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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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N

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Nabaay
Nabay Murut
Naitāsiri Fijian
Nakanai
Nakanamanga
Nali
Nalik
Namakir
Naman
Namosi Fijian
Nanggu
Nanumea
Napu
Nara
Narango
Narum
Nasarian

Nasawa
Nauna
Nauruan
Navenevene
Navut
Ndao
Ndau
Ndrehet
Nduke
Nehan
Nêlêmwa
Nemi
Nengone
Nese
Neve'ei
Ngadha
Ngaibor W.Tarangan

Ngaju Dayak
Nggae
Nggela
Nggeri
Nginia
Nguna
Ngwatua
Nias
Nias (Southern)
Nibong
Nissan
Niue
Nodup Raluana
Nokon Raluana
Nokuku
Nonona
North Ambrym

North Efate
North Malo
North Tanna
Northeast Ambae
Northeastern
Northern Bunun
Notsi
Nuaulu
Nukuoro
Nukuria
Numbami
Numfor
Numfor-Biak
Nyelâyu

Nabaay (4) WMP. see: Murut

Nabay Murut (4) WMP. see: Murut (Nabaay)

Naitāsiri Fijian (1) OC. see: Fijian (Naitāsiri)

Nakanai (257) OC. see: Lakalai

478. Nakanamanga (53) OC [aka: Nguna, Sesake, Woraviu]

a-sulatihookworm, tapeworm (POC: *sulati)

atoluegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

e-guahow? in what manner? (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

ke-ruatwo (POC: *ka-rua) *duSa

kesa-kesablue (POC: *keja)

kimotion towards position: to, towards; of; marks object noun phrase (Pawley 1972:85) (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

ki-nau1sg. (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

kupʷenafishnet (POC: *kupwena)

kusuerat (POC: *kusupe)

kusuerat (POC: *kusupe)

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lo-lososwim (POC: *loso-loso)

maaŋaplural marker for nouns (PMP: *maŋa)

masakisick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

matakufear (POC: *matakut) *takut

matedie; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

maturuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

maurileft hand (POC: *mauRi) *wiRi

mawirileft side (POC: *mawiRi) *wiRi

na-ikafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

Nakanamanga (20 / 53)

na-iospear (POC: *io)

na-karanettle tree (POC: *karat₂)

na-kautree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

na-laesail (PAN: *layaR)

na-laŋiwind (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

na-lasotesticles (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

na-ŋaicanarium almond (POC: *kaŋaRi)

na pito-navel (POC: *bito)

na-pwauhead (POC: *pwau)

na susu-breasts (PAN: *susu₁)

na-taletaro (POC: *talos) *tales

na-talirope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

na-tanoearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

na tasisea (PMP: *tasik)

na tupuaspirit (POC: *tupuqa)

na-utipenis (POC: *na qutin) *qutiN

na-vakupandanus sp. (POC: *pakum)

nigenitive marker: of (e-lagi ni naati ‘top of banana’, na-aleati-a ni tuai ‘days of old, olden days’) (PAN: *ni)

onelie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

panakosteal (POC: *panako) *Cakaw

Nakanamanga (40 / 53)

patifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

pa-vaŋodalook for shellfish (POC: *paŋoda)

pwiagood (PMP: *pia₂)

sabad (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

sa-salefloat (POC: *sale sale)

tamafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tas-menasalt (PMP: *tasik)

tuaiformerly, old, before (POC: *tuaRi)

u-maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

vaunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

vonusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

wa-iathis (PMP: *ia₂)

wa-inathat (distant) (PMP: *i-na) *-na

479. Nali (109) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [nss] Papua New Guinea

brua-kophermit crab (POC: *koba)

brunbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

brusi-imafingernail (POC: *bwisi)

buyi-nher vulva (PAN: *puki)

daiŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

damatperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

drahconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

dranfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

dran-dranbranch of a tree (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

drassea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

drayblood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

dria-nbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

drina-intestines (PAN: *C<in>aqi) *Caqi

drowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (Tok Pisin: kwila) (POC: *toRas) *teRas

drowyellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares (POC: *takua)

droycanoe (POC: *tola)

druhousepost (POC: *tuRu₂)

druhsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

drui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

ha-ŋahone fathom (POC: *ŋapa)

Nali (20 / 109)

-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂)

in-noh‘he is afraid’ (POC: *nopo-nopo)

kalame-tongue (POC: *karamea)

kaliylarge sea fish, grouper (POC: *kalia)

kamaymen’s house; man, male (PMP: *kamaliR)

kapfishing line (POC: *kabe₁)

karahsea eagle (POC: *katapa)

karamdoor, doorway (PMP: *kataman)

kayasoutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

kay-maŋmangrove crab (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

kemeythe rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata (POC: *kamaRi)

keytree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

key paleymast (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ki-directional: to, toward (ki-sa ‘to here’, ki-ya ‘to there’) (POC: *ki₁)

kiasoutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

konvillage (POC: *koro₂)

koŋto bark (PMP: *keŋ₁)

kosu mʷansmoke (POC: *kasu)

kuitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kunclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

Nali (40 / 109)

kupsoutheast monsoon; east (NEAR)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuybreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

mahtaro (POC: *mwapo)

ma-luo-htwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

mam-matraw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

mara-eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mara-nlid, cover (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mara susu-nipple of the breast (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

ma-royo-hthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ma-sa-ŋ-atone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

(ma)-sa-ŋ-at100 (PMP: *ŋa)

(ma-)-so-ŋ-uyten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

(ma-)-so-ŋ-uyten (PMP: *ŋa)

matilto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

ma-yimafive (PAN: *lima)

ma-yimi-ŋ-uyfifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

motright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

n-alitthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

naowidow(er) (POC: *ñao)

Nali (60 / 109)

naowidow(er) (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

n-apiysago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

nattall hardwood tree yielding good lumber and a small inedible fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

nihi-nihdream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

noho-ayfear (n.) (POC: *nopo-nopo)

nontree with inedible fruit: Morinda citrifolia L. (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

noru-child (PCEMP: *natu)

no-weymango (POC: *na wai, na waiwai) *wai

ŋahfathom (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋala-nhis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

ŋara(a)hole (POC: *ŋata)

ŋo-yawspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

ŋusu-lips (PAN: *ŋusuq)

pa-apugrandfather (PMP: *pa-ampu) *apu

palanthunder (POC: *parara)

papuGF (NOISE)

patstone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

paydove sp. (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

payshelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc. (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

peystingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

Nali (80 / 109)

pihinwoman; wife (POC: *papine) *bahi

pirowa shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

polo-wayriver (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

pomseaweed used to paint canoes (POC: *poma)

sahwhat? (PMP: *sapa)

sam para droyoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

saypath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

sihinsmall cockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

-siŋsneeze (NOISE)

si-sibreak wind, fart (POC: *si₂)

si-sibreak wind, fart (POC: *siki)

susu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

suybamboo torch (cp. palay coconut leaf torch) (PMP: *suluq)

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tina-M (ref.) (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

to-nepunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

tubrugrandparent/grandchild; ancestors (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tuka-suyuse a torch at night (PMP: *suluq)

tun-tunto burn, roast (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

ulo-mura-yvomitus (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

Nali (100 / 109)

ulo-mutto vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

wahawahlarge rattan sp. (NOISE)

wali-ysing (PCEMP: *wari)

yaŋsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

yihcockroach (POC: *ipos) *Sipes

yotboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

yow keyleaf of a tree (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

yo-yowred tree ant (POC: *loRo)

1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

480. Nalik (4) OC [nal] Papua New Guinea

buk bukknee (POC: *buku-buku) *buku

faŋanto eat (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

sa-ŋa-fluten (PMP: *ŋa)

suarto dig (PMP: *suaR₁)

481. Namakir (29) OC (Sperlich 1991) [aka: Makura, Mataso]

inumeral prefix (used only with 2-5) (PCEMP: *i₄)

-kanto eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

karnettle tree (POC: *karat₂)

korfence, rail (POC: *koro₂)

koro-vatstone wall (POC: *koro₂)

lo-lohswim (POC: *loso-loso)

lo-lohswim (POC: *loso-loso)

matdie; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

matirto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

ma-ʔetblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

mbati-tooth (POC: *bati)

na-hamoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

na-kamalmen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

na-laŋwind (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

na-na-nammosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

na-ranfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

na-rirearthquake (POC: *lidruR) *linduR

na-talrope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

na-tia-ŋbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

na toβsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

Namakir (20 / 29)

na-vakPandanius dubius (POC: *pakum)

na-villightning (POC: *bila₂)

na-ʔahsmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

na-ʔalsun (POC: *qalo₁)

na-ʔatolegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

na-ʔonsand (POC: *qone) *qenay

1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

wusheart (POC: *puso₃) *puso₂

ʔatolegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

482. Naman (6) OC [lzl] (Litzlitz) Vanuatu [aka: Litzlitz]

i-rutwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ne-tinearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

-ŋk1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

sa-ŋa-vəlten (PMP: *ŋa)

-upto blow (PCEMP: *upi)

veresstep on (POC: *paRas)

Namosi Fijian (1) OC. see: Fijian (Namosi)

483. Nanggu (1) OC

tunaeel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

Nanumea (356) OC. see: Tuvaluan

484. Napu (2) WMP [npy] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

apunitree fern Alsophila sp. (PMP: *apuni)

haweto arrive (PWMP: *sabay₂)

Nara (1) OC. see: Lala

485. Narango (1) OC

-ŋku1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

486. Narum (58) WMP (Blust n.d. (1971)) [nrm] (Narom) Malaysia (Sarawak)

adaksniff, smell, kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

babuydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

batukneck (PWMP: *batuk₂)

biəʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

biwodor (PMP: *bahu)

ceh ratawone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ciːnnotched log ladder (PMP: *ezan)

daniəwlake (PAN: *danaw)

dəʔonleaf (PMP: *dahun)

diewday (PMP: *qalejaw)

faʔwater (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

ge-lukutmoss (PAN: *lukuC)

hããw2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

hamay1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

hapalthick (PWMP: *kapal)

hayewwood; tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

h<in>anwas eaten by someone (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

h<um>anto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

ihawelbow (PAN: *sikux)

itahwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

Narum (20 / 58)

itawthis (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

jaliənpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

jaoʔfar (PMP: *zauq)

jeətbad (PMP: *zaqat)

jiliʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

kaw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

lahayman, male (PMP: *laki)

ləjiəhginger (PMP: *laqia)

ma-hanto feed (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-lahawto walk (PMP: *lakaw)

manaukbird (PMP: *manuk)

ma-ribewone thousand (PMP: *Ribu)

me-ratawone hundred (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

munauŋmouth (PWMP: *munuŋ)

naŋayto cry, to weep (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

nipahsnake (PMP: *anipa)

nipantooth (PAN: *nipen)

pa-hanto feed (as a child) (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

p<an>ahanwas fed by someone (PAN: *p<in>a-kaen) *kaen

pekuʔnape of the neck (PWMP: *pekuq₂)

Narum (40 / 58)

petewgall, gall bladder (PAN: *qapeju)

puatnavel (PMP: *pusej)

putaiʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

sadiγto lean on or against (PMP: *sandiR)

siŋotnose (PWMP: *suŋit₁)

tamahfather (ref.) (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tanaʔearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

taʔaunyear (PMP: *taqun)

təfawsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tekoʔhook (PMP: *tekuq)

təlawthree (PAN: *telu)

tijiənbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tumaitheel (PWMP: *tumid)

tuʔəwright side (PWMP: *tuqu₁)

uhauʔ tautknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₁) *tuduS

unéahancient times (PMP: *unah)

unéhancient times (PMP: *huna)

unéhancient times (PAN: *(q)uNah)

487. Nasarian (4) OC [aka: Dixon Reef II]

i-metaktakfear (POC: *matakut) *takut

i-vi-twaiold (POC: *tuaRi)

na kasuarat (POC: *kasupe) *kazupay

na-matdry coconut (PCEMP: *matu)

Nasawa (9) OC. see: Baetora

488. Nauna (110) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [ncn] Papua New Guinea

alitthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

cahwhat? (PMP: *sapa)

calsea urchin (POC: *salaŋ)

calpath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

canda-lawspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

canu-n mattears (water-of eye) (POC: *ranum) *daNum

caŋacaŋstarfish (PMP: *saŋa-saŋa) *saŋa₁

cayblood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

cilbamboo on sail (POC: *jila)

cɨnfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

cipan kalahrain cloud (lit. ‘piece of cloud’) (POC: *kadapuR)

cocdark (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

cultorch (PMP: *suluq)

cuŋhungry (POC: *soŋe)

cuysoup (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

enlie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

haŋɨn-ito feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

haŋɨn-ito feed (PMP: *paŋan)

ihcockroach (POC: *ipos) *Sipes

inaM (addr. and ref.) (PCEMP: *ina)

Nauna (20 / 110)

isexpression of irritation, as when someone is pestering you (PMP: *qisaq)

kahu-nstomach of a person, fish or animal (POC: *kabuŋ) *kampuŋ

kai-kophermit crab (POC: *koba)

kalkind of tree with dry wood used to make fireplows (POC: *qalo₂)

kal-matu-right side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

kana-ntaste (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kan-tanearth, soil (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

karamdoor, doorway (PMP: *kataman)

kasugall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

kasu-n monsmoke (= smoke of a fire) (POC: *kasu)

katthatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

kate-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

kəhlime for betel chew (PMP: *kapuR)

kelismall to medium-sized groupers (POC: *kalika)

kewbanyan (PEMP: *qayawan)

kɨhlime (PAN: *qapuR)

kɨlthick-bodied barracuda sp. (PMP: *qalu)

kocaycuscus, phalanger (POC: *kadoRa) *kandoRa

koŋkind of squarish fish with hard skin (POC: *koŋa)

kotlargest kind of grouper -- spotted (PMP: *keRteŋ)

Nauna (40 / 110)

kuhvery large white yam with various shapes (PMP: *qubi)

kulclay cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

kulbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

kulu-n kIytop of a tree (POC: *qulu) *quluh

kulu-n pulipeak of a mountain (POC: *qulu) *quluh

kupeast wind; east (NEAR)

kupeast wind (LOAN)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

laltrochus shell (PMP: *lalak)

latsmall whale a little larger than a dolphin (cp. moluam ‘largest kind of whale known to Nauna people’) (POC: *rato)

lihtooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

lɨnday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

lisnit, egg of a louse (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lum-lummarine algae (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

ma-ma-wyawn (POC: *ma-mawap) *Suab

maram-putnavel (POC: *buto)

metilto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mimurinate (PMP: *miqmiq)

mon-monbird (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

mʷacbandicoot (POC: *mwajar) *mansar

Nauna (60 / 110)

mwamwaksquid with white shell and two long tentacles (POC: *mwamwaki)

mwatsnake (POC: *qumata)

mwatsnake (POC: *mwata)

nana-npus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nɔtchild (PCEMP: *natu)

ñawwidow(er) (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

ñot kɨytall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

occoconut husking stick (POC: *kojom)

paralthunderclap (POC: *parara)

paran episago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

payshelf above the hearth for storing food, betel, etc., but not firewood (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

pehinwoman; wife (POC: *papine) *bahi

pelicgrass (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

pɨnwing (POC: *banic) *panij

pitɨa shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

pomseaweed used to paint canoes (POC: *poma)

puhbasket trap for fish and eels (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

punsmall red, blue, and green dove, rarely eaten (POC: *bune) *punay

puñsea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

puŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

Nauna (80 / 110)

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

soto shoot (with an arrow) (POC: *soka)

sulu-to roast (POC: *sulu₁)

supto peel yams (PEMP: *supi)

susfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tahuyconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

t-ali-nsibling of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

taliŋear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tandown (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

tapundehortative; don’t (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

tapundon’t! (POC: *tabuna)

tawtree with yellow flower (PMP: *tawan)

təssaltwater, salt (PMP: *tasik)

tibelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tito plait, weave (as a mat) (POC: *tiki)

tɨcto whet, sharpen (POC: *tasim) *tazim

tɨcto whet, sharpen (PMP: *tasim)

tIlstring, rope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

topunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

Nauna (100 / 110)

tolawnorth wind (POC: *tokalaur)

toñto swallow (POC: *toñom)

toñto swallow (POC: *toñon) *teñen

tuhousepost (POC: *tuRu₂)

tuhsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tuydugong (POC: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

uridolphin (POC: *kuriap)

usto load, as cargo in a boat (PMP: *Rujan)

wayvine; rope (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

wɨwɨymango (POC: *na wai, na waiwai) *wai

yumhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

489. Nauruan (4) OC [nau] Nauru

eda-mauwleft side (POC: *mauRi) *wiRi

maand (PAN: *maS)

midream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

monoyunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

Navenevene (9) OC. see: Baetora

Navut (3) OC. see: Central Santo

Ndao (7) CMP. see: Dhao/Ndao

490. Ndau (1) CMP

hausmell (PMP: *bahuq)

Ndrehet (23) OC. see: Drehet

491. Nduke (5) OC [nke] (Duke) Solomon Islands

alal-totovoluminous flying insect; its light flashes on-off (POC: *totop) *teptep

heɣe-heɣeCentropus spp. (POC: *seke)

isu-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

manivisithin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

vaɣoa large perennial herb with banana-like leaves: Heliconia salomonensis (POC: *paqo)

492. Nehan (71) OC [nsn] Papua New Guinea [aka: Nissan]

atunbonito (tuna) (POC: *qatun)

bebbutterfly (POC: *bebe)

bun(a)bird species, family Columbidae, Yellow-bibbed fruit dove (POC: *bune) *punay

bunarbatfish (PMP: *bunaR)

hamanfloat, outrigger poles which balance the canoe (POC: *saman) *saRman

haŋanname (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

hargive (NOISE)

harumneedle (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

hawawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

hihpeel with the hand, peel off in strips (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

hihi-onpeelings (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

hirupto sip (PAN: *siRup)

huato paddle a canoe (PEMP: *suak)

huhto nurse at the breast; breast milk (PAN: *susu₁)

huhu-nchest, breast (PAN: *susu₁)

i-ŋo1sg.: I, my (POC: *ŋau₂) *aku

kadikred ant that builds nest in trees: Hymenoptera, family Formicidae (POC: *kadik)

kadik kurumlarge black ant found on the ground (has a bad sting which can last for several hours) (POC: *kadik)

kod-kodohcorrect, directly, straight, righteous (POC: *kodos)

kokopcover up, cover with leaves (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

Nehan (20 / 71)

kokop-onpot lid, leaf covering for cooking pot (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

laiaplant species, family Zingiberaceae; several types (PMP: *laqia)

lakogo down a short distance, from inland to the road, village or beach; to away from speaker (POC: *lako) *lakaw

laŋhousefly, generic for flies, Diptera, family Muscoidea; fly and similar small insects (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lihlouse egg, nit (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

limahwooden bailer used in bailing out canoes and boats (PMP: *limas)

liwo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

loŋorhear, listen, obey (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋoro namanatehear with understanding, find out by listening (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lotsore (POC: *loto₁)

luato vomit, be seasick (PMP: *luaq)

mata-iabeautiful, pretty, nice to look at (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-neye, face (takes possessive marker for person and number); natural hole or soft spot in a coconut shell (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata nahuaplace for canoes to come, haven (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata nar huhu-nbreast nipple (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mata nar umwindow (PMP: *mata) *maCa

nunearthquake (POC: *nunu₁)

paŋaŋaopen the mouth (POC: *paŋaŋap)

parahaput foot against something, place foot firmly (POC: *paRas)

Nehan (40 / 71)

parauboat (PMP: *paraqu)

posto squeeze grated coconut (Ross, Clark and Osmond 1998:283) (POC: *popos) *pespes

pulsea cucumber species, sea slug (POC: *pula₃)

ranbranch of tree (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

rau-raua plant species; two types: a yellow leaf and green leaf variety, fam. Leguminoseae, coral bean species; coral trees (leaves can be eaten as a spinach substitute: Erythrina variegata, Erythrina indica (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

sabad, evil; wrong (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

seŋRainbow Lory, Trichoglossus haematodus (POC: *seŋa₂)

sipih(i)bird species, family Psittacidae, cardinal lorikeet (POC: *sipiri)

tadup, upward direction (POC: *tadal)

tad(a)up, upward direction (POC: *tadra)

tada-kaito look up to, respect (POC: *tadra)

tahi-brother, sibling (POC: *taci) *Suaji

taifeces, excrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takophold with hands (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kep₂)

taliŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tamatperson, human, man (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taonplace fish trap among rocks (POC: *taqon) *taqen

tina-mother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

Nehan (60 / 71)

tioyellowstripe goatfish: Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (POC: *tiqo) *Ciqaw

tioYellowstripe goatfish: Mulloidichthys flavolineatus (PMP: *tiqaw₁) *tiqaw

tosugarcane: Saccharum officinarum (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tokato stay, put, together at the same time in concert, located, stay put or perched, as a bird in a tree (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

to-tora tree: Cordia subcordata (POC: *toRu)

tubu-grandparent/grandchild (recip.); ancestor of (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tulalvery small musical pipe, bamboo flute (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

tulaurwind from the southwest (POC: *tokalaur)

turstand (implies stopping a previous movement such as walking or jumping) (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

tutto hammer, hammer wooden pegs (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

wan(a)shoot (PAN: *panaq)

493. Nêlêmwa (3) OC

kofowl (POC: *toqa)

macoordination and inclusive-comitative: and, with, in the company of (PAN: *maS)

pwīripHorned Parakeet: Cyanorhampus cornutus (POC: *pwirip)

494. Nemi (1) OC [nem] New Caledonia

waa-nroot (PMP: *wakaR)

495. Nengone (3) OC [nen] New Caledonia

-gu ~ -go1sg possessive suffix: my, mine (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kaand (PAN: *ka₁)

kānto eat (in general), to eat vegetable food (POC: *kani) *kaen

496. Nese (1) OC

sisto chirp, of cicada (POC: *sisi(rR))

497. Neve'ei (1) OC

nu-vuvubladder (POC: *pupu₃) *pupu₂

498. Ngadha (464) CMP (Arndt 1961) [nxg] (Ngad’a) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

ainterjection: ah! oh! (PMP: *a₃)

abatasteless, very mild, insipid (PMP: *qambaR)

abhacut oneself, wound (PCEMP: *abat₃)

abicut large wounds with a paraŋ (NOISE)

adzapretty, handsome, smart, shapely (NOISE)

aiwail and lament; complain (PAN: *ai₂)

alafetch, get, take; take out, win, capture (PAN: *alaq₁)

ala atétake note of, remember (PAN: *alaq₁)

ala go ate(lit. 'fetch the liver') win someone's affection (PMP: *qalap qatay) *qaCay

alupole, bamboo pole, pestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

amefather, uncle, nephew (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

anachild; person, human being; disciple, follower, member; inhabitant, resident; protege'; ward (person); title of distinction; young, small (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana buachildren of the same father, but different mother (PMP: *anak buaq) *aNak

ana doatwin; siblings of the same sex (PMP: *anak apij) *aNak

ana matafavorite, ‘apple of the eye’ (PMP: *anak nu mata) *maCa

ana nuavillager (PMP: *anak i banua) *aNak

ana supiblowpipe dart (PMP: *sumpit)

ana vuŋafirst-born child (PMP: *buŋas)

apawhat?; which?; what kind of?; wherefrom/from what? (PMP: *apa₁)

apa apasomething; anything; everything; any one (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁

Ngadha (20 / 464)

apifire; burn (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

api ilaresinous torch (PMP: *qilaw)

apopoorer grade, grainy chalk or lime (PAN: *qapuR)

apudew (PMP: *hapun₁) *hapun

arakind of fig or banyan tree (PMP: *qaRaʔ)

asiterm of address for amember of the opposite sex: friend, sweetheart (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

ataperson, human image; enemy; someone (PMP: *qaRta)

ata dzarahorse rider (PMP: *qaRta)

ata sakiman; husband (PMP: *laki)

ata vaiperson who goes on foot (PMP: *qaRta)

ateliver; sense, mind, opinion, understanding, desire, emotion, feeling, will, intention, affection; obligation; prosperity; conviction (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate apimiddle of the hearth (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate fasatisfied, satisfaction ( = 'cool liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate kedhi(lit. 'small liver') careworn, worried; faint-hearted; envious, jealous (PMP: *X₅ + qatay) *qaCay

ate méze(lit. 'big liver') proud, haughty, arrogant (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

ate zéé(lit. 'rotten liver') take everything the wrong way, quickly offended (PMP: *X₃ + qatay) *qaCay

atuchief, leader; judge; one who gives orders or commands (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

auhowl, whimper (dogs) (PAN: *qauŋ)

aurungs of a ladder; be in steps one over the other (NOISE)

avudust, powder, earth, ash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

Ngadha (40 / 464)

aziyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

basmack, clap with the hand (PMP: *bak₁)

bacry out loudly, shriek (PMP: *ba₂)

badidagger, sword (PMP: *badiq)

baga dzogéof large, powerful build (PMP: *bagal)

bagipart, share, portion; divide, allot (PMP: *baqagi)

balastripe, streak, wale on skin (PMP: *balan)

balastripe, streak, wale on skin (PMP: *balar)

baliturn oneself around (PMP: *balik₂)

baliturn oneself around (PMP: *bali₅)

banawarm, hot (of fire, sun, fever, water); to warm up, heat up; fill with magical power (PMP: *panas₁)

banogo, walk (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

barauboat, sail boat (PMP: *paraqu)

basadamp, wet; dampen, smear with (PMP: *baseq)

batibeat, thrash, hack off, as brush in clearing a field; eat bare, as a buffalo eating all the grass in a meadow (PMP: *bantiŋ)

bedatread firmly upon, stamp on (PMP: *bezak)

belakind of bamboo; container for liquids made of this type of bamboo (PMP: *belaŋ₁)

benufull, as a pot full of rice (PMP: *ma-penuq) *penuq

beŋahole, sheath, vagina; bored through, perforated (PMP: *beŋaq)

beŋiwhine about; morose, surly; grumble (PMP: *beŋis₁)

