / 3968)

ayer masinsea-water (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

ayər santancoconut milk (LOAN)

ayer tawarfresh water, in contrast to salt (PWMP: *tabaR)

ayo(h)lets go! Exclamation to incite someone to action (LOAN)

ayok-ayot-anpriapus (PWMP: *ayut)

ayun-anhammock-cradle; swing (PWMP: *hayun)

babacolonial born, creole; a descriptive honorific formerly given to Portuguese gentlemen, colonial-born European, Eurasian and Chinese males to distinguish them from men born in Europe or China; a descriptive name applied specifically to male Straits-born Chinese (LOAN)

babadtripe (LOAN) Jakarta

babaŋagape, wide open (NOISE)

babaŋdam, barrier against water (Brunei) (NOISE)

babarexpansion, opening out (of booming out a sail, spreading road-metal over the roadway, a shoal of fish dispersing over a large space, etc.) (PMP: *barbar)

babasblown quite out of one's course, not merely deflected (PWMP: *babas)

babasslit open (PWMP: *basbas₃) Brunei

babihog, pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

babi duyoŋdugong, sea-cow (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

babumaid-servant (LOAN)

babu tétékwet-nurse (LOAN)

bacakover-watered, of plants (PWMP: *bacak) Jakarta

bacokchop, cut up, cleave (Java) (PWMP: *bacuk)

badakrhinoceros; (sometimes) the tapir (the term covers the larger or one-horned rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus; the smaller two-horned rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sumatrensis; the tapir, Tapirus indicus; the legendary badak api or badak mas, a gold-colored rhinoceros of unusual ferocity; the rhinoceros bird (burong badak), a hornbill (LOAN)

Malay (200 / 3968)

badanbody (LOAN)

badaredible sea-water fish, sp. unid. (NOISE)

bagaikind, variety, species (LOAN)

bagai-manain what way, how? (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bagaltoo tall or stoutly built; overgrown; clumsy; beyond the regulation size for cockfighting (PMP: *bagal)

bagaykind; variety; species; as, like (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bagindaa title accorded to the Prophet and the four Caliphs, princely personages, Hindu divinities, etc. (LOAN)

bagua shrub: Gnetum brunonianum (PWMP: *baguh)

bagusfine; handsome (LOAN)

bahagi, bagito mete out; to apportion; to deal (cards) (PMP: *baqagi)

bahagiagood fortune sent by God (LOAN)

bahagi-ana share (PMP: *baqagi)

bahakguffaw loudly (PWMP: *bahak) W.Sumatra

baharunew; fresh; now at last (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bahu bidaŋbroad shoulders (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

baimother, mother animal (PMP: *bahi) Middle

baitgood (variant of baik) (PWMP: *bait₁)

bajauto strike up (= gasak 'striking hard; (colloquial) "going for", "clearing out", bolting; (vulgar) sexual intercourse') (PWMP: *bazaw)

bajiquoin, wedge, of two types: (i) for splitting or widening, (ii) to tighten by filling an interstice, or for regulating the angle of a ploughshare (LOAN)

bajushirt, jacket (LOAN)

Malay (220 / 3968)

baju buni-anbanyan-shirt (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni₁

baju sikapcoat indicating readiness for duty or that the wearer is on duty; a short coat, tight about the body and tight-sleeved; worn in Java it means that a man is decently dressed (and so available for work), and is not in sarong and singlet (PWMP: *sikep₃)

baju tərapa coat of bark cloth (PWMP: *teRep)

baksound of a smack (PMP: *bak₁)

bakar hati(lit. 'burning liver') angry emotion (PMP: *X₂ + qatay) *qaCay

bakaumangrove-covered swamp; mangrove tree, specifically of true mangroves (Rhizophorae) (PWMP: *bakehaw)

bakoŋa bulbous plant grown for its big white ornamental flowers, Crinum asiaticum (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

bakulbasket; loosely (in Bazaar Malay) any basket; specifically a large lidded basket of plaited bamboo wicker to be carried on the head, either oblong or cylindrical; if tight-meshed used for storing rice, and if openwork for storing fruit, etc. (PWMP: *bakul)

balatree sp.: Memecylon myrsinoides (NOISE)

balahdispute, argue (PWMP: *balaq)

balaipublic building, in contrast to a private house (PMP: *balay)

balak tioŋa tree: Pachychlamys sp. (NOISE)

balamdimly seen (ROOT)

balanwheal (PMP: *balan)

balaŋbanded (in coloring) (PWMP: *baleŋ)

balaŋvial; ewer; big-bodied bottle with a long, tapering, narrow neck (LOAN)

balaŋhurling (NOISE)

balaŋ-balaŋprojectile (NOISE)

balarunnatural or albino whiteness, esp. in a buffalo (PMP: *balaR₁) *balaR

balasrequital, repayment; reply (e.g. to a letter) (PAN: *bales₁)

Malay (240 / 3968)

balauname for trees yielding a particular class of timber used in wharf and bridge building: Shorea, Swintonia, and Parinarium spp. (PWMP: *balaw₂)

baldipail, galvanized iron bucket (LOAN)

balékreversal, going back; on the contrary; turn back (PMP: *balik₂)

baliŋrevolution; circling round a central point (PWMP: *baliŋ₂)

baliŋ-baliŋwhirligig; missile hurled by being swung round the head, e.g. a stone attached to a string; bull-roarer (PWMP: *baliŋ baliŋ) *baliŋ₂

baloŋcomb (of cock) (NOISE)

baluwidowed, i.e. left desolate by death. Cf. janda (widow or divorcée), a commoner word (PMP: *balu₄)

baluhwooden framework (inside a drum; in a howdah, etc.) (NOISE)

balunrolling up (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

balutbandaging, enwrapping (PWMP: *balut₂)

bambaŋana snapper: Lutjanus spp. (PWMP: *bambaŋen)

bambubamboo, cane (an Indian word, but generally understood) (LOAN)

banara climber, Smilax sp. (PMP: *banaR₁) *baNaR

banar babiSmilax helferi, the leaves of which are used for poulticing (PMP: *banaR₁) *baNaR Pahang

banatto thrash, to drub (PWMP: *banat)

banaua plant name'; = banar (Smilax sp.) (PMP: *banaw) *baNaw

bancirimpotent (PWMP: *baciR)

bandoŋtwin; in duplicate; alike and linked. Of semi-detached houses with a common roof, two yolks in one egg-shell, etc. (PWMP: *banduŋ)

banian epiphytic creeper: Dischidia rafflesiana (NOISE)

baniagabeniagatrade, commerce (LOAN)

Malay (260 / 3968)

banirbuttress-like projection from a tree trunk (NOISE)

banjarrow, line, file (of ranges of hills; of men or things being in lines of ten, or of a thousand; of forming troups up in lines four or five deep) (LOAN)

bantahaltercation (PWMP: *bantaq)

bantah-bentohbrawls of all sorts (PWMP: *bantaq)

bantalcushion-support; cushion or pillow of European type; pillow-like object (PWMP: *bantal)

bantal-bantalpillow-like stump of rainbow (regarded as ominous) (PWMP: *bantal)

bantéŋsmaller wild ox, Bos sondaicus … of doubtful occurrence in the Peninsula (LOAN)

bantiŋdashing against (of threshing rice by beating the stalks against the side of a box, and so knocking off the grain; of striking together, as when waves meet with a splash in the sea) (PMP: *bantiŋ)

bantiŋdashing against (of threshing rice by beating the stalks against the side of a box, and so knocking off the grain; of striking together, as when waves (LOAN)

bantunplucking out, of pulling out a hair or a tooth or an arrow from awound, or of uprooting a tree (PMP: *bantun)

ban-ufermented coconut water used in dyeing; water in which rice has been washed; water for use as ink, etc. (LOAN)

baŋarputrid, as stagnant water or decaying animal matter (PMP: *baŋ(e)qeR₂) *baŋ(e)qeR

baŋarclamor (ROOT)

baŋauputrid (PWMP: *baŋ(e)haw)

baŋkalname for certain trees: Nauclea spp. or Sarcocephalus spp. (PMP: *baŋkal)

baŋkaŋexpanding widely (as the arms of the new moon or a small arc of a very large circle); descriptive of the wide pincers of black forest scorpions (kala baŋkaŋ), of a crab with pincers far apart (kətam baŋkaŋ), and of buffalo horns that stand out almost straight (tandok baŋkaŋ) (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

baŋkaycarcass; dead body of animal; of human bodies, contemptuously (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋkubench; stool; long chair (LOAN)

baŋsarace; descent; family; in ancient Malaya of ‘caste’ (still so in Bali) (LOAN)

baŋsaltemporary structure of wood or atap used as a booth, coolie-house, cooking shed, etc. (PWMP: *baŋsal)

Malay (280 / 3968)

baŋsirice pipe; Malay flageolet (LOAN)

baŋsithaving a vile smell (PWMP: *baŋsit)

baŋunrisen posture; usual build, bearing or shape; standing outline. In four senses: (i) to resume one's natural attitude after falling down, i.e. to rise, (ii) bearing or shape, (iii) things that stand up against the sky, whether turrets and battlements, or temporary structures such as scaffoldings or platforms for seats, or as an upstanding patch of rainbow, (iv) revival, restoration or resurrection (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baraember, live coals (PMP: *baRah)

bara apiember, live coal (PMP: *baRah hapuy) *baRah

barahabscess (different from bisul 'external boil') (PAN: *baReq)

baran-baran, be-barana shell, sp. unident. (PMP: *baran)

baraŋthing; stuff; wares; goods (LOAN)

baraŋapproximately, more or less (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ Jakarta

baraŋ apawhatever (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baraŋ-baraŋthings of all sorts; impediments, the usual things (LOAN)

baraŋ-kaliperhaps (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baratWest; etym. associated with ribut, i.e. strong Westerly winds (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barat dayasouthwest (PAN: *daya)

baraua carp: Hampala macrolepidota (NOISE)

barékveined; marbled; mottled (in tint or shade rather than color) (PMP: *barik)

barisstraight line (PWMP: *bad(e)ris)

barisstraight line (as in drawing up troups in line, writing, etc.) (LOAN)

barua sea-shore tree (Hibiscus tiliaceus) of which the bast yields a useful fibre (PMP: *baRu)

barutbandaging, long wrapper or bandage (PWMP: *barut)

Malay (300 / 3968)

basahwet; saturated (PMP: *baseq)

basah-ancloth worn when bathing (PWMP: *baseq-an) *baseq

basah kuyupsopping wet (PWMP: *kuyup)

basirhermaphrodite; impotent (PWMP: *basiR)

basohcleaning with water, washing (PAN: *basuq)

basoŋcylindrical wrapper of leaf (for sago) (PWMP: *basuŋ)

bataŋstem; tree trunk; handle; shaft; long cylindrical part of anything; numeral coefficient for long cylindrical objects such as trees, logs, spars, spears, etc. (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ-anbar at river mouth; boom-barrier across stream (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ harimidday; main course of river (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ hidoŋridge of nose (PWMP: *bataŋ qijuŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ katiroutrigger attachment to a catamaran (PMP: *katiR)

batasboundary; limit; boundary dyke to a ricefield; rice-plot as shut in by these dykes (PMP: *bates)

batekbatik cloth (PWMP: *batik₁)

batokcough; generic for diseases of which coughing is a distinct feature (PMP: *batuk₁)

batokhusk and shell of coconut (PMP: *batuk₃)

batustone, rock, boulder, pebble, gem, milestone, mile; anchor; net stones; numeral classifier for teeth (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu apiflint for striking a light (PMP: *batu hapuy) *batux

batu apiflintstone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu araŋcharcoal (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu asahwhetstone (PWMP: *batu hasaq) *batux

Malay (320 / 3968)

batu-batu-ancalculi, gravel in urine (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux

batu beranibesi beranimagnet (LOAN)

batu karaŋcoral rock (PMP: *karaŋ)

batu timbaŋ-anweights used with a balance (PWMP: *timbaŋ-an) *timbaŋ

bauscent; odor (whether pleasant or the reverse) (PMP: *bahu)

bau beŋubeginning to smell badly, e.g. of a carcass (NOISE)

bau busokstench (PMP: *busuk)

baukhair along the line of the jawbone, feathers under beak (PWMP: *bauk)

baurcurving rod; curve (PMP: *bauR)

bawaconveyance in one's own custody or possession; to bring with one (PMP: *baba₁)

bawahposition under or below, nether side (PMP: *babaq₁)

bawa marito bring (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

bayaŋvague outline, shadow (NOISE)

bayarpayment; fulfilling an obligation or paying a debt (PMP: *bayaD)

bayoŋbag of mengkuang (pandanus leaves) for carrying raw sago (Brunei) (PWMP: *bayuquŋ)

bayura tree growing to a height of about 80 feet and yielding a durable timber: Pterospermum spp. (PMP: *bayuR)

béatoll; impost (LOAN)

bebaldull; doltish; stupid; surly; cross-grained (PMP: *belbel₁)

bebaŋstoppage (of a passage); inability to get through (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

bebarbewildered movement; flying in and out (as bats) (PMP: *berber₁)

Malay (340 / 3968)

bebatband; ligature (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bébékduck (onomatopoetic, from its quacking) (LOAN)

be-bintikingfisher (PWMP: *binti₁) Kedah

bécakslushy; mud-patch; puddle (PWMP: *bicak)

bécakslushy; mud-patch; puddle. Of bad bits of road after rain; patches of swampy ground to be reclaimed (LOAN)

bécakslushy; mud-patch; puddle (ROOT)

bédadistinction, difference (LOAN)

bedakface-powder; toilet-powder. A cosmetic of rice-flour mixed with a small quantity of other ingredients; kept in powder-form and watered when needed for use (LOAN)

bedara, bidaraa tree often mentioned in literature: Zizyphus jujuba (PWMP: *bidara)

bedilfirearm: heavy guns, small arms of old types, e.g. blunderbusses and matchlocks (modern guns are senapaŋ), toy-guns of umbrella-tubing (LOAN)

bedoka rude drum (a hollow cylinder of wood covered at one end only with a buffalo-hide) used for calling people to prayer or for signalling, and not for music. In Java it figures only in the royal gamelan (gamelan sekatén) where it is thumped from time to time to indicate the royal character of the orchestra (LOAN)

beflokcurve, bend (ROOT)

begahaklarge silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema (PWMP: *bagahak)

begahak, gahaklarge silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema (NOISE)

bégakfoppish, dressed up (ROOT)

békbleat (of goat or sheep) (LOAN)

bekalstores for a journey, viaticum. Specifically of provisions only, e.g. ayer bekal (water-supplies for a journey); beras bekal (rice-supplies). Loosely, of weapons and clothes, and of money for expenses on the way (PWMP: *bekel)

bekaŋbent; opened out (as a fishhook that has let a fish escape) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaŋ)

bekastrace, mark of what has gone before in two senses: (1) trace, handiwork, (2) former, late (PMP: *bekas₃)

bekucoagulation. Of liquid becoming viscous or even solid (LOAN)

Malay (360 / 3968)

bekukoŋthe sea-bream: Sparus hasta (PWMP: *bakukuŋ)

bekukusea bream: Sparus hasta (PWMP: *bakuku)

bélablood-offering in the way of self-immolation, propitiation or vengeance; atonement by blood. In old literature, specifically of suttee, of which there were two kinds: (1) béla suduk (suicide with the kris followed by burning); and (2) béla keterjunan (throwing oneself alive into the flames of the pyre); in modern speech bela/ is used (1) of a widow committing suicide when formal suttee is not allowed; (2) of wiping out an injury by an amok; and (3) of taking lives for a life (LOAN)

belachuunbleached cotton cloth (LOAN)

belacuunbleached cotton cloth (LOAN)

beladaua curved single-edged dagger worn hidden in the sleeve or waistbelt and used for treacherous stabbing (PWMP: *baladaw)

belahsplitting; cleaving into two; one of two sections or of a pair; side; portion; quarter or direction (PAN: *belaq)

bəlakmottled satin-like markings (of the grain of certain woods; of shiny patches left by skin disease; of worn fabrics, etc.) (PWMP: *bakelag)

belakaŋback; rear; hind-portion; behind or after (PWMP: *balakaŋ)

belalaiproboscis; pendent fleshy mass. Of an elephant's trunk, the shorter trunk of a tapir, the pendent upper lip of a rhinoceros, the lobes of a turkey, etc. (LOAN)

belalakstaring; wide-eyed (mata mem-belalak). Of the fixed look of a short-sighted man; of the stare of a man strangled or choked; of the big mild eyes of an ox; of a man putting a savage look into his eyes like a lion about to charge (PWMP: *bulalak)

belalaŋgrasshopper; cricket; mantis (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

belalaŋgrasshopper; cricket; mantis (PWMP: *bilalaŋ)

belalaŋ daunleaf insect: Phyllium spp. (PMP: *dahun)

bəlam-bəlamdusk; twilight; indistinctness (PAN: *beNelem)

belam-belamdusk; twilight; indistinctness (ROOT)

belanakgrey mullet: Mugil spp. (PWMP: *balanak)

belanjaoutlay; disbursement; expenditure (LOAN)

belantékspring-gun, spring-spear, spring-trap (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

belaŋbanded (in coloring); brightly marked in contrasting colors; having regular markings (used especially of the color patterns on animal skins) (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

Malay (380 / 3968)

belaŋawide-mouthed cooking pot for cooking vegetables, curries, etc. -- not for boiling rice (PMP: *balaŋa)

belaŋawide-mouthed cooking pot (ROOT)

belaŋahto gape (PWMP: *balaŋa(q))

belaŋahto gape (ROOT)

belaŋahgape (ROOT)

belaŋkaŋto ring (of metal falling on stone) (ROOT)

-belasa component in framing numerals from 11 to 19 (LOAN)

belaspity; mercy; sympathy (NOISE)

belas kaséhanmercy and compassion (NOISE)

belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish. In most of these traps the fish are led by the tide between two converging rows of screens (bidaŋ belat, bidai belat) into a trap, usually of several compartments, from the inmost of which there is no escape (PWMP: *bakelad)

belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish (PWMP: *banelat)

belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish. In most of these traps the fish are led by the tide between two converging rows of screens (bidaŋ belat, bidai belat) into a trap, usually of several compartments, from the inmost of which there is no escape (PMP: *belat₂)

belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish (PWMP: *belet)

belataklarge open basket (NOISE) Brunei

belatékwoodpecker (Sumatra) (ROOT)

belatokwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

belebakbamboo spear (used in spring traps) (PWMP: *balabeg)

beleduvelvet (LOAN)

belekmuddy, slimy (PWMP: *banelik) Jakarta

belekéksnipe (ROOT)

Malay (400 / 3968)

belekoka bird, variously a pond heron (Ardeola speciosa) or a gallinule (Porphyrio polyocephalus) (ROOT)

beleŋgufetters; shackles for the feet (LOAN)

beleŋgu, beluŋgufetters; shackles for the feet (LOAN)

beléŋkokcrooked; bent (ROOT)

beléŋkoŋcurving, sinuous (PMP: *bilikuŋ)

beléraŋbrimstone, sulphur (LOAN)

beléraŋ, beliraŋbrimstone, sulphur (LOAN)

belipurchase (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

belianshaman; sorceror or sorceress; touch with the spirit-world (PWMP: *balian)

belianshaman (NOISE)

belidaa featherback: Notopterus spp., believed by Malays to have once been a cat and to squall like a cat when caught (so not eaten) (PWMP: *balida)

belidaha featherback: Notopterus spp., believed by Malays to have been a cat and to squall like a cat when caught (so not eaten) (PWMP: *balidaq)

bə-likasroll of thread (PMP: *likes)

belikatscapula, shoulder-blade (PWMP: *balikat)

belikusharp twist or bend in river (ROOT)

belimbiŋridged longitudinally (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

belintaŋsplit bamboo rails for a fence; laying across; cutting off, cutting communications (PWMP: *bali(n)taŋ)

bəlioŋ saŋkaladze used by boat builders (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kal) Brunei

belisahrestless, fidgety (LOAN)

belitcoil; curl or hitch (of rope). Of a snake's coils, an elephant's curving trunk, coil of necklace, shawl round neck, lasso when girdling an enemy, winding of river (PMP: *belit₂)

Malay (420 / 3968)

beliuŋadze, small hatchet (PWMP: *baliuŋ)

bélokto veer; turn back; to wheel; (nautical) to go about; to luff up; to travel to windward. Of desertion to the enemy; of wheeling one's horse to right and left; of diverting a water-runnel; of a turn of the road, of getting round the skirts of a hill (PMP: *biluk)

belulaŋpelt; hide; hard skin; sun-dried untanned leather; callosity; corn; hard skin on bullock's neck; (Brunei, Sarawak) skin, leather (PWMP: *balulaŋ)

be-lumaŋbesmeared all over, e.g. with mud as a buffalo after a wallow (PMP: *lumeŋ)

belunoha fruit: Mangifera sp. (Brunei, Sarawak) (PWMP: *balunuq)

bəlunoha fruit, Mangifera sp. (NEAR) Brunei

bəlunoha fruit, Mangifera sp. (NEAR) Sarawak

belurua climber: Entada scandens, the hard-skinned fruit of which is used by potters in polishing their wares (PWMP: *baluRu)

belusloose, slipping freely off and on (of a ring) (ROOT)

beluteel, specifically the common mud-eel: Monopterus albus (LOAN)

bembanbasket-trap for fish; name for certain plants used in basket-making, Clinogyne spp. and Donax spp., esp. Clinogyne dichotoma (bemban ayer) (PWMP: *benban)

bembanbasket-trap for fish; name for certain plants used in basket-making, Clinogyne spp. and Donax spp., esp. Clinogyne dichotoma (bemban ayer) (PWMP: *benben₂)

benatidal bore; eagre; animal believed by Malays to cause tidal bores (PMP: *bena)

benakmarrow; brain; quick (of nail) (NOISE)

benamimmersion in water or mud. Of execution by drowning (in a shallow river) when the victim's head is held under water by a forked stick; in contradistinction to drowning in the deep sea (laboh di-laut) (PWMP: *benem₂)

benantu, menantuson-in-law, daughter-in-law (LOAN)

benaŋthread (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

benaŋthread (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benaŋdrumming or buzzing in the ear (PMP: *beŋaŋ₁)

benaŋ araŋcharcoal line drawn by carpenters to guide their work (PWMP: *benaŋ)