Ngadha (60 / 464)

beŋito whine, be discontented; growl, snarl, grumble (PMP: *beŋit)

beŋusullen, sour, angry, have a grudge; growl, grumble (ROOT)

beŋuto reek, stink (NOISE)

betato tear, tear off, tear up (PMP: *be(R)tas)

beta retatear off (PMP: *be(R)tas)

betutear (as fabric), break (as rattan under pressure) (PMP: *betus)

bhabhapeel off, remove the bark (PMP: *bakbak₁)

bhabhato ooze, flow slowly out (as palm sap from a cut trunk) (NOISE)

bhabhato ooze, flow slowly out (as palm sap from a cut trunk) (NOISE)

bhalé (*i > é unexpl.)change, exchange, alter (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

bhalitwist, distort, misrepresent; falsehood; misinform (PMP: *bali₄)

bharaweak, exhausted; careless, lazy (NOISE)

bhebhéhit, beat, thrash soundly; strike with a stick or lance (PMP: *betbet)

bhegubeat, drum, call to the dance (ROOT)

bhekaloose, free, undone; loosen; dismiss, discharge, remove from office; be fired (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

bhelasections of the roof between the rafters; share of the brideprice (PMP: *belat₁)

bheŋahole, opening, crack, tear (PMP: *beŋaq)

bhesispray or squirt saliva through the teeth (PMP: *becit)

bhizatorn (as clothing), broken to pieces (as a pot) (NOISE)

bhuacome out, appear, emerge (PMP: *buhat₃)

Ngadha (80 / 464)

bhubhua covering; to cover (as the head against rain) (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bhubhuto cover, cover up (as the head against rain) (PMP: *bunbun)

bhuratin; wide armband of tin (NOISE)

bhuʔapull out with a jerk, turn over the soil (NOISE)

biaworm in the sugar palm (PMP: *biaR₁)

biŋimake a cranky face, complain, whine, sob (PMP: *biŋit)

biŋuintoxicated; dozing; distorted; stunned; mad, insane, crazy (NOISE)

birua plant (PMP: *biRu)

biruthrow, fling; strike with a stick; catch in a trap, lasso, etc. (NOISE)

bizatear up, rip to pieces (NOISE)

biʔabreak, burst, split (PMP: *biqak)

ɓiʔato split (as a bamboo) (PMP: *biqak)

boba, vovashrub with white blossoms (NOISE)

butrumpet, shell trumpet (PCEMP: *buu₂)

buend, corner, angle, point, tip, edge, border (PCEMP: *buu₃)

buaonly (PCEMP: *bua₂)

buabear fruit for the first time (PMP: *buaq)

buatake many wives (PMP: *buhat₃)

bua bhaibesides (PCEMP: *bua₂)

bubhudull sound of a blow, a thrown stone, etc,; give a blow (PMP: *bukbuk₂)

Ngadha (100 / 464)

bubuplentiful, abundant (PMP: *bubuq)

bubusing, recite; repeat (PCEMP: *bubu₁₀) *bubu₈

βukato open, as a box or other container (PMP: *buka)

bukuprotuberance, hump, knot, node (as in bamboo), joint, knuckle (as of the fingers); tie in knots (PCEMP: *buku)

buku ladzavulva, mons veneris (PCEMP: *buku)

buraexpectorate, spit out; spit on (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

bura ataspit on a person (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

bura bugawell up, spring forth, as water from a natural source (PCEMP: *budaq₄) *budaq₁

bura go ruraexpectorate sputum (PMP: *buRah-an) *buReS

buribottom, posterior; stern of a boat; bottom, base of a vessel or container; foundation, cause, beginning, derivation, descent (PMP: *buRit₁) *buRit

buristern of a boat; bottom, base of a vessel or container; foundation, cause, beginning, derivation, descent (PMP: *burit₁)

buroescape, slip away, flee from (as a quail frightened off by the approach of humans); speak in a loud, disorderly manner (PAN: *buRaw)

buro zééshout vehemently (PAN: *buRaw)

busuenemy, foe; hostile; make an enemy of someone, not speak to one another (PAN: *busuR₁)

butaferment; foam, froth (PAN: *buCaq)

butucoral; pearl; decoration (NOISE)

butusomewhat tainted, smelly, rotten (NOISE)

buʔipiece, bit, crumbs, scraps; mouthful; break off, share something (to eat) with someone (PCMP: *buqi₁)

daabranch, bifurcation, forking (PMP: *daqan₁)

da avuash gray (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

Ngadha (120 / 464)

dabucollect, gather (ROOT)

dakabranch of a tree (PMP: *daŋkaq)

dalastar (PMP: *talaq₁)

dala kutuEvening star (‘louse star’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

dekeprop, support (PMP: *teked)

depameasure with outstretched arms, as in divination (PMP: *depa)

dithis, that (PMP: *-di)

dukuto bend, bow, incline the body forward; bend down, stoop (PMP: *zuŋkuk)

dzarahorse (LOAN)

ebacarrying strap or cloth for small children; carry children on the side or in the arms with such a strap or cloth (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

ebu, epugrandfather, ancestor (PMP: *empu)

emafather; favorite son (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

emafather (PMP: *ema₁)

emia small amount; small, trifling; few; insignificant (PMP: *emit)

enasand; grain (PAN: *qenay)

enétree sp. (NOISE)

erimake a stroke or line, scratch (PCEMP: *erit)

erubind, tie, shackle (PMP: *qeRut)

esaunity; one (general numeral) (PAN: *esa)

esihiss at, chase off (as a dog) (PMP: *qisaq)

Ngadha (140 / 464)

evipinch, scratch with the fingers (NOISE)

evusawdust (PMP: *ebuk)

evusawdust (NOISE)

faiwoman; wife; female (PCEMP: *bai) *bahi

faia tree: Albizia chinensis (PCEMP: *bail)

fetacrack, snap, break (PMP: *be(R)tas)

fuhair of the head; having hair, hairy (PCEMP: *buuk) *bukeS

funufruit fibers (PMP: *bunut₁)

furoboast, brag, talk a lot about oneself; shout from every side (PAN: *buRaw)

fuubreathe heavily, pant (PCEMP: *buu₁)

fu xáetassel which hangs out of the corn head (PCEMP: *buuk) *bukeS

fuʔakind of beetle, grub, larva in palm wine (PMP: *abuqaŋ)

gami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

gariline; draw a line (PMP: *garis)

gé leza lezaevery day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

gicall a puppy (PMP: *egik)

gifeel unwell, feverish, sick (NOISE)

gili lioturn (oneself) around; turn this way and that; go around, encircle, encompass (PMP: *giliŋ)

gita ~ kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

iinterjection of fear, etc. (PAN: *i₁)

Ngadha (160 / 464)

ibustrike, beat, hit, knock; sound of a blow (PMP: *ibuk)

ibuevil spirit that preys especially on pregnant women (PMP: *imbuk)

ibustink terribly (PMP: *imbu)

ibuhit, beat; sound of hitting or beating (ROOT)

idhastep, tread, walk (PMP: *inzak)

idhobring, lead (NOISE)

ie, iocurse, swear, be cursed (NOISE)

iicry, whine (PMP: *ihi)

iicry, whine (PMP: *iqi)

ikafish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ikétie, bind, fetter (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ilaflame up, illuminate brightly (PMP: *qilaw)

ima, limahand, arm; five (PMP: *ima₁)

inaM (PCEMP: *ina)

ineinterjection of astonishment or fright (PMP: *qina)

iné-emaparents, ancestors (PMP: *ina ama) *ina

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

ioscream, cry, shriek (as an eagle) (PMP: *iuk₁)

ioterm of address between women (NOISE)

ipaWZ (and all her female consanguines of the same generation), BW (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

Ngadha (180 / 464)

ipiedge, border, shore; approach, come near (PMP: *ipit)

ipufish spawn (PMP: *hipun₁)

ipualways together (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

iritear, split, cut (PMP: *qiris)

iritearing, sound of tearing (ROOT)

isiflesh without bones and fat; tuber; residents, people; corpulent (PAN: *isiʔ)

isupress on, push away, press down (PMP: *icud)

isupress on, push away, press down (PMP: *isud)

isupress on, push away, press down (PMP: *isuR)

isupress on, push away, press down (PMP: *isu₁)

iteutterly dark (PMP: *qitem)

itusmall, small in amount (PMP: *ituk)

iulittle bit, trifle, small matter (PMP: *iut₁)

iushark (PAN: *qiSu)

iurustle, whisper, buzz, whir, purr (PMP: *qiuŋ₂) *qiuŋ

iuturn, bend or push to the side (NOISE)

iu tekéwhale (PAN: *qiSu)

ivabind into a bundle, as stalks of maize (NOISE)

iʔefruit; seed, pit (NOISE)

kato eat (PAN: *kaen)

Ngadha (200 / 464)

kabhuto mix (PMP: *kambur)

kabhuto mix (ROOT)

kadzamat, awning of palm leaves (PMP: *kazaŋ₂)

kadzuwood, stick; tree; forest, bush; stiff like a piece of wood, as one’s back (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

kapathick, massive (PAN: *kaS(e)pal)

kebikebhi/ rim, edge, border (ROOT)

kedhaa tree: Cordia dichotoma (Verheijen 1984) (PMP: *kendal)

kedismall and weak (PAN: *kedi)

kelato split off (as wood), split in half (PMP: *kelaq)

ke-nathat (PAN: *-na)

kepusound of crunching bones or corn on the cob while eating, of clashing swords in fighting; crack, break (PMP: *kepuk)

kerashrill cry of monkeys (PMP: *akerahaq)

keralarge turtle (PCEMP: *keRa)

kidatread, step (PMP: *ki(n)zak)

kilafast, rapid (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kila-kilaquick, fast (as in walking) (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

kimamussel (PMP: *kima)

kisipeel or pare off, strip or draw off with the fingers (PCMP: *kisi)

kucall a dog (PMP: *kur)

kumibeard, moustache; hair of the beard (PMP: *kumis)

Ngadha (220 / 464)

kusurub, wipe or wash off (PMP: *kusu₁)

kutuhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu tanamany people engaged in the same activity, rushing this way and that, to and fro (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

labadrum, to drum; strike, beat, hit, knock, batter (PMP: *la(m)bak)

ladékind of large tree that causes severe itching when touched (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lamumix together (PMP: *lamug) *lamuj

lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss (PMP: *lamu)

lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss (PMP: *lamut)

leaginger; kind of vegetable used as a remedy (PMP: *laqia)

lekaopen up, unfold, loosen, untie; undress (PMP: *lekas₁)

lekaopen, unfold, untie (PMP: *le(ŋ)kaq)

lenoenter the water, bathe the entire body (ROOT)

lezasun; day; daylight; daytime; hour; period of time; heat of the sun, dry season (PMP: *qalejaw)

liahole, hollow, cave, cavern; opening; ruins (PMP: *liaŋ)

liliwax, candle; smear with wax, as twine (PMP: *lilin)

ludu, ludhuto cover, screen, protect, veil (ROOT)

lumumoss (PMP: *lumut)

maito come; hither (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

mamauncle (< (mama-y?) (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mamachew food for elderly people who have no more teeth or for young children (PMP: *mamaq)

Ngadha (240 / 464)

manuchicken (PMP: *manuk)

matadie; dead; become poor, decline (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mataeye; opening, aperture; lid, cover; sprout, bud; numeral classifier (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata apioffering place in the fields (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata dalaentrance to a village (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata lekoopening of a bamboo cane (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata lezasun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata patewindow opening, smokehole in roof (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata polowill-o’-the-wisp (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata tibobanana sprout (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata tuacut in a lontar palm made to collect the sap for making palm toddy (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata umaoffering place in the fields (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata vaespring, source (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

mateleech (PAN: *-matek)

meashame, bashfulness, shyness (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

m-etisea, ocean; tide; dry up, evaporate (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

minaoil, fat; coconut oil (PMP: *miñak)

m-iteblack, dark, dirty (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

miu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

mulato plant, put, erect (PAN: *mula)

Ngadha (260 / 464)

mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

m-uzinew, seen for the first time; to live, be alive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

nakasteal; secret, clandestine, illicit, illegal (PMP: *nakaw)

namudew (PAN: *ñamuR)

naŋabay, marine estuary, harbor (PMP: *naŋa₁)

naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

naŋu tuato drink palm wine (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

narabrother of a woman (PMP: *ñaRa)

nelasplit, crack; cracked (as bamboo) (ROOT)

nikiflying fox (PMP: *paniki)

nipakind of large snake (PMP: *anipa)

nipalarge snake (PMP: *nipay)

nipa téécentipede, millipede (PMP: *nipay)

nipithin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

nipi fécidelicate, thin, fine, beautiful (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

nitutree sp. (PMP: *ni(n)tuq)

nitutree sp.; earth spirit, earth personified and deified; nature spirit; all ancestors, all the deceased (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

nusaland, island (PMP: *nusa₁)

ŋani tenuloom (PAN: *tenun)

ŋaŋaopening; open the mouth; open the rim of a container wide in order to insert things (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

Ngadha (280 / 464)

ŋaŋa bhoaopen the mouth wide; call loud and long (with open mouth) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋazaname; reputation; fame, renown (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋ-ejépress or squeeze out from the body (excrement, or a child in childbirth) (PMP: *maŋ-qezen) *qezen

ŋísikeep the mouth open showing the teeth, as in laughing (PMP: *ŋisi)

ŋizunose (PMP: *ŋijuŋ)

ŋokafeel in the water for fish (ROOT)

oexclamation (PMP: *qu₁)

answer to a distant call (PMP: *huy)

ofudiminish, disappear; be lost, forfeit (PMP: *qubus)

olosomething previous, do first, begin; old, earlier, former (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

opoend, finish, conclusion; out of, used up, come to an end; kill, last, later (PMP: *upus)

otebrain (PMP: *hutek)

paaupper leg, thigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

paashoot, sprig, sprout (PMP: *paqa₂)

pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

palapalm of the hand, sole of the foot (PMP: *palaj₁)

paliboth sides, reciprocal, mutual (PCEMP: *pali₁) *pali

paluflat wood club (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

panedish, basin, bowl (PMP: *panay)

panifodder (as for pigs) (PCEMP: *paniŋ)

Ngadha (300 / 464)

panohaving white or light spots on the skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

paŋaopen the eyes and mouth, be amazed (PAN: *paŋa₁)

parisawfish (PCEMP: *paRi) *paRiS

pasoto plant, as rice (PCEMP: *pasekₐ) *pasek

paʔuto tie, bind (PCEMP: *paqus₂)

pedugall (PAN: *qapeju)

pilé laécollect leftovers from feast (PAN: *piliq)

pilito find, pick up, gather (PAN: *piliq)

pipithe temples, the cheeks (PAN: *pipi₁)

pipi nipithin cheeks (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

pizahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

piza pizasome, several (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

pusénavel, middle, mid-point (PMP: *pusej)

pusé vatumid-point of the earth; related, from the same family (PMP: *pusej)

pusuheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusu liéapple of one’s eye, heartthrob (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusu mukuend of the banana blossom (PMP: *pusuq₁)

puustalk, stem, tree trunk; beginning; upper, outer part of a limb; lower part, foundation, foot of something (PMP: *puqun)

puu lizuhorizon; root; capital; source, origin, the first; genuine, authentic; one’s own, proper (PMP: *puqun)

puu vuŋa vuŋafirst, in the beginning (PMP: *buŋas)

Ngadha (320 / 464)

raablood; menstrual blood, menstruation; blood relationship; to bleed; blood-red colors; bloody, as dysentery (PAN: *daRaq)

ranibrave, fearless; noble, exalted (PMP: *baRani)

rapécover a roof (PMP: *dapet)

ratulord, king; noble, aristocrat (PMP: *datu)

remepress, squeeze, massage (PMP: *remek)

roti se buʔia bit of bread (PCMP: *buqi₁)

rubirim, edge, border, crest of mountains (ROOT)

ruliresound, ring (ROOT)

ruraspittle, saliva (PMP: *ludaq)

sakaascend, mount (as a horse); rise (as water in a stream) (PAN: *sakat)

samaalike, identical, same; together with; similar (PWMP: *sama)

saŋa laŋaopen the mouth (PMP: *laŋaq₁)

seŋismell after burning of something (PMP: *seŋ(e)hij)

seŋismell after burning of something (PMP: *seŋ(e)hit)

sikuelbow; curve, bend; an ell, distance from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow (PAN: *sikux)

siku sékégo in a zigzag path (PAN: *sikux)

sisiremove flesh from bones; to peel, to husk, to scale; to open a wound (PMP: *siksik₂)

sulutorch, lamp, light; set alight, burn (PMP: *suluq)

supiblowpipe; shoot with a blowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

susuudder, mothers breast; to suck, slurp (PAN: *susu₁)

Ngadha (340 / 464)

suzuspoon; to spoon out (PMP: *sudu)

suzuspoon; to spoon out (PMP: *suduk)

talilarge rope, cord (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tanaearth, soil, land; district, tract of ground (PMP: *taneq)

tana vadacement (PMP: *badas)

tarito scratch, graze, scrape; to wound (PMP: *taris)

tariscratch, wound (ROOT)

taruindigo; to dye with indigo (PMP: *taRum)

tatahack to pieces, beat, kill (PAN: *CabCab)

tawarejoice, be glad, laugh (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

taʔifeces, excrement; to defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

taʔi kabakind of mushroom (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tedéfence, bulwark (PMP: *tenzeg, te(n)dek) *tenzek

tegadry (PMP: *tegaŋ)

teguthunder, rumble of thunder (ROOT)

tekato meet, encounter, be met (PMP: *teka₁)

telasplit, crack (PMP: *telaq₁) *Celaq

telocalf of the leg; egg (PMP: *qateluR)

teloegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

Ngadha (360 / 464)

tenuto weave (PAN: *tenun)

tenu atéto think, consider, reflect on (PAN: *tenun)

teŋuneck (PMP: *teŋuq)

teriline, stroke, incision (ROOT)

teriline, stroke, incision (ROOT)

tetupeck, peck up; eat (of animals) (PCMP: *tetu)

tevusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tika-takanimble, agile, quick (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kas) *ta(ŋ)kas₁

tika-takanimble, agile, quick (PMP: *ti(ŋ)kas)

timukind of gherkin, cucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

timu nitukind of wild cucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

timu polokind of creeper (PMP: *qatimun)

tirodark, darkened (PMP: *tidem)

tivupuddle, bog, pool, pond, small lake (PCMP: *tibu₁) *tibu

tuto put in, insert (as firewood in a fire); pierce; to thread (a needle) (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

tuaparents-in-law; affinal kin (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tua ana faidaughter-in-law (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tua ana xakison-in-law (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tumaclothes louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tunaeel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

Ngadha (380 / 464)

tunuto burn, burn off (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tunu ŋanasinge off the bristles of a sacrificial pig, an oath (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupucrowd together in masses, gather, assemble, collect (ROOT)

turidash, stroke, line; draw a line; lined, striped (PMP: *turis₂) *Curis

turuumbrella, covering (PMP: *tuduŋ)

tuvaa plant used to poison fish (PAN: *tuba)

uarattan; whip; cane (PAN: *quay)

uburidge, roof (PMP: *ubuŋ)

udhusmall field hut; cover over, cover with a towel, etc. (PMP: *uduŋ)

uduto coo (PMP: *uduq₁)

udza, uzarain; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

grunting of large pigs (PMP: *huy)

uicall to a friend; to set dogs against, as in hunting wild pigs (PMP: *huy)

ulémaggot, worm, caterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

ulirudder of a boat (PMP: *qulin)

uluperson, human being; counting word for children (PMP: *qulun₁)

uluhead; leader, chief, lord; beginning, source (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

umafield (PMP: *quma) *qumah

unépith of wood or plants (PMP: *qunej)

upawages, payment; reward (PMP: *upaq)

Ngadha (400 / 464)

upukin group, lineage (PMP: *umpu)

uravein; sinew; tendon; fiber; veins in leaves (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ura limalines in the palm of the hand (PMP: *uRat i lima) *huRaC

uristroke, line; boundary; draw a line, scratch; be full of rents or tears (PMP: *qurit)

uri tanalines drawn on the ground (PMP: *qurit)

urudescendants, family, family community; in a collectivity, collectively (PMP: *quruŋ)

uruevil spirit (PMP: *uduq₂)

usisizzle, whistle (ROOT)

utaunderbrush, scrub, low-growing plants; vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utétree sp., kind of orange (PMP: *untay₂)

uusob, sigh, moan (PMP: *uu)

uvahave gray hair; gray (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

uva darasnow-white (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

uvivarious types of yams (PMP: *qubi)

uvi dzavacassava (PMP: *qubi)

vakukind of pandanus (PMP: *bakuŋ₂)

valatree sp. (NOISE)

valiagain, further, besides, moreover (PMP: *balik₂)

valugrieve, mourn (PMP: *baluq)

valuwidow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

Ngadha (420 / 464)

vanaright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

vaŋito smell (badly) (PMP: *baŋehih) *baŋeSiS

varamisfortune, disaster (PMP: *baraq)

varawind, storm; stormy (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

variwarm oneself in the sun; dry in the sun (PAN: *waRi₁)

vavaprocess of making a new start (NOISE)

vavipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

vavi levudomesticated pig (PMP: *babuy lebu) *babuy₃

vavoatmosphere, surface (as of water); above, on, over (PAN: *babaw₃)

veduto pluck (fruits); tear out or pull up with the fingers (ROOT)

venalower side, under; lower half; outside (of a door, a village) (PMP: *bena)

veticalf of the leg (PCEMP: *betis) *beties

vitake with the hand (NOISE)

viŋa vaŋaopen the mouth wide (< *-ŋaq?) (ROOT)

viŋiring, tinkle, clink (ROOT)

viturod for beating clothes, etc.; beat with such a rod (ROOT)

vitustick for beating clothes in washing; to beat with such a stick (ROOT)

vuawork for someone (PMP: *buhat₂)

vuato load, put on cargo (PMP: *buhat₃)

vuathrow, fling, hurl, pitch (PMP: *buqaŋ)

Ngadha (440 / 464)

vuinecklace of large cowrie shells (PCMP: *bui₂)

vukadig up, transplant (PMP: *buŋkaR)

vulamoon, month; time, period; menstruation (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

vula tegadry season (PMP: *tegaŋ)

vulilarge cowrie shell used for war necklaces; the necklace itself (PMP: *buliq₁)

vulukind of thin bamboo (PAN: *buluq₂)

vuŋafirst (PMP: *buŋas)

vuroemerge in a swarm; run hither and thither, dash about haphazardly; escape, abscond (PAN: *buRaw)

vuvuscatter grain in prepared dibble holes (PMP: *budbud)

vuvucrown of the head; fontanelle of a child (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

vuvugnaw, nibble at (as a porcupine gnawing at tubers) (NOISE)

vuvuopening, hole (as a mousehole) (NOISE)

vuvutree sp. (NOISE)

vuvutree sp. (NOISE)

vuʔadig up or out; to weed (NOISE)

vuʔithick foam on the cutting implement in tapping (PMP: *buqiq)

wauunpleasant odor, to reek, stink (PMP: *bahu)

wausmell (PMP: *bahuq)

weticut, carve, chisel, draw (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

xakaloosen, remove, detach, peel off (ROOT)

Ngadha (460 / 464)

zakidirt, filth; dirty, soiled (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

zamakind of small tree, the bark of which is used for cordage and mail (armor) (PMP: *adamay)

zaukind of tree (PAN: *daqu₁)

zuatwo; doubled (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Ngaibor W.Tarangan (8) CMP. see: W.Tarangan (Ngaibor)

499. Ngaju Dayak (1150) WMP (Hardeland 1859) [nij] (Ngaju) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

abafather (used by and with small children) (PAN: *aba₁)

agasthrong, large swarm (LOAN)

ajakimpulse, stimulus, persuasion, inducement, seduction (PWMP: *azak)

akaone’s own elder sibling of the same sex (PWMP: *aka)

akaladvice, redemption; cunning deceit (LOAN)

akopscoop up with the two cupped hands (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

alahlose, be overcome (in battle, legal matters); lose things (PWMP: *alaq₂)

alemnight (PMP: *halem)

alem malemlast night, the previous night (PMP: *halem)

alihchange, alteration, evasion (PMP: *aliq)

amauncle (term used for one's own uncle; for the uncle of another person one uses mama); also often used for other older unrelated persons (PAN: *amax)

amaifather (PMP: *ama-i) *amax

amasgold (LOAN)

ambetbrought near, drawn to one, seized (PWMP: *ambet)

ambinwhat is carried on the back (PWMP: *hambin)

ambondew, fog (PWMP: *ambun)

amokfurious, murderous attack (PMP: *hamuk)

amparwhat is spread out (mats, carpets, etc.) (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

ampionopium (LOAN)

ampiralmost, nearly (PWMP: *hampir)