Malay (440 / 3968)

benartrue; in accordance with facts (PMP: *bener)

benar-kanconfirm, authorize (PMP: *bener)

bencanamischief-making; trouble, esp. when due to tale-bearing; make mischief (LOAN)

bencihate (LOAN)

bendathing; article; esp. a thing of value; property, treasure (LOAN)

bendéraflag (of European type) (LOAN)

benderaflag (of European type) (LOAN)

bendulcross-beam (from house pillar) supporting the floor of a house; whence the term bendul yaŋ empat '(the four cross-beams), i.e. the "four walls" of a house within which the owner is master' masok ka bendul cross the threshold (of a house) (LOAN)

bənehseed; plant-seed; fig. of illegitimate children as 'planted from no seed, growing from no shoot' (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bentaŋexpansion; spreading out. Of spreading out carpets, stretching nets to dry, pitching tents, etc. (LOAN)

bentaŋur, bintangura tree: generic for Calophyllum spp., of which the timber makes good masts (PWMP: *bintaŋuR)

bentaŋur bunuta tree: Calophyllum spectabile (PWMP: *bunut₂)

bentapua gallinule (PWMP: *bintapu)

bentastearing up and dashing down; e.g. of a Titan tearing out a hill by the roots and dashing it down on the divine warriors, his enemies (PMP: *bentas)

bentausa plant: Wrightia javanica; its light-colored wood is used for making kris sheaths (PWMP: *bitaqus)

béntéhinterlocking shins; wrestling (in certain games) resting the shin on the calf of the other's leg (PMP: *bintiq)

béntéŋ, bintiŋbreastwork. Specifically a breastwork or low defensive parapet, e.g. the permanent barbette or battery of thick logs over which a piratical prahu's guns were trained (LOAN)

bentokcurve, arc; numeral coefficient for rings, hooks, spurs, etc.; of the curve of a horse's hoof, the curve of a girl's body at the waist, curving swords, etc. (PMP: *bentuk)

benturbending; bowing; "giving" under a heavy weight (PMP: *be(n)tuR)

benturbending; bowing; "giving" under a heavy weight (PMP: *be(n)tur)

Malay (460 / 3968)

benualarge expanse of land; empire; continent; mainland in contrast to island. To the old Malays even a large island like Java was a benua (PMP: *banua)

benuaia tree: Kayea grandis (PWMP: *banuay)

benuaŋa tree: Sterculia alata. Its very light wood serves to make stoppers for bottles (PWMP: *banuaŋ)

benuaŋa tree: Sterculia alata. Its very light wood serves to make stoppers for bottles (PWMP: *benuaŋ)

b-enuaŋbig, heavily built -- but only in the expressions kerbau benuaŋ, rusa benuaŋ (PAN: *qiNuaŋ)

beŋaamazed, dumbfounded (PMP: *beŋa₁)

beŋaamazed; dumbfounded (ROOT)

beŋahpant (PMP: *beŋaq)

beŋaltemporary dullness of hearing, e.g. after much diving or a stiff dose of quinine (PMP: *beŋel)

beŋaŋenlarge (an aperture); widen or lengthen (a sleeve); allow open space between houses; bursting open, of a pod; drumming or buzzing in the ear (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

beŋaŋdrumming or buzzing in the ear (ROOT)

beŋaŋ-béŋutvery twisted; zigzagging (NOISE)

béŋbéŋpull or twist a person's ear (PWMP: *biŋbiŋ₂) Jakarta

beŋékcatch in the breath (ROOT)

beŋgaladescriptive adjective for articles introduced via Calcutta (Indian onion, Gossypium vitifolium, pasture grass, potato, castor oil, etc.) (LOAN)

beŋgalathe old Bengal Presidency; also a descriptive adjective for article introduced or imported via Calcutta (LOAN)

beŋiscruel, heartless, indifferent to the suffering of others (PMP: *beŋis₁)

beŋkakswollen, inflamed. Of the result of a wasp-sting; of a bunged-up eye; of a boy's face covered with bumps after a fight; of swelling due to deep-seated internal disease; of the results of a caning on the fingers, etc. (PMP: *beŋkak)

beŋkarto open out (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

beŋkiriŋa tree: Garcinia sp. (PWMP: *baŋkiriŋ)

Malay (480 / 3968)

béŋkokcrooked (PWMP: *bikug)

béŋkokcrooked (PMP: *biŋkuk)

beŋkuduplant of which the roots bark gives a red dye, Morinda spp. (PWMP: *biŋkudu)

ber-adahave; rather wealthy, not lacking in means (PMP: *wada)

berahi, birahistrong feeling; passionately in love or excited. Usually of sexual love or love-madness but also of the feelings excited by music, e.g. of people stirred by it to get up and dance, and even of a stimulus such as money-making (LOAN)

bər-akalclever, resourceful (LOAN)

ber-anakbe possessed of children; give birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

beranibravery; to dare; to venture (PMP: *baRani)

béraŋrising anger; fury; passion (PAN: *biraŋ)

béraŋrising anger, fury, passion (LOAN)

beraŋto clang (ROOT)

béraŋrising anger, fury, passion (NOISE)

béraŋrising anger, fury, passion (NOISE)

beraŋaia piratical prahu furnished with grapnel and boarding-gangways to attack becalmed or anchored ships (PWMP: *baraŋay)

beraŋangeneric for chestnuts and oaks: Quercus spp., Castanopsis spp., Pasania spp. (PWMP: *baraŋan₂)

beraŋansulphide of arsenic; white arsenical oxide (used as rat poison) (PWMP: *baraŋan₃)

beraŋansulphide of arsenic; white arsenical oxide (used as rat poison) (PWMP: *baraŋen₂)

ber-aŋinbreezy, airy (PMP: *haŋin)

ber-aŋkattravel with a retinue, to journey (of a prince) (PWMP: *maR-aŋkat) *aŋkat

ber-apahow much/how many? (PMP: *apa₁)

Malay (500 / 3968)

ber-apicontaining fire; producing fire (PWMP: *maR-hapuy) *Sapuy

ber-arakin order one behind the other, as driving clouds (PWMP: *maR-aRak) *aRak

ber-asak-asakcrushed together (of people in a crowd (PMP: *hasek₂)

beras bertéhparched rice (much used in superstitious rites) (PWMP: *baRetiq)

beras bertéhparched rice (much used in superstitious rites) (PWMP: *beRtiq)

beras be-rtéhparched rice (PWMP: *retiq)

beras be-rtéhparched rice (PWMP: *Retiq)

beras bertéhparched rice (NOISE)

beratweight; heaviness; fig. of "heavy-footedness", i.e sluggishness; of "heavy-wittedness", i.e. dullness; of "heaviness of the limbs", i.e. weariness; of burdens such as the literal burden of pregnancy (PMP: *beReqat)

ber-ataphaving a roof (PWMP: *maR-qatep) *qatep

ber-aturarranged in order (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

ber-aturarranged in order (LOAN)

berauunfortunate, ill-starred (PWMP: *beRaw) Ulu Pahang

ber-bagaiin various ways; different kinds of; (also) comparable, -- in such expressions as tiada ber-bagai (peerless) (LOAN)

ber-bauto have a smell (PMP: *bahu)

ber-bebarto cackle (of fowls) (PMP: *berber₁)

ber-béntéhto wrestle (PMP: *bintiq)

ber-binibe a married man (PAN: *b<in>ahi) *bahi

ber-birasbe or become so connected (PWMP: *biras₂)

ber-buahbear fruit (PAN: *maR-buaq) *buaq

Malay (520 / 3968)

ber-buéhto froth (PMP: *buqiq)

ber-buntut-buntutIndian-file, one after the other (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

ber-buñigive out sound (PMP: *buñi)

ber-busato foam up, to lather (PMP: *busa₁)

ber-busokbehave scandalously toward anyone (PMP: *busuk)

ber-dalehto evade the issue (PWMP: *udaliq)

ber-dampil-dampilcrowding up against one another (PWMP: *da(m)pil)

ber-darahto bleed (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq

ber-daunleafy, to have leaves (PWMP: *maR-dahun) *dahun

ber-dikit-dikitin small quantities, a little at a time (PWMP: *dikit dikit) *dikit

ber-diristanding (PAN: *SadiRi)

ber-dirito stand (PAN: *diRi)

ber-duamaking two (PWMP: *maR-duha) *duSa

ber-ékorhave a tail (PWMP: *maR-ikuR) *ikuR

ber-empatin a quartet (i.e. with three others) (PWMP: *maR-epat) *Sepat

bər-gigit-kan kudato make horses fight with their teeth (in battle) (PWMP: *gitgit)

ber-hantuhaving a ghost; possessed by a ghost (PWMP: *maR-qanitu) *qaNiCu

ber-humahave a swidden, work or cultivate a swidden (PWMP: *maR-quma) *qumah

ber-ikattied, tied up (PWMP: *maR-hiket) *Siket

ber-iŋattake care (PWMP: *maR-iŋat) *iŋat

Malay (540 / 3968)

ber-isihave contents, contain (PWMP: *maR-isiʔ) *isiʔ

ber-isi bubokfull of maggots, as a rotting tree (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

ber-isteri(of a man of rank) to be married (PWMP: *maR-qasawa) *qasawa

beritanews, tidings (LOAN)

beritanews; tidings; report (LOAN)

ber-jahatto speak ill deliberately of a person (PMP: *zaqat)

ber-jalanto walk, go (PMP: *zalan)

ber-jualbe engaged in selling (LOAN)

ber-karatfighting with tooth and claw (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

berkascolligation; binding together (with rope or rattan); a bale so bound (PMP: *beRkes)

berkatblessings (LOAN)

bər-kəliliŋround about (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

ber-kemisto beg (on Thursday or khamis) for donations for the Friday service; to beg in general (LOAN)

ber-kempas-kempisexpand and contract rapidly, as the stomach of a man breathing hard or much frightened (PWMP: *ke(m)pes)

ber-kentutto break wind (PWMP: *maR-qetut) *qetut

bər-kəntutto break wind (PWMP: *ketut)

bər-kətakto cluck, of a fowl (PWMP: *ketak)

bər-kicawto chirrup (PWMP: *kicaw)

ber-kilat-(kilat)to flash, of lightning (PWMP: *maR-kilat) *likaC

bər-kokok ~ kukokto crow, of barnyard cocks, and also of junglefowl (PWMP: *kukkuk)

Malay (560 / 3968)

bər-kukoh padato stick to (PMP: *kukuq)

ber-kulatto be moldy (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

bər-kumpulto gather (of people) (PWMP: *kumpul)

ber-kumur-kumurto gargle, rinse the mouth (PMP: *kumuR)

ber-labohto lie at anchor (PWMP: *labuq)

bər-lain-andiffering from; apart from (PWMP: *lain)

ber-lakito take a husband (PMP: *laki)

bər-lawanin rivalry with; having a rival (PMP: *laban₂)

ber-layarto sail (PWMP: *maR-layaR) *layaR

bər-ləbeh-kuraŋto wax and wane (of the moon) (PWMP: *lebiq)

bər-limpitin layers (PMP: *lip(e)qit)

bər-lipatfolded up, as trousers (PAN: *lipet)

ber-lobaŋ-lobaŋfull of holes, as a wasp’s nest (PWMP: *maR-lubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

ber-lumutmossy; lichen-covered (PMP: *lumut)

bər-mohonask permission (NOISE)

berokcoconut-monkey: Macacus (Inuus) nemestrinus (LOAN)

ber-olok-olokspeak jestingly (PWMP: *ulug)

bər-pada-padain reasonable (but not excessive) amounts (PWMP: *pada pada) *pada

bər-pəraŋto go to war, make war (LOAN)

bər-pindahto move, change location (PWMP: *pindaq)

Malay (580 / 3968)

bər-pisahto be separated (PWMP: *pisaq)

bər-puruto suffer from puru (PMP: *puRu)

ber-sakitto take pains (PMP: *sakit)

bər-sambut-sambut-anexchange ceremonial visits (PWMP: *sambut₂)

bər-sampay-anhung out to dry (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

bər-sandiŋto sit side by side, but limited in use to the ceremonial ‘enthronement’ of the bride and bridegroom at the wedding reception after the actual religious marriage (LOAN)

berséhclean, free from impurities (LOAN)

bər-səsakto press in by force, stuff (PWMP: *maR-seksek) *seksek₁

bər-siahto bustle; to fuss; to push or brush aside; to pull apart gently, as a bird’s feathers or the orifice of a wound (PWMP: *siaq)

bər-silatto dance a weaponless war dance (PWMP: *silat)

bersinsneezing (PWMP: *buresin)

ber-sinarto shine (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

bər-siramto bathe, of a prince or princess (LOAN)

ber-suŋutto grumble, grouse (PWMP: *suŋut₁)

ber-susunin layers, arranged one on the other (PMP: *susun) *susuN

bər-tahun-tahunchronic; annual; year-long (PMP: *taqun)

ber-tanakto boil rice (PWMP: *maR-tanek) *taNek

ber-tanak nasito boil rice (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

ber-tañato ask, inquire (PWMP: *maR-kutaña) *kutaña

ber-taña-kanto enquire about (PMP: *utaña)

Malay (600 / 3968)

bər-taŋkupto close over; to fold over (PMP: *takub)

bər-tapehto wear a sarong as a skirt, i.e. from the waist downwards, in contrast to wearing it as a bodice as well, i.e. from the breasts downwards (PWMP: *tapiq₂)

bər-tarohto bet; to deposit stakes (PWMP: *maR-taRuq) *taRuq

bər-tədohto take shelter (LOAN)

bər-təlokto kneel (PWMP: *teluk)

bər-təmuto meet (by appointment) (PWMP: *temu₂)

bər-timbun-timbunin stacks or mounds, as merchandise on a wharf, or bodies on a battlefield (PWMP: *timbun)

bər-timpohto sit as a Malay woman sits, i.e. with the legs together and bent at the knees, knees outward and feet near the body, and usually a hand on the ground (PWMP: *timpuhuq)

ber-tiupto blow (as the wind) (PWMP: *maR-heyup) *Seyup

ber-tolakto push off (of a boat); to put off; to start (PWMP: *maR-tulak) *tulak

bər-toŋkatto use crutches or a cane (PWMP: *maR-tuked) *tuked

bər-toŋkat-kanto rest on; to be supported by (PWMP: *maR-tuked) *tuked

bər-tuahluck-bringing, as a mascot or talisman (PWMP: *tuaq)

ber-tunasto give out new shoots (of a mutilated tree) (PWMP: *tunas)

bər-tuŋguto be on the lookout (LOAN)

bər-tuturto speak clearly (PMP: *tutur₁)

beruaŋthe Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

be-rumahto set up house, to get married (PAN: *Rumaq)

berunaya tree: Antidesma alatum, Antidesma montanum (PWMP: *buRnay)

ber-unjur-kansticking out, projecting (PMP: *qunzur)

Malay (620 / 3968)

berunusa creeper: Aeschynanthus radicans (PWMP: *barunus)

bésanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried (PWMP: *baisan)

besarbig, bulky; important (LOAN)

besar hati(lit. 'big liver') presumption (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

besiiron; instrument made of iron, such as a branding-iron or a horse-shoe (LOAN)

besi burokscrap-iron (PAN: *buRuk)

bésoktomorrow (LOAN)

betahconvalescence, getting better (said to be from Persian bih-tah) (NOISE)

betassplit open; slit open; ripped open; come undone (of a seam); cracked (of an egg) (PMP: *be(R)tas)

betékpapaya or pawpaw, Carica papaya, of which Malays recognize three varieties (LOAN)

beték bubursoft-fleshed pulpy papaya (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

be-tinafemale (an insult when used of human beings ... of animals it is always correct) (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

betislower leg; shank or cannon of horse; leg from the knee to sole (PAN: *beties)

betoŋlarge (of grasses) (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

betulstraight; direct; accurate; true; right; just so (LOAN)

biakprolific; increasing in numbers; breeding; e.g. kembaŋ biak of a maggot that breeds in fruit; mem-biak-kan ternak to breed livestock (PWMP: *biak)

biancakmonitor lizard, of which there are four varieties: (i) Varanus salvator, the largest, (ii) V. rudicollis (long-snouted), (iii) V. dumerili (tree-monitor), (iv) V. nebulosus (long-tailed) (Palembang) (PWMP: *bayawak)

biaŋ-biutzigzag; sticking out this way and that (PWMP: *biqaŋ₂) *biqaŋ₁

biaŋ-biutzigzag; sticking out in this direction and that (PAN: *biqut)

biarpermitting; allowing; letting (PWMP: *bihaR)

Malay (640 / 3968)

biar-biaran intestinal worm that ends by attacking the eye and causing blindness in animals: Filaria loa; biar-biar naik ka-mata 'the biar-biar worm gets to the eye' = 'concede, concede and you end in need' -- a play on biar 'let' (PMP: *biaR₁)

biasdeflected (of a course). Of rain falling at an angle because of wind; of a ship's course being affected by tides or currents; but not of a ship being blown out of its course altogether by storms (PWMP: *bias)

biasahabitual; acquainted with or accustomed to (LOAN)

biawakmonitor lizard, of which there are four varieties: (i) Varanus salvator, the largest, (ii) V. rudicollis (long-snouted), (iii) V. dumerili (tree-monitor), (iv) V. nebulosus (long-tailed) (PWMP: *bayawak)

biayadisbursement; working expenses; working capital. Of the cost of running a poultry-farm; of money spent on building a mosque; of it being impossible to spend on pleasure on earth and lay up treasure in heaven with the same money (LOAN)

bibiaunt; aged female relative (in Malayo Javanese literature) (LOAN)

bibirlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibirlip-like edge, rim, brink (PMP: *birbir₁)

bibitcarrying, lifting or holding in the fingers. Of carrying a powder-flask in the hand, or lifting asparagus-like vegetables to the mouth when eating (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bibitseedling; germ (LOAN)

bicaradeliberation, discussion; discourse; legal proceeding; court-case; concern, business (LOAN)

bicaradeliberation; discussion; discourse; legal proceeding (LOAN)

bidadarinymph of Indra's heaven; houri of Paradise (LOAN)

bidakpawn in chess (LOAN)

bidanmidwife; sage-femme. A person of much importance in a Malay village; formerly entitled to maintenance as a public servant (LOAN)

bidaŋspacious; expansive; broad; a (Sumatran) measure of length of about five hasta; a numeral coefficient for sails, mats, hides, awnings, screens, and so on (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidaŋspacious; expansive; broad; a (Sumatran) measure of length of about five hasta, a numerical coefficient for sails, mats, hides, awnings, screens and so on (LOAN)

bidaŋ belatscreen for attachment of fishing-stakes (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidokfishing boat or river cargo-boat of some bulk and draught (LOAN)

bijiseed; pip; grain; testicle; numeral coefficient for small objects (LOAN)

Malay (660 / 3968)

biji kətumbarcoriander seed (for spicing curry); also used medicinally (LOAN)

bikuscallop or vandyke border (PMP: *biŋku)

bikuBuddhist monk of old Malaya (LOAN)

bikuscallop or vandyke border (ROOT)

bilahthin strip or lath (PWMP: *bilaq)

bilah bulohbamboo strip (PWMP: *bilaq)

bilalmuezzin; caller to prayer (LOAN)

bilaŋenumeration; to number; to recount; half metaphorical in things being 'of no account' or of serious account, i.e. famous (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilarmyopia (PMP: *bileR)

bilékwickerwork of bamboo, used for making partitions in houses, whence the derivative use: compartment; apartment (PMP: *bilik)

bilisanchovy, Macassar red-fish; generic for small fish, esp. Stolephorus spp. that come in huge schools and are caught and salted for sale as budu (pickled anchovies) or peda (fish pickled in brine) (PWMP: *bilis)

bilurwheal; blue streak or stripe on the flesh (LOAN)

bilurwheal; blue streak or stripe on the flesh (NOISE)

bimbaŋsolicitude; doubt; anxious; irresolute; in love (LOAN)

bimbiŋlead by the hand (PWMP: *biŋbiŋ₁)

binasadestruction, ruin -- whether physical, moral or financial (LOAN)

binataŋanimal, beast (as a term of abuse); thing, whether animate or inanimate (LOAN)

biniwife; spouse (less respectful than isteri (PAN: *b<in>ahi) *bahi

bintaŋa tree: Musaenda mutabilis (PWMP: *bintaŋ)

bintaŋstar; heavenly body; constellation; fig., the star of a knightly order (LOAN)