Ngaju Dayak (20 / 1150)

ampitsmall bird which does great damage in the ricefields; there are two kinds: black with white beak, and red with ash-gray neck and green beak (PWMP: *apiRit)

ampunpardon, forgiveness (PMP: *ampun)

anakchild, offspring (human or animal) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak ampaŋillegitimate child (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

anak olohslave (affectionate substitute for jipen) (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

anak panaharrow (PMP: *anak i panaq) *aNak

anak rearinterest on a loan (rear = 'money') (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak sarauillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ancamintention, plan (usually with the secondary sense: futile) (NOISE)

andapsmall brown insect, similar in shape to a millipede; when touched it phosphoresces brightly (PWMP: *andap)

andauday (in two senses: period of daylight, and the 24-hour day) (PAN: *qajaw)

andiyounger sibling; also: affectionate term for a younger person generally (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

anti-antiŋearring (of European type; the Dayak earring is sowaŋ) (LOAN)

a-nua certain (person, etc.) (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

aŋinwind (Malay loan) (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋkopsmall pincers or tweezers used to extract facial hair (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

apamsmall ball-cake of flour, sugar and sourdough, sprinkled with grated coconut (LOAN)

apishollow, empty grains (of rice) (ROOT)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

araname (PMP: *ajan)

Ngaju Dayak (40 / 1150)

arakdistilled liquor (LOAN)

arakrice wine (LOAN)

asawhetting, sharpening, grinding (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asemsourness, acidity; tamarind (PWMP: *qalesem)

aseŋbreath (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

asepsmoke (PWMP: *asep)

asifavor, mercy, pardon; take pity on; charitable, kindly; kindness (PMP: *qasiq)

asilyield, income, tax (LOAN)

asohdownward flow of a river (PMP: *qaRus)

ataeiheat, soul, sentiment (figuratively: the heart in love) (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ataplarge rattan basket shaped like a cigar box (NOISE)

atason, upon (PMP: *atas) *aCas

atawaor (LOAN)

atepwhat one uses for closing or shutting: bolt, clasp, door; closed (NOISE)

awatto help, save, rescue, deliver (PWMP: *awat)

awiimperative of the verb mawi: do, make, manufacture (NOISE)

awisstrap put around the forehead, not including the straps which go around the shoulder, used for heavy loads which are carried on the back (PWMP: *qawis)

ayakcome after, follow (someone who already has gone ahead) (PWMP: *ayak₁)

ayocome on! lets go! (LOAN)

ba-anakhave children (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

Ngaju Dayak (60 / 1150)

babaŋ(used only in combination) flow strongly (tears) (NOISE)

ba-baŋisgloomy, bad-tempered, angry (PMP: *beŋis₁)

ba-barapig pen (PMP: *bara₁)

babaspruned rice plants (they are pruned when they grow too rapidly or when they are damaged by vermin) (PWMP: *basbas₃)

ba-bataŋlike a tree trunk, so suitably: the main part (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

ba-batustony, hard, as fruits (PWMP: *ba-batu) *batux

ba-beŋkoŋbent (as the elbow, or a finger through arthritis) (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

ba-bintihbe close together, of the legs of people standing in a crowd, etc. (PMP: *bintiq)

ba-bodostupid (NOISE)

ba-bulawgolden, decorated or edged with gold (PAN: *bulaw)

babuŋ-anridgepole of a house, ridge of the canopy on a boat (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

ba-burakto beat, pound (PWMP: *bundak)

ba-buriflow into or out of (NOISE)

ba-buroŋnot individually enumerated, in quantity (of buying merchandise wholesale) (LOAN)

ba-buruthave a hernia (LOAN)

ba-buruthave a hernia (NOISE)

bacara/basaracourt case brought before a judge (LOAN)

ba-dahato bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

badakrhinoceros (LOAN)

badilfirearm (cannon, etc.) (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (80 / 1150)

ba-dindiŋcovered; seek protection (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

baganame of a mythical woman who was very unchaste (NOISE)

baga-bagaimmoral, unseemly (used only of women) (NOISE)

bagipart, share, portion (PMP: *baqagi)

ba-guntíŋto cut the hair (LOAN)

bahaabscess, boil, ulcer (PAN: *baReq)

bahashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

bahatcrossbeam (PAN: *baRat₁)

baheglowing coals (PMP: *baRah)

bahuaŋbear (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

bajiwedge (LOAN)

bajushirt, jacket (LOAN)

baksplash! (PMP: *bak₁)

bakakapredatory fishing bird somewhat smaller than a dove, with green back, yellow breast, red feet and bill and a short tail (PWMP: *bakaka)

bakocurdled (LOAN)

bakoŋa water plant which grows on riverbanks and often right out into the river so that in stronger currents entire islands of them are flushed out. The stem is eaten; the long wide leaves are used as talusoŋ (torch material) (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

baladausmall double-edged dagger (PWMP: *baladaw)

balailarge, open building, either entirely without walls or with 2-3 foot high walls. In Pulopetak these are built only when one holds a death feast. Further inland every village has its balai, where games are played, where community gatherings and the discussion of legal matters take place, and where visitors find lodging (PMP: *balay)

balanaka sea fish (PWMP: *balanak)

balanjaconsumption; maintenance, support (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (100 / 1150)

balantirather thick tree with white bark and hard and durable timber (PWMP: *balalantiʔ)

balaŋasacred jar (PMP: *balaŋa)

balatokwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

baliblood money for a murder (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

baliblood money, compensation for a murder (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

balianall ceremonies in which the balian (shamaness and ritual prostitute) plays a role; the shamaness herself (PWMP: *balian)

balianshamaness (NOISE)

balikchange (clothes, words), turned around (PMP: *balik₂)

balikatthe side of a thing; on the side, next to (PWMP: *balikat)

balioŋnative axe (PWMP: *baliuŋ)

balisarestless (LOAN)

balohpumpkin (NOISE)

baloyrepeat; talkative; restore (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

balulaŋthick hide (as that of a buffalo); callus (as on the hands) (PWMP: *balulaŋ)

ba-lunekfleshy, having plenty of flesh (PWMP: *lunek₁)

balutmixture; something with which one mixes something else; mixed (PMP: *balut₁)

bambanplant whose bast fibers are used in binding and plaiting (PWMP: *banban)

bambaŋa saltwater fish that is about five feet long and very slender (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₅)

bambaŋsomething that is hewed out (wood from a tree; both the piece of wood that is removed and the notch in the tree are called bambaŋ) (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₇)

banamaboat, ship (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (120 / 1150)

banerlong outgrowth under the branch of a tree (NOISE)

bantalpillow, cushion for the head (long and round) (PWMP: *bantal)

bantiŋkind of wild bovid living in Borneo (LOAN)

banuaŋtree of the inner forest, often used in making rafts on account of its buoyant wood (PWMP: *banuaŋ)

bañento sneeze. If one wishes to set out on a journey and someone in the house sneezes it is a bad sign; one must then postpone the journey (PWMP: *bañen)

baŋahopen (door, mouth) (PWMP: *baŋaq₁)

baŋun-anwhat is erected; the construction, build (of a house) (PWMP: *baŋun-an) *baŋuN

ba-patikto tattoo, scratch figures into the skin (PWMP: *patik)

ba-pindahtransfer, shift (PWMP: *pindaq)

ba-putiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

baraŋthings, goods (LOAN)

barassand; sandy (PMP: *badas)

baratwest; west wind; storm (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

ba-rendemto long, yearn for (PAN: *demdem₁)

bariraŋsulphur (used externally as medicine against scurf and vermin) (LOAN)

bariwiswild duck (tame duck is itik) (PWMP: *bariwis)

baromiddle-sized tree with very broad leaves; the bast fiber is used to make sewing material (PMP: *baRu)

ba-salaguilty, be at fault (PMP: *salaq₁)

ba-sandaŋhave in the hand (as a sword) (PWMP: *sandaŋ)

basarbig (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (140 / 1150)

ba-sikapdextrous, skilled, nimble (PWMP: *sikap₂)

ba-sisihgo to the side, make way for (PWMP: *sisiq)

batakpulled back, dragged (PWMP: *batak)

bataŋtrunk, tree; river; origin; the most important or main part of something (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ danumstream, larger river (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

ba-tarohto bet, place a wager on something in gambling (PMP: *taRuq)

ba-tatacourteoous (NOISE)

ba-tetekcut off, chopped into pieces (PAN: *tektek₁)

batikbatik cloth (PWMP: *batik₁)

ba-timpaŋlame (PMP: *timpaŋ)

ba-tirohto sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

batustone, counterweight on scale; sinker on fishline (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu apiflintstone (PMP: *batu hapuy) *batux

batu asahwhetstone (PWMP: *batu hasaq) *batux

batu baranimagnet (LOAN)

batu-batuas a stone, hard (PMP: *batu-batu) *batux

batu dasiŋcounterweight on a scale (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu jalalead chain under a fishnet (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

ba-tumpahproduce in quantities; tumble out, spill (PWMP: *tumpaq)

batu-n bahahardening of abscess (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

Ngaju Dayak (160 / 1150)

bawahbe subjugated, be under someone's command (PMP: *babaq₁)

bawawweeding, pulling up grass (in garden, ricefield) (PMP: *babaw₄)

bawifemale, feminine; wife (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bawoipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bawoi lewudomesticated pig (PMP: *babuy lebu) *babuy₃

bayaŋspinning top (NOISE)

bayarpayment (PMP: *bayaD)

behasrice that has been husked by pounding (also applied to other grains or fruits with a husk) (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

behatweightiness; importance; burdensomeness (PMP: *beReqat)

bekendifferent, be distinct from; another; no, yes (PWMP: *beken)

belahsome, a part (PAN: *belaq)

belaŋspotted, mottled (of the skin of animals) (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

benaŋthread (cotton, silk, etc.) (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benteŋmiddle (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

beŋahpart of something split (PMP: *beŋaq)

bersound made when one swings a stick, throws a lance, etc.; whizzing, hissing (PMP: *ber)

berokgregarious gray monkey with white spots that grows to about four feet in length (LOAN)

besäia short paddle (long: dayoŋ); to paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

bese-anconnected with a boat (PWMP: *beRsay-an) *beRsay

besohsatisfied from eating, satiated (PAN: *besuR)

Ngaju Dayak (180 / 1150)

betausister or other female kin of Ego's generation (man speaking) (PMP: *betaw)

betoŋlarge bamboo, as thick as the thigh of a man (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

bewanstink (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

bew-anto stink; stinking (PWMP: *bahu-an) *bahu

bidanmidwife (LOAN)

bidaŋwidth, measure across (used only for kajaŋ 'leaf mats') (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidaŋthe width (used only of palm leaf roofing mats) (LOAN)

bihaa plant resembling the kujaŋ (Malay keladi, tuberous fruits); however the root is not bulbous, but elongated; its sap causes violent itching; not edible; the boiled root is applied as medicine to putrid wounds (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bikbakgo "plop" (of fruits, etc. falling on soft ground) (ROOT)

bilahpart, portion, share (PWMP: *bilaq)

bilaŋit appears to be, it seems to be; a part; divide into parts (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilemblack (ROOT)

bilipurchase, price (PMP: *bili)

biliŋshake, wobble (of the head of an aged person); shake the head (PMP: *biliŋ₁) *biliŋ

bilissmall reddish fish (PWMP: *bilis)

bilitwinding around, encircling of something (PWMP: *bilit)

biluksail into the wind (PMP: *biluk)

bindaŋpiece, log (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bintaŋstar. The Dayaks have no astronomy, and no astrology. They name only a few stars: bintaŋ timor 'Mars', bintaŋ sawah 'Venus as Morning Star', bintaŋ maliŋ '("death star") Venus as Evening Star' (LOAN)

biñiseed rice, rice used for planting (used only of rice, for other crops: tumbon) (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

Ngaju Dayak (200 / 1150)

biŋkairing, circle (PWMP: *biŋkay)

biŋkokbent, curved, as a stick (PMP: *biŋkuk)

biroblue (LOAN)

bisawet (PMP: *biseq)

bisakwhat is split (PMP: *biseqak)

bisak humbaŋsplit bamboo (PMP: *biseqak)

bisi-bisikwhispered, soft (PWMP: *bisik bisik) *bisik₃

bisikwhisper, speak softly (PWMP: *bisik₃)

bisodumb (not able to speak); not want to speak (LOAN)

bitikant (collective term for all varieties) (NOISE)

bitik ñuankind of small gray ant (PMP: *qari-ñuan)

b-itoŋcalculate everything, be greedy (PWMP: *qituŋ)

biwihlower lip (upper lip: totok) (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

biwihscalloped edge of a cup, etc. (PMP: *birbir₁)

bua buntiscalf of the leg (PWMP: *butiqes)

buaksmall owl named from its call (NOISE)

buatload, freight, cargo; to load, put on freight (PMP: *buhat₃)

bujaŋmarriageable; bachelor, virgin (LOAN)

bukidmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukoknuckle, joint (of ginger, bamboo, sugarcane, etc.) (PMP: *buku)

Ngaju Dayak (220 / 1150)

buko laliŋankle bone (buko = ‘bone’) (PMP: *laliŋ)

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulan bunterfull moon (PMP: *bunter)

bulawgold (PAN: *bulaw)

bulaw tantelohyolk of an egg (PAN: *bulaw)

bulaw uraygold dust (PAN: *bulaw)

bulufur of animals, body hair of humans; feathers; floss on plants or fruits; rice husk after the kernel has been removed (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu-buluabundant, plentiful, of hair (PMP: *bulu bulu) *bulu₁

bulusbare part of a tree stem from the base to the first branches; more particularly the trunks of palm trees (LOAN)

bulusbare part of a tree stem from the base to the first branches; more particularly the trunks of palm trees (NOISE)

bulutfiber, filament (PMP: *bulut₁) *bulut

bumbonsomething (stick, twig, etc.) that one conceals under the water and another dives to look for (a sport) (PMP: *bunbun)

bumboŋyoung tender leaves (as young jackfruit leaves used in broth); heart leaves (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₃)

bunoblood feud (in which one avenges a previous murder by the other side); traditionally such feuds passed on to the children of one's children, until they finally were ended by a great basara, investigation (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunottree with very thick trunk, bearing an edible ridged, green, sour fruit the size of a fist (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buntala cartilaginous fish (without bones) which can inflate itself into a globe; it is edible, but the gall can be fatal (PMP: *buntal)

bunterround (as a circle, a bullet) (PMP: *bunter)

buntila sack of coarse, thick material, used on journeys (PWMP: *buntil)

buntisleg between knee and foot (PWMP: *butiqes)

buntutstinger (of bee, scorpion, etc.) (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

Ngaju Dayak (240 / 1150)

buŋkarunpacked (of a chest), unloaded (of a boat) (PMP: *buŋkaR)

buŋkar, uŋkarunpack (a chest), unload (a boat) (NOISE)

buŋkokcrop (of birds and people); with reference to people not only a natural anatomical structure, but any swelling or tumor on the neck, especially a goiter (PWMP: *buŋkug)

buŋkol(in counting) a ball (of yarn, etc.) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋkusbundle (of faggots, etc.); bandaged, of wounds (PWMP: *buŋkus)

burakbeating (of the heart, the breast, as when startled or alarmed) (PWMP: *bundak)

burefoam (of breakers, in cooking, etc.) (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

bure-bureto foam (as a person who becomes so angry that he foams at the mouth) (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

buriŋcharcoal; soot (PWMP: *budiŋ)

buriŋcharcoal, soot; black, smudged (PWMP: *buriŋ)

buruŋbird; man's name (LOAN)

buruthernia (LOAN)

buruthernia (NOISE)

busoksmall black beetle no larger than a small ant which causes great damage in timber beams, rice, etc. (PMP: *busuk)

busoŋsandbank (above or below the water); shallows, shoal (PWMP: *busuŋ)

buteblind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butihwart (PMP: *buteliR)

butolaverse, unwilling, reluctant; idle, dawdling, slow (PWMP: *butul)

butontree with thorny trunk, red bast fibers, and hard durable wood (PMP: *butun)

buyaŋEuropean playing cards (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (260 / 1150)

buyutkind of thorny creeper the thickness of a finger; its root bears two or three edible yellow tubers the thickness of an arm (NOISE)

dadaptree of middling size with beautiful red blossoms; cuttings placed in the earth grow easily and quickly; commonly planted around springs, etc. to prevent erosion of the banks (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dahablood (PAN: *daRaq)

daha-dahato bleed a little (PMP: *daRa-daRaq) *daRaq

dakiwhat is climbed (mountain, other things) (PAN: *dakiS)

dampahflat, level (of roofs) (PMP: *dapaR)

dana-danawlike a lake, entirely covered with water (as a field, etc.) (PAN: *danaw)

danawlake (must be at least 500 feet long; smaller ones are talaga) (PAN: *danaw)

danumwater; juice (of fruits, sugarcane, etc.) (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dapoh-anhearth, cooking place (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

daremfever (PAN: *dajem)

dawenleaf (of plants, tree, table, rudder) (PMP: *dahun)

dehesstrong flow (PMP: *deRes)

deŋenand, with, next to; for; sign of the dative (PWMP: *deŋen)

depæfathom (PMP: *depa)

dindiŋwall, screen, curtain, cover (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

duætwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duæ-duæboth (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

duæ-ireciprocal term used by men who have married two sisters, or by women who have married two brothers (PWMP: *duha-i) *duSa

duhithorn (of tree or plant) (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

Ngaju Dayak (280 / 1150)

entawhat is eaten alone (as fish without rice or vegetables) (PAN: *qetaq)

eñohcoconut palm and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

etekpresumption, suspicion; opinion (NOISE)

gagedekfull, of sails (ROOT)

gakthud (as of a fist striking an object, something falling) (ROOT)

galiŋturn over, revolve (PWMP: *galiŋ)

gambirgambier, plant chewed with betel (LOAN)

garetekknocking, sound of knocking (ROOT)

garuntaŋscarecrow, noise-making device in the fields to frighten off pigs, deer, etc. (ROOT)

garuntoŋthunder (ROOT)

garuswhat is scratched; scribble, scrawl, scratch (PMP: *garus)

garutkind of oyster used as a scraper (as in scraping coconut meat from the shell); what is scraped or rasped (PMP: *garut) *garuC

garutoksound of rudder striking against boat (ROOT)

garutoksound of rudder striking against boat (ROOT)

gatelthe itch; what causes itching; indecency, lack of chastity (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

genepeach, every; full, complete (PWMP: *genep)

genep andawevery day, daily (PWMP: *genep)

geŋgong, the sound of the garantong (copper kettle drum); reverberating (PMP: *geŋ)

geŋgong, sound of the garantoŋ (copper kettledrum) (LOAN)

gesplopping sound (as made by someone hitting something with the fist, or something falling) (PWMP: *ges)

Ngaju Dayak (300 / 1150)

getuswhat is broken or torn (string, strap, rattan) (PWMP: *getus)

getuswhat is broken or torn (string, strap, rattan) (ROOT)

gilapwhat is polished or whetted (PMP: *gilap)

giliŋshaking or turning of the head; what is wrapped up or rolled together (PMP: *giliŋ)

giliŋ-anwinch, windlass, reel (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

giniŋshine, sparkle (ROOT)

gumibeard, hair, whiskers of a cat, etc., feelers of insects (PWMP: *gumi)

guntiŋ ~ kuntíŋwhat is cut (with scissors) (LOAN)

ha-asi-asioften pitying, always pitying, etc. (PMP: *qasiq)

ha-betauhave a sister (PMP: *betaw)

ha-bineifemale, feminine; wife (PAN: *b<in>ahi) *bahi

ha-bukitmountainous (PAN: *bukij)

ha-buntilhave or use a travel bag (PWMP: *buntil)

ha-buriŋhave carbon or soot; sooty, blacken one another, to smudge or smear (PWMP: *budiŋ)

ha-danumfull of water (as a field or boat); juicy (of fruits) (PMP: *danum) *daNum

ha-haŋitsmell of burnt rice, flesh, etc. (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

ha-heñekpress down a little (as clothes in a chest) (PMP: *qeñek)

ha-itikraise ducks, keep ducks (PWMP: *itik₂)

ha-jaranhorse (found only Southeast of Banjarmasin) (LOAN)

ha-johohaving broth, sap or milk (PMP: *zuRuq)

Ngaju Dayak (320 / 1150)

ha-kawanstay together in herds (PWMP: *kaban₁)

hakitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

hala-manteksmall black leech that lives on trees (PMP: *qala-matek) *-matek

ha-liaŋlive in a hole or cavity (PMP: *liaŋ)

ha-liasfull of nits (of the hair) (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

ha-lu-luaspit out repeatedly (PMP: *luaq)

ha-luntohto cook (in water) (PWMP: *lutuq)

(h)amakmat (of rattan, reeds, etc.) (PWMP: *hamak)

hamba-rua-nsoul, life-force, the body-animating spirit of humans and animals that after death lives on as liau (ghost) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

hambawaŋtree which bears a sour fruit resembling the mango (PWMP: *qambawaŋ)

hambiæsago palm (PMP: *Rambia)

(h)ampalitter or refuse (dirt, grass, wood chips, etc.) (PWMP: *qepah)

hampalammango tree and fruit (LOAN)

ham-patuŋwooden or clay images of people, animals, etc. (LOAN)

hampelasgeneric for trees and vines the dried leaves of which are very sharp and rough, and are so used by the Dayaks to sand or polish woodwork, knife handles, etc. (PWMP: *qampelas)

hampelasgeneric for trees and creepers with leaves that when dried are very sharp, coarse and tough, so that they are used by the Dayaks for sanding woodwork, darts, knife handles, etc. (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

ha-naŋoyto swim (PWMP: *taŋuy)

hanawpalm sp.; its pith is boiled down to obtain a red sugar, and its bast used to make cordage (PWMP: *qanahaw)

han-dalemdeep (water, river); hole in wood, wound; jealous (PMP: *dalem)

han-errepugnant odor of fish, frogs or blood (NOISE)

Ngaju Dayak (340 / 1150)

hanter-anlead, guide, deliver (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

hantimonthe ordinary cucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

han-tisto drip, leak through (PMP: *tiRis)

hantucorpse, carcass (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hantu bantas, hantu baranak, hantu barunovarious kinds of evil spirits (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hantu-envery frightening being which causes all kinds of sicknesses. It is a person who after his death becomes a hantuen (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hañicourage, valor, daring (PMP: *baRani)

hañutbe carried away (by water); deep (of sleep) (PAN: *qañud)

(h)aŋaŋbarking of a dog (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ)

haŋgutwhat is pulled out (grass, post, person from the water, etc.) (Also Singhi Land Dayak aŋgut 'tweezers') (ROOT)

hapitpinched, pressed; long pieces of split bamboo, etc. that are used to fasten together the thatch of walls and roofs from both sides (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

harenepsink, descend (ROOT)

harimauŋleopard (PWMP: *qari-maquŋ)

hariscut, slice (PMP: *hiras)

ha-sabokwear a sabok (of men) (LOAN)

ha-sa-selatoften pass between (PWMP: *selat)

ha-sawutfibrous (PWMP: *sabut)

h-asepto smoke (PWMP: *asep)

ha-sindirmock one another (LOAN)

ha-ta-likutturn one’s back to someone (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

Ngaju Dayak (360 / 1150)

(h)atohreflection, consideration; advice, counsel (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

(h)atohreflection, consideration; advice, counsel (LOAN)

(h)atoraccusation; treachery (LOAN)

ha-turodrip through (PAN: *tuduq)

haurkind of thick, smooth bamboo with long, narrow leaves, and only small cavities inside (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

haurbamboo (generic) (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

hausdesire, long for something (including water) (LOAN)

hayapfainting spell (NOISE)

hejannotched log ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

hekakchoking, strangling (PMP: *qekak)

helaŋspace between; between (of space and time) (PMP: *qelaŋ)

helatinterval; between (of space and time) (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

hentekstrike, strike against (PMP: *qentek)

hentekwhat is struck, be struck against (ROOT)

heñekwhat is pressed down (PMP: *qeñek)

heŋgauntil, up to, as far as; aim, object (PWMP: *qeŋgah)

heremto brood, of a hen (PWMP: *qerem)

hetescutting through (of rope, rattan, etc.) (PMP: *qetes)

hicry of pain, etc. (PMP: *qi₁)

hiaŋgrandfather (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

Ngaju Dayak (380 / 1150)

hiauthe call, sound produced by animals or birds (PAN: *qiaw)

hiketclose together (ROOT)

hindemimage that is unclear because of distance or darkness (PWMP: *qidem)

hindemimage that is unclear because of distance or darkness (PWMP: *qi(n)dem)

hintandiamond (LOAN)

hiŋgaaim, goal, limit; way, manner; until, as far as (PMP: *qiŋga)

hiri-hirienvious, jealous (PWMP: *qiRih)

hirislong, thin strip (as of flesh); cut in long, thin strips (PMP: *qiris)

hoiexclamation with which one calls someone (PMP: *huy)

(h)ujanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

hujoŋcape of land which projects seaward (PMP: *quzuŋ)

huloupper course (of a river), on the upper part (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

(h)ulohlower or let down, as on a rope (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

hulokbay, gulf (ROOT)

humahouse (the large, permanent dwelling houses in villages) (PAN: *Rumaq)

h<um>anto eat (of people or animals) (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

(h)umpanbait used to catch fish (PMP: *qumpan)

(h)undaŋshrimp, lobster (PAN: *qudaŋ)

(h)upahwages, payment; rent (PMP: *upaq)

(h)uraicome apart, undone; loose, slack, hanging down (PWMP: *quray)

Ngaju Dayak (400 / 1150)

hutanwild (of animals) (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

(h)utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

huyoŋaslant, tilted, as a house that has been battered by a storm (PMP: *huyuŋ)

iapcurse (spoken by an elder against a younger person) (NOISE)

ihikwhat is trodden upon (rice, in threshing) (PAN: *iRik)

ihopwhat is drunk; be drunk by someone (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

ikal-ikalcurly (of the hair) (PWMP: *ikel)

i-kaw2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

ikisscrape, grate (ROOT)

ikohtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ikutbe subjugated (PMP: *ikut)

impalie in wait for, ambush (PMP: *hipaʔ)

imponwhat is gathered (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

inda-ŋmother (PWMP: *inda₂)

indumother; a ghostly woman who plagues small children so that they cry often; she is then given a fowl in offering (PWMP: *indu)

injamborrow, lend (PWMP: *hinzam)

iŋatthinking, recollection, caution, awareness (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋkaŋstep, pace, stride (PWMP: *iŋkaŋ)

ira-iraŋbright red (PWMP: *iraŋ₁)

isinterjection: phooey! (PMP: *qis)

Ngaju Dayak (420 / 1150)

isiflesh (of humans, animals, fruits); blade (of knife, dagger, etc.) (PAN: *isiʔ)

isuta little; short time (PWMP: *isut₁)

isutwhat is scrubbed or scoured (PWMP: *isut₂)

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

itikduck (PWMP: *itik₂)

itoŋwhat is calculated, charged (PWMP: *qituŋ)

iwæhsaliva (in the mouth; saliva that has been spat out is luja) (PMP: *ibeR)

iwæh-iwæhdrool profusely (as a dog after running in the hunt) (PWMP: *ibeR ibeR) *ibeR

iwanhusband's sister, brother's wife (PMP: *ibah-an) *ibaS

ja-jukoŋa dugout made from a tree trunk and tapered at both front and back (LOAN)

jariŋa 100-300 foot long cord from which a quantity of nooses are hung down to the near ground level, and into which wild animals are driven with the help of hunting dogs (PMP: *zariŋ)

jawæa plant resembling sugarcane but smaller, only about one finger thick, with many stalks that support grain in a black hull; the curved grains are somewhat smaller than rice grains, and are eaten cooked, having a taste somewhat like rice, but greasier; in central Borneo jawæ is often planted as a substitute for rice (PAN: *zawa₂)

jejelmaterial used for stopping something up (PWMP: *zelzel)

jeleya plant similar to millet, but with larger grains that are round and yellowish (PMP: *zelay)

jiŋketfit snugly (clothes) (ROOT)

johobroth of meat or fish; sap, juice, fluid, liquid (PMP: *zuRuq)

jualwhat is sold; the price (LOAN)

jual-jalaoften sold (LOAN)

jukotbent, hunched over (people, animals) (ROOT)

julokbe escorted, brought to a place (NOISE)

Ngaju Dayak (440 / 1150)

jumputpick up, take (LOAN)

juru ~ johohaughtiness, arrogance (NOISE)

ka-awitbe bent or curved (PAN: *kawit)

kabal ~ gabalthick-skinned so that one is not harmed by blows (PWMP: *kabal₂)

ka-besohbe satiated (PMP: *ka-besuR) *besuR

ka-bew-anstench (as from an ulceration) (PWMP: *ka-bahu-an) *bahu

ka-bidaŋa piece (of leaf matting, plank), used in counting (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

ka-bindaŋnumeral classifier for counting large pieces of wood or logs (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

ka-burowhat is driven off or away (LOAN)

ka-burowhat is chased away, driven away (NOISE)

ka-buteblindness (PWMP: *ka-buta) *buCa

ka-daha-dahato bleed continuously (PMP: *daRa-daRaq) *daRaq

ka-dampahflatness (PMP: *dapaR)

kahemsink, be demolished, be spoiled or destroyed (PWMP: *kaRem)

ka-isirichness, wealth (PMP: *ka-isiʔ) *isiʔ

ka-isut, k-isutthe least (PWMP: *ka-isut) *isut₁

ka-iwehthe flowing of saliva (PWMP: *ka-ibeR) *ibeR

ka-iweh-iwehflow continuously, of the saliva (PWMP: *ka-ibeR ibeR) *ibeR

kajaŋpalm leaf mats used as house walling and awnings in boats (PMP: *kazaŋ₂)

kajilearning, study (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (460 / 1150)

kakraven (PMP: *hekak) *Sekak

kakaelder sibling of the same sex (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

ka-kaiin this way, thus (LOAN)

kakaleager, ardent, zealous; untiring (NOISE)

kakasscratching, scraping; what is scratched or scraped off (in the earth) (PMP: *kaskas₃)

ka-kirikitchy (PMP: *kirik)

ka-kupobutterfly (generic; most butterflies lack specific names) (LOAN)

kakus-ana triangular basket woven of rattan in which rice is cooked in a pot by steaming (PWMP: *kuskus-an₂) *kuskus₁

kakus-anfunnel-shaped basket woven of rattan in which rice in a large pot is steamed (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kalascorpion (LOAN)

ka-labihexcess, surplus (PAN: *labiq)

k-alahlose, be overcome (PWMP: *ka-alaq) *alaq₂

kalamwaning of the moon (PAN: *kelem)

kalan-tohaoverripe (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

kala-papatree with durable wood used for knife handles, rudders, etc.; the long-burning coals are used in the smelting of gold and copper, and the young leaves as a simple in the treatment of eye inflammations (PMP: *pa(m)pa)

ka-lautfrom beyond the shores, foreign (PWMP: *ka-lahud) *lahud

ka-limæfive days (PWMP: *ka-lima) *lima

ka-lindoŋprotection, shelter; be sheltered (PAN: *liduŋ)

k<al>ukupcover, coating; lid (PWMP: *kubkub₂)

ka-matætype, kind of (PMP: *ka-mata) *maCa

Ngaju Dayak (480 / 1150)

ka-matäythose that have died (plants, etc.) (PWMP: *ka-m-atay) *aCay

kambaŋflower, blossom (LOAN)

kambiŋgoat (rarely encountererd) (LOAN)

kampila pouch woven of leaves and used mostly to carry copper money (PWMP: *kampil)

kampoŋ(often intensified by kawalafter it), be under the control of a chief (LOAN)

kamuniŋinterior forest tree with beautiful yellow wood (LOAN)

kanaŋatree with fragrant blossoms from which an odorous yellowish oil is extracted (PMP: *kanaŋa)

kanaspineapple (LOAN)

kancaŋtenseness; be stretched taut (LOAN)

kanciŋbutton, buckle, clasp; bolt (LOAN)

kan-dalemthe depths, profundity (PMP: *dalem)

kandaŋa stall, stable, a place that is fenced in (PWMP: *kandaŋ)

kaniŋ-anbrass (LOAN)

ka-nipisthinness (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

kantaŋpotato (doesn’t grow in Borneo --- this is a Malay name) (LOAN)

kantihwhat is spun or twined (yarn) (LOAN)

kantoksleep; exhaustion (PWMP: *kantuk)

kantoŋpocket, pouch in clothing (NOISE)

ka-nupi-nupiconstantly confused (PWMP: *nupi)

kaŋabe open (mouth, shellfish) (PMP: *kaŋa)

Ngaju Dayak (500 / 1150)

kaŋkaŋrepeated barking of a young dog (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

kapakbeating, flapping of wings (PMP: *kapak)

kapascotton (especially the fine wooly kind; the coarser type is kapok) (LOAN)

ka-pehawhoarseness (as from a cold, or from speaking loudly for too long) (PWMP: *peRaw)

ka-piræhow many days? (PWMP: *ka-pija) *pijax

kapoktree cotton, the coarser sort used to stuff pillows, etc., the finer sort which is used in spinning: kapas (PWMP: *kapuk)

kaput-anclasp or button with which one fastens a necklace, belt, etc. (PWMP: *kaput-an) *kaput

ka-putiwhite, whiteness, white color (PWMP: *ka-putiq) *putiq

karanjaŋa quarangular basket woven of rattan and used to transport fruit (PWMP: *karanzaŋ)

karaŋwhat is manufactured or composed (puzzles, poetry) (LOAN)

karaŋa round mussel, about two inches long and wide; somewhat coarse or rough, but its flesh is eaten (LOAN)

karisa kind of dagger 10-15 inches in length, with double cutting edges, broad at the handle and sharply pointed (LOAN)

karitcrunching, gnashing of the teeth (PWMP: *kad(e)rit)

karusrustling sound, as in dry leaves (PAN: *kaRus)

ka-sabur-anscattered, dispersed (PWMP: *ka-sabuR-an) *saq(e)buR

ka-salafault, error, mistake; sin (PWMP: *ka-salaq) *salaq₁

kasaysalve, ointment; cosmetic (LOAN)

ka-sayaŋdejection; compassion (PWMP: *ka-sayaŋ) *sayaŋ

k-asimisery; unfortunate situation (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

kasiŋrepulsive odor (used mostly of cat urine and rotted tobacco) (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (520 / 1150)

ka-sisitthe sound produced by someone who exhales strongly through the closed teeth (when in pain, vexation, etc.) (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

ka-susahwearisome, tiring (LOAN)

ka-tajimpointed, sharp; point of something (PMP: *tazim)

katamwood plane; what is planed or smoothed (LOAN)

ka-tauknowledge (PWMP: *ka-taqu₁) *Caqu

katilbench (LOAN)

ka-timpaŋlameness; be lame; to limp (PMP: *timpaŋ)

katipthe pinching of crabs (LOAN)

katip jumputfire tongs (LOAN)

ka-tula-tulaŋstanding out, of the bones of a person (PWMP: *ka-tuqela-tuqelaŋ) *tuqelaŋ

ka-uja-ujanoccur in great quantities (PWMP: *ka-quzan) *quzaN

ka-uri-urirconstantly next to one another (PWMP: *ka-hulij) *Sulij

kawahlarge iron cooking pot in which one can cook 15-30 gantangs of rice at once (PWMP: *kawaq)

kawanherd (of animals), flock (of birds), school (of fish); throng, crowd, multitude; species, kind; relationship (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kawatiron or copper wire (LOAN)

kawilwhat is bound together (as a broken rudder that one repairs by boring holes through each piece and fastening them together) (PWMP: *kawil₂)

kawita hook (PAN: *kawit)

kayawheadhunter (PMP: *kayaw) *ŋayaw

kayuwood; tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu-anthicket, woods (PWMP: *kahiw-an) *kaSiw

Ngaju Dayak (540 / 1150)

kayu-n apuyfirewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ke-jaudistant (in space or time); very different (PMP: *zauq)

kelahwhat is torn off; to tear apart (PMP: *kelaq)

kembaŋswollen (as an injured hand) (PWMP: *kembaŋ)

kenabeauty, quickness (PWMP: *kena₂)

kenaŋlonging, yearning; sorrow (LOAN)

kepekflap the wings (PWMP: *kepek)

kepekflap the wings (ROOT)

keterquivering of the chin (PWMP: *keter)

ketutfart (PWMP: *ketut)

kewetthe rising and falling of the chest in breathing (NOISE)

kewutbeating of the pulse or arteries (NOISE)

kijaktread, step (PMP: *ki(n)zak)

kiki-kikiklaugh softly, giggle (PMP: *kikik)

kikisscraped, shaved (PAN: *kiskis)

kilatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

k<in>anbe eaten by someone (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

kiniŋeye (PWMP: *kiniŋ)

kipakflapping of wings (of a bird) (PWMP: *kipak)

kipaywaving, giving a sign with the hand (PWMP: *kipay)

Ngaju Dayak (560 / 1150)

kiraabout, approximately (LOAN)

koksound of sobbing, gulping (PMP: *kuk)

kolok ~ ta-kolokhead; a knob, button, etc. as decoration on a staff, etc. (LOAN)

kotafortification; to fortify (a house, village, etc.) (LOAN)

-kusuffixed 1sg personal or possessive pronoun, I, my (after consonant-final bases) (PAN: *-ku)

kuatstrong (LOAN)

kudoŋleprosy, causing loss of hands and feet (LOAN)

kujohan elongated heap (NOISE)

kukurgrater, rasp (PMP: *kuDkuD)

kukutjoint of the hand (= wrist?) (LOAN)

kuncilock, clasp (LOAN)

kuŋkoŋa neck band with three to five agate stones (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

kuraŋinsufficient, too little; defective, incomplete (LOAN)

kurapscurf, scabies (probably from Banjarese) (PAN: *kurap)

kuriŋblack or red stripes on white; red or white stripes on black (PWMP: *kuriŋ)

kuroŋlocked up, caged in (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

kurusnarrowness in the waist (LOAN)

labi-enmore (PWMP: *labiq-en) *labiq

labihsurplus; more (PMP: *labi)

labihmore (PAN: *labiq)

Ngaju Dayak (580 / 1150)

la(bi)-labiha little more (PAN: *labiq)

la-ladaŋhut or house used for only a short time (NOISE)

lalakstripped of leaves, defoliated; peeled (as a banana, sugarcane) (PWMP: *laklak)

la-laŋitthe ceiling of a room (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lalawpast (of time); exceed, too (PWMP: *lalaw)

la-lawaspider (PWMP: *la-lawaq) *lawaq₂

la-layuwilted a bit (PAN: *layu)

laliniŋstay open (of the eyes), shine (ROOT)

la-luntohvery ripe, overripe (PWMP: *lutuq)

lambatsluggish, indolent; delayed; to drag on; too late (LOAN)

lampayvery long, too long; a tie with which one binds something, or on which one hangs something up (LOAN)

lampitrattan mat used to cover the floor of a house (PWMP: *lampit)

lampuyaŋa plant resembling the kujang (kind of tuber) (PWMP: *lampuyaŋ)

landokcraftiness, deceit (LOAN)

laŋawa fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋaw hantularge gadfly (lit. ‘ghost fly’) (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋitsky; vault of heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkahto transgress (an order, law) (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laŋkawroof (of a boat) (PMP: *laŋkaw)

laŋkuasa plant similar to ginger, but larger and milder in taste than lai, true ginger (PWMP: *laŋkuas)

Ngaju Dayak (600 / 1150)

lapikunderlayer (on which one puts something) (LOAN)

lapisflat (PWMP: *la(m)pis)

lasehfloor (in a house, boat, etc.) (PMP: *saleR)

lautdownstream, seaward; overseas (PAN: *lahud)

lawasmall yellow spider that is eaten, and which tastes like a sea crab; spiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lawayyarn (for sewing or weaving) (PWMP: *labay)

lawitip, end, top (of a tree, etc.) (PWMP: *lawi₂)

layuwithering; what is withered or wilted (PAN: *layu)

leketstuck, firmly fixed; adhere firmly to; retain in one’s memory (PWMP: *leket)

lelepto overflow (PWMP: *lebleb₂)

lepawsmall hut raised on four to six posts that have round, smooth rat guards; rice is stored in the lepaw (PMP: *lepaw₂) *lepaw

liaŋhole or cavity in which crocodiles, snakes and other wild animals stay (PMP: *liaŋ)

liasnit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

likutback (anat.); behind (PAN: *likud)

lilinwax (PMP: *lilin)

limæfive (PAN: *lima)

limæ-limæonly five; all five (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

liŋakwagging of the head from side to side (PMP: *liŋak)

liutbend, curvature; detour; go out of one's way (PWMP: *liut₁)

lulurshin bone (PMP: *luluj)

Ngaju Dayak (620 / 1150)

luneksoft flesh around the seeds (of a jackfruit, rambutan, etc.) (PWMP: *lunek₁)

luntohwhat is cooked (PWMP: *lutuq)

lusekas if blind; asleep (ROOT)

ma-hiaŋred (PWMP: *ma-iraŋ) *iraŋ₁

mahiŋkeplie on the stomach (ROOT)

m-akalcheat, deceive, outwit (LOAN)

ma-laŋawto catch flies (PMP: *laŋaw)

ma-lasehput down a floor, install a floor (PMP: *saleR)

ma-lautleave the coast, put out to sea (PWMP: *ma-lahud) *lahud

ma-luaspit out (PMP: *luaq)

ma-luntohcooked, ripe (PWMP: *ma-lutuq) *lutuq

mamauncle (of someone else; for one’s own uncle the term is ama) (PMP: *mama) *mamah

m-amakfurnish with mats (a house) (PWMP: *hamak)

ma-makpakto slap (PWMP: *ma-makpak) *pakpak₁

ma-malavisible (NOISE)

ma-manahshoot with a bow (PWMP: *ma-manaq) *panaq

ma-maŋgilinvite (LOAN)

ma-maŋkatto stack up (wood) (LOAN)

ma-mapa-mapassweep away a little (PWMP: *paspas₂)

ma-mapanbuild a boat or ship; like a board, i.e. flat, even (PMP: *papan)

Ngaju Dayak (640 / 1150)

ma-marutto rub (body parts, as to relieve pain) (PMP: *parud)

ma-matäyas if dying, half to death (of working hard, etc.) (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

mam-bajisplit with a wedge (LOAN)

mam-bayarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

mam-bukamake known (PMP: *buka)

mam-buriŋto blacken, make something dirty (PWMP: *budiŋ)

ma-mehesto squeeze out (PWMP: *ma-meRes) *peRes

ma-milito buy (PMP: *bili)

ma-mindaŋcut into large pieces (wood, meat, etc.) (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

mampa-layuto wither plants (by a fire) (PAN: *layu)

mampa-nipismake something thin(ner) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

(mam)-pa-taŋisto make someone cry (PMP: *pa-taŋis) *Caŋis

mam-patäykill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

ma-mulutto cook sticky rice and coconut together (PMP: *pulut)

ma-muntermake something round (PMP: *bunter)

ma-mutimake something white, bleach (PWMP: *ma-mutiq) *putiq

ma-nabunitake the afterbirth away (PMP: *tabuni₁)

ma-nahumto dye fabric with this substance (PMP: *taRum)

ma-najimto whet, sharpen (PMP: *tazim)

m-anakbring forth, give birth to, beget; bear interest (PMP: *ma-anak) *aNak

Ngaju Dayak (660 / 1150)

ma-nalimake a string or rope, as for attaching a fishhook (PWMP: *ma-nalih) *CaliS

ma-nanawork in the fields; make a rice field somewhere (PMP: *taneq)

mananakausteal a little (PWMP: *manaŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

ma-nandokto cup with a horn (LOAN)

manantuson in law (LOAN)

ma-nanumfill with water, pour water (PWMP: *ma-nanum) *daNum

manaŋwin, be victorious (LOAN)

ma-naŋkisto parry (PWMP: *taŋkis)

ma-narito hover (LOAN)

ma-nasikgo to sea (PMP: *tasik)

ma-nawanto catch, capture (PWMP: *ma-naban) *tabaN

man-dakito climb (PAN: *dakiS)

man-dalemto deepen, make deeper, as by letting water into a flooded area (PMP: *dalem)

man-dawento leaf out, sprout leaves (PMP: *dahun)

man-deŋankeep company with, accompany (PWMP: *man-deŋan) *deŋan

man-duætwo by two (PWMP: *man-duha) *duSa

ma-nehusvery cold; penetratingly cold (PWMP: *terus)

ma-nekenpropel a boat with a punting pole (PMP: *teken)

ma-neserto dive (PWMP: *sesed)

ma-netekto cut into pieces (PWMP: *ma-nektek) *tektek₁

Ngaju Dayak (680 / 1150)

ma-nikamto stab (said to be from Banjarese) (LOAN)

ma-nindihboast to someone (LOAN)

ma-nipisthin (as a board) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-nisikto scale fish (PMP: *siksik₂)

ma-niwahhold a death feast for someone (LOAN)

man-jariŋto hunt with such a net (PMP: *zariŋ)

man-jualto sell something (LOAN)

man-selatpass between two things (PWMP: *selat)

mantekasquick, speedy, vehement (ROOT)

ma-nulaŋremove the bones from meat or fish (PWMP: *ma-nuqelaŋ) *tuqelaŋ

ma-nuŋkihcut out a large piece (NOISE)

ma-nurodrip through (as water seeping through an old roof) (PWMP: *ma-nuduq) *tuduq

ma-nurustie something to a post so that it remains securely on the water (PMP: *turus)

ma-nusokpenetrate deeply (as a thorn, etc.) (PAN: *suksuk)

ma-nuwæto catch fish with tuwæ (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

(ma)-ñalampayhang over the shoulder (a cloth or something else) (PWMP: *salampay)

ma-ñalaʔaccuse someone (PWMP: *ma-ñalaq) *salaq₁

ma-ñambalmake something into this condiment (LOAN)

ma-ñambutto accept, receive (PWMP: *sambut₂)

ma-ñampantravel in a sampan (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (700 / 1150)

ma-ñantanto press the milk from coconut (LOAN)

ma-ñañaŋfeel or have compassion for someone (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

ma-ñauhlie at anchor (PMP: *sauq₂) *sauq

ma-ñawoŋpit (people) against one another, provoke a fight between other people (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

ma-ñelatbetween two things (PWMP: *selat)

ma-ñikatto brush (PWMP: *sikat)

ma-ñilakto slit or slash (as in clothing) (PWMP: *siqelak)

ma-ñipitto make something narrow (PWMP: *ma-ñipit) *sipit

ma-ñohoto send (persons, things) (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

ma-ñuratto write (LOAN)

ma-ñuruttime when the water is ebbing (LOAN)

ma-ñusahcause trouble, make difficulties for (LOAN)

ma-ñusulto sail against the wind (PMP: *sulsul₁)

ma-ŋa-buroto drive off or away (LOAN)

ma-ŋahemto sink or capsize something; to despoil; destroy, demolish (PWMP: *ma-ŋaRem) *kaRem

ma-ŋampoŋto be a chief over someone, rule someone as a chief (LOAN)

maŋ-antapluck while unripe (PWMP: *maŋ-hataq) *hataq

maŋ-antapluck while unripe (PWMP: *maŋ-qataq) *qataq

maŋ-antihto spin, twine (LOAN)

ma-ŋañawgo headhunting (PMP: *ma-ŋáyaw) *ŋayaw

Ngaju Dayak (720 / 1150)

ma-ŋañuto gather firewood (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

ma-ŋa(ñu)-ŋañuto gather a little firewood (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

m-aŋaŋto bark, of a dog (PAN: *q<um>aŋqaŋ) *qaŋqaŋ

ma-ŋa-ŋawanbe together in little bands (PWMP: *kaban₁)

maŋ-asarub, grate, grind against one another (as two knives) (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

ma-ŋawitto hook something, draw something with a hook (PWMP: *ma-ŋawit) *kawit

ma-ŋenaadorn oneself, dress oneself up beautifully; court someone by dressing up in one’s best (PWMP: *kena₂)

ma-ŋetutto fart (PWMP: *ketut)

maŋ-garutto scrape, scratch, rasp (PMP: *garut) *garuC

maŋ-gatelcause an itch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

maŋ-genepto complete, fulfill (PWMP: *genep)

maŋ-giliŋshake the head; turn a winch (PWMP: *maŋ-giliŋ) *giliŋ

ma-ŋilatto gleam, flash, of lightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

maŋka-humahave a house somewhere, reside (PAN: *Rumaq)

ma-ŋukurto grate, to rasp (PMP: *kuDkuD)

ma-ŋ<um>anto eat (animals), to corrode, to spread, as an abscess (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

m-arakmake rice wine (LOAN)

ma-rakahto open (flowers, buds) (PMP: *rakaq)

mariraŋsulphur (used externally as medicine against scurf and vermin) (PMP: *maliraŋ)

mariraŋsulphur (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (740 / 1150)

m-asemsour; unfriendly (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

masokenter, go into (PMP: *p<um>asuk) *pasuk

matæeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matæ-matæremain open, of a wound (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-n andawsun (‘eye of the day’); kind of tree (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata-n kanasspots on a pineapple (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m-atäydie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

m-atohconsider; give advice; arrange, put in order (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

m-atohconsider, give advice, put in order (LOAN)

menakausteal, steal from; clandestine (PWMP: *maŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

me-nelento swallow something (PMP: *telen)

meñakbe fat (people, animals, food) (PMP: *meñak)

m-iriŋfollow, follow after (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

m-isihave flesh (PWMP: *maR-isiʔ) *isiʔ

m-isut, ma-m-isutalways only a little bit (in giving, receiving, etc.) (PWMP: *ma-isut) *isut₁

m-iwæhused after mipen 'desire' to add emphasis (PWMP: *ma-ibeR) *ibeR

m-udaunripe (fruit), young wood) (PWMP: *ma-ibeR) *ibeR

mudaunripe (fruit), young wood) (PMP: *muda)

m-ujanto rain with, fall in quantities (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

mumboŋput out young leaves (of trees, etc.) (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₃)