Malay (680 / 3968)

bintaŋ belantékOrion (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

bintaŋ paria constellation, the Southern Cross (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

bintaŋ timurthe Morning Star (PMP: *timuR)

bintaŋ tujoha constellation, the Pleiades (PMP: *bituqen pitu) *bituqen

binték-bintéksmall dark heat spots (ROOT)

bintilpustule; pimple; heat-spot; mosquito bite (ROOT)

bintistrip up (PMP: *bities)

bintulcreel-trap for crabs. This creel (which is baited and has net-like interstices) is laid at the bottom of the water. When the crabs have swarmed on it to eat the bait it is raised suddenly and the crabs are caught (PWMP: *bintul)

binturcreel-trap for crabs. This creel (which is baited and has net-like interstices) is laid at the bottom of the water. When the crabs have swarmed on it to eat the bait it is raised suddenly and the crabs are caught (PWMP: *bintur)

binuaŋa tree: Sterculia alata. Its very light wood serves to make stoppers for bottles (PWMP: *binuaŋ) Brunei

biŋaha shell: Voluta diadema (PMP: *biŋaq)

biŋara shell: Voluta diadema (PWMP: *biŋaR)

biŋituneasy; out of sorts; not quite fit (PMP: *biŋit)

biŋkahclod (PMP: *bikaq₂)

biŋkaibinding; rim; border; frame. Of the rim of a shield; the highest hoop of a barrel; the rattan edging that makes the rim of a basket smooth; the rattan border of a winnowing pan; the felloe of a wheel; the rim of a tray (PWMP: *biŋkay)

biŋkasspringing up or flying back (of something resilient) (PMP: *biŋkas)

biŋkisbale, parcel (PWMP: *biŋkis)

biŋkoŋzigzagging (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

biŋoŋmuddle-headed (LOAN)

biŋoŋmuddle-headed (NOISE)

Malay (700 / 3968)

biŋoŋ alaŋknocked sily; bewildered (ROOT)

biŋoŋ bagakjackass, an absolute ass (PWMP: *bagak)

biolaviolin; fiddle (LOAN)

bioŋcurved, of the cutting edge of a pair of areca-nut scissors (PWMP: *biquŋ)

biraan aroid, Alocasia spp., especially Alocasia indica. Associated with itchiness and used as a term of abuse = hot stuff, lascivious, harlot (in Brunei and Sarawak) (PWMP: *biRaʔ)

birahan aroid, Alocasia spp., especially Alocasia indica. Associated with itchiness and used as a term of abuse = hot stuff, lascivious, harlot (in Brunei and Sarawak) (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

birasconnection by marriage (in the case of two men who have married sisters, or of two women who have married brothers) (PWMP: *biras₂)

birasconnection by marriage (in the case of two men who have married sisters, or of two women who have married brothers (NOISE)

biratscar on mouth (PMP: *birat)

biri-birisheep (LOAN)

birik, buroŋ bérék-béréka bird, the bee-eater, generic for Meropidae, esp. Merops sumatranus (a bird associated with the spectre huntsman) (LOAN)

biriŋbright red or yellow; fiery-looking (of the color of a fighting cock, esp. about the legs (PMP: *biRiŋ₁)

biriŋrunning at the eyes as a consequence of ophthalmia (PWMP: *biRiŋ₂)

biriŋedge, e.g. of foot or boat (PMP: *biriŋ₁)

biritbuttocks (Jakarta Malay, said to be a Sundanese loan) (PMP: *birit₂) *birit

biruazure; blue (LOAN)

bisablood-poison; anything that gives a septic wound; venomous (LOAN)

bisavenomous; ability to do, can (LOAN) Jakarta

bisékspeaking in a whisper (PWMP: *bisik₃)

bisudumb, mute (LOAN)

Malay (720 / 3968)

bisulboil, superficial abscess (PMP: *bisul)

bitiŋa spit or spike (of bamboo or palm rib) used for pinning together leaves in cooking (PWMP: *biR(e)tiŋ)

biukua water tortoise: Notochelys platynota; it has a yellow streak extending from the eye, giving it a rather languid look (NEAR)

bobokto gurgle (as a bottle dipped empty into water) (PMP: *bukbuk₁)

bobos, bubusleaking through one big leak; ajar or agape (of a door); sink or aperture for throwing out rubbish; (slang) very loose, of the bowels (PMP: *busbus)

bocorleaking (in places); not watertight (LOAN)

bodostupid (Jakarta) (LOAN)

bodokleprosy in its early stage (LOAN)

bodokdull; unintelligent (LOAN)

bodokleprosy in its early stage (NOISE)

bogaŋnude (NOISE)

bohoŋlying; untruth; intentional misstatement (LOAN)

bokorrimmed plate or shallow bowl (like soup-plate), usually of metal. On it is placed a water vessel of porous earthenware, the bokor serving to hold up any water oozing through and so to protect the table-cloth or table-matting (LOAN)

bolaball (used in European games); clew or ball of yarn (LOAN)

bolakgoing back on one's word; prevarication (LOAN)

bolia tree: Oroxylum indicum (NOISE)

boloŋblack; thick black paint or tar; tarring; blackening (PMP: *buluŋ₁)

boloŋ tanahbitumen, asphalt (PMP: *buluŋ₁)

bolosstripped (of hair, leaves, feathers, etc.); fallen off (of a string-winding or wrapping); bare; bald; leafless; (fig.) left desolate (LOAN)

bolosstripped (of hair, leaves, feathers, etc.); fallen off (of a string-winding or wrapping); bare; bald; leafless; (fig.) left desolate (NOISE)

Malay (740 / 3968)

bolot, bulutbundling up; wrapping up loosely or carelessly; bustle about, fuss (NOISE)

bolsaclothes bag (LOAN)

bombapump; hose of a fire engine; squirt; syringe (LOAN)

bomba-kaninject (LOAN)

bombeBombay, associated in Malay with penal transportation kueh bombe an Indian cake (LOAN)

boncis, buncisharicot-beans: Phaseolus vulgaris (LOAN)

boncol, bunculbump, prominence, protuberance (LOAN)

bonékadoll (LOAN)

boŋdeep booming sound (onom.) (PMP: *buŋ)

boŋboŋbamboo cup for palm sap when tapping (Java) (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

boŋkahlump, fragment (PWMP: *buŋkaq)

boŋkakarrogant; self-assertive (LOAN)

boŋkakarrogant; self-assertive (ROOT)

boŋkallump; a measure of weight. Etymologically 'a stone' -- whence it came to be used of stone weights and of pebble-like clots or lumps (PWMP: *bukel)

boŋkal gantéhlump at end of buffalo horn (PWMP: *bukel)

boŋkamclosing (the mouth); silencing (PWMP: *buŋkem)

boŋkaŋprone; astretch (in contrast to lying huddled up) (ROOT)

boŋkaŋ-baŋkiŋlying about in all sorts of attitudes (of bodies after a battle) (ROOT)

boŋkarheaving up; raising up something heavy (PMP: *buŋkaR)

boŋkarheaving up, raising up something heavy (NOISE)

Malay (760 / 3968)

boŋkasto trip the anchor (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

boŋkokbent; bowed; humpbacked; spinal curvature (esp. of a man's back) (PMP: *buŋkuk)

boŋkolbump; hump; globular end of a drumstick; of rounded prominences on a horse's neck, spavins or splints (ROOT)

boŋoldeaf (PWMP: *buŋul) Jakarta

boŋsuyoungest-born; familiar name for youngest of a family (PWMP: *buŋsu)

boŋsu, bonsu, buŋsuyoungest-born; minimus (or minima); familiar name for youngest of a family (LOAN)

borékspotted; freckled; pockpitted; speckled with fairly large spots, esp. of color varieties in animals (PWMP: *burik)

boroŋwholesale; on a large scale; in the lump; piecework, in contrast to employment by the day (LOAN)

borosbecome loose, of a string wound around something; letting out rope; (fig.) prodigal, extravagant (PWMP: *burus₁)

borosprodigal, wasteful, extravagant (PWMP: *burus₂)

bota, butaogre; evil spirit preying on man. Constantly mentioned in literature, and practically indistinguishable from the raksasa and gergasi, the three being often bracketed together as 'ogres of all kinds'; bota beloh, buta beloh big-eyed ghost, possibly the owl kokok belok (LOAN)

botak, butakbaldness; hairlessness of the crown of the head in contrast to bubus or bolos (general thinning of the hair) and sulah (baldness over the forehead) (LOAN)

botaŋ, butaŋbutton; stud; knot used as button (LOAN)

boyaEuropean buoy (LOAN)

boyoŋswaying (LOAN)

boyoŋswaying (NOISE)

boyot, buyut, moyot, poyot, piutancestors in the fifth or sixth generation (LOAN)

buahfruit; fruit-like (rounded) object. A descriptive term for (i) all fruits, (ii) 'fruit' in the special sense of the areca nut (cf. e.g. pe-buah 'receptacle for areca nut in a sireh-set'), (iii) stony fruit used for special purposes, e.g. candle-nuts used as playing-marbles, (iv) articles resembling definite kinds of fruit, e.g. buah bedara (fruit of Zizyphus jujuba; a bead suggesting that fruit; a sweetmeat suggesting that fruit, (v) adolescent girls regarded as fruit ripe for the plucking, (vi) the fruit-like (i.e. rounded) portion of anything, e.g. buah betis 'calf of the leg', buah pelir 'testicle', buah pantat 'buttock', buah piŋgaŋ 'kidney', (vii) miscellaneous rounded objects such as studs, buttons, chessmen, etc., (viii) generally, as a numeral coefficient for all rounded objects such as stones, books, watches, boxes, plates, bowls, baskets, eggs, teeth, shields, doors, buildings, villages, towns, countries, hills, mountains, caves and lakes; and also for lamentations (ratap) (PMP: *buaq)

buah belimbiŋfruit from the tree Averrhoa bilimbi (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

buah betiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

Malay (780 / 3968)

buah betiscalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

buah buŋar-anfirst crop of fruit off a tree (PWMP: *buŋaR-an) *buŋaR

buah hatiheart, in contrast to aorta, both literally and as a term of endearment (PWMP: *buaq qatay) *buaq

buah hatiheart, in contrast to aorta -- both literally and as a term of endearment (PMP: *buaq ni qatay) *qaCay

buah jelayseeds of Coix lachryma-jobi, used as rosary beads (PMP: *zelay)

buah kayufruit of a tree (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

buah kəmiricandle-nut (PMP: *kamiri)

buah keras telua hard fruit with three pips (PAN: *telu)

buah rendaricestalks cut in the semaŋat padi ceremonies (PMP: *buaq)

buakbubbling up, as water in a spring; spouting out in jets, as blood from a severed artery (PWMP: *buag)

buakbubbling up, as water in a spring; spouting out in jets, as blood from a severed artery (PAN: *buak)

bualbubbling up, frothing up, like aerated water; gassy; fig. of yarning or frothy talk (PMP: *bual₂) *bual

buaŋthrow away; get rid of; discard; banish; also of abortion, of discarding a mistress, etc.; idiomatic in many expressions (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buaŋ ayerurinate (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buaŋ dirisuicide; self-exile (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buaŋ iŋusblow the nose (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buaŋ iŋusblow the nose (PWMP: *hiŋus₁) *hiŋus

buaswild; ferocious; daring (especially of animals); of a child being naughty, or of thieves being very daring in their depredations (PWMP: *buas)

buasa tree: Premna spp. (NOISE)

buatperformance; making; to do. Sometimes in the sense of actual construction (buat-an Siam = of Siamese make), but often with a suggestion of artificiality or make-believe, or construction by magic (PMP: *buhat₂)

Malay (800 / 3968)

buat-an oraŋsorcery (PWMP: *buhat₁)

buat-buatpretence, make-believe (PWMP: *buat buat)

buayswaying (in a cradle or swing); rocking (PMP: *buqay)

buaya, buhayacrocodile. Properly Crocodilus porosus, the estuary crocodile. A very large house-lizard is called sometimes buaya rumah (house crocodile); and the description 'land crocodile' (buaya darat) is given to 'samsengs' or roughs, and in the eastern islands of the archipelago to the dragon-like monitor, Varanus komodoensis. Proverbially the crocodile is a symbol of pitiless greed (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

buay-anhammock-cot for infant; hammock; swing (made up of several rolls of cloth -- three to seven according to the infant's rank) (PMP: *buqay)

bubokboiling by immersing in cold water which is then brought to a boil (PMP: *bukbuk₁)

bubokweevil (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bubok berasrice weevil (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bubok kayuwood weevil (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

buboŋ, bumboŋswelling up in a dome-like mass from below; roof; mat-awning; of waters swelling up, but especially of a house-roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bububasket-trap for fish. Etymologically, a baited basket-trap with an entrance surrounded by spikes (injap, unjap, ijep) that allow ingress but prevent egress; in contrast to traps (teŋkalak) that rely on the current (many named varieties) (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubula cracked, fissured or ulcerated condition of the sole of the human foot, or in the hoofs of horses. Usually (in men) as the result of yaws (PWMP: *bubul)

buburfood in pulpy or viscous form; generic for gruels, thick broths and porridges (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

buburfood in pulpy or viscous form; generic for gruels, thick broths and porridges (ROOT)

budaklad; lass. Associated sometimes (1) with immaturity; (2) very commonly with service (e.g. budak dalam "palace slave girls", budak jogét "dancing girl", budak-budak gembala "herd-boys") (LOAN)

budak pelariboy who keeps playing truant (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

budiqualities of mind and heart; kindly acts and ways; character; graciousness and charm. Budi Implies prudence and discretion ... but it is more closely identified with the doing of kindly acts, e.g. balas budi 'to repay kindness; to show gratitude'; kenaŋ-kan budi 'remember gratefully'; budi often means 'character': busok budi 'of a hateful character' budi-man possessed of budi, i.e. self-respecting, wise, prudent, sensible (LOAN)

buduanchovies pickled in brine after being dried and partially decayed (LOAN) Kedah, Kelantan

buéhfoam; froth; spume; surf (PMP: *buqiq)

buhulwheal; stripe; cut (from blow) (NOISE)

Malay (820 / 3968)

bui, buhia tree, Diospyros sp.; a climber, Roucheria griffithiana (NOISE)

bujaŋfree to marry (of a man or woman); celibate; solitary (of spinsters, widows and divorcées; also of men unattached and working on their own) (LOAN)

bujoksoothing with soft words (a crying child, an old nurse calming an excited girl, etc.) (LOAN)

buka dull thud (PMP: *buk)

bukaopen up or open out; unfastening; removal of a veil or covering; width; beam; (naut.) unship; unbend sails; reveal (PMP: *buka)

buka chapiawtake off one's hat (PMP: *buka)

buka jahitunstitch what is sewn (PMP: *buka)

buka kaintake off a garment (PMP: *buka)

buka layarlower a sail (PMP: *buka)

buka mulutopen one's mouth (PMP: *buka)

bukannegation; non-existence; no, not -- a stronger negative than tidak or tiada (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

buka negerifound a city (PMP: *buka)

bukan-kahin no small measure, very (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

buka rahasiareveal a secret (PMP: *buka)

buka səluboŋto unveil (LOAN)

bukatfull of dregs; dirty, of well-water; muddy, of a stream (PMP: *buket)

buka taliunfasten a rope (PMP: *buka)

buka tanahclear land for cultivation (PMP: *buka)

bukat likatvery muddy, viscous (PMP: *buket)

bukithill, i.e. an elevation from about 100 to about 1500 feet, higher elevations being mountains (gunoŋ); also adjectivally for hillmen, hill tribes (PAN: *bukij)

Malay (840 / 3968)

buktiproof, evidence (LOAN)

bukuknuckle; knot; hard, lumpy joint; a measure for raw opium, i.e. 'a ball'; (fig.) the kernel, gist or sting of a remark; the pith or substance of anything; fig., of coming up against the hard joint instead of the soft core of anything (PMP: *buku)

buku laliprojection of bone at ankle (PMP: *lali)

buku laliankle joint (PMP: *buku lali) *buku

bukus, buŋkusbundle; parcel; packet; enwrapping loosely (PWMP: *buŋkus)

bulaialbino (NOISE)

bulanmoon; month; 'moons' in the sense of period of gestation; moon-like (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulan bajucrescentic collar piece (PMP: *bulan₁)

bulaŋenwrapping; enwinding; passing a cloth, sash or string around anything; the wrapper or fastening so bound; its commonest use is to define the process of binding the artificial spur (taji) to a fighting cock's foot, this being done by means of a thread about 6 feet long (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bularcataract in the eye, e.g. in a horse (PAN: *bulaR₁)

bularcataract in the eye (e.g. in a horse) (PWMP: *buleheR)

bulatroundness; rounded off; fig. agreement all round (PWMP: *buled₂)

bulatroundness (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

bulat bulohcylinder; cylindrical (PWMP: *buled₂)

bulat telurellipse; oval (PWMP: *buled₂)

bulat telurellipse; oval (roundness + egg) (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

bulircluster; ear of grain (PMP: *buliR)

bulohbamboo; a generic or descriptive name for bamboos and hollow cylinders; (in Sumatra) a class of bamboos, Bambusa spp. (PAN: *buluq₂)

buloh baŋsireed-pipe (PAN: *buluq₂)

buloh betoŋlarge bamboo, Dendrocalamus spp. (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

Malay (860 / 3968)

buloh-buloh, pem-bulohanatomical passage of any type, such as the larynx (PAN: *buluq₂)

buloh-buloh darahan artery (PAN: *buluq₂)

buloh telaŋbamboo of the genus Gigantochloa (PWMP: *telaŋ)

buloh təlaŋbamboo of the genus Gigantochlos (LOAN)

buluhair; plumage; bristles; hairy, woolly or feathery covering on animals; hair on human body but not on head (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu babipig bristles; (fig.) sea-urchin: Echinus (PMP: *bulu ni babuy) *bulu₁

bulu-bulua tree name, covering Diospyros argentea, Diospyros wrayi, Gynotroches axillaris, Pellacalyx axillaris, Pellacalyx saccardianus (PMP: *bulu bulu) *bulu₁

bulu keniŋeyebrows (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu landakporcupine quills (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

bulu pəlipisfine hairs at temples and neck (PWMP: *pulipis)

bulu temiaŋthe bamboo of which blowpipes are made: Bambusa wrayi (PMP: *tamiaŋ)

bumboŋa water vessel made from a joint of bamboo; cylindrical box for carrying tobacco or areca nut (Brunei) (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bumboŋswelling up in a dome-like mass from below, of waters welling up, but especially of a house roof (PMP: *buŋbuŋ₄)

bumboŋ-anroof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

bumboŋ limaroof with ridge-pole and four sloping sides (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bumbucondiments; curry-stuffs. In these terms are included all ingredients (such as salt, onion, red peppers, tamarind, rasped coconut, gingers, etc.) that are pounded up together for flavoring Malay curry dishes (LOAN)

bumbunhut like a bee-hive or bell-tent used by fowlers, hunters or fishermen to conceal themselves; peaked rick constructed so that all the ears of grain lie at the apex; overfull (as a plate heaped up with rice) (PMP: *bunbun)

buncroupier at a Chinese gaming mat (NOISE)

bunbun-anfontanelle (PWMP: *bunbun-an₁) *buNbuN Jakarta

Malay (880 / 3968)

bunohslaying; putting an end to (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunoh-anlast or seaward compartment of a fishtrap; the compartment in which fish are actually caught (PWMP: *bunuq-an₂) *buNuq₂

bunoh balas'for a man slain a man to replace' -- a reference to the old (Minangkabau) tribal law under which the loss of a man accidentally killed had to be made good (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunoh bocorstop a leak (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunoh talitie up a string or rope (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

buntarrounded; more or less globular (PMP: *bunter)

buntilkind of cloth bag with a stiff wooden bottom (PWMP: *buntil)

buntiŋpregnancy; be with child; fetus; unborn child. Usual of animal pregnancy; when applied to human beings it is not courteous (cf. the politer hamil and meŋandoŋ) but is familiar rather than rude (LOAN)

buntiŋ padi"rice grain in ear", a simile for a lovely leg (LOAN)

buntublocked; not admitting further ingress (of a cave walled up, a drain choked, a blind alley, etc.) (NOISE)

buntursated; glutted with food (PWMP: *buntuD)

buntursated; glutted with food (PWMP: *buntuR)

buntutposterior; butt; fag-end; stern (of ship); chap (of kris-sheath); tail; hinderpart (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

bunuta tree name (PWMP: *bunut₂)

bunut payaPternandra coerulescens (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buñiconcealment (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

buñisound; melody; impression made by sound; purport (PMP: *buñi)

buñi-buñi-anmusic (PMP: *buñi)

buŋaflower; flower-pattern; 'tails' (in heads or tails); tax (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa apifireworks (PMP: *buŋa ni hapuy) *buŋa

Malay (900 / 3968)

buŋa-buŋa-anflowers generally, flowers of all sorts (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa karaŋcoraline sponge (PMP: *buŋa na batu) *buŋa

buŋa karaŋsponge (PMP: *karaŋ)

buŋa kətarartificial flowers on wires; worn as a headdress (PWMP: *keter)

buŋa lawaŋclove-spice; mace (LOAN)

buŋa pasirfine sand particles on surface of still water (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa pasirfine sand particles on still water (PWMP: *pasiR)

buŋarfirst fruits; prime; first of anything, e.g. the first embrace of a maiden (PWMP: *buŋaR)

buŋa tahi'froth of filth': angry words (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋkasbe uprooted (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋkulbump; hump; globular end of a drumstick. Of rounded prominences on a horse's neck, spavins or splints (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋura tree, Lagerstroemia spp., esp. L. speciosa, bearing handsome pink and purple flowers and giving a timber used in bridge and house-building (PAN: *buŋuR)

buraspitting out; ejecting (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

buritstern; posterior; fundament; behind (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

buritstern; posterior; fundament; behind (PMP: *burit₁)

burit-anstern (of boat or ship) (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

burit-anstern (of boat or ship) (PMP: *burit₁)

burit pulaudownstream end of river-island (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

burit pulaudownstream end of river-island (PMP: *burit₁)

burokrottenness in wood or metal; old; worn out; decayed; worthless; (fig.) of bad character (PAN: *buRuk)