Ngaju Dayak (760 / 1150)

m-untekremove the marrow from bones (PMP: *hutek)

musatpale (rarely used alone, and often added for further emphasis after kalas ‘pale’) (LOAN)

m-utato vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

nam-buñireport confidentially, communicate to (PMP: *buñi)

nanteŋokdrink water (ROOT)

nupia dream; to dream (PWMP: *nupi)

ñahæbrother (a woman calls her brother thus) (PMP: *ñaRa)

ñalin-anto transfer from one vessel to another; to translate or interpret (PWMP: *salin)

ñamukmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ñatotree from which latex is extracted (PMP: *ñatuq)

ñilopain in the joints, arthritis (PMP: *ñilu)

-ŋkusuffixed 1sg personal or possessive pronoun, I, my (after vowel-final bases) (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

ŋoksound of swallowing (ROOT)

obahchange, to change (LOAN)

oiyo! (answer when one is called) (PMP: *uy)

olo lautpeople from across the sea (PAN: *lahud)

olo paŋgilthe guests who are invited to a feast (LOAN)

olo to olo buruŋthe man is a bird-man (i.e. a constantly roaming man) (LOAN)

owangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

owiedible tuber with blackish skin and white flesh -- can grow as big around as a man's head (PMP: *qubi)

Ngaju Dayak (780 / 1150)

pa-asimerciful, compassionate, helpful (PWMP: *pa-qasiq) *qasiq

padaŋa large treeless plain overgrown with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) (PWMP: *padaŋ)

padaŋsword (< Banjarese) (LOAN)

pagaŋwhat one has control of; property, ownership (LOAN)

pagar, pagerfence, hedge (PMP: *pager)

pah-arisibling of the same sex (PWMP: *paR-huaji) *Suaji

paheshelf over the hearth where firewood is placed to dry (PAN: *paRa₁)

pahistingray (skin used as a rasp or grater, and in polishing rough surfaces) (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pakay-anclothing (including ornamentation) (LOAN)

pakuiron nail (wooden nail: pasak) (LOAN)

palakuan aseŋ panjaŋask for a long breath (life) (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

pa-la-layumake something wither a little (PWMP: *pa-layu) *layu

palaŋisilk material much used for shawls (LOAN)

palaŋkaframe in the form of a bedstead decorated with carved designs, esp. of birds on which offerings to the spirits are placed; also a framework in the front of a boat where the leader of a war party sits (LOAN)

palapahpalm frond, banana leaf, taro leaf (PMP: *palaqpaq)

palinot allowed, forbidden (PAN: *paliSi)

palissign of bad luck to come (PWMP: *palis₂)

palitawick of a lamp (LOAN)

pampaŋthe ends of the antlers of deer; more generally the ends of anything similar; raised part, excrescence on something else (NOISE)

pa-muatthat which is always loaded or burdened (PMP: *buhat₃)

Ngaju Dayak (800 / 1150)

pa-munterfull (of the moon) (PMP: *bunter)

panaia crude earthenware bowl (PMP: *panay)

p-anak-anchildren, descendants (PWMP: *pa-anak-an) *aNak

panakauthievish, stealing inveterately (PMP: *paŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

pa-naliwhat is often used to make rope (PWMP: *pa-nalih) *CaliS

pa-naŋisprone to crying; one who cries easily (PWMP: *pa-naŋis) *Caŋis

pa-naŋkiswhat is often or always parried (PWMP: *taŋkis)

pandakshort in height, as a person (PMP: *pandak)

pandayartisan, skilled craftsman (LOAN)

pa-nohondescent, stock (PMP: *tuRun₁)

pantasbeautiful; well; graceful (LOAN)

pantikspines on certain kinds of fish (LOAN)

pa-nulaŋremove the bones from meat or fish (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

paŋpopping, to pop (as when one pulls a cork from a bottle); sound of fingers snapping, tongue clacking (PMP: *paŋ)

pa-ŋañuone who likes to gather firewood (PWMP: *pa-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

paŋgaŋanything roasted on a gridiron; to roast on a gridiron (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgawachief, leader (LOAN)

paŋ-giliŋa block on which one rolls something (PWMP: *paŋ-giliŋ) *giliŋ

paŋikind of mango tree and its fruit, which has an exceptionally thick skin (PWMP: *paŋi)

paŋkatwood in stacks (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (820 / 1150)

p-aŋkitbiting, to bite (as a dog) (PMP: *a(ŋ)kit)

paŋkitto bite (ROOT)

paŋkuput into one’s lap (PWMP: *paŋku)

pa-ŋ<um>anwhat always spreads, “eats” up a wider area (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

papaka slap (PAN: *pakpak₁)

papanboard, plank (PMP: *papan)

papan batua thin flat stone or a thin, flat piece of iron (PMP: *papan)

papasbroom; what is swept (PWMP: *paspas₂)

pa-pikok, piko-pikokcrooked, bent (PMP: *pi(ŋ)kuk)

pa-purorbrought together in quantity or heaps (NOISE)

pa-putiwhitish (PMP: *putiq)

paraŋsaw of a sawfish (LOAN)

paraŋwar; fight with one another (LOAN)

parassmooth, even, level (PWMP: *paras₁)

pariamataboo word for "star" (PWMP: *pariama)

pasakwooden nail, dowel; what is fastened together with dowels (PAN: *pacek)

pasaŋflood tide (opposite of ebb tide) (PWMP: *pasaŋ₄)

pa-sawato marry off, as a father marrying off his son (PMP: *pa-qasawa) *qasawa

pasolarge pot or jar (LOAN)

p-atäidead person (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

Ngaju Dayak (840 / 1150)

patibox, chest; drum (LOAN)

patokbiting, pecking (as cocks pecking one another) (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

pa-tuŋgulflag, banner (LOAN)

patutwhat must be done, what is proper or seemly (LOAN)

payahAch! (expression of complaint) (PWMP: *payaq)

payoeasily sold (PWMP: *payu)

payoŋnative umbrella or parasol (PWMP: *payuŋ)

pegaŋpossessions (LOAN)

pehesa press (used to squeeze something out); what is squeezed out (PAN: *peRes)

pehona pile of wood that someone wants to burn (LOAN)

peŋ-anaka smaller thing on or in a larger one (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

peressickness (PMP: *hapejes)

perogall (PAN: *qapeju)

pesekpierced (esp. of ears, nose) (ROOT)

pijaktreading, stepping on; push with the foot (PWMP: *pizak)

pijara patch (said to be from Banjarese Malay) (LOAN)

pikulcarrying pole; be carried by carrying pole; a weight, 100 kati, about 110 pounds (LOAN)

pila-pilakshiny (used only of gold and silver) (ROOT)

pintaltwisted together (PWMP: *pintal)

pintarclever, intelligent; judicious; sly, crafty (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (860 / 1150)

pipithe cheeks (of people and animals) (PAN: *pipi₁)

pipiscylindrical roller for crushing foodstuffs fine (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

piræhow many? (PAN: *pijax)

piræ-piræas much as, as many as (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

pisaŋbanana tree and fruit (LOAN)

pitakthe individual compartments in a boat (PWMP: *pitak₂)

podoksmall house or hut used only for short periods (as when in the forest collecting rattan, hunting, etc.) (LOAN)

poksplash softly (PMP: *puk₂) *puk

potoŋwhat is cut off or deducted (PWMP: *putuŋ₂)

pugutto have lost the end or point (hair, grass, leaves, fabric), torn on the side, eaten off, as grass that has lost its tips after being eaten by deer (PWMP: *pugut)

pukifemale genitalia (PAN: *puki)

pulaŋbe repeated, done again (PWMP: *pulaŋ)

pulawisland (LOAN)

pulestwisting, twining; twisted, twined (PMP: *pules)

puluta type of rice; the plant is taller than ordinary rice, the grains are thicker and rounder, and when cooked it is stickier than ordinary rice (PMP: *pulut)

pumpuŋwhat is gathered or brought together (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₂)

punaoriginal, primary (PMP: *puna₂) *puna

punæykind of wild dove, a little smaller than the ordinary house dove; the back and legs are red, the breast green, and the upper body brownish-gray (PAN: *punay)

puŋgelpiece (of something broken) (PWMP: *puŋgel)

puŋgoŋthe elevation of projecting bones, as on the back of a chicken, at the rear of the back of a buffalo, etc. (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (880 / 1150)

pusacat (tame and wild) (LOAN)

pusernavel (PMP: *pusej)

putatname of a tree; sap pressed from the bast fiber is used to make a soap (PMP: *putat)

putiwhite; whiteness, white color (PMP: *putiq)

putusbroken off, come to an end (PWMP: *putus₂)

raburto melt iron ore to extract the iron (LOAN)

rambarnumeral classifier (for hair, leaves, paper, mats, material, fields (LOAN)

raŋclashing, clacking (as when a cup breaks or two cups strike together) (PWMP: *raŋ)

raŋa-raŋapopen (mouths of crocodiles, etc.) (ROOT)

rapakwhat is broken or torn off (branches of trees, etc.) (ROOT)

ra- reŋek ~ reŋe-reŋekshort (of the neck) (NEAR)

ruaroutside (PMP: *luqar)

saboka kind of undergarment worn by men (LOAN)

sa-buayabenevolent creatures that reside somewhere over the sea of fog in Heaven (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

sa-bulukind of tall bamboo (PAN: *buluq₂)

sadaŋmoderate, reasonable (LOAN)

sahaŋSpanish pepper, much used by the Dayaks as both food and medicine; there are various kinds of sahaŋ (NOISE)

sahepfallen leaves, both fresh and dry (these quickly rot and turn to soil) (NOISE)

sakasmall ditches from a river leading onto the land (NOISE)

sakæyto climb, ascend (PMP: *sakay₄)

Ngaju Dayak (900 / 1150)

sakiŋkiŋcontinuous barking (ROOT)

sakuŋ-koŋroar (of tigers, etc.) (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁)

salawrong, incorrect, in error, mistaken (PMP: *salaq₁)

sala baraexcept, outside of (PMP: *salaq₁)

salampaycloth that is worn around the neck or hanging from the shoulder (PWMP: *salampay)

salentaka click of the tongue (PWMP: *sale(n)tek)

salin-anwhat is transferred (from one vessel into another); what is translated (from one language to another) (PWMP: *salin)

salumboŋa thimble (LOAN)

samaalike, same; in agreement; all, entire; communally (PWMP: *sama)

samara sickness that comes about because one has eaten something that is prohibited or taboo; soiled, defiled, polluted (LOAN)

sambalcondiment with rice, various fruits, vegetables, etc., raw or cooked, thoroughly mixed with salt and Spanish pepper (LOAN)

sambalihslit the throat of a sacrificial animal (LOAN)

samburspray out (water from the mouth) (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

sambutbe received or welcomed (PWMP: *sambut₂)

sampana boat that accompanies a larger ship (LOAN)

sampay-ana rope, pole, etc. on which one hangs something (PMP: *sampay-an) *sapay

sanaŋquiet, still, calm, secure, at ease (LOAN)

santagigold or silver plate in a half-moon shape that is worn against the breast on a neckband of agate stones (LOAN)

santanmilk pressed from shredded coconut (from which coconut oil is cooked out) (LOAN)

saŋgahwhat is leaned against; give support to; render aid to someone (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

Ngaju Dayak (920 / 1150)

saŋ-iaŋgood beings that live above the cloud sea somewhere in the sky (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

saŋkalana chopping block on which one minces meat or fish (PWMP: *saŋkalan)

sapaabuse, scolding; cursed by an oath (PWMP: *sapaq₂)

sapawroof (PAN: *sapaw)

sapihin accordance, just so, like (PWMP: *sapiq)

saputburial shroud (most Dayaks create their burial shrouds while they are still living) (PMP: *saput₁)

sarakcomb with widely separated teeth (PWMP: *sarak)

sarakcomb with widely separated teeth (LOAN)

sarambian extension in front of or behind a house (on the side it is called suŋkiŋ) (PWMP: *surambi)

saraŋbirdnest; not eaten by the Dayaks, but sold to the Chinese; the Dayaks use it as medicine or as a talisman against all sorts of childhood illnesses (LOAN)

sasalregret; remorse; repentance; vexation (PWMP: *selsel₂)

sa-sikocarpenter’s square (PAN: *sikux)

sauhanchor (of wood) (PMP: *sauq₂) *sauq

sawaewife; marriage (from the man's perspective) (PAN: *qasawa)

sawarscattered, of seeds that are planted in the holes made with a dibble stick (NOISE)

sawutthe fibrous material found around coconuts and areca nuts, used in scrubbing, kindling fires, etc.; also the fibrous material found around the single large seed of some fruits (as mangos) (PWMP: *sabut)

sayaŋwhat a pity! what a shame! (PWMP: *sayaŋ)

sayatcutting; what is cut to pieces (PWMP: *sayat)

sehæimeat or fish roasted over coals (NOISE)

selatable to go through a passage (PWMP: *selat)

Ngaju Dayak (940 / 1150)

sembahoffer one’s humble veneration (by making a deep bow with palms pressed together and elbows extended out; also by kneeling and touching someone’s feet) (LOAN)

səmpit-anbung hole (PMP: *sumpit)

sendokspoon, and especially one used as a scoop in dishing out food (PWMP: *senduk)

sepaka rattan ball about the size of a coconut; one throws it in the air, and then in competition must try to keep it aloft with either hands or feet, not letting it touch the ground (LOAN)

serokcorner, angle (PWMP: *seruk)

sewutfame, renown (NOISE)

siaksavagery, fury, rage (NOISE)

sidaŋ ~ siraŋoblique, slanting (as something that was cut at an oblique angle) (NOISE)

sikata brush (PWMP: *sikat)

sikoelbow; like an elbow (that is, bent) (PAN: *sikux)

sikokstiff and bent (of the arm through arthritis, etc.) (PMP: *si(ŋ)kuk)

silawhat is split off; part (PWMP: *sila₂)

silaka tear or slit (in clothing) (PWMP: *siqelak)

silihdebt (LOAN)

silofingernail, toenail (of humans), claw (of cat, dog, bird, etc.) (PWMP: *silu₂)

simpaŋfork (not used, however, by the Dayaks); a five-pointed spear used in spear fishing (PMP: *simpaŋ)

sindirmockery, ridicule, derision (LOAN)

sintaka jerk (when pulling something) (PWMP: *sintak)

siŋahtorch, a burning piece of wood with which one illuminates the night (PMP: *siŋaR)

siŋerpenalty, fine (PWMP: *siŋir)

Ngaju Dayak (960 / 1150)

siŋkapseized, grasped (LOAN)

siŋketfit well (clothes) (PMP: *si(ŋ)ket)

sipatmeasuring line (PWMP: *sipat)

sipi-sipitrather narrow (PAN: *sipit)

sipitnarrow (of a place, path, river, house) (PAN: *sipit)

siramwhat is sprinkled (said to be from Malay) (LOAN)

siratwhat is bound or woven tightly (LOAN)

sirihbetel leaves (LOAN)

sisirabdominal fins of a fish (PMP: *sisir)

sohoemissary; order, command; be given an order or command (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

sulamembroidery (PMP: *sulam)

sulaŋrepayment, retaliation (NOISE)

sulia shoot from the root of a palm tree (PMP: *suli₁)

suliŋflute with four holes, usually made of bamboo, but sometimes also of the stalks of old rice plants (PWMP: *suliŋ)

sulohto sprout; a sprout or offshoot (LOAN)

sumbaŋincest, commit incest (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

sumbotallow or wax light; lamp (LOAN)

suŋkitembroidery (PMP: *suŋkit)

surakcheering (said to be from Banjarese) (LOAN)

suratletter; book; writing (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (980 / 1150)

surutto ebb, of water (LOAN)

susahdifficult, tiring (Malay) (LOAN)

susah ataimiserable, troubled (LOAN)

susonseveral belonging together (cups, plates, etc.); also stacked one on another (PMP: *susun) *susuN

susulwhat sails against the wind (PMP: *sulsul₁)

tabuniplacenta, afterbirth (PMP: *tabuni₁)

tadohcalm, still (of wind, weather, water) (NOISE)

tagihdunning, making demands for repayment of a debt (LOAN)

tagohimpenetrable, invulnerable (LOAN)

tahanto hold out, persevere, endure (LOAN)

tahuma creeper that produces purple-colored fruit that people use to dye woven fabric (PMP: *taRum)

tajimetal cockspur (LOAN)

tajokanything that projects (LOAN)

takticking sound (PMP: *tak)

takautheft; thing stolen (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

talagaa pond, water puddle, water reservoir (LOAN)

talamcopper dish (said to be Banjarese) (LOAN)

t<al>etaysteps, ladder (specifically, a slanting log with steps cut into it that is used as a native ladder) (PMP: *taytay)

taligeneric for any type of rope, twine or cordage (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali-anplace where a boat is moored (PWMP: *talih-an) *CaliS

Ngaju Dayak (1000 / 1150)

tali-anlanding place, place where a boat is moored (NOISE)

taliŋashell of the ear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tamanaŋbarren, infertile (PWMP: *tamanaŋ)

tambaka burial place for those families that do not preserve the corpse and later reinter the bones in an elevated mausoleum built on wooden posts (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambaŋgo towards (NOISE)

tambaŋ-anferryman who takes others across a river (NOISE)

tambata rope at the back of a boat used to moor it when landing (LOAN)

tambir-anan annex in either the front or rear of a house (NOISE)

tampakblunt, dull (of blade or tip) (LOAN)

tamparto hit with the fist (PWMP: *tampar₂)

tampohpushing, shoving, colliding (with horns, buffalo, etc.) (LOAN)

tam-putikto pluck off (small twigs, grass, etc.) (PWMP: *putik₂)

tanarice field (PMP: *taneq)

tandaa sign, mark (from Banjarese) (LOAN)

tandokhorn; power, strength; authority (LOAN)

tanjaŋstature, figure (said of people) (NOISE)

tanjoŋriverbank (LOAN)

tantaithe one awaited; be awaited (someone's arrival, because food has been prepared in expectation of the visit) (NOISE)

tantucertain, true, known (LOAN)

tanumfill it with water! (imperative of danum) (PMP: *tanum₁) *CaNum

Ngaju Dayak (1020 / 1150)

taŋahhalf (PMP: *teŋaq)

taŋisweeping, crying (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋkapwhat is grasped or gripped (LOAN)

taŋkisparrying; what is parried (blow, thrust, etc.) (PWMP: *taŋkis)

taŋoyswimming (PWMP: *taŋuy)

tapakstruck with the flat of the hand (PWMP: *ta(m)pak)

ta-palaŋcrosspiece, as on a mast (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

tapa-tirohfall asleep (PMP: *tiduR)

tapayrice with yeast, sourdough cooked and then left to ferment for three days; it is then very sweet and somewhat intoxicating and is eaten with pleasure (PWMP: *tapay)

tapihan underskirt worn by women (PWMP: *tapiq₂)

tara-buatable to be loaded (PMP: *buhat₃)

tarajoa small gold scale; to weigh, consider (LOAN)

tara-jualsalable (LOAN)

taraŋbright; clear; determined, defined (LOAN)

tara-selatable to pass all the way through (PWMP: *taR-selat) *selat

tara-tajimable to be sharpened to a point (PMP: *tazim)

tara-taŋkisable to be parried (PWMP: *taŋkis)

tarihovering, of birds with outspread wings (LOAN)

tarikwhat is thrown; be thrown away (LOAN)

tarohwager (in betting or in games) (PMP: *taRuq)

Ngaju Dayak (1040 / 1150)

taroŋnews, information, communication (LOAN)

tasiksea, ocean (PMP: *tasik)

tatamanner, way, usage (NOISE)

tatæ-ana wooden walkway or bridge (as from the house to the river; what is bridged over (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

ta-talilike a rope, i.e. long and slender (PMP: *ta-talih) *CaliS

ta-taŋischoking up, of the voice of someone about to cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tatasa tear or split; what is torn (PWMP: *tastas)

ta-tauto know, understand (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

ta-tawElaughing; to laugh (PMP: *ta-tawa) *Cawa

ta-tirohsluggish, indolent (PMP: *tiduR)

tato hiaŋancestors (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

ta-tudoŋa large cover plaited of leaves and used to cover food, etc. (PMP: *tuduŋ)

taucapable, able; to know, understand (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

tauto be able; to know; to understand (PMP: *taqu₁) *taqu

tawanbe captured (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tawan-anwhat is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake) (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

təkticking (PMP: *tek)

tekena long pole for punting a boat (as in strong currents, shallow water, or in narrow, winding streams where one cannot use a rudder) (PMP: *teken)

telenwhat is swallowed; be swallowed (PMP: *telen)

telokinlet (on the seashore, in a river, or the forest) (PWMP: *teluk)

Ngaju Dayak (1060 / 1150)

tembakshooting (with firearms) (LOAN)

t-empolord, master, owner (PMP: *t-empu) *empu

tendohcalm, still (of the surface of water) (LOAN)

tenjekupright, erect (PMP: *tenzeg, te(n)dek) *tenzek

tepoŋbaked goods, bread, cakes (LOAN)

teserdiving; what can be brought up by diving (PWMP: *sesed)

teteka piece; that which has been chopped into pieces (PAN: *tektek₁)

tetepof long duration, uninterrupted; be set fast; to not rock (of a boat in the water) (LOAN)

tetescutting through something (cordage, rattan, etc.); what is severed (PWMP: *testes)

tewashacked off (LOAN)

tewusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tihaŋmast (NOISE)

tikticking sound (PMP: *tik₁) *tik

tilammattress for sleeping (LOAN)

tilikconsideration, regard (LOAN)

timbaan implement used to bale water from a canoe or a well (PMP: *timba)

timbaŋweight, importance; consideration, deliberation (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timbulfloat, drift on the water (PWMP: *timbul)

tinjakbe trampled (LOAN)

tintiŋpurify by shaking (LOAN)

Ngaju Dayak (1080 / 1150)

tiŋringing sound (PMP: *tiŋ)

tiŋgidistinguished, noble; arrogant (LOAN)

tiŋkahaccompaniment (in playing on the slitgong, drums, etc.) (LOAN)

tioŋbird the size of a dove, with yellow skin around the neck; it can be taught to imitate human speech (LOAN)

tipufraud, deceit (LOAN)

tiremblack (PMP: *tidem)

tirohsleep (PMP: *tiduR)

tisikfish scales (PMP: *siksik₂)

titisdrip, trickle (PMP: *titis)

tiwasguilty, be guilty of something (NOISE)

tiwiŋriverbank (LOAN)

tiwiŋriver bank (NOISE)

tokknocking sound (PMP: *tuk)

toŋbooming sound (PMP: *tuŋ)

tuahluck, advantage (PWMP: *tuaq)

tuanlord; used to address all Europeans and those who have made the hajj (PMP: *qatuan)

tuaŋwhat is poured (PWMP: *tuaŋ₁)

tukaŋwhat is propped open by putting a stick under it (PMP: *tukaŋ)

tukaŋmaster (of a practical art); carpenter, smith, etc. (LOAN)

tulaŋbone (including fish bones) (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

Ngaju Dayak (1100 / 1150)

tulaŋ likutspine (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tulistop, stay still (NOISE)

tuliswriting; drawing, painting (LOAN)

tulusto really happen, for something to come of it; fulfilled (PMP: *tulus)

tumbaklance (NOISE)

tumboŋprolapse of the uterus (PWMP: *tumbuŋ₁)

tumeclothes louse, body louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumitheel (PWMP: *tumid)

tundadrag, slide (LOAN)

tundoksubjugate, subdue, conquer (LOAN)

tunjaŋvarious trees that send out leafless shoots from their roots that reach two or three feet in length and vary from the thickness of a finger to that of an arm; also refers to these shoots (LOAN)

tunjokpoint with the finger (PMP: *tuzuk)

tuŋgalone, single, only (LOAN)

tuŋgowatchman, lookout (LOAN)

tuŋkiha large cut out or punched-out piece (as of wood or earth) (NOISE)

tuŋkoan iron frame, or just a mound of earth, or three sticks planted in the earth on which pots are set over the fire (LOAN)

tuŋkulbudding part of a banana plant (budding parts of other plants = puso) (PAN: *tukul)

tupayname of a squirrel with reddish-brown breast and gray back; it is somewhat larger than a rat (NOISE)

turuspole, post, pile; mooring post, a post to which one ties something in the water (PMP: *turus)

tusofemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

Ngaju Dayak (1120 / 1150)

tusohshaken out, poured out (NOISE)

tuturword, speech; be narrated or reported (PMP: *tutur₁)

tuwæname of two types of creepers, the t. apoh with broad leaves, and the t. rurok with narrow leaves; the pounded roots are placed in a large pot of water and allowed to sit for awhile, and the mixture is then poured into a small stream that has been closed off at one end; about an hour later all the fish float to the surface in a torpid state so that they can easily be caught by hand; many of these fish die, but they can nevertheless be eaten without ill effect to people (PAN: *tuba)

tuwakan intoxicating drink made from rice (PWMP: *tuak)

uæirattan (PAN: *quay)

uaksound of a gibbon's call (PMP: *uak₁)

uaŋ, waŋten duit (monetary unit) (LOAN)

udutsmoke cigarettes (PWMP: *qudud)

uhatroot; vein; sinew; tendon (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uja-ujanlike rain, in torrents (PMP: *quzan quzan) *quzaN

ukeiwhat is unpacked, opened (PWMP: *hukay)

ukircarving, carved figures (on wood) (PMP: *ukir)

ukurmeasure (LOAN)

ulaŋto repeat, reiterate (PAN: *ulaŋ)

ulestwisting, twining; twisted, twined (PMP: *pules)

uliwhat is mixed or stirred together (PMP: *quli)

ulihprofit, benefit, what is acquired, earned or received; property (PWMP: *uliq₂)

ulir, urirlie next to a child in sleep (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

untekbrain (PMP: *hutek)

untek tulaŋmarrow (PMP: *hutek)

Ngaju Dayak (1140 / 1150)

uŋkalscale for weighing gold (LOAN)

upakbark, rind; bast (of trees) that is stripped off (PWMP: *upak₁)

uriktravel upstream (PWMP: *udahik)

usahnecessary (LOAN)

usokchest, the upper side of the body (PAN: *Rusuk)

utawhat is vomited up: vomitus (PAN: *utaq)

utaŋ dahablood payment (PAN: *daRaq)

uyahsalt (LOAN)

walasten (only in combination in the numbers 11-19) (LOAN)

wasiiron (LOAN)

500. Nggae (1) OC [gri] (Ghari) Solomon Islands

maɣatireef (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

501. Nggela (717) OC (Fox, C. 1955) [nlg] (Gela) Solomon Islands

apersonal article, with names of people; prefix to personal pronouns; prefixed to hanu, indefinite pronoun 'So-and-so'; personifies when prefixed to verbs (PMP: *a₁)

-ahe, she, it, as suffixed to transitive verb (PMP: *-a₂)

-asuffix to form a past participle passive (NOISE)

ahaname (PMP: *ajan)

ahaspecies of creeper used for string, smaller than lape (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

a hanuwhat's his name! (PMP: *sanu) *-nu

a-heipronoun, who?, indefinite pronoun, whoever, anyone, he who (PMP: *sei)

ahei (< *asa-i)who?; whoever, anyone, he who (PMP: *ajan)

ahosun; good weather; put in the sun; experience good weather (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

ahugall (POC: *qasu₂)

ahuthe smoke of a fire; to steam a sick baby (PMP: *qasu₃)

aiexclamation of surprise (PAN: *ai₂)

alo, alov-ito beckon (PAN: *qalep)

alubarracuda (PMP: *qalu)

andapronoun: us, used after compound verbs such as lavimbule (PAN: *ata₁)

andothink, understand (POC: *adom) *handem

anewhite ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

ane-gaeaten with white ants, rotten (POC: *ane) *aNay

ane-lovoflying ants (POC: *ane) *aNay

a-nuhaan island (only in names, the usual word being koukomu) (POC: *a-nusa) *nusa₁

Nggela (20 / 717)

aŋiemit a strong smell or scent, good or bad, usually bad (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

aŋoemit a sour smell, as of urine (PMP: *aŋ(e)lem)

aŋoemit a sour smell, as of urine (NOISE)

aŋo-aŋoyellow (POC: *aŋo-aŋo-ana) *aŋo

aŋusuto spit (POC: *aŋusu)

aŋusu-lagito spit out, as blood (POC: *aŋusu)

aoforest, land never brought under cultivation; be overgrown, become forest (POC: *wao)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-galiverish (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atosago palm; thatch made from palm (POC: *qatop) *qatep

atuspecies of fish, the bonito (POC: *qatun)

avicarry a child under the arm (PMP: *qabin)

avipick up a stone from the oven with tongs (POC: *apit) *Sapit

avuto weed (PMP: *abut)

avulime holder; slaked lime (PAN: *qapuR)

ga-makes possessive pronouns with pronouns ŋgu, mu, na: ga-ŋgu, ga- mu, ga-na ‘my, thy, his’, but only with things to eat and drink, and certain other words (POC: *kana-)

ga ganaedible (POC: *kana) *kana₁

gagavudirty, of water (ROOT)

gahorafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

gaia branching plant, shrub or tree, i.e. balsam, croton, and banyan are all gai, but not a palm or coconut; wood, timber; firewood; stem or handle of an axe, pipe, etc. (not basket); prefix to names of plants or trees (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

Nggela (40 / 717)

gai vavalaa cross (POC: *baRat, paRat) *baRat₁

galatito bite; to hold between the teeth (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

galispecies of mollusc, Asaphis deflorata; eaten (POC: *kaRi₂)

gamamorning star (POC: *gama)

gambespecies of creeper used for twine of fishing nets (POC: *kabe₁)

gami ~ gai1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

gamiu2pl. genitive, your (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

ganafood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

ganafood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

ganaeseagull (POC: *kanawe) *kanaway

gandia species of black ant, bulldog ant (POC: *kadik)

ganito eat; to burn up, consume; burnt, eaten; scraps of food (POC: *kani) *kaen

gani-aedible (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

gapo-gapospread the wings; flap, flutter (ROOT)

garaŋinear, be near (POC: *karaŋi)

garu, garus-ito scratch (PAN: *kaRus)

gaubamboo (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

gavea species of mottled crab on the reef (POC: *kape₂)

gavigathe Malay apple (POC: *kapika)

gelito dig, dig through; to harvest a crop of yams, etc. (PCEMP: *keli)

Nggela (60 / 717)

gilastone adze (PMP: *kiRam)

gila(la)to know, be expert at (PAN: *kilala)

gimaspecies of mollusc, Tridacna gigas (PMP: *kima)

ginito pinch, pinch off, nip (PMP: *kinit)

gini-tito pinch, pinch off, nip (PMP: *kinit)

gitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

golascrape, plane (PMP: *kelas)

golah-ito scrape, plane; chafe, bruise, rub skin off (PMP: *kelas)

golito scrape coconut with a tue (fresh water shell) (POC: *korit) *kerit

gorothe back country, forest-covered interior hills (POC: *koro₃)

gotito cut off, as taro bud in planting (POC: *koti)

gotofathom, measure of both arms extended (PMP: *keteŋ)

guaof what sort? how? why? (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

gua niwhat about it? (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

gua-nigawhen? (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

gugufinger or toenail; hoof (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

guguspecies of mollusc, pelecypod (POC: *kukur) *kuDkuD

gu-guvusteam; heat; hot, warm, as water for bathing a baby (POC: *kupuk)

gulavua species of large fish, young mbanga (a species of large fish, able to swallow a man) (PMP: *kuRapu)

gulito skin, bark, as one’s shin or a tree (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

Nggela (80 / 717)

guli-tito skin, bark, as one’s shin or a tree (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

gulofish sp. (POC: *kuRo) *kuRaw

gumihanging moss; beard (PMP: *kumi)

gumu-gumuto hold liquid in the mouth (PMP: *kumuR)

gutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

guuto shout (PMP: *kuŋ)

habagaa tree: Alstonia scholaris (POC: *sabakap)

hageto embark, mount a horse, get into a car (PMP: *sakay₁)

hai-haito patch an old garment (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

halaan echinus, sea-egg (POC: *salaŋ)

halaan echinus, sea-egg (PEMP: *sala)

hala-tinamain road, government road (POC: *salan) *zalan

hala-uturoad, path (POC: *salan) *zalan

halispecies of eel (large) (NOISE)

hali-halito flow swiftly (PMP: *saliR)

hanuindefinite pronoun. Replaces an unremembered name of a person or thing. Someone, so-and-so; do so and so, thus, in such a way (PMP: *sanu) *-nu

haŋaa span, outstretched fingers (PMP: *zaŋan₁)

haŋaa span, outstretched fingers (POC: *saŋa₁)

ha-ŋa-latuone hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

haŋa-vithe crotch, front of thighs (POC: *saŋa₁)

Nggela (100 / 717)

ha-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ha-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

hauraise, lift, stretch out or up (POC: *sau₁)

havawhat, whatever, which, any, either, of that sort, of what sort (PMP: *sapa)

havuto scatter, as seeds (POC: *sapuR) *saq(e)buR

havuto scatter, as seeds (PMP: *sabuR)

havul-agito cause to be scattered (POC: *sapuR) *saq(e)buR

havul-agicause to be scattered (PMP: *sabuR)

havul-ito scatter or sprinkle water; to wash with water, as a canoe (POC: *sapuR) *saq(e)buR

havul-ito scatter or sprinkle water (PMP: *sabuR)

havuluspecies of mollusc, Pelecypod, Pinna (POC: *sapulu)

hegealone, by oneself; do something alone, be alone; unique (PCEMP: *kese)

higito break wind (POC: *siki)

higi-tito break wind (POC: *siki)

hihito scoop out the white flesh of a coconut; to push out, prise out; to open, as a tin (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

hinato glow, shine; sunlight, in the sun; hot weather, heat of the sun; summer; the sun (rare, usually aho) (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

hohoa narrow passage in the reef for canoes (POC: *solso) *selsel₁

homuspecies of mollusc, Pelecypod, Spondylus, withg scarlet or crimson shell, from which the native red money is made (POC: *somu)

hondoto roost, of fowls and birds; be solitary, silent, quiet (PMP: *sendem)

hondo varoŋosit and listen (PMP: *sendem)

Nggela (120 / 717)

huli-body; bone; vein of a leaf (POC: *suRi₁)

hulito lead, go before (POC: *suRi₂)

hulufrond of a coconut (PMP: *suluq)

hurukind of fish with scarlet splashes on fins, head and snout (Fox): Lethrinus harak and L. obsoletus (Foale) (POC: *surup₂)

ia prefix or article with nouns of place and time (PAN: *i₂)

-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂)

ia prefix to some nouns, probably a form of (NOISE)

ianihere; like this (PAN: *ia-ni) *-ni

igaa creature of the sea: fish, mollusc, crayfish, whale, squid, sea anemone, etc. (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

iga vilasailfin tang: Zebrasoma veliferum (POC: *piRa₂) *piRa

(i)-goethou, 2nd person singular (POC: *koe)

igutail (PAN: *ikuR)

igutail (POC: *siku)

igu-iguthe last in a dance (PMP: *ikuR ikuR) *ikuR

igu-iguthe last in a dance (POC: *siku)

i-halusmall bone needle for sewing a sail (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

ihu-nose; beak; cape of land (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iluto drink cabbage soup (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

ilu-iluto drink medicine (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

iluv-i(trans. form) (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

Nggela (140 / 717)

imbemat (POC: *ibe)

inaexclamation: is that so! Indeed! (PMP: *qina)

inithese (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inuto drink; drinker (PMP: *inum)

inu-gambuceremony, drinking blood of slain enemies (PMP: *inum)

iŋgauntil (PMP: *qiŋga)

ipaa bundle (NOISE)

iridemonstrative: those (POC: *iri) *-di

iro-iroiridescent (NOISE)

isihiss to chase off a dog (POC: *isi₃)

isito hiss, send off a dog (NOISE)

iti ni vundithe stem of a bunch of bananas (PMP: *qitiŋ)

itu-itua stick or string for stringing fish (NOISE)

iva-a relative by marriage (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

ivuloosen earth with a stick; make mounds or rows in a garden; plough; a mound (POC: *ipun₂) *hibun

ivuloosen earth with a stick; make a mound; a mound (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

ivu, ta-ivuuprooted, roots and all, by wind (PMP: *ibut₁)

ka-prefix forming past participles: ka-mbihu ‘broken off’ (cp. mbihu ‘to separate, break apart’) (PMP: *ka-₇)

kakar-ito eat away land, of waves (POC: *kakar-i) *karkar

kalustir up (PMP: *galu)

Nggela (160 / 717)

kaluto stir up (PMP: *kalu)

kalu-kaluto stir up; soup (PMP: *kalu)

kanaan enemy (POC: *kana₂)

kana-hagito be an enmity with (POC: *kana₂)

kani-kania skin disease which leaves white scars or patches on the skin, different from taeniaho (‘showing first patches of leprosy, whiter than kani’) (POC: *kani-kani)

kanu-kanuto shake, as a bottle (POC: *kañu-kañu)

kanu-lito shake and make rattle (POC: *kañu-kañu)

kaŋadrink by pouring down the throat (usual Melanesian method) (PMP: *kaŋa)

kapinarrow, enclosed; to hold something tight, between arm and side; to clench; to catch in a trap (PMP: *kapit)

kar-ito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut; to scrape out white of coconut; to scale a fish (POC: *kakar-i) *karkar

karito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut; to scrape out white of coconut; to scale a fish (POC: *karis₂) *garis

karito scrape off, as dirt, blood from a cut (POC: *kari) *karis

kari-karito scratch on the path, as a brush turkey (POC: *kari) *karis

kari-sito peel off skin or stem of a plant, or stick; to circumcize (POC: *kari) *karis

ka-titishake, shiver as with cold (PAN: *tirtir₁)

kaudog (PMP: *kauŋ)

kauto stick fast, as a spear, ball in a tree, hook on rock; entangled, as a line around rocks; to hook (POC: *kau₂)

kau-lito stick in (POC: *kau₂)

kau-vagicause to stick (POC: *kau₂)

keketick, any slight sound (POC: *keke₁)

Nggela (180 / 717)

kelevulva (POC: *keRe)

kikismall, with pronouns; low, quiet, quietly, of sound (PMP: *kikit)

kikismall, with pronouns (POC: *kiki₂)

kililito send news out everywhere; to go round, walk round, as an island (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

kindibeat a gong or drum (PMP: *gi(n)tik)

kindi-kinditap the fingers (PMP: *gi(n)tik)

kirascar (PMP: *kiras)

kiuto bark, of a dog (PMP: *kiuk)

kokowooden gong (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

ko-kokoto cluck, of a hen (PMP: *ke(k)kek)

ko-kovuruvery black, as from smoke; soot, as on a tin or saucepan (POC: *kapuru)

kolamango tree and fruit (POC: *koRa)

kombahermit crab (POC: *koba)

kombuto swell and be mature, of the breasts (POC: *kobuŋ) *kembuŋ

komburua northwest gale; northwest wind (NEAR)

komburunorthwest gale, northwest wind (LOAN)

koŋaspecies of long fish (POC: *koŋa)

kou-kovuruembers (POC: *kapuru)

kuahen eggs (POC: *kua kua)

kulitaa species of fish (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

Nggela (200 / 717)

kumbumaimed, as a dog with tail cut off; man who has lost a leg, arm or finger (POC: *kubuŋ₁) *kumpuŋ

kumbumaimed, as a dog with tail cut off; man who has lost a leg, arm or finger (POC: *kubut₁) *kumput

kurobecome dim, be dimmed, darken; be eclipsed, of sun and moon (PMP: *gu(n)dem)

kurobecome dim, be dimmed, dark (PAN: *kudem)

kurobecome dim, be dimmed, darken (ROOT)

kurukuruspecies of white pigeon (POC: *kurukuru)

kuvua species of pigeon, very small, yellowish breast (POC: *kupuR)

lakesickness, high temperature; swellings with liquid contents (POC: *lake)

lalaspecies of mollusc: Trochus niloticus (PMP: *lalak)

lalibuttress root (POC: *ralic) *dalij

lalodeep, as the sea; profound, as a remark (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lambuhit, strike (PMP: *lambuk)

laŋgastrong, strength; energetic (PMP: *la(ŋ)kas)

laŋgastrong; strength; energetic; loud (POC: *lagas) *lakas

laŋga-laŋgado energetically; do continually; strengthen (POC: *lagas) *lakas

laŋgostick, stick to, adhere (PMP: *la(ŋ)ket)

laŋgo-laŋgopaste, gum, sticking plaster (PMP: *la(ŋ)ket)

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋo ni mbolospecies of large fly (lit. ‘pig fly’, presumably because they frequent pigs) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lauseawards; to the shore, shorewards, from a speaker inland; shore; the sea, in koukomulau ‘an island in the sea’; the bank of a river; south, conventional use in translations (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

Nggela (220 / 717)

lau-lamuhairs on mango (PMP: *Ramut)

lavagreat (in a few compounds) (POC: *lapa) *laba

leo-leodialect, foreign language; speak a foreign language (POC: *leqo)

lihalice in hair (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lilibrown gastropod: Turbo petholatus (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

li-liuto become, change into (POC: *li-liu) *liu₂

li-liu liochange one’s mind, repent; to turn aside from the path; turn, turn over in bed (POC: *li-liu) *liu₂

limafive (PAN: *lima)

liuturn aside, go in another direction, by another way (PAN: *liuS)

liuto turn aside, go in another direction, by another way (POC: *liu₂)

livacentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

livo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

livo-policurved tusk of a boar (poli = coiled, curved) (POC: *lipon) *lipen

logubend, fold double, as bamboo tongs (PMP: *leku)

lokufold, make a roll of, reef a sail (PMP: *leku)

lolosp. of small black ant; weevil, insect in rice, flour, etc. (POC: *loRo)

londodark (in phrases only) (ROOT)

lovoto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

lovo lovofast-moving clouds (POC: *Ropo-Ropok) *Rebek

lovu-lovuto puff (PMP: *leput)

Nggela (240 / 717)

lovulovuto puff (ROOT)

luathe neck (POC: *Ruqa)

luaa flood of water; full tide, opposite sembe (low tide); to flow, of the tide (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

lua-lagito spit out (PMP: *luaq)

lualuaboil over, as food cooked in bamboo (PMP: *luab)

luhubreast, bosom; thwart of a canoe; ridges of shell inside a clam, Tridacna (PAN: *Rusuk)

lumbato let go, slacken, loose; to set free, allow, permit (PMP: *lumbar)

lundaload a canoe or ship with cargo; to embark passengers; cargo (PMP: *lujan)

lundaload a canoe or ship with cargo; cargo (PMP: *Rujan)

maand, but; but the vowel changes, agreeing with that of the word following, me te, mu tu, etc. (PAN: *maS)

maaashamed; feel reverence (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

mahibody smell, man or pig or fish (POC: *masi)

mahi-gamusty, as clothes kept in a box (POC: *masi)

mahuto satisfy with food or drink; replete, satisfied with food or drink (POC: *masuR)

maihither, from a point, at a point away from the speaker; come; up til now, from up til now (POC: *mai) *ai₃

maludroop, as a branch in the heat; bow the head (ROOT)

malumueasy; to be favorable to (PMP: *ma-lumu) *lumu₂

mamafather, in direct address, replacing tama; also in general sense, na mama (POC: *mamaₐ) *mamah

mamato chew fine; to feed a baby with pap (PMP: *mamaq)

mamifresh, not salt (POC: *mamis) *hemis

Nggela (260 / 717)

manaworthy, fit, suitable, sufficient; efficacious from spiritual power, obtained from charms, prayers, intercourse with tindalo (souls of the dead) or vigona (a spirit of the weather, fertility, and natural forces – usually female) (POC: *mana₂)

mandaripe (PEMP: *ma-qosak) *qesak

mandaripe (PCEMP: *madar)

ma-ndalislippery (PAN: *ma-dalis) *dalis

mane puraa European (POC: *puraq₁) *budaq₃

manua flying creature, bird, insect; species of freshwater fish (POC: *manuk)

manu-manuthe handle of the seu cup, (coconut shell used for soup) projecting upright (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

manu-mateepilepsy, spasms (MORE?) (POC: *manuk)

ma-ramato shine, shining; bright (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

mataeye; iris; pupil; in front of, in the presence of; outward appearance; the face (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataguto fear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

matagu-nito be afraid of (POC: *matakut) *takut

matagu-poua coward (POC: *matakut) *takut

mata-kenea window (= ‘wind eye’, like English ‘window’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-matawild, of domesticated animals only; shy, timid (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata ni atolamesh of a net (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mata ni guridirection from which wind comes (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata ni haalanding place (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni igasore on the finger (at end) (POC: *mata ni ikan) *maCa

mata ni indaligroove in stone for breaking nuts (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Nggela (280 / 717)

mata ni susunipples (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

matewithout movement; bedridden, paralyzed; numb, of a limb asleep; unconscious, fainted; dead; death; kill; extinguish; out, of a light; fighting man, soldier; enemy; ready, prepared; completely, quite; out, at cricket; withered, dry, as a branch (POC: *mate) *aCay

matethe price of a thing (PCEMP: *matay₂) *matay

mate-akill (POC: *mate-a) *aCay

mate mateto overcome (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

maturuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

maturu manusleep in daytime and on til morning (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

maturu mateto doze (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

maulileft hand (POC: *mauRi) *wiRi

ma-uriliving; green, blue; real, solid, material (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mavoto heal, of a sore; healed, as a cut in a tree, broken shell of mollusk (POC: *mapo)

mbaadverb, introduces doubt (POC: *ba₁)

mbalaten bunches of fruit (NOISE)

mbalambalalong poles on which the kokopa (ridgepole) rests (NOISE)

mbalibring together, of opposite planks of a canoe (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

mbalu (NG)any, some, other; another (POC: *palu₆) *balu₃

mbambacrab's hole; hollow in a tree; a large cave (POC: *babaŋ) *baŋbaŋ₃

mbambal-ito carve (NOISE)

mbaralower logs on a fence; loosely, a fence (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

mbarito eat the flesh of coconut (POC: *bari)

Nggela (300 / 717)

mbari-mbarito bite off, as bark from a tree, of pig or man (POC: *bari)

mbikuto bend, as a piece of tin, curl up (POC: *piŋkuk) *biŋkuk

mbikuto bend, as a piece of tin, curl up (PMP: *pi(ŋ)kuk)

mbikuto bend, as a piece of tin, curl up (PAN: *pikuq₁)

mbikug-acurled up (POC: *piŋkuk) *biŋkuk

mbiku-gacurled up (PAN: *pikuq₁)

mbilaorgan of a fish (POC: *piRa₁) *biRaS

mbilaorgan of a fish (POC: *biRa) *piRaS

mbilidark brown, black, deep blue; but properly black (POC: *piRiŋ) *biRiŋ₁

mbili-mbili-adirty (POC: *piRiŋ) *biRiŋ₁

mbili-mbili-lagiMelanesian (POC: *piRiŋ) *biRiŋ₁

mbimbito fold (POC: *bibit) *pitpit₂

mbiticook in a native oven; hot spring; volcano; (LOAN)

mbiti-mbitipool of water heated by red-hot stones for cooking (LOAN)

mbolopig (now used of any large animal); meat of any sort (POC: *boRok) *beRek

mboŋinight; a day, as a measure of time (e rua na mboŋi 'two days'); yesterday; the weather (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

mboŋi haumidnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

mbuathe betel palm and nut (13 growth stages of the nut are lexically distinguished) (POC: *buaq)

mbuag-abetel clump or grove, place of betel palms (POC: *buaq)

mbuligeneric for all cowries (POC: *buliq₁)

Nggela (320 / 717)

mbuli-mbulifish sp. (POC: *buli buli)

mbulua torch, lamp; to light a path, or a person (POC: *bulut) *pulut

mbu-mburabubbles coming up from a diver (POC: *puraq puraq) *budaq₁

mbumburugrass (POC: *buburu)

mbumburu-gaovergrown with grass, grassy (POC: *buburu)

mburadip a vessel in water (POC: *puraq₂) *budaq₂

mbutabe swollen, of the eyes (POC: *buta₃) *buCa

mbuto-ŋguumbilical cord (POC: *buto)

melared spittle from betel nut chewing (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

misi-misimake sucking sound with teeth (POC: *misi-misi) *misi

mo-mohacooked (POC: *maosak) *esak

monacoconut cream, i.e. shredded coconut and salt water squeezed over food; tender, of food, greasy (POC: *moñak₁) *moñak

mu-mutato vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

m-uriafter, behind; the back; the outside of an object, box house, village; the after-birth; posterity (POC: *muri) *udehi

nanominal article, a, the (na tinoni ‘a man, the man’) (PMP: *na₁)

nagoface; prow of canoe; in front of; before, formerly (POC: *nago)

nago-vito be first on the road; to be first to capture or do something (POC: *nago)

na hanuthe thing whose name I can't remember (PMP: *sanu) *-nu

namito taste (PMP: *ñamit)

nami-nami-luveto water, of the mouth at the sight of food (PMP: *ñamit)