Malay (920 / 3968)

burok sikumaking gifts and then wanting them back (lit. ‘rotten elbowed’) (PAN: *sikux)

buroŋgeneric for birds of all sorts, but also used in certain districts as a euphemism for the penis, in which case uŋgas is used for bird; buroŋ is prefixed to bird names (LOAN)

buroŋ babia bird, the adjutant: Leptoptilus javanicus (PWMP: *babuy₁)

buroŋ binti-bintithe Malayan kingfisher: Alcedo meninting (PWMP: *binti₁)

buroŋ buak-buaka bird, unident. (NOISE)

buroŋ bubutcoucal, crow-pheasant: Centropus bengalensis and Centropus eurycercus, so called from the bird's note (PWMP: *butbut₁) *butbut

buroŋ cawi-cawia bird, the drongo (Dicrurus spp.); black and with long forked tail (PWMP: *cawi)

buroŋ ciap-ciapcrested woodquail: Rollulus roulroul (PWMP: *ciap)

buroŋ daunMalayan black-throated blue flycatcher: Stoparola thalassinoides (PMP: *dahun)

buroŋ kaŋkaŋ katupa long-legged, wide-striding waterbird (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

buroŋ kekekSumatran kingfisher: Halcyon chloris (PMP: *kikik)

buroŋ kuauthe Argus-pheasant: Argusianus argus, prob. onomatopoetic from its cry (PAN: *kuaw)

buroŋ sapu daunwagtail: Motacilla melanope (PMP: *dahun)

buroŋ uak-uakwhite-breasted water-hen (PMP: *uak₁)

buruhunting; driving game; driving before one; hurrying up (PAN: *buRaw)

buruhunting; driving game; driving before one; (colloquial) hurrying up (LOAN)

buruhunting; driving game; driving before one (NOISE)

buruŋ hantuowl (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

buruŋ hantuowl (lit. "ghost bird") (LOAN)

buruthernia; rupture; (sometimes) hydrocele and any swelling of the scrotum (LOAN)

Malay (940 / 3968)

buruthernia; rupture; (sometimes) hydrocele and any swelling of the scrotum (NOISE)

burut pusatumbilical hernia (NOISE)

burut pusatumbilical hernia (LOAN)

busafoam, froth (PMP: *busa₁)

busahfoam, froth, suds (PMP: *buseq)

busawgluttonous; greedy (PMP: *busaw)

busokputrid; stinking; fig. low or despicable. Applied to decaying animal matter; rot in trees is burok (PMP: *busuk)

busok-busoka tree, Cassia nodosa, with long narrow pods the seeds of which give out a most unpleasant smell (PMP: *busuk)

busok hativindictiveness (PMP: *busuk)

busok hati(lit. 'rotten liver') ill-nature; malice; dirty feelings (PMP: *X₃ + qatay) *qaCay

busoŋdistended. Usually of the stomach, through dropsy, ascites or ovarian tumor; also fig. of a sandbank, and of wood seemingly blown out with air and used as cork (PWMP: *busuŋ)

busoŋ darahaneurism; large varicose vein (PWMP: *busuŋ)

busorbow (of archer); bow (for cleaning cotton). Referred to in literature both as a weapon, and as a simile for the curve of a lovely arm.... A distinction is drawn sometimes between the weapon (busar) and the cotton-cleaner's bow (busor, busur) (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

butablind or purblind; unable to see properly (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta ayamnyctalopia, blindness at dusk (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta bularcataract (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta bularblindness due to cataract (PAN: *bulaR₁)

buta bularblindness due to cataract (PWMP: *buleheR)

buta-buta ~ be-butaa seashore tree: Excoecaria agaloocha, said to be so called because its sap causes blindness (cf. buta ‘blind’) (PWMP: *buta buta₂) *buta buta

buta-buta darata tree; Alstonia macrophylla (PWMP: *buta buta₂) *buta buta

Malay (960 / 3968)

buta radamblind with no sign of blindness; blind when one refuses to see (PWMP: *radam)

buta tuliblind and deaf (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butilgrain, particle; numeral coefficient for small granular objects such as seeds and even eggs, durians and bananas (PWMP: *butil)

butirgrain, particle; numeral coefficient for small granular objects such as seeds and even eggs, durians and bananas (PWMP: *butir)

butohpenis (vulgar) (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butunplant sp., Barringtonia sp. (PMP: *butun)

buyoŋa round-bottomed, squat and rather narrow-necked and wide-mouthed vessel of unglazed earthenware (PWMP: *buyequŋ)

cabutextraction by force (but not with needless violence), of rooting up plants, pulling teeth, drawing a ring off a finger, or pulling a card out of a pack (PMP: *cabut)

caciŋworm, including: caciŋ aŋin ‘Filaria loa’, caciŋ asal ‘intestinal worm, the passing of which in stools is believed to presage death; caciŋ bəsar ‘large white worm passed in stools’, caciŋ gərumit ‘pinworms, nematodes’, etc. (PWMP: *caciŋ)

caciŋ pipehtapeworm (PWMP: *pipiq)

cagutto peck (of a fowl), pull (of fish at a bait) (ROOT)

cakar balarscratches and scars all over a body (PMP: *balar)

campurmixing up; compounding; blending; interfering in (NEAR)

campur baurmuch mixed up (PWMP: *bahuR)

caŋaksudden startled upward look (ROOT)

capaksmack lips while eating (PWMP: *ca(m)pak)

capitpincers (PWMP: *ca(R)pit)

capitpincers (ROOT)

cecakcommon house lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

cecekcommon house lizard (PWMP: *cekcek) Jakarta

Malay (980 / 3968)

cekahrift, split; split open by pressure (ROOT)

cekalgrip (PMP: *cekel)

cekaŋtaut, astretch (ROOT)

cekapgrip (PMP: *cekep)

cekasnimble, agile, quick (PMP: *cekas)

cəkekseizing the neck; throttling; (fig.) choking with food or guzzling (PWMP: *cekig)

cekok-cekékgasping, as a choking or drowning man (ROOT)

cekupmaking a scoop of the hand and putting it down on anything; e.g. to catch a fly without killing it (ROOT)

célakshining, glistening (PMP: *cilak)

celapaoblong betel box (PWMP: *calapaʔ) Brunei

celapaoblong betel box (PWMP: *calapaʔ) Sarawak

celepsteep, soak, dye (PWMP: *celep) Jakarta

celoréŋmetal bar or thin plate that gives out a ringing sound when struck (ROOT)

celusloose-fitting; fitting comfortably or easily, of a ring that slips on or off (ROOT)

cemardirt; polution. Of dirty bits of road; a vile disposition; days of uncleanness (hari cemar kain ‘menstrual period’) (LOAN)

cem-burususpicion; esp. jealous suspicion (PMP: *buRehuʔ)

ceŋaŋbewilderment, amazement, astonishment (ROOT)

ceŋapcatch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath (PMP: *ceŋap)

ceŋápcatch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath (PWMP: *ciŋap)

ceŋapcatch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath (ROOT)

Malay (1000 / 3968)

céŋéŋcontinuous whining (of infants) (ROOT)

ceŋisodor that "puts one off", odor that spoils the appetite (PWMP: *ceŋis)

ceŋkeritfield-cricket: Brachytrypes portentosus (ROOT)

ceŋkiŋyelp (of dog); scream (of deer) (ROOT)

ceŋkoŋgrowl; yell or deep bay (of dog) (ROOT)

cepokdull sound, as when a dhoby strikes cloth against a stone (PMP: *cepuk)

ceraisundering; parting; divorce (PWMP: *ceray)

ceretlooseness of the bowels; diarrhoea (PWMP: *cirit)

ceretlooseness of the bowels; diarrhoea (PWMP: *ciderit)

ceritsquirt out in small quantity, e.g. in defecation (ROOT)

chalitsmear; besmirching (ROOT)

charian bujaŋproperty acquired before marriage. The word is associated also with loneliness (LOAN)

chekaŋtaut, stretch (ROOT)

chekapto cover (ROOT)

chəroŋ-chəraŋto clang, as anklets when their wearer moves about, or as bar-iron when being taken to a foundry (ROOT)

chukapalm wine that has gone sour; vinegar (LOAN)

ciaktwitter of small bird; bird that tweets or twitters; a generic name for birds like sparrows and finches (PWMP: *ciak)

ciapto twitter (of birds); to squeak (of mice) (PWMP: *ciap)

cicakhouse lizard, Hemidactylus spp., esp. H. frenatus (PWMP: *cikcek)

cikexclamation for driving away dogs (PWMP: *cik)

Malay (1020 / 3968)

cikapchopsticks (PMP: *cikep)

cocoldip (food into sauces, etc.) (PMP: *cu(l)cul) Jakarta

coŋaktilted up (of the face); chin up; head in the air, of a buffalo; pointing upward, of a bird's beak (ROOT)

corékgrain in wood; veining; long parallel lines (broken or otherwise) in cloth patterns (PWMP: *curik)

corétmark (PWMP: *curit) Jakarta

cubitpinching; pressure between finger and thumb (PWMP: *cubit)

cubitpinching, pressure between finger and thumb (ROOT)

cucokpricking; stabbing; driving a point into anything (PMP: *cukcuk)

cukaŋto split bamboos against a wedge (ROOT)

cuŋap-caŋippuffing and blowing; panting; blown and breathless (PWMP: *cuŋ(e)qab)

cuŋap-caŋippuffing and blowing; panting (ROOT)

cuŋkupover-arching cover, e.g. a dish cover (PWMP: *cuŋkub)

cuŋkupover-arching cover, e.g. a dish cover (PWMP: *cu(ŋ)kup) Java

dadabreast, chest, usually in a physical or literal sense; of the whole front of the body and not a single breast (susu); used figuratively of angles and shapes, and especially in technical descriptions of a horse’s forequarters (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

dada bidaŋbroad chest (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

dada bidaŋbroad-chested (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

daeŋslicing into thin strips and drying in the sun; especially of fish preserved after being cut in two along the line of the vertebrae (LOAN)

dagiŋ tapa-tapameat treated in the same way (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

dahakcoughing up phlegm; mucus from the chest; cold that has settled on the chest (PWMP: *dahak)

dahanminor bough or branch of a tree (cp. cabaŋ ‘main boughs’) (PMP: *daqan₁)

Malay (1040 / 3968)

dahibrow, eyebrow (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

da-hulubefore; in advance of; ahead (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

dakapfolding the arms or hands over one another; clasping, embracing (PAN: *dakep)

dakidirty secretion on the body; dirt on the person (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

dakiuphill work, climbing (of the sun rising towards its zenith; also of people scaling a hill together) (PAN: *dakiS)

dalampalace, prince’s home; inside, inner, used as a locative (di dalam ‘in’, dari dalam ‘from within’); inner, as the inner part or central room of a house; depth; deep, profound (PMP: *dalem)

dalam hatito oneself, secretly or silently (lit. ‘in one’s heart/liver’) (PMP: *dalem qatay) *dalem

daléhsubterfuge; equivocation (PWMP: *udaliq)

damarresin or gum exuded by certain trees, notably of the genera Shorea and Hopea; resinous torch; resinous tree (PAN: *damaR)

damparlevel, flat, even (PMP: *dapaR)

damparlevel, flat, even (PMP: *da(m)paD) Jakarta

dampiltouching one another -- of contact in contrast to mere proximity (PWMP: *da(m)pil)

dampiltouching one another (of contact, in contrast to mere proximity) (ROOT)

danawlake; sheet of enclosed water (PAN: *danaw)

dandaŋlarge copper vessel for steaming rice (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

daŋakhold the head back (ROOT)

daŋsanakrelatives (PWMP: *daŋ-sa-anak) *aNak

dapetto be up against, to touch (PMP: *dapet) Jakarta

dapurcooking-place; kitchen; it is a corner of the house covered with a thick layer of ashes on which are placed three or five stones to support one or two cooking pots (PMP: *dapuR)

daramaiden, virgin (PMP: *daRa₂)

Malay (1060 / 3968)

darahblood, in both literal and metaphorical senses; also found in many plant names (PAN: *daRaq)

darah putihroyal blood (lit. ‘white blood’) (PAN: *daRaq)

daratdry land, in contrast to coastal swamp; upland; inner or high land, in contrast to lowland (PMP: *daRat)

dataŋto come; to chance upon (PMP: *dateŋ)

dataŋ-dataŋadventitious (PMP: *dateŋ)

datarsmooth; level; flat (as land) (PAN: *dataR)

dato-khead of family, elder; used as a term of relationship to or of a grandfather; as a term of distinction to or of any great non-royal chief; as a term of respect to any man of age and standing (PMP: *datu)

dato-k nenekancestors generally (PMP: *datu)

dato-ŋgrandfather (very literary, and used only of or to one’s own grandfather) (PMP: *datu)

daturuler, chief … this is the old Malay sovereign title borne by the Srivijaya king of the Kota Kapur inscription (AD 686) (PMP: *datu)

daunleaf; playing-card; leaf-like object; table top; blade of oar (PMP: *dahun)

daun baŋun-baŋunanherb, Coleus carnosus, used for the treatment of childbirth (PWMP: *baŋun-baŋun)

daun dayoŋblade of oar (PMP: *dahun)

daun kentutgeneric for trees that exhale certain offensive odors (PWMP: *ka-qetut) *qetut

daun pegagaa creeping herb with an edible leaf: Hydrocotyle asiatica (PWMP: *paŋgaga)

daun pintubody of door (PMP: *dahun)

daun pipitprimitive whistle of leaf (PWMP: *pipit₁)

daun sə-kəndalyoung leaves of Cordia myxa (used medicinally) (PMP: *kendal)

daun sumamedicinal leaf mentioned sometimes in Malay prescriptions (PWMP: *suma)

daun teliŋaouter edge of earlobe (PMP: *dahun nu taliŋa) *dahun

Malay (1080 / 3968)

dawaarraignment under the law; lawsuit (LOAN)

dawaywire (LOAN)

daway-dawayname for wiry plants (LOAN)

daway duribarbed wire (LOAN)

dayong burit-anstern oar (PMP: *burit₁)

dayoŋ burit-anstern oar (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

debakwhack, smack (PWMP: *debak)

debakwhack, smack (PMP: *debek)

debokto go flop (Also debuk 'a thud') (ROOT)

dedakpowdered rice husk; chaff; bran (used as chicken food) (PMP: *dekdek)

de-daluflying white ant (PMP: *dalu₁)

dedaptree name, generic for Erythrina spp. (PMP: *dedap)

dədaptree name, generic for Erythrina spp., used as shade trees for coffee and to make props for sirih vines (PMP: *depdep)

dédés ~ didiscivet-cat, Viverra spp. (PWMP: *didis) Brunei

dédés ~ didiscivet-cat, Viverra spp. (PWMP: *didis) Pattani

degah-degu(onom.) clatter such as that made by polers quanting among rocks (PWMP: *degaq)

degah-degu(onom.) clatter such as that made by polers quanting among rocks (PWMP: *deguʔ)

degoksound of liquid being gulped down; gulping down (PMP: *de(ŋ)guk)

degurdull reverberation (ROOT)

dekakloud guffaw, loud chuckling laughter (PWMP: *dekak)

Malay (1100 / 3968)

dekapfolding the arms or hands over one another; clasping, embracing (PWMP: *dekep)

dekatproximity; near (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dekokhollow; dip; concavity (PMP: *dekuk)

de-lakimale (PWMP: *di-laki) *laki Kedah

d-elap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten') (PAN: *alap)

dəmamfever, any disease that is marked by a rise in temperature (NEAR)

deman gigilague (PMP: *gigil)

dempitpressed together; in contact (ROOT)

dempuspuff in one's sleep (ROOT)

dendamyearning; longing; feeling of love or spite (PAN: *demdem₁)

denda patifine for slaying; blood-money (Java) (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

dentaŋclang, e.g. of metal (ROOT)

dentiŋto chink or clink -- of coin or thin metal (ROOT)

dentoŋto boom; a deep echoing roar (ROOT)

deŋanan auxiliary word that gives an adjectival or adverbial meaning to what follows. Usually translated by some preposition, especially by ‘with’ (PMP: *deŋan)

deŋananhilt of a weapon (said to be from Balinese) (PWMP: *daŋanan)

deŋarlistening to; to hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

deŋiŋto buzz (of the ear) (ROOT)

deŋkaŋcroaking sound such as the note of the bullfrog (ROOT)

deŋkiŋsharp, high-pitched bark (of dog or barking-deer); yelp (PAN: *dekiŋ)

Malay (1120 / 3968)

deŋkiŋsharp high-pitched bark (of dog or barking deer); yelp (ROOT)

deŋkoŋsound of heavy hammering; deep bay of dog (Also Karo Batak dekuŋ 'make the sound of the domestic quail') (ROOT)

deŋkursnore (ROOT)

deŋoŋboom, deep hum (ROOT)

deŋutgive out a long low murmuring note, esp. of a quail (PWMP: *deŋut)

depameasure of length represented by the span of the outstretched arms; to measure in this way (PMP: *depa)

dəpaka smack (PWMP: *dagepak)

depusthe sound of a rush of air through a narrow opening, e.g. from bellows (ROOT)

deraŋclanging sound, of the sound of a gong, etc. (PMP: *deReŋ)

dəraŋclanging sound, of the sound of a gong, the tinkle of pieces of jewellery, the chink of dollars, the sound of the royal drums (ROOT)

derasrapidity of movement (as of tidal flow) (PMP: *deRes)

deriŋ(onom.) ring out; jingle, as a sword, anklets or the metal hangings on a standard of the jogan type (PWMP: *deRiŋ)

deroŋdeep booming sound such as the clanging of a bell (PAN: *deruŋ)

deroŋdeep booming sound such as the clanging of a bell (PAN: *deRuŋ₁)

dəroŋdeep booming sound, such as the clanging of a bell (PWMP: *daRehuŋ)

derusdull rustling or scratching sound (ROOT)

desirthe hiss of water turning into steam (ROOT)

desurdull sizzling sound (PWMP: *desuR)

diin, at; an inseparable locative prefix, e.g. di-antara (between, among), di-atas (atop, above), di-bawah (at the bottom of, below) (PAN: *di)

diamquiet, still; be silent (PWMP: *hidem)

Malay (1140 / 3968)

di-atasabove, upon (PMP: *i-atas) *aCas

di-bawahbeneath (PMP: *babaq₁)

didiscut into thin slices (PAN: *disdis)

diemquiet, silent (PWMP: *hidem) Java

di-kəjut-kanawakened from sleep (PMP: *kezut₁) *kezuC

dikitsmall quantity, little (PAN: *dikit)

dilatto lick or lick up (PWMP: *dilat) Jakarta

di-makan anay-anaydestroyed by white ants (PAN: *aNay)

di-makan ŋeŋatmoth-eaten (PAN: *ŋetŋet)

dindiŋscreen; partition; inner wall in house (the root meaning is ‘screening off’) (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

dirian erect attitude (PAN: *SadiRi)

dirian erect attitude (PAN: *diRi)

diriself, oneself (LOAN)

diruswetting, watering, irrigating (PAN: *diRus)

di-tanahoutside the house;out of doors (PMP: *taneq)

domolsnout of an animal (PWMP: *dumul) Kedah

doŋaktilting the head forward and up, of a man looking skyward (ROOT)

doŋéŋtell a story in recitative; the whining of a young child (ROOT)

doŋkaŋa frog, sp. unident. (ROOT)

doyoŋsloping (of the shoulders of horses) (PWMP: *duyuŋ₁)

Malay (1160 / 3968)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-duatwo by two (PMP: *walu walu) *walu

dudok ber-silato sit in the proper, deferential way (LOAN)

dudok bər-silato sit in the proper deferential way (LOAN)

dukutgrass (used in Java) (PMP: *dukut₂)

duŋuna seashore tree: Heritiera littoralis (PWMP: *duŋun)

duraanxiety, disquiet (PWMP: *dura)

durithorn (standing out at right angles); erect sting of fish; quill of porcupine (cf. onak ‘recurving thorn’, sonak ‘recurving sting of sting-ray’) (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

durianthorny fruit (see duri); specifically, the durian (Durio zibethinus) … but extended to the soursop, Anona muricata, the wild Durio malaccensis that yields a spiky edible fruit, etc. (PWMP: *duRi-an)

duyoŋdugong, sea-cow: Halicore dugong (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

édahperiod during which a widow or divorced woman may not remarry (LOAN)

eguŋ, goŋ(onom., from its sound) gong. Specifically in Java the largest variety of gong. (LOAN)

éjaspelling, orthography (LOAN)

ejansqueezing out by pressure (PMP: *qezen)

ékoŋtail (PMP: *ikuŋ) Brunei

ékortail; tail-like extremity (PAN: *ikuR)

ékor mataouter corner of the eye (PMP: *ikuR ni mata) *ikuR

élak, hélakdodging (a blow) (PWMP: *qilag)

éléŋheel over, list to the side (PWMP: *iliŋ₃)

(e)lokcurve or bend (in a kris) (PWMP: *qeluk)

Malay (1180 / 3968)

élokbeauty; charm; loveliness (NEAR)

-em-rare fossilized infix in a few reduplicated forms that refer to natural actions: gilaŋ g-em-ilaŋ 'scintillating', guroh g-em-uroh 'to thunder', etc. (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

ema-kmother, aunt (PMP: *ema-ʔ) *ema₁

emasgold (LOAN)

embahgrandfather, grandmother (NOISE)

em-balaugum-lac; shellac; also solder, sealing wax and the material used for fixing the haft of a blade in the handle. Local embalau is a gummy substance deposited by the female Coccus lacca on the twigs of certain trees, but the best embalau is imported and its exact nature is not known (PWMP: *balaw₂)

embanband going around the body. Of the bands supporting a porter's knapsack; also of a horse's belly-band (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

embékto bleat, of a sheep or goat (LOAN)

embundew, dewy moisture; vapor (PWMP: *qembun)

empaŋblocking with a net or barrier; damming dam; barrier net; weir (PMP: *empeŋ)

empaŋblocking with a net or barrier; dam, barrier-net; weir (PMP: *qempeŋ)

empaŋ-empaŋeccentric, half-cracked; behavior that is not quite seemly (LOAN)

empapflapping against; flopping down upon; clapping the hand on; striking water with the flat of the paddle (PWMP: *epap)

empatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

empelas kasapa plant (Tetracera assa) of which the leaves are used as sandpaper (PWMP: *kasep)

emperitfinch (PWMP: *ampeRij)

empumaster. The title empu is associated in Malaya with old makers of krisses and is given in Java to personified krisses; it suggests a master-craftsman (PMP: *empu)

empu-anlady -- in titles such as eŋku empuan, teŋku empuan (queen) (PWMP: *empu-an) *empu