Nggela (340 / 717)

na-namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nandiflint (POC: *nadi)

na tolu-nathe third (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

nauI, me; to seize (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

na vonuthe best (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

ndakifasten, as a loincloth (PMP: *sa(ŋ)kit)

ndokochoke, strangle (PMP: *cekel)

ndolamate, fellow; pair, one of a pair (right hand is ndola of left hand) (POC: *soRa)

ndulia sucker of banana (PMP: *suli₁)

nduluto go down; to set, of the sun (PMP: *tuRun₁)

nduruowl (POC: *druru)

nia preposition with many meanings, but the chief ones are: 1. belonging to, of (mane ni Nggela ‘a native of Nggela’); 2. to (ndutu ni mate ‘near (to) death’); 3. as (kambu ni vunagi ‘dwell as a king’); 4. for; in order to (mbutu ni tarai ‘come to teach’); 5. with; 6. on account of; 7. concerning, about; 8. with, by (instrumental); 9. it makes possessive pronouns: ninggua, nimua, nina, etc. (PAN: *ni)

ni(preposition with many meanings) (NOISE)

nia maicome with, bring (POC: *mai) *ai₃

nia vugucatch a cold or cough from; to cough (POC: *pukuR)

ninisp. of bush used in wristlets (PMP: *niniq)

niucoconut palm; the nut (PMP: *niuR)

nivaa species of sago palm smaller than sao (the latter is not identified by Fox 1955) (PMP: *nipaq)

nolayesterday (PMP: *neRab)

nolayesterday (PMP: *ñeRab)

Nggela (360 / 717)

novufish sp.: Peptoscopus (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nuhogeneric for reef squids, Sepioteuthis spp. (POC: *nuso)

nulitree with yellowish leaves, used as spinach (PMP: *anuliŋ)

nunushadow; reflection, shape; picture, photograph (POC: *qanunu)

ŋalicanarium almond (POC: *kaŋaRi)

ŋas-isuck, as sugarcane; bite; husk with the teeth, of coconuts (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋgaruto scratch (PMP: *garus)

ŋgaru-sito scratch something; to slice, scrape (PMP: *garus)

ŋgavuhaze, mist; hazy, misty (POC: *kaput₂) *kabut

ŋgolascorched, sunburnt; withered, shrivelled, of leaf (POC: *koRaŋ₁) *keRaŋ₃

ŋgovident (PMP: *kepik)

ŋgovufinished (PMP: *ke(m)pus)

ŋgumuto rinse out the mouth, to gargle; liquid held in mouth; red spittle from betel chewing (PMP: *kumuR)

ŋ-ihahow many? how much? when? (PMP: *ŋa-ijan) *ijan

ŋiŋicry quietly (PMP: *ŋikŋik)

ŋiŋibuzz, as a mosquito (PMP: *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ)

ŋot-ignaw, nibble (Blust 1977a:6) (POC: *ŋoŋot-i) *ŋeCŋeC

ŋotito gnaw, nibble (POC: *ŋoŋot-(i)) *ŋetŋet

ŋuludeath rattle in throat (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋuruto roar, rumble, as thunder; to growl, as a dog; groan; to grunt in a dance (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

Nggela (380 / 717)

ogasmall roots (PMP: *wakaR)

ohofood for a journey; payment for work in food (POC: *qoso)

oliback, again; come back, return (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

oli-oligo and return, go somewhere and come back (POC: *oliq oliq) *uliq₁

onastakes or spears fixed for enemy to tread on; sharp pointed stick to probe for enemy through stockade (POC: *ona₂) *ena

onastakes or spears fixed for enemy to tread on; sharp pointed stick to probe for enemy through stockade (POC: *ona₁) *ona

ondato eat raw; destroy a garden, of animals (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

onduPalolo worm, cooked and eaten (NOISE)

one-oneblack sand (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

oŋabe out of breath with running, as in bringing news (PMP: *eŋap)

oŋaout of breath (PMP: *heŋak)

oŋgom-ihold a solid in the mouth (POC: *oŋkom) *eŋgem

oŋgom-ihold a solid in the mouth (POC: *qoŋkom) *qeŋkem

otoset face to do, stare straight at (PMP: *e(n)teŋ)

otogo directly, straight; set face to do, stare straight at (POC: *oto)

ovoblock a road with branches (POC: *opoŋ) *embeŋ

ovucrowd, heap, pile, flock; to assemble, heap together; make a bundle; a bundle (POC: *opun) *ebun

ovucrowd, heap, pile (PMP: *hebun)

palaside, part (POC: *balaŋ₄) *balaŋ₂

Nggela (400 / 717)

palato cut (LOAN)

pala-palaa ladder, steps into a house (POC: *paRas)

palapalascissors (LOAN)

palirub one thing against another (POC: *pari₁)

papacarry pick-a-back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

papato chip; chips (POC: *babak₁) *babak

papato chip; chips (POC: *babak₃) *bakbak₂

papato chip (POC: *babak) *papak

papa ni gaiwood chips (POC: *babak) *papak

patujoint in bamboo; knot (POC: *patu₁)

patuhard; to make firm (POC: *patu₃) *patu₂

patujoint in bamboo, knot (POC: *pwatu)

penucoconut outer husk, wound around foot as protection (POC: *benu)

penucoconut outer husk (ROOT)

pia-piato chirp, of chickens (PMP: *piak)

pikogive a twist in cat's cradle and so form a new figure; to twist, as an ankle (POC: *biko)

pikotwist, as an ankle (PMP: *pi(ŋ)keR)

piliroll over and over, as a drum of oil (POC: *biliŋ₂) *biliŋ

pindir-ito intertwine the strands of a rope (POC: *pijir, pijir-i)

piraa coconut on ground showing leaf (POC: *piras)

Nggela (420 / 717)

pirithrow with a twist, with finger and thumb (POC: *piriŋ₃) *biriŋ₂

pisapress, crush (PMP: *picak)

pisato press, crush (NOISE)

pisibe ejected, of feces (PMP: *picit)

pisibe ejected, of feces (POC: *pisi₂)

pisu me ŋgovuall dead and gone (PMP: *ke(m)pus)

pitia snare trap (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

policoiled, curved as a boar's tusk; to coil, twist round, as a turban; make a wreath; a snake; draw the ends of a net together (POC: *polit) *belit₂

pond-ito squeeze, as in shaking hands (POC: *popos) *pespes

ponudisappear, as something sinking in water (POC: *boñu)

poŋgato burst, as a boil; to rend, split, as a sail; to split, of large seeds; to grow (POC: *poŋkaR) *be(ŋ)kaR

posabreak, of a boil; burst, of a football (POC: *posaq) *peceq

posato break, of a boil (POC: *pwasa)

posisqueeze out (POC: *posit₁) *becit

posisqueeze out (POC: *posit₂) *pe(R)cit

pos-ito squeeze out (POC: *popos) *pespes

pou-potuto push up ground, as seedlings; to rise up, as bread or paint in the sun; to bulge; swollen, as from a mosquito bite; to swell after a blow (POC: *potu₂) *potu

povufall back into the water with a splash (Also Kambera póbuku 'hollow sound, as of a gourd when struck') (ROOT)

pukua knot (POC: *buku)

punu mateput out a light (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

Nggela (440 / 717)

puŋidarkness, black clouds (POC: *buŋi)

pura, pura purawhite (POC: *puraq₁) *budaq₃

raeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

rambobreak, smash (PMP: *ra(m)bek)

raŋgostick, adhere (PMP: *da(ŋ)ket)

raraspecies of tree, Erythrina, red flowers (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

rauleaf; prefix to names of trees (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rau-rauleaves, leavage, foliage (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rau-rauleaves, foliage (POC: *raun-raun) *dahun

ravuashes; burnt out, of a fire; side of a house where the fire is made (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

rogobend; bend over, move, press, of the wind (POC: *roko)

rogo-rogoto go with bent head; slanting (POC: *roko-roko) *roko

rogo-vito bend over, move, press, of the wind (POC: *roko)

rondoblind (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

roŋoto hear or be heard (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-hito hear or be heard (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋonews; fame; custom; rank or position (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋo lavi-laviidle rumor, gossip (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-vito hear or be heard; to listen; to feel; to obey; to enquire about (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ro-rondoblind; blind man’s buff; to darken (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

Nggela (460 / 717)

ruatwo; a partner (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-gatwofold (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-nasecond (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruguto stoop (POC: *ruku) *duku

ruguto stoop (POC: *rukuq) *dukuq

sagauMalay apple (small species) (POC: *sakau)

sakuto catch, as a young animal as a pet; to catch a person out in a fault (PMP: *sakup₁)

salito tear downwards (POC: *sali)

sandatie the thatch in beginning a roof (PMP: *sasah)

savu, sau-savucloudy, hazy (PMP: *sapuk)

siu, siu-vibathe (PMP: *ziuq)

sogajump, leap, move swiftly (POC: *sokas) *cekas

soga-sogato hop hither and thither, as a bird (POC: *sokas) *cekas

sono-magicause to swallow or be swallowed; act of swallowing (POC: *sonom)

sono-mito swallow (POC: *sonom)

sopito suck; to draw up moisture, as a sponge or blotting paper; to draw on a pipe, draw in smoke from a cigarette; to lick (POC: *sosop-i) *sepsep

souheron (POC: *sou)

sovuto cut off slices of yams for planting (POC: *sopu)

suaa spear without barbs (POC: *sua₁)

sukito prick; to lance a boil, vaccinate, inject, bleed; to sew; a seam; to plug a small hole; to pole a canoe (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

Nggela (480 / 717)

sususp. of very large plantain (PMP: *susu) *susu₂

susuthe breasts of a woman; a baby at the breast; mothers milk (PAN: *susu₁)

susukito pole a canoe; the pole; injection; to inject with a needle (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

ta-intransitive verb prefix marking action that takes place without an agent (PMP: *ta-₂)

tapreposition of location: from, with (PCEMP: *ta₁)

taedung, feces (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tahiyounger sibling of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tahithe sea; surf, a wave; salt (PMP: *tasik)

takuto take quick, short steps; talkative (POC: *taku₁)

talirope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

talihea tree: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

taluforest, but not virgin forest, where the land has been cultivated (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

taluto put, place, set (PMP: *taRuq)

tamafather (ref.); those of his standing in a man's clan (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tamandia relish with vegetable food, such as pork or fish; to eat together different sorts of food (POC: *tamaji)

tambato hire, pay wages; wages, pay; a reward, prize in a race (POC: *taba₁)

tambeto take hold, grasp, seize (POC: *tabe)

tambelulirhinoceros beetle (LOAN)

tambuset apart; forbidden, taboo; dedicated; sacred, holy; a priest; abominable, hateful, immoral (POC: *tabu) *tambu

Nggela (500 / 717)

tandaup, upwards; face up (POC: *tadal)

tandaup, upwards (POC: *tadra)

tandal-agito put face up (POC: *tadal)

tandal-agito put face up (POC: *tadra)

tanda-tandaface up; to look up (POC: *tadal)

tanda-tandaface up; to look up (POC: *tadra)

taŋaa bag, cloth bag (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋito sound, make a sound; a sound; to pronounce a word, be pronounced; to cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋi-hagito make someone cry (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

taŋi-hito cry for (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

taŋorarely used alone, but incompounds with the meanings: do, touch, be in contact (POC: *taŋop)

taŋo-lito hold, touch (POC: *taŋop)

taoto be on oven, of leaves in cooking (POC: *taqo)

tapoto strike with the hand, slap; to clap the hands (PMP: *tampek)

taposlap, clap (ROOT)

ta-tambato bank up with logs or stones to keep earth from falling (POC: *tabak₂) *tambak₂

ta-tambaa part, division, portion (POC: *taba₂)

taveto flow, of liquids, air; current, tide; a freshet, flood (POC: *tape₁)

tave-tito flow over (POC: *tape₁)

tavito slip, turn suddenly; go crookedly, as a knife, or a kite in the air (PMP: *tapis₂)

Nggela (520 / 717)

tavuto look for, seek, especially lice in the hair (POC: *tapu)

tavu-hito look for, seek, especially lice in the hair (POC: *tapu)

tavulispecies of mollusc, gastropod, Charonia tritonis; a trumpet; the sound of a trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

ta-vuvusound of birds’ wings (PAN: *pukpuk)

te mboŋiby night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

te taŋi na tavulithe sound of the conch shell trumpet (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tetea row, rank, line; to cross a stream on a log or bridge; to descend a ladder not using hands; a bridge (POC: *tete) *taytay

tete ni ihuthe bridge of the nose (POC: *tete) *taytay

tiato weave (POC: *tia)

tia-tiaa woven wristlet; a piece of sewn thatch (POC: *tia)

tikaa game played with reeds made to glance off the ground (POC: *tika)

tilospecies of mollusk, pelecypod, borer in ships and in mangroves (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

tinaM (voc.); a woman of her standing in one's clan; large of its kind (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tinonia man, human being, person (living, as opposed to tindalo ‘soul of a dead man’) (PEMP: *tinoni)

tinoni rogoa bent old man (POC: *roko)

tiŋgiring a bell (ROOT)

tiŋ-ibeat a gong, ring a bell (< *titiŋ-i) (POC: *titiŋ) *tiŋtiŋ

tiroto gaze; glass; a looking glass; pupil of the eye (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

titaspecies of tree, Parinarium; vegetable gum from its fruit, for caulking canoes; to caulk (POC: *qatita)

ti-tiroto gaze; glass; a looking glass (POC: *ti-tiro) *tindaw

Nggela (540 / 717)

togato dwell (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tolaa canoe smaller than peko (war canoe with high prow and stern) and with lower ends (POC: *tola)

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tombabelly, stomach (within, as kutu is without); heart, mind, seat of affections, in phrases (POC: *topwa)

tombabelly, stomach (within, as kutu is without); heart, mind, seat of affections (POC: *tobwa₂)

toŋoa mangrove (PMP: *teŋeR)

tovusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tuespecies of mollusk, Pelecypod, freshwater Batissa, several species (POC: *tue) *tuay

tue-kunukunuvery large species of Batissa (POC: *tue) *tuay

tue-tuespecies of mollusk, Pelecypod, Tellina; a young tue (POC: *tue) *tuay

tuhuto point (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

tuhu-taefirst finger (= ‘shit finger’) (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

tuisp. of tree (PMP: *tui₁)

tuluto wade; to float (POC: *tuRu₁)

tulu-tuluwading (POC: *tuRu₁)

tuluv-ito wade to (something) (POC: *tuRu₁)

tumaa moth that gets into clothes and destroys them (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tumbalaa species of yellow crab in mud (POC: *tubaRa)

t-umbumother's brother/sister's child (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tumbua boil, larger than mbutongo (POC: *tubu₁)

Nggela (560 / 717)

tunu-tunudot, spot, blot (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

tunu-tunu-gaspots all over; brand with fire, touch or prick with burning brand (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

tup-i (< *tutup-i)to beat with the fist (POC: *tutup₂)

tupublunt (PMP: *tumpul)

tututo pound, crush, as yams in tambili mortar (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

tu-tunubranding (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

tuturuknee or elbow (PCEMP: *turu₁)

tuturu ni tuaknee (PCEMP: *turu₁)

tuvaa species of plant used for poisoning fish (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

tuvato divide, give a portion (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

uharain; to rain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uhan-ito rain on (PMP: *quzan-i) *quzaN

uiexclamation of surprise (POC: *ui) *huy

ulavein (POC: *uRat) *huRaC

ula-kautendon (POC: *uRat) *huRaC

uluhead, except of a chief; hair, in compounds; eastern end, upper end (POC: *qulu) *quluh

uluŋ-arest one's head on; a headrest of wood, pillow (modern) (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

umaclear away the bushes in making a garden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

umatasnake (POC: *mwata)

umua circular fireplace of stones (PMP: *qumun)

Nggela (580 / 717)

uracrayfish; to leap, as a crayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ura-urashrimp, prawn in river (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uruvuassemble (ROOT)

utuh-ibreak, be severed, of a rope (PMP: *utus₁)

utuh-ibreak, be severed, of a rope (ROOT)

utu-utubreak, be severed, of a rope; pull and break, as a string (PMP: *utus₁)

utuutupull and break, as a string (ROOT)

uvia yam (PMP: *qubi)

uvi-uviblow with the breath, play pipes (PCEMP: *upi)

uvi vatuspecies of yam (PMP: *qubi)

uvua pile of things (POC: *upun₂) *hubun₂

vago; expressing purpose or intention of action, as in English "I am going to" (POC: *pa₃) *ba₆

vago; expressing purpose or intention of action, as in English “I am going to” (POC: *pa₃) *ba₆

vahaa plant: Vitex cofassus (POC: *pasa(rR))

vahagito be in pain; to be ill, have malaria (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

vahagi-gasickly (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

vahegive, give to (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

vahi-koluto plant yams (POC: *pasi)

vahuto bear, give birth to; be born (POC: *pasu₃)

vakaa foreign vessel, European ship (POC: *pakaq) *baŋkaq

Nggela (600 / 717)

vaka lovoairplane; to move, of clouds; float in the air (PMP: *Rebek)

valashoulder; collarbone (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

valalahandle; cross handle of an adze (POC: *paRara) *paRada

valalasp. of long fish (NOISE)

valehouse (POC: *pale) *balay

valia species of fish, ray, skate (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

valihaday before yesterday; day after tomorrow; some time ago; by and by, some day (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

vali-valicut meat into portions (NOISE)

valopierce a hole in a porpoise tooth, so as to string it (POC: *paRo₁)

valorob openly, take and keep, refuse to return, an open act, unlike gito, steal (POC: *paRo₂)

valoto rob openly, take and keep, refuse to return (POC: *paqaRok)

valopierce a hole in porpoise tooth (NOISE)

valo-valoto rob (POC: *paRo₂)

valutree sp. (POC: *(bp)alu) *balu₁

vanashoot with bow and arrow; shoot with a gun (modern) (PAN: *panaq)

vana-hishoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

vanoaway, further off; to go (POC: *pano) *paNaw

vaŋafood, properly vegetable food; to eat, have a meal (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

vaŋafood, properly vegetable food; to eat, have a meal (PMP: *paŋan)

vaŋa-gato bear fruit; fruitful; the contents of anything (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

Nggela (620 / 717)

vaŋa ni tahifood in the sea; fish, shellfish, etc. (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

vaŋa-vaŋato eat into, of a sore (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

vaŋgato split, from the heat of the sun (PMP: *bakaq)

vaŋondato collect food on the reef (POC: *paŋoda)

vaowild banana (POC: *paqo)

vaolunew; young, fresh, beautiful, in one's prime; renew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

vao-vaospecies of shrub with large leaves (POC: *paqo)

varaa fallen coconut beginning to grow and showing leaf (PMP: *para)

varian heir (POC: *pari₂)

vari-pukutie a knot (POC: *buku)

vatifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

vati-vatifour each (POC: *pati pati) *Sepat

vatospecies of grub eaten as food on Mala (POC: *qapator) *qabated

vatustone, rock; made of stone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

vatu alipumice; limestone (POC: *patu₂) *batux

vatu lakecoral that irritates the skin (POC: *lake)

vatu-vaturocky area (POC: *patu₂) *batux

vau-vahueyebrow (POC: *pasu₂)

va-vala, vala-valacrosswise (POC: *baRat, paRat) *baRat₁

vavinesister of a man, brother of a woman; all of this standing in one’s clan (POC: *papine) *bahi

Nggela (640 / 717)

vavoto weed (POC: *papo₂) *babaw₄

veiwhere, which, usually i vei (PMP: *pai₁)

viawherever, of whatever kind, where, what, which (POC: *pia) *pia₁

vilato flash, flashing (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

vilito choose, select; to give a judgment, sentence; to collect small things such as shells (PAN: *piliq)

vili-achosen (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

vili-vilito choose; collect small things (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

viluspecies of palm with umbrella-like leaves (POC: *piRu) *biRu

vilu ŋgereserrated leaf (POC: *piRu) *biRu

vilu-viluswordfish (POC: *pilu-pilu) *pilu

vilu-viluswordfish (PMP: *bilu-bilu)

vilu-viluswordfish (POC: *piRu-piRu)

vindiflick off, slip off, be knocked off; spring back, of elastic, a bowstring, a trap; throb or smart, of a cut; the pulse; be in labor, pain from child bearing (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

vindithrob or smart, of a cut, the pulse (PMP: *pi(n)tik)

vindito flick off, slip off, be knocked off (POC: *pidik) *pitik

vindik-iflick off, let spring back; grasshopper (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

vindi-kito flick off, let spring back; a grasshopper (POC: *pidik) *pitik

vindi-vindipain (POC: *pitik-pitik) *bitik₁

vine-vineobstinate, stubborn, disobedient (cp. mane-mane ‘hold one’s head high, put on airs’ < mane ‘male, man’) (POC: *pine) *bahi

vinuaMacaranga tanarius (POC: *pinuan)

Nggela (660 / 717)

viribind round and round; puzzling, difficult; English twist tobacco (PMP: *pirit)

virig-iwind round, of a creeper; put a hitch round, make a sail fast when reefing (PMP: *pirit)

vitilightning flashing on horizon, flash of a torch (POC: *pitik₂) *bitik₂

vitolohungry (POC: *pitolon)

vito-vitololong hungry, weak from hunger (POC: *pitolon)

vituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

vitu-niseventh (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

vi-virito bind, to tie; busy (PMP: *pirit)

vogato separate, as two men fighting; a chasm in a reef (POC: *pokaq) *bekaq

vogato separate, as two men fighting (PMP: *peka)

vogucurl over before breaking (of a wave) (PMP: *pekuq₁)

vohea paddle, oar: to paddle, paddle to, paddle with, convey by canoe (POC: *pose) *beRsay

vokadivide, separate, divorce; divided, separated (POC: *pokaq) *bekaq

vokadivide, separate, divorce (PMP: *peka)

vokadivide, separate, divorce (PMP: *pekaŋ)

volibarter, buy and sell (PEMP: *poli) *beli

voli-volibarter, buy and sell (POC: *poli poli) *beli

vonuto be full (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

vonusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

vonu-afull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

Nggela (680 / 717)

vonu-giafilled (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

vonu mbuto-mbutoa sea creature like a turtle but only one inch long (POC: *poñu) *peñu

voŋgabe split, rent, as a sail by the wind; to split, crack, rend, as glass or wood, or cloth; be cracked, as glass (POC: *pokaq) *bekaq

voŋgabe split, rent, as a sail by the wind; to split, crack, rend, as glass or wood, or cloth; be cracked, as glass (POC: *poŋkaR) *be(ŋ)kaR

vuafruit, round object (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vuacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

vua ni kolakidneys (POC: *puaq) *buaq

vua ni loŋalizard sp. (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

vua vuafruit, seed, flower (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

vua vuag-ain bearing (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

vugoa net; to fish with a net; a cobweb (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

vugua cough, cold (POC: *pukuR)

vuhabe born, become; make, create; originate, as an island or poem (POC: *pusa₁)

vukepull apart; to open the eyes or the mouth; to lift up, as an eyelid; to open a book (POC: *puke) *buka

vulamoon, month (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

vulageneric for cushion starfishes (POC: *pula₃)

vula te mainext month (POC: *mai) *ai₃

vulipour water, sprinkle (PMP: *puRiq) *buRiq

vulu-hagieyelash; antenna of crayfish; shoots of a plant (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

vulu (ni) mbolospecies of small black Echinus on reef (lit. 'pig bristle') (PMP: *bulu ni babuy) *bulu₁

Nggela (700 / 717)

vulu-vuluspecies of water plant; a plant: Amaranthus (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

vundibanana, plantain, both plant and fruit (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

vuŋoparents-in-law; those of their standing in the clan (POC: *puŋao)

vuŋugrain of maize; pod; bunch, cluster of fruit (PAN: *puŋuN)

vuŋugrain of maize; pod; bunch, cluster of fruit (PMP: *puŋuh)

vurabubble up (POC: *buraq) *budaq₁

vurag-a ni mbetia spring (POC: *buraq) *budaq₁

vura-vurabubble up; leak (POC: *puraq puraq) *budaq₁

vut-ipull up, pull out, pull off, pull away, root up (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

vutuspecies of large shore tree: Barringtonia (POC: *putun₁) *butun

vutu-vutua mound (POC: *putur) *buntud

vutu-vutua mound (POC: *putul putul) *buntul

vutu-vutua mound (PMP: *buntu buntu) *buntu₂

vuvua worm that bores into wood (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

vuvug-ainfested by the borer worm (PMP: *bukbuk-an) *bukbuk₃

vuvu-livatoothache (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

vuvuŋaupon, above, over; a ridge; ridge-pole of house (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

vuvut-ipull out, root out (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

walueight (PAN: *walu)

502. Nggeri (4) OC [gri] (Ghari) Solomon Islands

gana-ganato think, suppose, intend (POC: *kana-kana)

liato change in color or form; to throw back, of plants (PMP: *lian)

tairope (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

vehadefecate (POC: *bekas₄)

503. Nginia (2) OC

masahisick (POC: *masakit) *sakit

ravuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

Nguna (53) OC. see: Nakanamanga

504. Ngwatua (11) OC

filalightning (POC: *bila₂)

kakwariroot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

karo-ato scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

katamadoor (PMP: *kataman)

ka-toluthree (POC: *ka-tolu) *telu

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

manaand (POC: *mana)

ŋʷatasnake (POC: *qumata)