əm-pulurpith [Dpw: wick of plant pith] (NOISE)

empu-ñapossession; to own; owner (PWMP: *empu-ni-a) *empu

Malay (1200 / 3968)

empusto blow (ROOT)

empusblowing hard; panting and puffing (NOISE)

énakenjoyable, delicious (LOAN)

enamsix (PAN: *enem)

enaptailings, alluvial deposit (NOISE)

enawsugar-palm: Arenga saccharifera (Java) (PWMP: *qanahaw)

(en)cékmaster; mistress; titular prefix to the names of persons of good position who are not entitled to any other distinction (LOAN)

encék, incékMaster; Mistress; a titular prefix to the names of persons who are not entitled to any other distinction (LOAN)

endalstuff, push (something in a bag, etc.) (LOAN)

endokfriendly form of address used by a woman to a female friend or by a man to his wife (LOAN)

enjakstep, tread (PWMP: *enzak)

əntakramming or stamping down; pounding (of treading something underfoot) (NEAR)

əntaŋtowards (PMP: *e(n)teŋ)

eŋahpanting (PWMP: *eŋaq)

eŋgano, not (Jakarta) (PWMP: *eŋgaʔ)

eŋgaŋhornbill (NOISE)

eŋgékto pant (PMP: *egik)

eŋkaka crow, Corvus enca (PMP: *hekak) *Sekak

eŋkauthou; you; outside literature the word is used only to inferiors; in literature it occurs as an ordinary pronoun of the second person without a suggestion of disrespect (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

eŋkét-eŋkétcreaking of a carrying-pole (PMP: *ekit)

Malay (1220 / 3968)

eŋkoŋgrandfather (Baba, from Chinese) (LOAN)

éŋsutpushing away gently; edging a child off a seat; (of a wind) just making the boat move; edging towards or away (PMP: *isud)

éraŋdark in color; black showing a trace of some other color (PWMP: *qiReŋ)

(e)rua tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *aRuhu)

erua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L. (LOAN)

esaunity, one; sa- is the usual form, but esa is used of God's unity (PAN: *esa)

esaŋblow the nose in the Malay way (without a handkerchief) (PMP: *eseŋ)

esapdry by dabbing with a towel (PAN: *qesep)

ésokmorrow, tomorrow (LOAN)

gagakcrow, onomatopoetic from its caw (PWMP: *gakgak)

gagak humathe large jungle crow, Corvus macrorhyncus (PWMP: *gakgak)

gagapstammer, stutter (PMP: *gapgap)

gagapgroping, feeling one's way (PAN: *kapkap)

galidigging; surface mining (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

gali-analluvial mine (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

gamakto finger, as the hilt of a dagger (PWMP: *gamak)

gamatspecies of holothurian or bêche-de-mer (PWMP: *gamet)

gambaŋpendant of gold or silver (PWMP: *gambaŋ)

gambirgambier, a decoction from the leaves of Uncaria gambir, consumed by Malays with betel (LOAN)

ganaspredatory; unusually daring -- of man-eating tigers, crocodiles that attack men in boats, etc. (PMP: *ganas)

Malay (1240 / 3968)

gancucrook; hooked stick (of sticks for drawing down branches to allow of fruit being plucked, of hooks for holding up mosquito nets, etc.) (LOAN)

gaŋgaŋtoasting, slow roasting near a fire; sun-drying; hot dry-poulticing (PWMP: *gaŋgaŋ)

garaŋfierce; turbulent; (of color) loud or glaring (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

garaudeep (of the voice), harsh (PWMP: *gaRaw)

garisscratch, abrasion, of scratches on the skin, especially from magic or poisoned weapons, where the slightest scratch is (thought to be) fatal; also of striking a match (PMP: *garis)

garisscratch, abrasion; of scratches on the skin; also of striking a match (PMP: *karis₁) *karis

garutscraping against one another (of two surfaces in contact), e.g., as a cartwheel rubbing against a wall (PMP: *garut) *garuC

gasiŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gatalitchiness; (fig.) lewdness (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gawaŋgate (PWMP: *gawaŋ)

gayamOtaheite chestnut: Inocarpus edulis (PWMP: *gayam)

gebokstriking a heavy blow with a flat object (ROOT)

gegaknoise, din, uproar (PMP: *gekgek)

gegarvibration, quivering, shuddering (PAN: *gerger₁)

gegatmoth; silverfish; insect that destroys cloth or paper (PMP: *getget₁)

gəlak sumbiŋlaugh with a twist in it; sickly laugh (PWMP: *sumbiŋ)

gelaŋcircuit, circlet; bracelet (PWMP: *geleŋ)

gelaŋclang, ringing sound (ROOT)

gelaŋ-gelaŋ rayatapeworm; name given to the four great worms believed to inhabit the stomach (PWMP: *gelaŋ)

gelapdarkness that conceals (PWMP: *kelap₁)

Malay (1260 / 3968)

gəlapdarkness that conceals; (fig.) covert, secret (PWMP: *gelap₂)

gəlapdarkness that conceals (PWMP: *kelep)

gelatokchatter of the teeth (ROOT)

gelatokchatter of the teeth (ROOT)

gelekrolling over (and flattening out); rolling up into pellets (of a road roller; being run over; sago rolled into pellets, etc.) (NEAR)

gəlitickled; amused; inclined to laugh; restlessness as the result of words or mere sound (LOAN)

geliŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn. (PWMP: *galiŋgaŋ)

ge-lomaŋ, ge-lumaŋbedaubed with filth of any sort, e.g. with ordure or blood (PMP: *lumeŋ)

gəlombaŋlong rolling waves at sea, in contrast to short, steep seas (ombak), or ground swell (alun) (NEAR)

gelugalac; red-dye, red-lead; dye from the arnotto (PWMP: *galugaʔ)

gəmaltaking in the hand or fingers (of carrying a bouquet, fingering a kris, etc.) (PAN: *gemel)

gemasspiteful, hardhearted, malign; get angry with (PWMP: *gemes₁) Jakarta

gənapcompleting; rounding off; making up a pair; even, of numbers (PWMP: *genep)

gəntassnapping (a twig); picking a flower that one wishes to wear; severing with the fingernail (PMP: *getes)

gəŋgamgrasp, grip; holding in the closed hand or claw (PAN: *gemgem)

g-er-agasclawing, pawing; passing the fingers roughly through the hair (PWMP: *gasgas)

geratcorrugation on horn; ridged marking on finger-nail (PMP: *geret₁)

geriŋspherical bell (Also Kayan geriŋ 'ringing sound, as when a bell or metal is struck' with onomatopoetic resistance of *R > h?) (ROOT)

geritscraping sound; gnawing by a mouse or rat (PAN: *geriC)

g<er>ogotto gnaw (of large animals) (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

Malay (1280 / 3968)

geroh-gerahmisfortune of all sorts (cf. geroh 'calamity'), (PWMP: *geraq)

gerumutto swarm, as a moving mass of ants (PWMP: *gurumut)

gesahrestless, sighing (of a lover) (PWMP: *gesaq) Jakarta

getahtree sap, latex; sap used and coagulated for economic purposes; tree sap in general; tree sap used as dart poison; tree sap used for liming birds (PWMP: *geteq)

getaŋastretch, taut (PWMP: *geteŋ)

gətilnipping; squeezing between the thumb and forefinger (PAN: *getil)

giatkeen; zealous; adroit (PWMP: *giqed)

gigi asucanine tooth (PAN: *asu₁)

gigir ~ gégérpanic; trepidation; alarm (PWMP: *gigir)

gigisscratch, make a mark with a nail or marking gauge (PAN: *gisgis₁) Brunei

gigitbiting (PWMP: *gitgit)

gigitbiting (PWMP: *kitkit)

gilamental aberration; unbalanced or inexplicable behavior (PMP: *gila)

gila babi, pitam babi, sawan babiepilepsy (PWMP: *babuy₂)

gilaŋlustre, glow, having a shining surface (PWMP: *gilaŋ)

gilaŋlustre; glow; having a shining surface (ROOT)

gilaŋ g<em>ilaŋmultiple lustre; scintillating; glowing (of feminine beauty) (PWMP: *gilaŋ)

gilapburnished, shining, lustrous, especially of things made lustrous (PMP: *gilap)

gilap g<em>ilaphighly polished; smooth and shining (PWMP: *g<um>ilap) *gilap

gilauluminosity; brilliancy; sheet-lightning (PWMP: *gilaw)

Malay (1300 / 3968)

gilawradiance (PWMP: *ginelaw)

giliŋrolling out; flattening with a roller (of preparing a cigarette for smoking, grinding down chilis or curry stuff with a stone roller on a flat stone; also of grinding down simples for a medical prescription) (PMP: *giliŋ)

giliŋ-anroller in handmills; axle of water-wheel (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

gitékbeat, throb (PMP: *gi(n)tik)

gomol, gumullaying violent hands (on a person). Of wrestlers "having a rough and tumble"; clinching and kicking, of a man pulled down and trampled to death by a mob, etc. (PWMP: *gumul)

gorés ~ gorisscratch; mark made by drawing a hard point over a soft surface (PWMP: *guris)

gorés apimatches (PWMP: *guris)

goyaŋoscillation (PWMP: *guyeŋ)

guamthrush; a disease of the sprue type attacking children (PMP: *guham) *guSam

guntiŋshears; scissors; cutting with shears (LOAN)

gurohthunder, thunderous noise (PMP: *guruq)

gusigums (PAN: *gusi(ʔ))

guyahshaky or swaying (of a person's walk) (PWMP: *guyaq)

habisdone with; all used up; finished off (PWMP: *qabis)

habis tumbasto the last drop; to the bitter end; to the uttermost. Stronger than habis (ended, exhausted) (PWMP: *tu(m)bas)

(h)abokpowdery stuff; dust; chaff (PMP: *habuk)

(h)abokpowdery stuff; dust; chaff (PWMP: *qabug)

(h)abokpowdery stuff; dust; chaff; pollen; speck of dust; sawdust (PMP: *qabuk)

(h)abuash; powder produced by combustion; "ash-colored", as a descriptive name for animals (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

hadapposition facing in two senses: (i) being in front, (ii) presenting oneself before, or waiting on, as a courtier attending his sultan’s receptions (PMP: *qadep)

Malay (1320 / 3968)

hafalknowing by heart; knowing perfectly (LOAN)

(h)alaudriving before one; "chivvying". Of beaters driving elephants into a trap, herdsmen driving cattle, etc. Also (in modern Malaya) to drive away (PWMP: *halaw)

haliaginger, Zingiber officinale; used as a drug and as a flavoring for curries (PMP: *laqia)

(ha)lintahleech, generic for slow leeches in contrast to springing leeches; fig. a bloodsucker, blackmailer, or usurer (PWMP: *qali-metaq) *-meCaq

halipancentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

(h)alirflow along (as water flows, or as perspiration (PMP: *qaliR)

(h)ambaŋafloat in mid-air. Of a bird resting on its pinions; of the newly risen sun and moon as they leave the horizon (PWMP: *qabaŋ₂)

(h)ambatnoose at the deck-end of a boat's stays (PWMP: *hambej)

(h)ambatnoose at the deck-end of a boat's stays (PWMP: *qa(m)bej)

(h)amburletting drop here and there. Of seed being dropped on the ground (sowing with a round-arm motion is tabur) (PWMP: *qambuR)

hampaempty; void of contents; null; fruitless (PMP: *qapah)

(h)amparspreading out horizontally (of bedrock, outspread carpets, pitching tents, opening out mats, spreading wings) (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

hampasworthless residue; by-product (LOAN)

hampirproximity; nearly; close by (PWMP: *hampir)

hampir-hampiralmost (PWMP: *hampir)

(h)an-irfetid, offensive in odor. Of bad meat, rotten meat, putrid water, decaying vegetable matter, etc. (NOISE)

hantamslamming; slapping; bumping against. Of a man bumping his nose against a tree; (vulgar) of sexual intercourse, etc. (PWMP: *qantem)

(h)antarconducting, escorting; bearing along; conveying; (Bazaar Malay) to send (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

(h)anterconducting, escorting (PMP: *hateD) *SateD Jakarta

hantuevil spirit; ghost. Generic for invisible spirits of evil that work in darkness or secrecy. They include: (1) demons of localities, (2) demons tied to special spots or tutelary spirits of freaks of nature, (3) demons behind natural phenomena, such as echoes, will o' the wisps, meteors, (4) invisible elves wandering about the earth, (5) evil spirits associated with definite diseases, (6) vengeful ghosts of the dead, e.g. of the murdered, (7) ghost-birds, harpies or vampires, (8) discarded divinities of older faiths, (9) the tiger-spirit attached to a sorcerer, (10) familiar spirits generally, (11) the magician's head as a familiar spirit, (12) familiar spirits of indefinite local character. Ghosts are credited by Malays with planting wild varieties of fruit; e.g. pisaŋ hantu would mean "wild banana". The word is therefore common in Malay botanical names. (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

Malay (1340 / 3968)

Hantu pem-buruSpectre Huntsman; name of a much-dreaded forest spirit whose dogs are the bee-eaters (bebérék) and who afflicts all who see him with some deadly disease (PAN: *buRaw)

hantu pe-ñakitspirits of disease (PMP: *sakit)

hantu rayathe greatest of the evil spirits of the forest (PAN: *Raya)

hañutadrift, moving with the current; unattached (PAN: *qañud)

haŋatheat, esp. artificial heat, in contrast to solar heat (panas) (NOISE)

haŋitfoul-smelling. Of the musty odor of dirty linen; the stench after the Krakatoa eruption; the smell of dung; the smell from armpits, etc. (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

(h)aŋitfoul-smelling (dirty linen, dung, armpits, etc. (PAN: *qaŋeliC)

haŋusdestruction by fire. In contrast to being on fire or being cooked or baked (PMP: *haŋus₂)

(h)apitpressure between two disconnected surfaces (as in a copying press or printing-press); torture by pressure (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

hapitpressure between two disconnected surfaces, as in a printing press; torture by pressure (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

hapusexpunging, wiping off; effacing (PMP: *qa(m)pus)

harau-birauconfused noise (PWMP: *biRaw)

harga matifixed price (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

hariday (PAN: *waRi₁)

harimau balan daunthe marbled cat: Felis marmorata (PMP: *balan)

hari raya besarfestival after the fasting month; the greatest holiday in the Malay year (PAN: *Raya)

hartaproperty; wealth (LOAN)

haruscurrent (in sea or river) (PMP: *qaRus)

(h)asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (of stuffing food into the mouth, beating stones into a roadway, hammering earth to fill up interstices (PMP: *hasek₂)

(h)asakstuffing; insertion by force or pressure (PWMP: *qasak)

Malay (1360 / 3968)

hasemacid; sour (W. Sumatra) (PWMP: *qalesem)

hasilusually: rent, tax; products of the country, exports (LOAN)

(h)ataproof; roofing-thatch (PMP: *qatep)

(h)atap sisek teŋgiliŋ(of shingles); -- but specifically of thatch, made usually of nipah (the commonest), rembia (reputed the best), bertam (a palm: Eugeissona tristis), kaboŋ (sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera), salak (a stemless thorny palm: Zalacca edulis), kelubi (a stemless thorny marsh-palm: Zalacca conferta), palas (fan-palm: Licuala spp.), serdaŋ (a tall fan-palm: Livistona cochinchinensis), puar (generic for wild giners and esp. for the local cardamom, in contrast to the imported cardamom), lalaŋ (sword grass: Imperata cylindrica) (PMP: *qatep)

hatiheart; core; seat of certain feelings. Anatomically the "blood-eagle" made up of liver (limpa), gall (hempedu) and heart proper (jantoŋ hati, buah hati); commonly hati is 'heart' as the seat of emotion and also of one's secret thoughts; hati is used by mystics in the sense almost of character or human nature; but hati is used most commonly in the sense of active feeling in contrast to mere passive sensation; cf. 'to feel cool' (badan sejok) and 'to keep cool' (hati sejok) (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

(h)ati-(h)atibe careful; look out; be watchful (PWMP: *hatay)

hati-hatiplant sp.: Coleus atropurpureus, C. blumei (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

hati-hati hutana plant: Sonerila heterostemon (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

hati taŋanhollow of palm of hand (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

(h)aturorder, arrangement (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

(h)aturorder, arrangement (LOAN)

(h)auoh! a cry of terror or pained surprise (PWMP: *qau)

(h)aurbamboo Bambusa spp. (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

hausthirst (LOAN)

hausthirst (NOISE)

hausreduction in size through wear or friction. Of iron being eaten away by rust; an old bull's horns being worn away, etc. (NOISE)

(h)ayaksifting; passing through a sieve (PWMP: *qayag)

(h)ayamcommon domestic fowl; fighting cock; turkey; guinea-fowl; water-cock; jungle fowl (PWMP: *qayam₂)

(h)ayunswaying; swinging (PWMP: *hayun)

héladragging after oneself; hauling or lugging along (PWMP: *hilah)

Malay (1380 / 3968)

(he)latperiodicity, alternation (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

hémat, himatsolicitude; care; attention (LOAN)

(h)embusblowing hard; panting and puffing; making a current of air (a snorting horse, a man panting as he runs, etc.) (PMP: *qembus)

hempaempty, void of contents; empty rice husk (PWMP: *qepah)

(h)empasdashing down, hurling against (of a man flinging down a burden, flinging himself down, slamming a door, etc.) (PWMP: *qempas)

hempasdashing down, hurling against. Of a man flinging down a burden, flinging himself down, slamming a door, etc. (NOISE)

(h)empedugall (PAN: *qapeju)

(h)empékcry or grunt of the tapir or smaller rhinoceros (PWMP: *qepik)

(h)əmpəlammango (LOAN)

(h)empelasa plant: Tetracera assa; its leaves are used as sandpaper; to sandpaper (PWMP: *qampelas)

(h)empelasa plant, Tetracera assa; the leaves are used as sandpaper (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

hempitpressure between two unconnected surfaces (PAN: *qepit)

(h)entakramming or stamping down; pounding. Used of treading something underfoot (PMP: *qentek)

(h)entakramming or stamping down, pounding (PMP: *qetak)

hentistop, come to a stop (PMP: *qeti₃)

hentimuncucumber: Cucumis sativus L. (PMP: *qatimun)

(h)eramcrouch, lie low, make ready for a spring (tigers), sit on eggs (fowl) (PWMP: *qerem)

(h)eraŋmoan, cry of pain (PMP: *heReŋ)

(h)eraŋmoan, cry of pain (PWMP: *qeraŋ)

(h)eratconstriction; pressure from every side (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

Malay (1400 / 3968)

(he)rutcompression; squeezing (PMP: *qeRut)

higee-up; go on. A word of command to elephants. (PMP: *qi₁)

hiaŋ, yaŋdivinity; Godhead. Usually in compounds, e.g. (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

hiasembellishment (LOAN)

(h)idammorbid craving. Especially of a pregnant woman's craving for some special food (PWMP: *qidam)

(h)idapprotraction (of illness, sorrow or fasting). (PWMP: *hidap)

hidupliving, being alive; rise (of the sun) (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

hijaudark-colored; a name given to greens and blues, as the prevailing color in the jungle and the sea (PWMP: *hizaw)

(h)ilam-(h)ilamdimly or intermittently visible, as the flight of a bird in the distance (PMP: *qilem)

hilaŋloss, disappearance, death; of loss generally (PMP: *qilaŋ)

(h)ilaushimmering (as sunlight on rippling water) (PMP: *qilaw)

(h)ilirflowing down; movement or situation downstream (PWMP: *qiliR)

(h)impas(W. Sumatra) entirety, all; (Java) paid off, settled (of a debt) (PMP: *qimpas)

himpitsqueezing pressure (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

himpunassembly in one place; gathering (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

hintaiprying; watching secretly (PWMP: *hintay)

hintipkeep an eye upon, spy upon (LOAN)

(h)iŋarnoise, disturbance (PWMP: *qiŋeR)

hiŋgaas far as, until; limit; boundary; end (PMP: *qiŋga)

hiŋga-nboundary (PMP: *qiŋga)

Malay (1420 / 3968)

(h)iŋussnot; mucus from the nose (PMP: *hiŋus₂) *Siŋus

(h)iréktreading down, of a man treading on a plank bridge and so making it bend under his weight, but esp. of stamping on the harvested rice so as to separate grain and straw; sieve or strainer used for cooking vegetables (PAN: *qiRik)

(h)iri hatispite, malice (PWMP: *qiRih)

(h)irisslitting, slicing. Of slitting a garment, slicing an orange or lime, etc. (PMP: *qiris)

(h)iruplapping or sucking up (liquid) (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

hisinterjection of disapproval or disgust (PMP: *qis)

(h)isapinhaling; sucking in (of sucking one's thumb, opium-smoking, tobacco-smoking, etc.) (PMP: *qisep)

hitamvery dark in color; black (PMP: *qitem)

hitoŋreckoning; adding up (PWMP: *qituŋ)

hiu, yushark; dogfish; generic for sharks, dogfish, hammerhead sharks, sawfish and beaked rays (PAN: *qiSu)

hobat, ubatdrug; philtre; gunpowder (LOAN)

hoihey there! An interjection to call attention (PMP: *huy)

(h)opauChinese belt-purse of beadwork (LOAN)

(h)uapvapor (PWMP: *huab₁) *huab

(h)ubahalteration; modification; to amend (LOAN)

(h)ubangrey or white (of the hair); grey-haired (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

huboŋlinking; joining together (LOAN)

(h)udamdulled (of lustre); faded (of coloring) (PAN: *qudem)

(h)udaŋprawn; crayfish; lobster; generic for decapods of the Macrura class, in contrast to crabs (PAN: *qudaŋ)

(h)udutsuck at (PWMP: *qudud)

Malay (1440 / 3968)

(h)uitbarb (ROOT)

hujan batuhail (PMP: *quzan batu₂) *quzaN

hujan bunutcontinuous rain (NOISE)

hujoŋextreme point, tip (tongue, eye, index finger) (PMP: *quzuŋ)

hukumdecree; doom; that which is ordained. Moslem law in contrast to customary law (adat) (LOAN)

(h)ukurlinear measurement; measure the length of anything (LOAN)

(h)ulamuncooked vegetable food eaten with boiled rice (PWMP: *qulam)

(h)ulascover; wrapper; skin (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

(h)ulatworm; grub; maggot; larva of fly or other such insect; slow-moving insect of the caterpillar type, in contrast to snake-like worms (PMP: *qulej)

(h)ulikneading; squeezing (and not merely stirring) dough (PMP: *quli)

huluhead; upper portion; handle (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

hulu aluhandle of pestle (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

hulu hati(lit. 'head of the liver') pit of the stomach (PWMP: *qulu ni qatay) *qaCay

hulu kapakaxe-handle (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

(h)ulunslave; servant; person; this person; I (PMP: *qulun₁)

hulurletting go; slacking or paying out (a line) (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

hulur-anwhat is extended to someone (gift, help, etc.) (PWMP: *huluR-an) *SuluR

(h)umacultivation on dry soil in contrast to planting on swampy ground. Esp. of the cultivation of Oryza montana, or hill-rice, but also applied to other crops needing dry soil (PMP: *quma) *qumah

(h)umanto keep "harping on one string" (PAN: *quman)

(h)umbibulb, bulb-root (PMP: *qubi)

Malay (1460 / 3968)

(h)unjurto thrust out, as one stretches out a leg (PMP: *qunzur)

(h)untaihanging down loosely; dangling; dangling string (PWMP: *quntay₁)

hunusdrawing off (of unsheathing weapons, drawing a ring off the finger) (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

(h)uŋkitrake up, lever up (of picking at old sores and digging up old grievances) (NOISE)

(h)uraiunravelling; undoing; untying (PWMP: *quray)

(h)urasbesprinkle; throw water on the ground so as to moisten the ground (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

(h)uroŋcrowding; swarming; overrunning (PMP: *quruŋ)

(h)urutmassage; clasping a sinew or limb tightly in the hand and then drawing the hand along it (PMP: *quRut)

(h)utanwilderness; jungle (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

(h)utaŋdebt, obligation (PMP: *qutaŋ)

hutaŋ-anindebtedness (PWMP: *qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

(h)uyoŋrocking; swaying; crank (PMP: *huyuŋ)

-iverbal suffix used together with the prefix meŋ-. This affix has various functions, including iterative and allative (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:90ff). Ex: petani itu me-nanam-kan padi di ladaŋ-ña 'the farmer planted rice in his field' vs. petani itu me-nanam-i ladaŋ-ña deŋan padi 'the farmer planted his field with rice' (PMP: *-i₂)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

iathat (PMP: *ia₂) Sarawak

iakto whine (PMP: *iag)

iakto whine (PMP: *iak)

iauto mew (cats) (PAN: *qiaw)

ibumother; dam (of animals); greatest or "parent" of a brood or class (LOAN)

ibu panahbow (lit. ‘mother of shooting’) (PAN: *panaq)

Malay (1480 / 3968)

ibu pasirgravel, shingle (PWMP: *pasiR)

ibusa palm, Corypha gebanga, used in mat-making (PWMP: *ibus)

ijoksugar-palm fibre. A dark substance resembling horse-hair, obtained from Arenga saccharifera and used for making string and thatch (PWMP: *izuk)

ikalcurly (of hair) (PWMP: *ikel)

ikanfish (generic) (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ikan abu-abufish sp. (PWMP: *abu abu) Jakarta

ikan abu-abufish sp. (PWMP: *qabu qabu) Jakarta

ikan alu alubarracuda: Sphyraena obtusata (PMP: *qalu)

ikan bujoka murrel, Ophiocephalus sp. (PWMP: *buzuk)

ikan bulan-bulangiant herring: Megalops cyprinoides (PMP: *bulan-bulan₁) *bulan-bulan

ikan bunaa fish, sp. unid. It is believed to be unwholesome for pregnant women (PMP: *buna)

ikan buntalbox-fish, globe-fish or sea-porcupine; generic for Ostraciontidae, Tetrodontidae and Diodontidae. These fish have the power of distending their bodies with air, and are symbols of empty pretensions. Malays classify them correctly as box-fishes (buntal batu, buntal kotak), sea-porcupines (buntal landak, buntal duri) and globe-fishes (buntal pisaŋ) (PMP: *buntal)

ikan buntal borékspeckled parrot fish (PWMP: *burik)

ikan daunbatfish: Platax sp. (PMP: *dahun)

ikan daun baruspotted moonfish: Drepane punctata (PMP: *dahun)

ikan gemisucking fish: Echineis (sic!) naucrates (PMP: *gemi)

ikan guramifreshwater carp: Osphromenus olfax, reared in ponds for the table (LOAN)

ikan guritasmall octopus, Onychoteuthis angulata (a large octopus is loyak, doyak) (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

ikan kakapa large fish (‘cockup’ of India; Palmer of Queensland; Dutch kaalkop, Lates spp.) (PWMP: *kakap)

ikan kebasibony bream or hairback, Dorosoma spp. (name on east coast of Malay peninsula) (PWMP: *kabasi)

Malay (1500 / 3968)

ikan kékékgeneric for many fishes variously identified as silver-bream (Equula edentula, Cazza minuta) and horse mackerel (Mene maculata) (PWMP: *ki(k)kik)

ikan kemisucking fish: Echineis naucrates (PMP: *kemi)

ikan kerapohsea perch: Serranus spp.; a very large fish of the Scorpaenidae about which many legends exist (PWMP: *kuRapuq)

ikan kerapusea perch: Serranus spp.; a very large fish of the Scorpaenidae about which many legends exist (PMP: *kuRapu)

ikan kərapusea perch, Serranus spp.; a very large fish of the Scorpaenidae, about which many legends exist (PWMP: *kurapu)

ikan kertaŋa perch: Epinephelus pantherinus (PMP: *keRteŋ)

ikan ketambakpomfret: Stromateus niger (PWMP: *katambak)

ikan kitaŋspotted butter-fish, Scatophagus spp. These fish have venomous dorsal fins. (PWMP: *kiteŋ)

ikan kuraumedium-sized threadfin, Polynemus spp. (PMP: *kuRaw)

ikan lawi ayamsmall anchovy (PMP: *lawi₁)

ikan lepugeneric for a number of fishes with venomous fins, angler fish and goblin fish (Antennaridae and Scorpaenidae) (PMP: *lepu)

ikan otéka catfish: Arius utik (PMP: *utik)

ikan pelataa mackerel: Scomber microlepidotus (PMP: *palata)

ikan punti-puntimarine fish, sp. unident. (PWMP: *punti₂)

ikan puyu-puyuthe climbing perch: Anabas scandens (PWMP: *puyu-puyu) *puyu₁

ikan sepatgeneric for fishes of the genus Trichopodus (PWMP: *sepet₂)

ikan sepetkind of fish (Chaer 1976) (PWMP: *sepet₂) Jakarta

ikan sumpitblowpipe fish, Toxotes spp. (PMP: *sumpit)

ikan talaŋhorse mackerel: generic for large species of Chorinemus, the small or young being seliap (PWMP: *talaŋ-talaŋ)

ikan tambansardine; generic for various Clupeidae (PWMP: *tamban)

Malay (1520 / 3968)

ikan tampara flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis (PWMP: *tampar₁)

ikan teliŋa buayaa fish: Gastroceus biaculeatus (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

ikan terithe small anchovy: Stolephorus tri, known in Singapore as the ‘Macassar red fish’ (PMP: *teRi)

ikattying up, fastening; (in Java) head-band, head-cloth (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikat-anwhat is already tied; way of tying; bundle (PWMP: *hiket-en) *Siket

ikutcoming after (in space, not time); according to (PMP: *ikut)

ikut jalantaking a certain route (PMP: *ikut)

ilirnorth (PWMP: *qiliR) Jakarta

impaŋfish-weir or dammed fish-pond (ROOT)

ina-ŋduenna; governess of an unmarried girl of high rank. Etymologically the word suggests "mother" but in a way implying low rank (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

incutawry; out of position, as a strained limb; sidelong movement (PMP: *icud)

indahfine; precious; fair (LOAN)

indo-kmother, dam (of animals), base or home in certain games (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

indo-k ayamlaying hen (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

indo-ŋmother (PWMP: *indu-ŋ) *indu

inepstay the night, sleep over (PAN: *qinep) Jakarta

inidemonstrative suggesting precision or nearness (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

injekstep, tread (ROOT) Jakarta

intandiamond (LOAN)

iŋar-iŋar-ancontinuous noise; noises of all sorts (PWMP: *qiŋeR)

Malay (1540 / 3968)

iŋatgiving attention to; recalling; remembering (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋat-anwhat is remembered or recalled; what is reflected in one's thoughts (PWMP: *iŋat-an) *iŋat

iŋat-iŋatbe careful (said in warning) (PWMP: *iŋat-iŋat) *iŋat

iŋetremember; aware (PWMP: *iŋet) Jakarta

iŋinintense longing; temporary craving (NEAR)

iŋinintense longing; temporary craving (LOAN)

iŋkakchuckle, guffaw (ROOT)

iŋussnot; mucus from the nose (PWMP: *hiŋus₁) *hiŋus

iparbrotherhood or sisterhood by marriage. Loosely, of a brother-in-law or even cousin-in-law, but usually defined more closely by the use of other words with meanings that vary locally (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipila tree Intsia spp. It yields a good timber and a round fruit used as a marble (buah gundu) (PMP: *qipil)

ipohtree sap used for dart poison, and obtained usually from the upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria), or from a creeper, Strychnos tiente (PWMP: *qipuq)

iri hatispite; malice; envy (NEAR)

iriŋIndian file. Of ants following in line one behind the other, etc. (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

isaŋ, iŋsaŋgills of a fish (PWMP: *isaŋ)

isicontents; component parts. Etymologically, the "flesh" of anything (PAN: *isiʔ)

isi-anwhat is filled (PWMP: *isiʔ-an) *isiʔ

itah besia climber, Smilax myosotifolia (LOAN)

itékduck. Domesticated ducks include the muscovy duck and the mandarin duck. Wild iték include the cotton teal and the mallard (PWMP: *itik₂)

itilclitoris (PWMP: *itil)

izinpermission (LOAN)

Malay (1560 / 3968)

jahatevil-hearted (PMP: *zaqat)

jahat-kanto represent as wicked, to defame (PMP: *zaqat)

jahitsewing, stitching (PMP: *zaqit)

jalanmovement in a definite direction; course; road; way; way to do something (PMP: *zalan)

jalan bahasaway of speech, idiom (PMP: *zalan)

jalirto flow (Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak jarir 'to flow, as water') (ROOT)

jambu biawasguava (LOAN)

jaŋandon't (PWMP: *zaŋan₂)

jaŋkaŋwide astretch, of the limbs (PWMP: *zaŋkaŋ)

jaŋkaŋgeneric for a number of trees with stilt roots (ROOT)

jaŋkitspread without visible contact, as an epidemic or fire (PWMP: *za(ŋ)kit)

jaraŋhaving intervals or interspaces; sparse (PWMP: *zaRaŋ)

jariŋbarrier net – of stake nets drawn across a stream, drift nets in a tideway, and fowlers’ nets (not of seines or dragnets) (PMP: *zariŋ)

jarumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

jauhremoteness (PMP: *zauq)

jejaktrample on (ROOT)

jejalclose an orifice with stuffing of any sort (PWMP: *zelzel)

jelaŋakthrow back the head, e.g. for watching an airplane (ROOT)

jelataŋstinging nettle, generic for certain plants with stinging leaves, including tree nettle (Laportea stimulans), causing intense pain and a rash like erysipelas, and used by Malays as an ingredient in poison or hung over doors to keep away evil spirits, common small nettle (Fleurya interrupta), causing itch, when the expression kena jelataŋ (or simply jelataŋ) ‘itchy, lascivious’, and stinging climber (Cnesmone javanica); a minute marine insect that gives a slight sting, sea-flea (PMP: *zalateŋ)

jelaymillet, Aphania pancijuga (PMP: *zelay)

Malay (1580 / 3968)

jeliŋgive a side-glance full of meaning (PWMP: *zeliŋ)

jelokpronounced concavity (ROOT)

jeluaŋvegetable parchment; native paper ... Old Malayo-Javanese romances are met with that have been written on this parchment (the bark used being that of Morus macroura or of Brousonnetia papyrifera) (PWMP: *zaluaŋ)

jemputa grasp; pinch; pressure between the cushion of the thumb (jempul) and the fingertips; (whence) pressure such as is used in greeting a visitor; greeting (LOAN)

jenakdeep, of sleep (ROOT)

jéŋkaŋextension of a leg; as when a mother draws out a child's leg to clean it (ROOT)

jeŋkaŋstark or stiff in death (ROOT)

jeŋkaŋstark or stiff in death (ROOT)

jepitto nip, catch between pincers (ROOT)

jepitnip, catch between pincers (PWMP: *zepit) Jakarta

jeradeterred; warned by experience (PWMP: *zera)

jeramistubble; rice-aftergrowth; the waste or inedible parts of fruits like the jack and durian (PWMP: *zaRami)

jeraŋauthe sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints (PWMP: *zariaŋaw)

jerat biŋkasa noose-snare that has been sprung (PMP: *biŋkas)

jerok ipisa thin-skinned lime (PAN: *iŋepis)

jijakfootfall; step, tread (ROOT)

jijidisgust (PWMP: *zizi)

jilatto lick or lick up; of touching with the tongue; of a dog licking up food; of a dancing girl picking up coins with her lips; and of tongues of flame “licking up” anything inflammable (PWMP: *dilat)

jimatcharm; talisman for self-protection (LOAN)

jimbitlifting (anything) off the ground with hand or finger (ROOT)

Malay (1600 / 3968)

jolokpoking at; thrusting forwards or upwards, of thrusting a pole into a tree to knock down fruit or flowers, stirring up wasps by poking a stick into their nests, etc. (NOISE)

jonjot (secondary prenasalization)picking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum (PWMP: *zutzut)

joŋkokto squat (PMP: *zuŋkuk)

joŋkoŋdugout canoe; properly, a tree trunk hollowed out by fire, but used of other boats of mostly simple construction (LOAN)

jualsale; selling; (at cards) to bid (LOAN)

juluŋ-juluŋkind of freshwater fish (PWMP: *zuluŋ)

junjoŋsupporting on the head (of a hawker carrying a basket on his head, a warrior raising his club over his head before striking, and of fixing gun shields on guns); indirectly, of props on which a thing rests; fig. obeying (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

jurohsyrup made of native sugar (PMP: *zuRuq)

juru səlamdiver; fisherman who immerses himself to listen for the presence of a shoal of fish (PAN: *selem₁)

ka-a locative prefix corresponding to “ward” (upward, downward, inward, outward, Northward, etc.) (PAN: *ka₃)

kabirdrawing towards oneself. In two senses: 1. (MIN) scooping in, annexing, 2. (MAL) side-paddling (PWMP: *kabiR)

kabu-kabutree-cotton, kapok (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

kabutanything that blurs or render indistinct (PMP: *kabut)

kabut matadim-sightedness (PMP: *kabut)

kacau-birauhiggledy-piggledy; in disorder (PWMP: *biRaw)

kacawjumbled up, mixed indiscriminately (PWMP: *kacaw)

ka-huluupstream (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

kailfishing with rod or handline (PAN: *kawil₁)

kail seluaŋ‘hooks for the seluaŋ fish’ – name given to a crocodile’s front teeth (PAN: *kawil₁)

kainwoven fabric; cloth; untailored garment; (specifically) the Malay sarong; cloth of any material (PWMP: *kain)

Malay (1620 / 3968)

kain burokrags, worn-out garments (PAN: *buRuk)

kain pelaŋibandanna-cloth, colored rather gaudily by the tie-and-dye process (LOAN)

kain saroŋthe typical Malay long kilt or skirt; usually explained as saroŋ (sheath, wrapper), but the garment is used in Ceyon, where it is known as saran; Yule derives the word from Singhalese (PWMP: *saruŋ)

kain suŋkitcloth embroidered with gold or silver by a “digging out” process, i.e. by using a sharp point to pull out short lengths of the silk of the fabric and then substituting pieces of gold or silver thread (PMP: *suŋkit)

kaisto draw the claws towards the body, esp. of the ways fowls scratch up their food; also of a crow scratching up sesame seed, and of fights with claws (PWMP: *kaqis)

kais-an ayamdescriptive of the way fowls scratch up their food (PWMP: *kais-an) *kaqis

kaitto hook on to; crook-shaped; crook; of putting bait on a hook, a man caught on thorns in the jungle, a lamb in a tiger’s talons, etc. (PAN: *kawit)

kaitto hook on to; crook-shaped; crook; of putting bait on a hook; a man caught on thorns in the jungle; a lamb in a tiger’s talons; the little finger bent hook-wise (PMP: *kaqit)

kait-an benaŋa hook-shaped tool for gathering up threads in a loom; a stitch (PWMP: *kawit-an) *kawit

kait-kaitvarious plants, as Uncaria ferruginea (a prickly creeper), and Uncaria pteropoda, so called because it is hung over door to catch the trailing entrails of the penanggalan evil spirit (PWMP: *kawit-kawit) *kawit

kajaŋmat protection against rain; mat awning (PMP: *kazaŋ₂)

kaksound of laughter (PAN: *kak)

kaka-kelder sister; (sometimes) elder brother (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

kakasto scratch up, of fowls scratching up food (PMP: *kaskas₃)

kalascorpion (LOAN)

k-alaha condition or position of inferiority (PWMP: *ka-alaq) *alaq₂

k-alahcondition or position of inferiority (PWMP: *ka-alaq) *alaq₂

kalisirreceptive; (fig.) transient, superficial -- of feelings (PWMP: *kalis)

kambaŋto float in the air (LOAN)

kambiŋgoat; generic for sheep, goats, and serow (LOAN)

Malay (1640 / 3968)

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kampillarge envelope-shaped matwork bag (PWMP: *kampil)

kampilanlong and heavy sword used by the Mindanao pirates (Orang Lanun) (LOAN)

kampoŋgrouping; gathering together; (living) compound (LOAN)

kamuyou; you all (not discourteous except when addressed to a single person, in which case it is somewhat arrogant) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kananright-side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kanciŋbuckling together; button; rivet; bolt; stud; clasp (LOAN)

kandaŋfenced enclosure for animals (PWMP: *kandaŋ)

kandaŋ ayampoultry-run (PWMP: *kandaŋ)

kandaŋ babipig-sty (PWMP: *kandaŋ)

kandistree yielding an acid fruit: Garcinia atrolineata (PWMP: *kandis)

kandoŋcarrying in an enclosed space, of pocketing, being with child (PWMP: *kanduŋ)

kantoŋsatchel; pouch; cloth bag; pocket (NOISE) Jakarta

kaŋkaŋstraddling wide (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

kaŋkoŋa flowering convolvulus: Ipomoea aquatica, I. reptans; eaten as a spinach; also proverbial as the ill weed that grows apace (LOAN)

kapal silamsubmarine (ROOT)

kapascotton, cotton-wood, e.g. as a symbol of whiteness (LOAN)

kapas kapasa fish, silver bream: Gerres sp. (PWMP: *kapas kapas)

kapayfumbling with the hands, whether fondling, the movements of a drowning man, or the arm movements of a baby lying on its back; flutter, fluttering (of bird, butterfly; Echols and Shadily 1963) (PMP: *kapay)

kapisscallop-shell, Pecten sp. (PWMP: *kapis)

Malay (1660 / 3968)

kapitfasten with slats, as woven grass matting to a frame (PMP: *kapit) Trengganu

kapoktree-cotton (PWMP: *kapuk)

kapurcamphor; chalk; lime; lime eaten with sireh-leaf (PMP: *kapuR)

karahpatchy in coloring, of tortoise shell, the teeth when lumps of sirih are sticking to them, leaves when drying and showing spots, etc. (NOISE)

karahpatchy in coloring, of tortoise shell, the teeth when lumps of sirih are sticking to them, leaves when drying and showing spots, etc. (NOISE)

karamto founder, be engulfed, of ships being wrecked; (fig.) of disaster generally (PWMP: *kaRem)

karaŋcoral reef, in contrast to ridge of rocks; edible shellfish picked up on reefs when the tide is out; also used descriptively of fish that haunt coral reefs (PMP: *karaŋ)

karaŋarranging; composing; putting in order (LOAN)

karaŋ-ancomposition, e.g. as a subject taught in school (LOAN)

karatrust; (fig.) corruption; deterioration (PWMP: *karat₁)

karat gigitartar (on teeth) (PWMP: *karat₁)

karoŋlarge matwork sack of coarse material (LOAN)

karutrasp (PMP: *kaRud)

karutrasp (PAN: *karut₁)

kasapa shrub: Clerodendron villosum (PWMP: *kasep)

kasawrafter; crossbeam for supporting a roof (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kasaw betinalesser or lower rafters (‘female rafters’) (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kasaw jantanfront or main rafters (‘male rafters’) (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kasaya cosmetic used as a hairwash a cosmetic generally, of which two kinds are recognized: the “heating” and the “cooling” (LOAN)

k-aséhaffection, love (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

Malay (1680 / 3968)

k-aséh-anpity; pitiable (PMP: *ka-qasiq-an) *qasiq

katak betoŋ(onom.) a toad, Bufo sp., so called from its deep booming croak (PMP: *betuŋ₂)

katak betoŋa toad, Bufo sp., so called from its deep booming croak (ROOT)

kati“catty”, a measure of weight of sixteen tahil, or about one and one third pounds avoirdupois (LOAN)

katilIndian bedstead; charpoy; bedstead generally (LOAN)

katokrapping, hammering off, as one knocks barnacles off planking (PMP: *katuk)

katut selayaa plant: Breynia discigera (PWMP: *katud)

kau2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Sarawak

kaupscraping in with the hand; skimming (of scraping along the surface, e.g. with a crumb-scoop; skimming off broth or cream, etc. (PWMP: *kaup)

kawahvat; cauldron; crater; large boiler, e.g. vat for preparing gambier, or cauldron for boiling rice to feed large numbers of men; natural feature suggesting a cauldron, e.g. the vortex of a whirlpool, an extinct crater or “devil’s punchbowl” (PWMP: *kawaq)

kawalwatchman; patrol; guard; of keeping guard over a palace, policing a strait, etc. (LOAN)

kawancompany; party; herd; comrade; companion; friend; follower (refers to any group of living things, as a herd of elephants, flock of goats, swarm of bees, or band of robbers) (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kawatwire (LOAN)

kawè-kawèspider (PWMP: *kawa) Jakarta

kawin ~ kahwinmarriage, wedlock (NOISE)

kayapower; wealth (PWMP: *kaya)

kayutimber, in various senses: 1. a tree and its parts, 2. trees and classes of timber, 3. timber appliances (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu burokrotten wood (PAN: *buRuk)

kayu gelugathe arnotto: Bixa orellana (PWMP: *galugaʔ)

kayu-kayu-anvarious kinds of wood (PMP: *kahi-kahiw) *kaSiw

Malay (1700 / 3968)

kayu kemuniŋbeautiful veined yellow wood: obtained from Murraya exotica and used for making kris-handles and scabbards (PMP: *kamuniŋ)

kaʔkakcackling laughter (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak Kedah

kə-ordinal prefix to numerals (PAN: *Sika-)

kə- -anformative for abstract nouns; kə-ada-an ‘existence’ (cp. ada ‘be, exist’) (PAN: *ka- -an₃)

kəbalimpenetrability to weapons, as a form of invulnerability; making the skin slippery so that weapons glance off it; protecting the flesh by rubbing quicksilver into the body so as to get a subcutaneous metallic armor; kəbal is used, less correctly, of invulnerability secured by making missiles miss their mark; it is believed that a child born with a complete caul is invulnerable (PWMP: *kebel)

kəbatbinding round; band; wrapper; circlet (PMP: *kebet)

kəbatbinding round; band; wrapper; circlet (NOISE)

ke-beŋis-ancallous cruelty (PWMP: *ka-beŋis-an) *beŋis₁

ke-berat-anburden (PWMP: *ka-beReqat-en) *beReqat

kəbiri ~ kəmbiricastrated; emasculated (LOAN)

ke-bulat-anunanimity (PWMP: *buled₂)

kəburdriving before one (of fish); disturbing water so as to stir up mud (PMP: *kebuR)

kechil hati(lit. 'small liver') feel sore; bear a grudge (PMP: *X₅ + qatay) *qaCay

kəcilsmall; minor (NEAR)

kədadahviolent colic; choleric diarrohea (PWMP: *kadaqdaq)

kədadakviolent colic; choleric diarrohea (PWMP: *kadadak)

ke-dataŋ-anadvent, approach, coming (PWMP: *ka-dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

ke-dataŋ-an mautthe coming of death (PMP: *dateŋ)

ke-datu-ankindgom (of Srivijaya) (PMP: *datu)

kədəŋastretch (as in stretching out one’s arms; also of an arm being stiff and lacking suppleness) (PMP: *kedeŋ)

Malay (1720 / 3968)

kedipa blink (PAN: *kedip) Jakarta

ke-duathe two, both (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

kədutcrease; fold; deep furrow (NOISE)

ke-empatfourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

ke-empat-anthe fourth (PWMP: *ka-epat-an) *Sepat

ke-empat-empatall four (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

ke-enamsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

ke-hidup-anlife, livelihood (PAN: *ka-qudip-an) *qudip

ke-jahat-anwickedness (PMP: *zaqat)

kejamclosing the eye, = pĕjam; not mere winking or blinking, but forced or deliberate (PAN: *kezem)

kejepto blink (PWMP: *kezep) Jakarta

kəjutstiffening with fear; terrified (PMP: *kezut₁) *kezuC

kéksound of giggling; cry of the snipe (PMP: *kik)

kəkalpermanence; enduring or perpetual, of eternity, constancy in love, etc. (NOISE)

kekasscratching up the earth for food, of fowls (PAN: *keskes₁)

ke-kaséhbeloved person; mistress; love (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

kekekgiggling (PMP: *kikik)

kə-kudoŋto wear over the head (PWMP: *kuduŋ) Jakarta

kə-kuniŋ-anyellow trappings or hangings (indicating royal ownership) (LOAN)

kəlabuashen grey (LOAN)

Malay (1740 / 3968)

kəlabu matafilm over the eye causing greyish discoloration (LOAN)

kəladigeneric for many aroids, esp. Colocasia antiquorum; used medicinally (LOAN)

kəladigeneric for many aroids, esp. Colocasia antiquorum (the Polynesian taro); used medicinally (LOAN)

kelalaŋdecanter; calabash-like water vessel (PWMP: *kalalaŋ)

kelammurk; obscurity; not extreme darkness (gelap); only such darkness as makes vision difficult (of myopia, dizziness affecting the eyes, darkness due to smoke or dust, weeping that affects the vision, a bright day becoming clouded; also figuratively for obscurity of thought (PAN: *kelem)

kəlamaya Malay cake (PWMP: *kalámay)

kelambara fish, sp. unident. (PWMP: *kulambar)

kəlambumosquito curtain (LOAN)

kelasahump; hard protuberant lump of flesh on the back (PWMP: *kulasa)

kelasaklong body-shield of wood or leather with a handle at its center (PWMP: *kalasag)

kelawarinsect-eating bat; cave-bat (PWMP: *kula-la(m)baR)

kəlayua tree: Erioglossum edule (PWMP: *kalayu)

kələkatiareca nut cutter (LOAN)

kelelawarinsect-eating bat; cave-bat (PWMP: *kula-la(m)baR)

kələmuntiŋrose-myrtle: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (PWMP: *kalamuntiŋ)

kələmuntiŋevergreen shrub with an edible fruit, the rose-myrtle: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (LOAN)

kelepatcaulking, closing a vessel's seams (ROOT)

kelepékflip-flop; repeated flips (ROOT)

kəliliŋsituation around (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

ke-limafifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

Malay (1760 / 3968)

k<el>iŋkiŋlittle finger (PWMP: *k<al>iŋkiŋ) *kiŋkiŋ₃

kəliŋkiŋlittle finger (PWMP: *kaliŋkiŋ)

kelipflash, twinkle (PAN: *kelip)

kelip-kelaushimmer (ROOT)

kəlohdeep breathing (NOISE)

kəloh-kəsahrestless, sighing (of a lover) (LOAN)

kəlokcurve; arc; curling or wavy line, esp. of the curve used decoratively (PWMP: *keluk)

kelompokcluster, group (ROOT)

kəloŋcurving, concave (PWMP: *keluŋ₁)

ke-luarto issue (PMP: *luqar)

kəluboŋa veil; veiling (used by women) (PWMP: *kulubuŋ)

kelumpaŋa tree: Sterculia foetida (PMP: *kalumpaŋ)

ke-mati-an aŋinwind dying away (PWMP: *ka-m-atay-an) *aCay

kəmbaŋexpansion; blossoming out (PWMP: *kembaŋ)

kəmbarforming a match or pair, not of two who supplement one another, e.g. bride and bridegroom; but of mere equality or similarity, e.g. of twin children, or a worthy foe (LOAN)

kəmboŋpuffed out; swollen with wind; inflation, of the inflation and deflation of a trumpeter’s cheeks, wind in the stomach, or the ‘blown out’ boxfish or parrot fish, which has the habit of distending itself and is thought typical of hollow pretensions (PMP: *kembuŋ)

kəmehurinate (PMP: *kemiq)

kemisThursday (LOAN)

kəmpisshrunken (PWMP: *ke(m)pis)

kempitcarry under the arm (PMP: *kepit)

Malay (1780 / 3968)

kem-udirudder (of a boat) (PMP: *kama-udehi) *udehi

kem-udi-an harithe future (PMP: *udehi)

kənacontact; to be up against; to incur; to experience; to touch exactly; to hit off (often in a passive sense); also idiomatically in the sense of being ‘taken in’ or deceived (PMP: *kena₁)

kənaŋpondering over memories (covers loving thoughts, vain regrets, and the memory of those who are dead) (LOAN)

kənaŋaa tree known for its sweet-scented flowers; the dried flowers are used medicinally to mitigate fever (PMP: *kanaŋa)

kəna-pa ~ kəna apawhy? because of what? (PMP: *kena₁)

kənarithe Java almond, a very handsome shade tree planted in avenues in Java; its seeds are rich in oil and its sap produces the elemi (k.o. resin) of our pharmacopeia: Canarium commune (PMP: *kanari)

kenasshellfish, salted and mixed with rice, sago and other ingredients for preservation as food (PMP: *kenas)

kenawailarge white Borneo bird (PMP: *kanaway) Brunei

kencaŋsteady and strong, of motion; taut (LOAN)

kənciŋto pass urine (LOAN)

kəndiwater goblet (LOAN)

kendoŋa tree: Symplocos ferruginea (PWMP: *kenduŋ)

kendoŋana tree: Symplocos ferruginea (PWMP: *kenduŋ)

kəndurslack (not taut) (PWMP: *kenduR)

kəniŋbrow, eyebrow (PWMP: *keniŋ)

kəntalthick (of liquid); viscous (LOAN)

kəntoŋwooden sounding block for calling the faitful to prayer at a chapel; at a mosque they are summoned with a drum (LOAN)

k-entutnoise or smell of breaking wind (PWMP: *ka-qetut) *qetut

kəntutthe noise or smell of breaking wind (PWMP: *ketut)

Malay (1800 / 3968)

keñatfirm, of flesh (PWMP: *keñat)

kèŋkèŋthe whining of dogs (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

kéŋkéŋraising a foot or paw off the ground (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

kəpallump, clod (PWMP: *kepel)

kepala batustubborn, obstinate, unyielding (PMP: *qulu ni batu) *quluh

kəpala santanthe ‘cream’ of the coconut; the very best of its pulp; (fig.) virginity, first embraces (LOAN)

kə-payah-andifficulties; poverty (PWMP: *payaq)

kepékdent (PMP: *kepik)

kə-pətaŋ-annight watchman (PWMP: *peteŋ)

kepitpressure between two connected surfaces, e.g. between two fingers or between the arm and the body; carry something under the arm (PMP: *kepit)

kepoŋbeleaguering; hemming in. Of an amoker being surrounded to prevent him escaping and doing further mischief (PWMP: *kepuŋ)

kə-pulaw-anarchipelago (LOAN)

kəranchafing dish; portable stove (LOAN)

kərandabottomless coffin (to comply with the Moslem rule that a body shall rest directly on the ground), used at the funerals of important people (LOAN)

kəranjaŋbasket, hamper or crate of coarse wickerwork, used for packing and storing provisions, carrying fish to market, etc. (PWMP: *karanzaŋ)

keraŋdeep clang (PMP: *keRaŋ₁)

kəraŋcockle shell; generic for all cockles, mostly Cardium spp., of which Malays recognize many varieties; half shells are used as ladles, cups, lamps for illuminations, etc. (LOAN)

kərashard; stiff; inelastic; (fig.) obstinate; of things being hard as stone or impenetrable as hard soil; severe, as a drought; stiff, as a tongue that cannot pronounce foreign words properly (PMP: *keRas)

kəratto cut through, to sever (PAN: *keRet)

kəratto cut through; to sever (the head, navel cord, etc.) (PWMP: *keret)

Malay (1820 / 3968)

ke-rawaŋopenwork, à jour design (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

kerawaŋopenwork, a' jour design (ROOT)

kerbau b-enuaŋthe larger of the two Sumatran varieties of buffalo, being bigger-bodied and blacker and having a longer parturition period than the smaller kerbau melukut (PAN: *qiNuaŋ)

kərbawbuffalo: Bos bubalus (LOAN)

kerdutcreased; furrowed; deeply lined (PWMP: *kure(n)dut)

kerdut mukawith a frowning face (PWMP: *kure(n)dut)

keréh(onom.) the chattering of monkeys (PAN: *keriq)

kərənciŋto keep chinking or clinking (NEAR)

keréŋséŋcrack just revealing what is inside; of a fissure in the rind of a fruit, a crack in the skin (PWMP: *kur(i)siŋ) Riau

keréséŋcrack just revealing what is inside; of a fissure in the rind of a fruit, a crack in the skin (PWMP: *kur(i)siŋ)

keriakcrying out (used of "three cheers") (PWMP: *kuriak)

keriatcreaking of a door (PWMP: *kuRiat)

keriat-keriutpersistent creaking (PWMP: *kuRiat)

kəriat-kəriutpersistent creaking (PWMP: *kuRiut)

kerikgrating sound (PMP: *keriqik)

kəriŋdry (as fish in the sun, i.e. absolutely parched) (PWMP: *keRiŋ)

kəriŋ əmbunwhen the dew has just dried (about 7 a.m.) (PWMP: *keRiŋ)

kəristhe well-known Malayan dagger; “kris”. “kriss” or “crease” (LOAN)

keris ber-loksinuous kris (PWMP: *qeluk)

keritsound of scratching, grating or gnawing; to gnaw (PMP: *kaRiqit)

Malay (1840 / 3968)

keritsound of scratching, grating or gnawing (PMP: *kerit)

keritsound of scratching, grating or gnawing; to gnaw (ROOT)

keriutto creak, as door on hinges or oars in oarlocks (PWMP: *kuRiut)

kerlapflash, glisten, as the wings of flying butterflies (PMP: *ke(R)lap)

kerlapflash, glisten, as the wings of flying butterflies (ROOT)

keroŋkoŋgullet, uvula (PWMP: *kaRuŋkuŋ)

kərsekgravel, coarse sea sand (LOAN)

kərtaŋa fish, the perch: Epinephelus pantherinus (PWMP: *kaReteŋ)

kertékcontinuous ticking, the sound of a clock (ROOT)

kə<r>toka dull knocking such as the tap of a mallet or the sound of a wooden bell (PMP: *ketuk)

keruntiŋcattle-bell (of wood) (ROOT)

keruŋdeep booming sound (PAN: *keRuŋ)

kerutcrease, furrow; deep line of face (PWMP: *kerut)

kərutharsh scraping sound; sound of grating teeth (PMP: *keRut)

ke-sakit-ana state of pain, trouble or illness (PWMP: *ka-sakit-an) *sakit

kesambia tree: Schleichera trijuga, much used in charcoal-form, the bast in medicine, and the young leaves in cookery (PMP: *kasambiʔ) Java

kəsap-kəsipblinking of the eyes (PWMP: *kesap)

kə-siaŋ-anin daylight (as bulan kə-siaŋ-an ‘the moon in daylight’) (PWMP: *siaŋ)

kəsuaricassowary; ostrich; etymologically the cassowary of Seram: Casuarius galeatus, but the word is now used to describe ostriches and ostrich feathers (LOAN)

kə-sukar-andifficulties, esp. financial difficulties (PWMP: *suker)

Malay (1860 / 3968)

kəsumbageneric for trees yielding yellowish-red dyes; safflower Carthamus tinctorius (LOAN)

ke-susah-anto experience trouble (LOAN)

kətaka rap, a tap (PWMP: *ketak)

ke-takut-anpanic (PWMP: *ka-takut-an) *takut

kətamcarpenter’s plane (regarded as a chisel nipped into a groove) (LOAN)

ketaŋtaut, tightly astretch (PMP: *keteŋ)

kə-tapak-anplace where one sets one’s foot, i.e. threshold or lintel (PWMP: *tapak₁)

kətapaŋIndian almond tree: Terminalia catappa (PMP: *katapaŋ)

kətarto quiver (PWMP: *keter)

kə-taravisible plainly; to emerge into view (LOAN)

kəteka ticking sound (PWMP: *ketik)

ketilpinching, nipping (PAN: *ketil)

kətipnip or bite of small insects such as gnats, mosquitos and bugs (LOAN)

kətokto rap, to make the sound “tok” (PMP: *ketuk)

kətok-kətoka bamboo cylinder with a slit along its surface that is beaten as a sounding board to call people together (PMP: *ketuk)

kətoŋto make the sound of ‘tong’ (the noise of a gong) (LOAN)

kətupriestly headdress of the Hindu period; usually red and made of vegetable parchment (LOAN)

ke-tuaelder; headman (PWMP: *ka-tuqah) *tuqaS

kətumbarcoriander: Coriandrum sativum (LOAN)

ketupatsquare or polygonal packet of cooked glutinous rice (taken, like our sandwiches, for food on a journey) (LOAN)

Malay (1880 / 3968)

k-ianthis; thus; this much; this way; hither (PWMP: *ian₃)

kian ka-marihither and thither (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

kiat-kiutcreaking sounds such as those made by rusty hinges (PWMP: *kiet)

kicaktwitter, chirrup, esp. of the note of the murai or magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis); to beg for alms (PWMP: *kicak)

kicakto twitter, chirrup, esp. of the note of the murai, or magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis) (PWMP: *kicek)

kicawtwitter (PWMP: *kicaw)

kicuswindle, cheating (NOISE)

kidammorbid craving, esp. of a pregnant woman’s craving for some special food (PWMP: *kidam)

kidoŋchanting; intoning; crooning; usually a rather long and monotonous chant sung to a certain measure, whether to accompany dancing, as a lullaby, as an amusement in itself, or in story-telling (PWMP: *kiduŋ)

kijamclosing the eyes (PWMP: *kizem)

kikil ~ kekela preparation of buffalo meat (PWMP: *kilkil)

kikirfile; grater; (fig.) miserly; originally a rough skate-skin grater used for sandpapering and smoothing (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kikirfile, grater (PMP: *kiDkiD)

kikisscraping down (asperities off wood, barnacles off a ship’s bottom, fleecing; not of fine work like sandpapering, but of scratching a sore or holding a knife at right angles to a wooden surface and scraping (PAN: *kiskis)

kikis-kanto clean by scraping (PAN: *kiskis)

kikuturn of the road (PWMP: *kikuʔ)

kikuturn of the road (<*-ku) (ROOT)

kilanhandspan (PWMP: *kilan) Jakarta

kilaŋfermented drink obtained from cane-sugar or palm-sugar (PWMP: *kilaŋ) Sumatra

kilapflashing, flaming up (PMP: *kilab)

Malay (1900 / 3968)

kilapflashing; flaming up (PMP: *kilap)

kilapflashing, flaming up (PWMP: *kidelap)

kilatlightning, explained as the flash of the whip with which the Angel of the Thunders drives the clouds before him (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kilatlightning (PWMP: *kidelat)

kilawluminosity; brilliancy; sheet-lightning (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

kilawluminosity; brilliancy; sheet-lightning; in contrast to kilat (flashing point or line of intense light in surrounding darkness) (PWMP: *kinelaw)

kilaw-kilaw-anflooded with light; brightness (in contrast to kilat (flashing point or line of intense light in surrounding darkness) (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

kilek ~ kelekarmpit; carrying under the arm (PWMP: *kilik₂)

kilikfeel on edge, to thrill (PWMP: *kilig) Java

kilik-kilikto tickle (PMP: *kilik₁)

kilirsharpening, whetting (PWMP: *kiliD)

kincita slight escape of fecal matter (ROOT)

kini, ka-inithis; thus; thus far; now (PWMP: *ka-i-ni) *-ni

kiñaŋrock-crystal (PWMP: *kiñaŋ)

kiok, kiukcluck of a frightened fowl (PMP: *kiuk)

kipasfan; fanning; fanner for winnowing (LOAN)

kiraestimating; calculating; thinking out (LOAN)

kirayeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray) Brunei

kirileft-hand side; left; sinister (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kirimto send (things, not persons) (LOAN)

Malay (1920 / 3968)

kitawe (plural incl.); (sometimes) a royal or arrogant “I”; in Kelantan it excludes the person addressed (PAN: *kita₁)

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁) Sarawak

kitaʔyou (used with older people) (PAN: *kita₁) Sarawak

kitek ~ kitikto tickle; to fidget (PMP: *kitik₁)

kitiŋbit, small portion (PWMP: *kitiŋ)

kocakgurgle, sob (LOAN)

koksnigger (PMP: *kuk)

kompoŋmaimed by the lopping off of a limb of which only the stump remains (PMP: *kumpuŋ)

kompotmaimed by the lopping off of a limb of which only the stump remains (PMP: *kumput)

kontolshort, thick pendulous object; (fig.) a testicle or the penis (NOISE)

koŋdeep boom (PMP: *kuŋ)

koŋkoŋbaying of hounds (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

koŋkoŋbaying of hound (onom.) (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

kopétnarrowly open. Of hooks, etc., of which the point turns inward (PAN: *kupit)

koristo scratch with a point (of matches, of the scratch made by a mousedeer's tusk) (PWMP: *kuRis)

koristo scratch with a point (of matches, of the scratch made by a mousedeer's tusk) (PWMP: *kuris₂)

koris, kurisscurfy skin disease (PAN: *kuris₁) Brunei

korohto snore (PMP: *kuruq)

kotafortified place, stronghold; a fortified town or fortress; in old literature, a funeral pyre (LOAN)

koyokcur (PWMP: *kuyuk)

Malay (1940 / 3968)

koyokany dog (PWMP: *kuyuk) Brunei

koyokany dog (PWMP: *kuyuk) Orang Laut

kramacaque; long-tailed crab-eating monkey: Macacus cynomolgus (LOAN)

-ku1sg possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kuahsauce or liquid in which a Malay ‘wet curry’ is stewed (LOAN)

kuakto low or bellow (PMP: *kuak)

kualariver mouth, estuary; place where a river debouches into anothe river or into the sea (LOAN)

kualiwide-mouthed cooking pot (LOAN)

kuatphysical strength (LOAN)

kuauArgus pheasant: Argusianus argus (LOAN)

kubaykind of edible vegetable (NOISE)

kubustockade; semi-permanent fortification, of wooden defenses strengthened with earthwork (masonry forts are kota); small hut or shelter (PMP: *kubu)

kucupto kiss (NOISE)

kudisscurfy skin disease, esp. true itch or Scabies, but also used of mange and shingles (PAN: *kudis)

kudoŋleft with only a stump; maimed; short and stumpy, as tailless cockroaches and transom- sterned boats (LOAN)

kuéh biŋkacake made of rice flour coconut milk, egg and plum sugar. These cakes are of hemispherical form and are joined in pairs so as to appear globular, whence the expression menjadi kueh biŋka 'between the devil and the deep sea' (LOAN)

kuita quick stroke or jerky move of the fingertip; specifically an inward finger-jerk with one finger, in contradistinction to the movement of more than one finger, or to an outward finger-jerk (PWMP: *kuhit)

kujura fish spear; a heavy pike (LOAN)

kukohstaunch; strongly built; of unshaken loyalty, backing one’s assurances with guarantees, or with an oath, strengthening a town’s defenses; remaining staunch to old customs (PMP: *kukuq)

kukohstaunch; strongly built; of unshaken loyalty; backing one’s assurances with guarntees or with an oath; strengthening a town’s defenses (LOAN)

Malay (1960 / 3968)

kukuclaw, talon; hoof; fingernail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kukupface-veil (PWMP: *kupkup₁) Jakarta

kukupface veil (PWMP: *kubkub₂) Java

kukurrasping; scraping down with a rough surface (PMP: *kuDkuD)

kukussteaming; cooking in steam; distilling (rice is usually boiled in water in Malaya; in Java it is often placed in a conical basket (kukus-an) in the upper part of a tall copper boiler (dandang) and is cooked by the steam from the water boiling below) (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kulatmushroom; fungus (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kulayhanging down slackly; swaying (of a head swaying from side to side, a broken arm hanging limply, hair dressed in ringlets) (PWMP: *kulay₂)

kulitouter skin; hide; peel; rind; bark; shell; leather (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kulit samakdressed hide (PWMP: *samak)

kulurbreadfruit (with seeds), Artocarpus communis (PMP: *kuluR)

kumananimacule; parasite, esp. of the parasite that causes itch; also as a description of a bacillus; fig. for (i) a very minute object and (ii) a predisposing germ (PMP: *kuman)

kumbaŋcarpenter-bee; bumblebee (ROOT)

kumishair about the lips, moustache (PMP: *kumis)

kumpulgroup; gathering; cluster (PWMP: *kumpul)

kumpulblunt (ROOT) Jakarta

kumpul kiambaŋa clump of water-weed (PWMP: *kumpul)

kumurrinsing the mouth, gargling (PMP: *kumuR)

kuncilock or bolt (LOAN)

kunci-kanto lock (LOAN)

kundurthe wax gourd: Benincasa cerifera (PWMP: *kunduR)

Malay (1980 / 3968)

kundur jawathe wax gourd: Benincasa hispida (PWMP: *kunduR)

kuniŋyellow (LOAN)

kuniŋ-anbrass (LOAN)

kunjaŋ-kunjitbustling about (as broker on business bent) (PWMP: *ku(n)zit)

kuntitgo backwards (Wilkinson 1959); follow from behind (Chaer 1976) (PWMP: *ku(n)tit) Jakarta

kunu-nit is said, they say (PMP: *kunu₂)

kuñahmastication (PWMP: *ŋuyaq)

kuñitturmeric: Curcuma longa; kuñit is associated (etymologically) with yellow (kuniŋ) (PMP: *kunij)

kupiŋear (PWMP: *kupiŋ) Java

kupu-kupubutterfly (LOAN)

kura cry for calling fowls, or for recalling the spirit of life which is personified as a bird (PMP: *kur)

kura-kuratortoise, esp. Cyclemys spp. (LOAN)

kuraŋreduction; falling short; wanting in; less; not quite; not (LOAN)

kuraŋ pahamignorance (LOAN)

kuraŋ pahamignorance (LOAN)

kurapparasitic disease of the ringworm type (PAN: *kurap)

kurap anjiŋmange (PAN: *kurap)

kurap ayamTinea imbricata (PAN: *kurap)

kurayveining; strip-marking on kris blades (PWMP: *kuray)

kurekspeckled, of a fowl’s markings (ROOT)

Malay (2000 / 3968)

kuroŋshutting in; confining; enclosed space (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

kursi goyaŋrocking chair (PWMP: *guyeŋ)

kurusthin, attenuated, esp. of a person being lean or skinny (LOAN)

kusamlustreless, dull (NOISE)

kusuttousled, tangled, rumpled, complicated (PWMP: *gusut)

kusuttangled or disordered (of hair); difficult to unravel (of a situation) (PWMP: *kusut)

kutil-an mataeye-corner (where tear-drops gather) (PWMP: *kutil)

kutokcurse; malison; accursed or damned (as a term of abuse) (PWMP: *kutuk₁)

kutugeneric for parasitic biting insects in contrast to non-biting parasitic insects (tuma); these include the common flea, the bedbug, cattle ticks, the rice bug, the louse that worries fowls, and the insects infesting the bilges of neglected boats; (fig.) hanger-on, human parasite (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu busokbed-bug (PMP: *busuk)

kutu embunnight prowlers (‘dew bugs’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu pajakbazaar loafers, beach combers (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuyuwoe-begone, off-color (PWMP: *kuyu)

kuyutwoe-begone, off-color (PWMP: *kuyut)

labi-labisoft-shelled river turtle (PWMP: *labi-labi)

labohlowering by means of a cord, of dropping a curtain, letting down a net or deep-sea fishing line, or casting anchor; also, to execute by drowning (PWMP: *labuq)

labugourd; gourd-shaped water vessel; pumpkin; musk melon (LOAN)

ladaŋunenclosed plantation on dry ground; planted clearing in contrast to an enclosed plantation (kəbun), or to a ricefield in a swamp (sawah) (NOISE)

ladiŋlong, sharp-edged cleaver of the parang type (PWMP: *ladiŋ)

lagimore; yet more; still (PMP: *lagi)

Malay (2020 / 3968)

lagutune (PWMP: *lagu)

lagustyle, way (PWMP: *lagu) Penang

lagu p-ĕm-aŋgilthe invocation-song at a shaman's seance (LOAN)

lahan ~ perlahanslowly, quietly (NOISE)

laharpool, mere (PWMP: *laqaD) Kedah

laharpool, mere (PWMP: *laqaD) Kelantan

lainother, different (PMP: *lian)

lainother; different (PWMP: *lain)

lakihusband (less respectful than suami) (PMP: *laki)

laki-lakimale (usually more polite than jantan); manly; masculine (PMP: *laki)

lalata fly, especially the common housefly (PMP: *lalej)

lalat hijaubluebottle fly (PMP: *lalej)

laliinsensitive to pain or emotion, of soldiers reckless of danger (NOISE)

laluput through; done; past; afterwards (LOAN)

lamalength (of time) (PAN: *lama)

lambatslow; taking time; behind time (of a dull learner, a slow eater, etc.) (LOAN)

lambat launprotracted; in course of time; at long last (PWMP: *laun)

lambat laun harilong ago; some time ago (PWMP: *laun)

lambokthrow up (as dirt from a trench being dug) (PWMP: *la(m)bug₁)

lambuŋside; flank (LOAN)

Malay (2040 / 3968)

lampauexcess; too much (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

lampaylissom; graceful; bending into curves (LOAN)

lampinswathing band; wrapper wound round avery young child to prevent it injuring itself by rolling about (LOAN)

lampitsleeping mat (Java) (PWMP: *lampit)

lamua seaweed for making jelly: Cuhalus coenigii (PMP: *lamu)

lamunriver weed (PMP: *lamun) Brunei

lancitsquirt out, of water in a thin stream (ROOT)

lancutgush of water; sound of water spurting in large jets (ROOT)

landakporcupine (PWMP: *landak)

landassolid surface on which heavy work can be done (PWMP: *landasan)

landasananvil (PWMP: *landasan)

lang burithoney buzzard: Pernis tweeddalii (PMP: *burit₂)

lantasproceeding forthwith to (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

lantiŋhouse built on a raft (PWMP: *lantiŋ)

laŋahopen, agape, ajar (PMP: *laŋaq₁)

laŋaubiting fly of the stable-fly type (Stomoxydae) (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋ borékspeckled hawk (PWMP: *burik)

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋit-laŋitceiling cloth put up at weddings and other great festivities; canopy on posts over a grave in honor of the dead; palate (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkahstep; first step; stepping over; overstepping, passing over (PMP: *laŋkaq)

Malay (2060 / 3968)

laŋkasfiery (of a steed), spirited (PMP: *la(ŋ)kas)

laŋ sikaphawk; a name for Accipitrinae (esp. Accipiter virgatus) and Falconidae; it does not cover eagles (PWMP: *sikep₁)

laŋ sikaphawk, name for Accipitrinae (esp. Accipiter virgatus) and Falconidae; it does not cover eagles (LOAN)

lapahtearing off the skin (PWMP: *lapaq)

laparhunger; craving for food (less correctly of ‘hungering for water’) (PMP: *lapaR)

lapar mata‘eye-hungry’: helping oneself to more than one can eat (PMP: *lapaR)

lapar susucrying for milk (of a baby) (PMP: *lapaR)

lapekthin protective cover, base or lining (of mats to sit on, sleeping mats, scrubbing glove or other cloth-protection for the hand when working on hard surfaces) (LOAN)

lapissheet; numeral coefficient for cloths (PWMP: *la(m)pis)

lapusto shoot (sandy) rapids (PWMP: *la(m)pus₂)

laraŋto forbid -- of prohibition affecting a person or class of persons (PAN: *laRaŋ)

larigo at a run; escape; evasion (PAN: *laRiw)

laruingredient to prevent or retard fermentation in toddy (NOISE)

latohedible sea-worm or seaweed, sp. unident. (PMP: *latuq)

lat sa-harievery other day (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

lauksolid food (fish or flesh) to be eaten with rice, in contrast to cooked vegetables (sayur), uncooked vegetables (hulam), and condiments (sambal) (PWMP: *lahuk)

laundawdling over work or spinning it out; dragging on (PWMP: *laun)

lauŋa call or summons in loud tone (PMP: *lauŋ)

laurcurve; numerical coefficient for ring-shaped objects (PWMP: *lauR)

lautsea, ocean; north (in certain expressions only, as barat laut ‘northwest’, timur laut ‘northeast’) (PAN: *lahud)

Malay (2080 / 3968)

lawahclear, unobstructed (of the view) (PWMP: *lawaq₃)

lawa-lawaspider (PWMP: *lawa₂)

lawanopposition; an adversary (PMP: *laban₂)

lawan-ito contend against (PMP: *laban₂)

lawar-lawarfood so prepared (NOISE)

lawaynumeral classifier for thread (PWMP: *labay)

lawicurving feather or fin (PMP: *lawi₁)

lawi ayamtail feather of fowl (PMP: *lawi₁)

lawi parifin under a ray’s tail (PMP: *lawi₁)

layaŋbeing borne through the air (of kites, leaves, etc.; the flight of winged things is tərbaŋ) (PWMP: *layaŋ)

layaŋ-layaŋkite; swallow (PWMP: *layaŋ)

layarsail (PAN: *layaR)

layar padaustorm sail (PWMP: *padaw)

layar sokoŋspritsail (PWMP: *sukuŋ)

layar sokoŋspritsail (LOAN)

layusere; yellowing; to fade and die; a polite expression for growing pale and ill, and even for death (PAN: *layu)

lebahhoneybee, Apis spp. (LOAN)

ləbakwhack, smack (PWMP: *lebak)

lebatset closely together, dense; heavy (of rain) (PMP: *lebet)

ləbehmore; in excess (PWMP: *lebiq)

Malay (2100 / 3968)

ləbudust (LOAN)

lebudust (ROOT)

ləburname given to places where subsidence of the ground has taken place as a result of a supernatural storm (Evans 1923:271) (PWMP: *lebuR)

lecak-lecoksound of a man walking through sticky mud (ROOT)

ləcekblow the nose, e.g. with the fingers (PWMP: *lagecik)

lecitbe squeezed into squirting out, as a pip out of certain fruits, or of matter from a boil (PMP: *lecit)

lecutsqueeze out the contents of anything (PWMP: *lecut)

léhérthroat; neck (PAN: *liqeR)

lekahsplitting, to crack (PMP: *le(ŋ)kaq)

lekahsplitting; to crack (ROOT)

lekah buŋafirst blooming of a flower (Echols and Shadily) (PMP: *le(ŋ)kaq)

lekamgrasp in the hollow between the forefinger and thumb (ROOT)

lekaŋbursting or cracking, as under the influence of heat; easily shelled, of fruit of which the outer shell does not adhere to the flesh (PMP: *le(ŋ)kaŋ)

lekapto cuddle up or lie flat against. Of a child, a stamp adhering to a letter, etc. (PWMP: *lekep₁)

ləkasquickly; speedily (PWMP: *lekas₂)

lekatadhering; sticking (PWMP: *leket)

lekat-kanto paste (a bill on a wall); to stick (a stamp on a letter) (PWMP: *leket)

lekurest the elbows on any surface (PMP: *leku)

le-lakimale; masculine (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

le-laŋitpalate (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

Malay (2120 / 3968)

lelaplapse into deep slumber (of a person) (PWMP: *leplep) *leplep₂

lelapforfeit (a pledge) (PWMP: *le(b)leb)

ləmahsoft; weak; lacking in rigidity, strength or stiffness; slack (of the tide) (PWMP: *lemeq)

ləmahsoft; weak; lacking in rigidity, strength or stiffness; slack (of the tide) (PWMP: *lemaq)

ləmasstifled by smoke, mud or water; (fig.) dizzy, confused (PMP: *lemes)

ləmas di-dalam lautdrowned at sea (PMP: *lemes)

lembahmeadow-land; low-lying land (PWMP: *le(m)baq)

ləmbarthread; strand; sheet (LOAN)

lembayoŋthe water hyacinth: Eichornea crassipes (PWMP: *lambayuŋ)

ləmpoyaŋa ginger used medicinally: Zingiber aromaticum or Zingiber zerumbet (PWMP: *lampuyaŋ)

len-apgone, vanished (ROOT)

lentaŋclang (ROOT)

lentaŋ-lentoŋding-dong (ROOT)

lentaŋ-lentoŋding-dong (ROOT)

leñapsound (of sleep) (PWMP: *leñab)

leñapgone, vanished (PWMP: *leñeb)

léŋadawdling, wasting time, careless, sleepy (PWMP: *liŋa₁)

leŋanarm; sleeve of garment; foreleg of animal; arm or forethigh of horse (PMP: *leŋen)

léŋar, liŋarglance sideways (furtively, or in fear or warning) (PWMP: *liŋeR)

léŋkaŋ, liŋkaŋcircumference; ring-shaped; numeral coefficient for bracelets and other ring-like objects (PWMP: *li(ŋ)keŋ)

Malay (2140 / 3968)

leŋkapcomplete; having all its parts or requisites (PWMP: *lekep₂)

leŋkoka bend, curve or twist (PWMP: *leŋkuk)

léŋkoka bend, curve or twist (< *-kug?) (ROOT)

leŋkoŋto boom out, as a gong (ROOT)

leŋkuasa ginger, Alpinia galanga; varieties: l. merah (red, used medicinally); l. puteh (white, used to spice curry) (PWMP: *laŋkuas)

léŋoslook the other way; turn away the face, e.g. in disapproval (PWMP: *liŋus)

lepak(onom.) fall with a thud (PWMP: *lepak₂)

ləpakto fall with a thud (PWMP: *lagepak)

lepasfreed; open; unbounded; let loose; left behind; after; subsequent to (PWMP: *lepas)

lepauback-veranda or kitchen-veranda of a Malay house (PMP: *lepaw₂) *lepaw

lepéka dull squelching sound (PMP: *lepik)

lepohcrooked (of a limb); twisted, bent (PWMP: *lepuq₁)

lepok-lepakfall with a thud, of fruit dropping continuously (PWMP: *lepuk)

letakcrack, split (PWMP: *letak)

lətekto flip about, as small fish hauled out on sand; to tick (PWMP: *labetik)

letiŋa tinkle such as the note of a mandoline or guitar (ROOT)

lətoka knocking sound; a thud (PWMP: *lagetuk)

letupblister on the skin (PWMP: *lem(e)tub)

letupblister on the skin (PWMP: *letub)

lətupto go off with a pop (of the pop when a gun goes off, in contrast to the reverberation, etc.) (PWMP: *lagetub₁)

Malay (2160 / 3968)

lətupblister on skin (PWMP: *lagetub₂)

léwaŋopen space (PWMP: *liwaŋ)

léwaŋempty space (ROOT)

liaŋorifice, aperture (PMP: *liaŋ)

liascharm to secure invulnerability by diverting magically any weapon or projectile that may be aimed at you (PWMP: *lias)

liat-liutsupple, twisting readily (PMP: *liut₂)

licinsmooth, slippery; bare, unadorned (PWMP: *licin)

lidahtongue; the power of speech (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lidah anjiŋ(lit. ‘dog’s tongue’) a plant: Veronia cinerea (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lidah apidarting tongue of flame (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lidah badak(lit. ‘rhinoceros tongue’) a climbing aroid: Pothus latifolius or Opuntia monacantha (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lidah buaya(lit. "crocodile tongue") aloe; also the plant Saseviera zeylanica, from which bowstring-hemp is obtained (PWMP: *dilaq ni buqaya) *dilaq₂

lidah kerasstiff-tongued for strange sounds (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lidipart of a loom (PWMP: *li(ŋ)ji) Brunei

lidipart of a loom (PWMP: *li(ŋ)ji) Sarawak

ligatspinning around, rotating very rapidly (PWMP: *liget)

likaswinder for new-made thread (PMP: *likes)

lilinbeeswax, wax; wax candle (PMP: *lilin)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limascup or dipper of palm leaf or spathe; used for drinking, bathing, drawing water, bailing a boat, or as a toy boat bearing offerings to sea spirits; from its shape it gives its name to hip-roofs (PMP: *limas)

Malay (2180 / 3968)

limau nipisthe common thin-skinned lime fruit, Citrus aurantiaca (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

limawcitrus fruit; lime or orange; Citrus maxima (or Citrus decumana), the pomelo or shaddock (PWMP: *limaw)

lim-bokanbronzewing dove (PWMP: *buken₂) *buken (X + buken)

linaŋcalm, still, of water (PWMP: *lineŋ)

linaŋcalm, still, of water (PMP: *linaŋ)

lindoŋshade; shelter; protective cover or concealment (PAN: *liduŋ)

lindoŋ ~ lenduŋan eel, sp. unident. (NEAR)

liŋgisspike or pointed crowbar for digging up the soil (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis) Jakarta

liŋkarcoil -- of a snake's coil (PWMP: *li(ŋ)keD)

lipatfolding up; doubling or redoubling (a cloth or sheet of paper) so that it may take up less space (PAN: *lipet)

lipat-ana fold (PAN: *lipet)

lipita fold or twist (of thred, cotton, etc.) (PMP: *lip(e)qit)

liputcover, envelop, wrap (PWMP: *lipud)

liursaliva (PMP: *iluR₁)

liwatvia, through, by way of (PWMP: *qaliwat) Jakarta

liwat ~ léwatvia, through, by way of; step over (as a sleeping person) (PWMP: *qaliwat)

lobaŋhole; orifice, e.g. the touch-hole of a cannon, the nostril, the eye of a needle, side-cavity in Malay grave (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

loncor, luncurslipping down (PWMP: *lu(n)cuR)

loŋsorslipping forward or downward (as in slipping off a person’s lap) (NEAR)

loŋsor, luŋsurslipping forward or downward (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)suR)

Malay (2200 / 3968)

lorékvery delicate markings (of certain markings on snakes, markings seen in certain lights only, scratches on a polished surface, etc.) (ROOT)

lotoŋblack or grey long-tailed monkey: Semnopithecus spp., esp. Semnopithecus maurus (PAN: *luCuŋ)

loyasqueamish feeling; inclination to vomit (PWMP: *luya)

loyak, luyaksoft (of wet ground or overboiled rice), soft through moisture (PWMP: *luyek)

loyak, luyaksoft (of wet ground or overboiled rice); soft through moisture (PWMP: *luyak)

loyoŋtotter along with a weak, uncertain gait (PWMP: *luyuŋ)

loyot, luyutbend under (as tree branches under the weight of fruit) (PWMP: *luyut)

luahejecting from the mouth, spitting out (not merely spitting), as of something bitter (PMP: *luaq)

luapswell, expand, as rice when boiled (PMP: *luab)

luarouter; position outside (PMP: *luqar)

luasspacious, broad (PMP: *luas)

luas-kanto expand; to dilate (PMP: *luas)

lucutdropping out of a place; become undone and slip away (PWMP: *lucut)

ludahexpectoration; to spit (PMP: *ludaq)

luka luka be