ŋʷatua-right hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

pati-tooth (POC: *bati)

topusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

505. Nias (410) WMP (Sundermann 1905) [nia] Indonesia (Sumatra) (dialects: Southern [nia] 3)

aconjunction: and (in counting and determining dimensions), then (PMP: *a₂)

a-basõbecome wet (PMP: *baseq)

aduidol (PMP: *anduŋ)

aduloegg (PMP: *qateluR)

adulo mbisicalf of the leg (PMP: *bities)

adu zatuaancestor figure (PMP: *anduŋ)

afiʔafikind of wood (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

a-fusiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

a-fusi-fusiwhitish (PWMP: *ma-putiq-putiq) *putiq

ahefoot, fruit stalk (of palms) (PAN: *qaqay)

aiinterjection: hey! (PAN: *ai₂)

a-isosour (PWMP: *isem₂)

alifacentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

alimaŋosea crab (PMP: *qali-maŋaw)

alitõfire (PWMP: *aliten)

aluxarudder, steering paddle (PAN: *aluja)

amafather, uncle (also more distant relatives), father-in-law (PAN: *amax)

a-mate-lacorpse (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

a-nifithin, flat; to ameliorate, as a debt (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

aŋiwind, air; rumor; epidemic, pestilence (PMP: *haŋin)

Nias (20 / 410)

asisea, saltwater (PAN: *qasiN)

asosourness, tartness, acidity (PWMP: *qalesem)

aso zaw~atamarind (PWMP: *qalesem)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ataperson, human being; ancestor (PMP: *qaRta) Southern

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-laburial place for the dead (PMP: *atay) *aCay

a-tifahave one short leg, crippled (PMP: *timpaŋ)

awigirdle, belt (for women) (PMP: *habit) *Sabit

awõchugall (PAN: *qapeju)

a-wuʔachange location, emigrate; alter, change (PWMP: *ka-buhat) *buhat₂

axiyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

axocharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

ayasieve (PWMP: *ayak₂)

bainterjection (PMP: *ba₂)

bain, at, on, upon, through (PMP: *ba₃)

babafish sp. (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₅)

ba-baralie across (PAN: *barat₁)

ba hunõ nihain the middle of a crowd of people (PMP: *qunej)

baladay (NOISE)

Nias (40 / 410)

balərevenge (PAN: *bales₁)

balisever, cut, split (NOISE)

baluclothing (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

banayarn, twine (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

banowash the hands (before eating) (PMP: *bañaw)

banuasky, heaven, thunder; village; homeland; fellow villager; serf (PMP: *banua)

banua touunderworld (PMP: *banua)

baoswollen (PAN: *baReq)

bara-baracrossbeam (PAN: *barat₁)

bara-baracrossbeams (PMP: *barabara₁) *bara₂

barujacket, coat, clothing (PWMP: *barut)

bawatroupe, herd, swarm (PMP: *baban)

bawõshallow (PWMP: *babaw₂)

bawõhighland, plateau; upper surface; on, upon (PAN: *babaw₃)

bélaghost, a fabulous demi-human; friend (LOAN)

beotribute, toll, tax (LOAN)

beʔegive, deliver; make, do (PMP: *beRay₂) *beRay

biolastringed instrument, violin (LOAN)

biri-birisheep (LOAN)

bisabe able to do something, know how to do (LOAN)

Nias (60 / 410)

bisishin bone (PMP: *bities)

bitamedal, medallion (LOAN)

bititrifle, small matter (PMP: *bitiq₁) *bitiq

bitokind of wood (PMP: *bitaquR)

bõbõband, fetters, ring (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bõbõ daluwaist band (for women) (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bõbõ laekind of snake (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bõbõ louencircling iron band (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bõbõ talubelt (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bohounew, recent (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bõlino, not (forbidding) (PMP: *beliq₂)

bõnadecoration of gold wire (in weaving) (PWMP: *benaŋ)

boŋinight; term, time (PMP: *beRŋi)

boŋi-boŋiin the evening (PMP: *beRŋi beRŋi) *beRŋi

borohiring out (LOAN)

buhair, bristle, feather (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

buafruit; kidneys; marble (PMP: *buaq)

buatake away, confiscate,,remove, compensate for; defend oneself, justify oneself, vindicate oneself; retort (PMP: *buhat₃)

bua-buagood deeds (PMP: *buaq buaq) *buaq

bua danõgrain (PMP: *buaq)

Nias (80 / 410)

bua geufruit of a tree; eye (PMP: *buaq)

bua mbarubutton, stud (PMP: *buaq)

buayacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

buaya horõa god in the form of a crocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

buburice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

budutip, outermost point, extremity (PMP: *budu)

budukind of dried fish (LOAN)

bululeaf (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bunaa sea fish (PMP: *buna)

bunukill; extinguish, wipe out, strike through, close up (an umbrella), lower (a sail) (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunu-ifill up (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

buŋaflower, blossom (PMP: *buŋa)

burufish sp. (PWMP: *buzuk)

bu-simake someone drunk (PMP: *ma-buhek₁) *buSek

buwufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

buwuto water (PMP: *buqbuq)

buʔuknot; node, joint (as of bamboo); knee (PMP: *buku)

buʔu-buʔuknobby excresence, hump (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buʔul-owart (PWMP: *buŋkul-en) *buŋkul

damistemlet on the rice kernel; chaff (PWMP: *zaRami)

Nias (100 / 410)

da-ruatwo, of humans (PAN: *a-enem) *enem

da-ruatwo, of humans (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu

da-ruatwo, of people (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

daʔidirt (especially on body and clothing) (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

dõfafathom (PMP: *depa)

dõfa-ito measure in fathoms (PWMP: *depa-i) *depa

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua dədəto doubt, to suspect (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-duatwo each, two at a time (PMP: *walu walu) *walu

dua duatwo each, two by two (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

dua-nauncertain (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duʔugrass, weeds (PMP: *zukut)

etesmall bridge (ROOT)

euwood; firewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

fa-bélabefriend (LOAN)

fa-buaplay marbles; fasten a button (PMP: *buaq)

fa-bunukill (PMP: *pa-bunuq) *buNuq₂

fa-bunu-samurder; death blow (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

fa-fukacatch birds with a net (PWMP: *pa-puket) *puket₁

fagaroast (in the flames) (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

Nias (120 / 410)

fahõchisel (PMP: *paqet)

fa-hotuto break wind (PAN: *pa-qetut) *qetut

faketo use (LOAN)

falonutmeg (LOAN)

fa-m-asitake pleasure in something, be fond of (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

fa-muwukind of tree (cited under bubu) (NOISE)

fanabow, weapon (PAN: *panaq)

fanõgo away, depart; go (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

fa-õlito marry (of a man) (PWMP: *pa-beli) *beli

fariexcavated conduit; embankment (PWMP: *parij)

fariexcavated conduit; embankment (PWMP: *parik)

fa-roŋoto hear from all sides (PWMP: *pa-deŋeR) *deŋeR

fasastake, nail; to pound in a stake or nail (PAN: *pacek)

fa-salabe blemished, defective, erroneous; commit an error (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

fa-siʔuknock something with the elbow (PWMP: *pa-siku) *sikux

fa-talitwist around one another (PWMP: *pa-talih) *CaliS

fa-tambabecome equal, be even (of a number) (PMP: *tambak₂)

fa-uli(fa-uli)happen repeatedly (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

fa-uli-tanew moon (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

fa-wukaget ensnared or entangled (PWMP: *pa-puket) *puket₁

Nias (140 / 410)

fa-wuxõto foam, to froth (PWMP: *pa-bujeq) *bujeq

faxerice (in general as a plant, and in its cooked state) (PAN: *pajay)

fa-ʔamacall father (PMP: *pa(ka)-amax) *amax

fa-ʔinulet someone drink, give drink to, to water (animals) (PMP: *pa-inum) *inum

fa-ʔotocut with a sword (PMP: *etes₁)

fififorehead (PAN: *pipi₁)

filichoose (PAN: *piliq)

fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fõnusea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

fukaa bird net (PMP: *puket₁)

funekind of small dove (PAN: *punay)

furiback, behind; person in the rear; later; closing, termination, end, the last (NOISE)

furucollection, gathering (PMP: *pudun) *puduN

fusiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

fusõnavel (PMP: *pusej)

gambea plant with leaves and sap that are chewed with betel to color it red (LOAN)

gazi borosalary for a piecemeal job (LOAN)

gimaa large shellfish (PMP: *kima)

gutiscissors (LOAN)

haluwooden pole for pounding rice (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

Nias (160 / 410)

hambawafruit tree (PWMP: *qambawaŋ)

hawiperform something with vehemence (NOISE)

hawufine ash, as cigarette ash; remainder, sweepings, rubbish, dust, powder (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

hawu-hawuthat with which something is cast or strewn (PWMP: *qambuR)

(h)idesmall, gentle, light (NOISE)

hifahang loosely, fit badly, shake, tremble, wobble, totter (NOISE)

hifopoison (PWMP: *qipuq)

hilimountain, hill, mountain chain, row of hills (PMP: *qilih)

hili-hilihill, knoll (PMP: *qilih)

hisinterjection to chase away an animal (PMP: *qis)

hitacreeper with fruits used as gold weight measures (LOAN)

hiushark (PAN: *qiSu)

hiwomildew, mold (PWMP: *qibaw₂)

hiwofungus, mold, mildew (NOISE)

ho-houcurrent (in a river) (PMP: *qaRus)

hotuwind, fart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

hotu-hotua small insect (PWMP: *qetut qetut) *qetut

houcurrent (in the sea) (PMP: *qaRus)

huhere! here I am! (PMP: *qu₁)

huduprojecting point or peak (PMP: *quzuŋ)

Nias (180 / 410)

humahermit crab (PAN: *qumaŋ)

huna-hunascales (PMP: *qunap qunap) *quSeNap

hundratread, step on (PWMP: *qundak)

hunõpith, seed, kernel (PMP: *qunej)

hunõ gaduloegg yolk (PMP: *qunej)

hunõ-hunõintestines (used by children) (PWMP: *qunej qunej) *qunej

hutacut off, cut down (PWMP: *qutas)

huwagray hair (as on an elderly person) (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ichunose; snout, trunk, proboscis (PMP: *ijuŋ)

idáexclamation of wonder, etc. (PMP: *inda₁)

ifidream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

ifõincisor teeth (PMP: *ipen)

ifo-ʔifo-mealworm, bug (NOISE)

ikilaugh at, ridicule (PWMP: *hikhik)

ilasee, know, be able; foresee (PWMP: *ila₂) *ila

ilospittle, slaver (PMP: *iluR₁)

inamother, aunt (PMP: *ina)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

urine (PAN: *iSeq)

isicontents (PAN: *isiʔ)

Nias (200 / 410)

isito sough, of the wind (ROOT)

isõsmoke a pipe (PAN: *hisep)

isõsour fruits (PWMP: *isem₂)

ita1st person pronoun, now used for the singular as an impolite gesture, but still normally used for the plural (PAN: *ita₁)

itiwild duck (PWMP: *itik₂)

itiʔ-iticlimbing plant, creeper (PWMP: *itik₃)

iwawaver, vacillate, sway, totter (PWMP: *hiwal)

iwatribe, clan; (in southern Nias) brother, sister (PMP: *ibah-an) *ibaS

iʔotail (PAN: *ikuR)

kakabridle, harness (for horse) (PWMP: *kakaŋ)

karastone, coral (PMP: *karaŋ)

katawood plane (LOAN)

kikia small flute (PMP: *kikik)

k-iõurinate (PAN: *iSeq)

kõkõgrowl, grumble (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

kori-koriscraper; rake (PMP: *kerit)

kundriwater pitcher (LOAN)

kuraringworm (PAN: *kurap)

kurispeckled, spotted (PWMP: *kuriŋ)

labukind of gourd (LOAN)

Nias (220 / 410)

labuto pour out (especially of molten metal) (LOAN)

laipeak, crown, as of a tree (PWMP: *lawi₂)

lalibuttress root (PMP: *dalij)

lam-bana(listed under bana) kind of vine (PMP: *banaR₁) *baNaR

laŋiatmosphere, sky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi-laŋimaterial for making clothing (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋupoison (PAN: *laŋu)

latoa tree with stinging, pain-producing leaves (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lato manua plant like the stinging nettle (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lawa-lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

liword, speech, utterance, accent (PMP: *liŋ₂)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-limafive each (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

lõ boŋinight and day (PMP: *beRŋi)

loyosail (PAN: *layaR)

mā-budrunk (PMP: *ma-buhek₁) *buSek

madalaevening star, morning star (PMP: *mantalaq)

mamahõto chisel, work with a chisel (PMP: *paqet)

ma-maketo use, employ (LOAN) Nias

Nias (240 / 410)

ma-manashoot an arrow (PWMP: *ma-manaq) *panaq

mam-bõbõbind, tie (PWMP: *maŋ-bejbej) *bejbej

mam-bohourenew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

mam-bunukill; extinguish, wipe out, strike through, close up (an umbrella), lower (a sail) (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

ma-milito choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-mitudivide into seven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ma-musimake something white (PWMP: *ma-mutiq) *putiq

ma-muxõto foam, to froth (PWMP: *maŋ-bujeq) *bujeq

ma-nabato cut off, shorten (as payment); to slaughter (by slitting the throat) (PMP: *taba₃)

ma-nafato strike with the open hand, slap (PWMP: *ta(m)pak)

ma-nafito sift, filter (PWMP: *tapis₃)

ma-nalimake something into a rope (PWMP: *ma-nalih) *CaliS

ma-nambato fill up (PMP: *tambak₂)

man-salato roast (PMP: *saŋelaR)

man-sixito shake (in winnowing) (PMP: *siji)

man-tawaconjure up by magical formula (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

manuchicken; suckling pig given as a gift, as to newlyweds (PMP: *manuk)

ma-nuluuse a torch (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

ma-nunulight, kindle, ignite; roast in a fire; burn; to shoot, fire a weapon (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

ma-nurato write (LOAN)

Nias (260 / 410)

ma-nuruto point at with the index finger (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

ma-nusuto string, sew through, to thread (PMP: *susun) *susuN

ma-nuwato poison fish with tuwa (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

maŋ-aluxato steer a canoe (PAN: *aluja)

maŋ-asito salt, pickle (PWMP: *maŋ-qasin) *qasiN

maŋ-asi-omake salt from sea water (PAN: *qasiN)

maŋ-buamake happy (PWMP: *maŋ-buaq) *buaq

maŋ-ifito dream (PWMP: *maŋ-hipi) *Sipi

maŋ-itoto blacken, make black (PWMP: *maŋ-qitem) *qitem

maŋ-iwamove, be unsteady, waver (PWMP: *hiwal)

maŋ-limadivide into five parts (PWMP: *maŋ-lima) *lima

maŋosea crab (PMP: *qali-maŋaw)

maŋ-o-bubucook rice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

maŋ-onogive birth (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

maŋ-uruerect a protective image in front of the village to ward off pestilence (PMP: *uduq₂)

maŋ-utato spew out, to vomit (PWMP: *maŋ-utaq) *utaq

m-asi m-asilove, affection; charity, kindness; pleasure, satisfaction (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedie; become paralyzed; dry up, wither; extinguish (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate dõdõmake a deep impression on something (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

Nias (280 / 410)

matianaghost of woman who dies in childbirth (cited by Verheijen 1967-70 sub MGG pontiana) (LOAN)

matuaparent-in-law (man speaking), wife’s father, wife’s mother (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

maʔa-siʔudistance from the elbow to the tip of the outstretched hand (PWMP: *maka-siku) *sikux

men-druatwice (PWMP: *man-duha) *duSa

me-wituseven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

me-wuluten times (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq

me-ziwanine times (also as an expression of completeness) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

mo-ayato sift (PWMP: *ayak₂)

mo-buhave hair or feathers (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

mo-buŋato bloom, to blossom (PWMP: *ma-búŋa) *buŋa

mo-daʔidirty (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

mo-duʔue overgrown with grass or weeds (PMP: *zukut)

mo-gutito cut with scissors (LOAN)

mo-hilimountainous (PMP: *qilih)

mo-ho-hourun, stampede (of a crowd of people) (PMP: *qaRus)

mo-huwabe gray, have gray hair (PWMP: *ma-quban) *qubaN

mo-kaka-kakato laugh loudly (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak

mo-katato plane wood (LOAN) Nias

mo-laŋito swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

mo-lawato overcome (PMP: *lawaq₂)

Nias (300 / 410)

mo-loyoto sail, travel over the sea (PAN: *layaR)

mom-banowash the hands (before eating) (PWMP: *mem-bañaw) *bañaw

mo-nanato fester, suppurate (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

mo-ŋaŋato chew betel (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

mo-ŋaŋato chew; chew betel (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

mo-ŋaŋato chew, as betel (PWMP: *ŋatŋat)

mo-sixito quiver, tremble (PMP: *siji)

mo-wuabear fruit (PMP: *ma-buaq) *buaq

mo-ʔaŋiwindy (PMP: *haŋin)

moʔ-onohave a child, get a child, give birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mumunearly decayed tree trunk (PWMP: *mumuk)

mutõmucus in the corner of the eye (PWMP: *muteq)

nami-namit-õsweet (PMP: *ñamit) Southern

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nete-netepath, bridge (PWMP: *ma-naytay) *taytay

nõfukind of fish (PMP: *nepuq)

nuzaisland, place (PMP: *nusa₁)

ŋa-fuluten (in plural forms?) (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ŋa-fuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

ŋetepbite off something with the incisors, gnaw on (PMP: *ketep₁)

Nias (320 / 410)

o-dro--bent (NOISE)

õfafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

õlito buy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

õlõexpenditure of strength or effort (for something) (PWMP: *elet₂)

õlupopliteal space (PWMP: *qeluk)

onochild, children; boys; calf; suckling pig; plant shoot (PMP: *anak) *aNak

õnõsix (PAN: *enem)

ono dorosiclapper of a bell (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ono fanaarrow; bullet (PMP: *anak i panaq) *aNak

ono fõnastepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ono ganaʔainterest on a loan (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ono henefirstborn (of animals) (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

ono horõillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ono hõrõpupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

ono mbanuacommon man, villager (PMP: *anak i banua) *aNak

oraladder, stairs (PMP: *haRezan)

oroname of a spirit (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

õsasome, a part (PAN: *esa)

ösicontents; flesh (PMP: *hesi) *Sesi

õsi zusumilk (breast contents) (PAN: *susu₁)

Nias (340 / 410)

õtõchop to pieces, cut down (PMP: *etes₁)

õtõcross over (a river); step over (PWMP: *etes₂)

õtõchop to pieces, chop up (PMP: *hetek) *Setek

otuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

roŋoto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

rururustling sound (of someone pushing through vegetation, earth descending in a landslide, etc.) (PWMP: *rusrus₁)

sabisickle (PMP: *saqebit)

sa-fasaa pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

sag-eua piece (of wood, of pork, cloth, etc.) (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

salablemish, defect; fault, error; make a mistake (PMP: *salaq₁)

salafatobacco box (PWMP: *calapaʔ)

sam-buaone (PMP: *sa-buaq) *buaq

sara woŋia night (PMP: *beRŋi)

sawapython (PMP: *sawa)

siarticle for proper names (said to be borrowed from Malay) (PAN: *si₁)

si axiyoungest child (PWMP: *si huaji) *Suaji

s<in>abaa portion that is cut off (PMP: *taba₃)

s-in-agostolen goods (PWMP: *t<in>akaw) *Cakaw

s-in-alirope, string, line (PMP: *t<in>alih) *CaliS

sisigo along the side of something; pursue something (PWMP: *sisiq)

Nias (360 / 410)

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sixõant; rat, mouse (PWMP: *sijem)

siʔuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

siʔu-ashuttle (in weaving and repairing of nets) (PWMP: *siku-an) *sikux

so-nusanative, indigenous (PMP: *nusa₁)

sulutorch; eye (PMP: *suluq)

sulu-ito illuminate, cast light on; to light, kindle (PWMP: *suluq-i) *suluq

suraa letter; book; writing (LOAN)

susubreast, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

suxaplace bamboo spikes in the ground (as against thieves) (PMP: *suja)

suxucomb (PWMP: *sujud)

taexcrement, feces; slag; lightning (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tafifilter, sieve (PWMP: *tapis₃)

tagõsteal (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

tala-talakind of fish (PWMP: *talaŋ-talaŋ)

talirope, cord, string (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali fusõbrother, sister, kinsman (PMP: *pusej)

taliŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

taliŋa-orokind of mushroom (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

taliŋa ziʔua measurement from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger (PAN: *sikux)

Nias (380 / 410)

talõa tuber: Caladium (PMP: *tales)

tambaa filling up (PMP: *tambak₂)

tanõearth, soil, land (PMP: *taneq)

tanõmõseed, seedling (PAN: *CaNem-en) *CaNem

tawamagical formula (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

tifato limp (PMP: *timpaŋ)

tõluthree (PAN: *telu)

tõlu-tõluthree each, three by three (PMP: *telu-telu) *telu

towoshave, cut with a razor (PAN: *tebek)

tõwusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tuaprimary forest (PMP: *tuqan)

turu ~ tu-turufinger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tututhe bite of a snake (PAN: *tuktuk₁) Southern

tu-turufinger (PWMP: *tu-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

tuwaa poisonous creeper used to stupefy fish in the water (PAN: *tuba)

ugahow much, how many? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

ulosnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

umbuspring, well, fountain (PWMP: *umbul)

uoblood vein, vessel (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uruidol, kept for protection (PMP: *uduq₂)

Nias (400 / 410)

utaʔ-õvomit up (PAN: *utaq-en) *utaq

uta-ʔutawhat is vomited (PAN: *utaq)

w̃alueight (PAN: *walu)

walu ŋa fulueighty (PMP: *walu ŋa puluq) *walu

wanibee (PMP: *wani)

waʔaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

w̃esap (PMP: *wahiR)

wuxõ-wuxõfoam, spume, froth, suds (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

wuʔu-wuʔuyoung fruit (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

y-aʔó1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

Nias (Southern) (3) WMP [nia] (Nias) Indonesia (Sumatra)

ataperson, human being; ancestor (PMP: *qaRta)

nami-namit-õsweet (PMP: *ñamit)

tututhe bite of a snake (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

506. Nibong (1) WMP

balakbanana (NEAR)

Nissan (71) OC. see: Nehan

507. Niue (539) OC (McEwen 1970) [niu] Niue

aparticle used in the following cases: 1. before pronouns (except au), personal names, or local nouns when they are the subject of an intransitive verb; 2. before pronouns, personal nouns and names of months when they follow the prepositions ki and i; 3. before a common noun following (but not preceding) a possessive pronoun; 4. before a demonstrative pronoun drawing attention to a noun associated with an indefinite article and an adjective; 5. after falu (some), a is used in place of the ordinary article, either singular or plural (PMP: *a₁)

afi-afievening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

afofishing line (POC: *apon) *hapen

ahoday, daylight, morning (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

ahoŋ-iabe overtaken by daylight (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

ahubail out, dip up; canoe bailer (POC: *qasu) *qasu₁

ahuspleen (POC: *qasu₂)

aia particle used in the following ways: 1. after verbs to show that what has happened, or is to happen, is the result, consequence, or intention of what has gone before, 2. to indicate a relative clause, frequently giving a verb a passive sense, 3. with the prepositions i and aki to refer to a thing or place already mentioned (POC: *ai₁)

aitughost, supernatural being (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

aka-maŋa-maŋato stand with legs apart (POC: *paka-saŋa) *saŋa₁

a-kautree, wood, timber; rod, staff, weapon (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

amato fish for crabs, etc. with a torch (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

anuto spit (POC: *qanus₂)

aŋiblow gently (of the wind); a gentle breeze (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-fualiver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-loa, ate-pilispleen (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-palalungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-viliheart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atudirective particle, away form the speaker, towards the person addressed (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

Niue (20 / 539)

aturow of things, group (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

atudirective particle, away from the speaker, towards the person addressed; to give (to the person addressed) (PMP: *atu)

atuagod, spirit, ghost (now used exclusively for God; for ghost aitu is used) (PMP: *qatuan)

atu haugeneration of people (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

atuleherring (PMP: *qatulay)

atu motugroup of islands (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

au1sg.: I, me (PAN: *aku)

auēinterjection: alas! (PCEMP: *qaué)

stalk of a plant (PMP: *paqa₂)

fa-faŋuto awaken (POC: *paŋun) *baŋuN

faka-a very common prefix, usually causative, but with other meanings (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

faka-aŋicause to blow (as wind) (POC: *paka-aŋin) *haŋin

faka-fanato warm up, as food; to repeat oneself (PMP: *panas₁)

faka-filia judge (PAN: *piliq)

faka-fonu-fonushy, reserved (POC: *poñu) *peñu

faka-fua fuato shape or mould (as a loaf of bread); to estimate, weigh up, calculate (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

faka-fu-fulato show anger by one’s expression, but not by words (NOISE)

faka-halafine, punishment, penalty; to condemn, convict, punish, sentence (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

faka-haopreserve, keep safely (POC: *saRop) *saRep

faka-hikuto make an end of, to destroy, to stop, to cause to cease; last (POC: *siku)

Niue (40 / 539)

faka-hoato be friendly with (POC: *soRa)

faka-huhuto suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

faka-kite ~ faka-kiseto make known, show (PAN: *kita₂)

faka-luato dribble, vomit (PMP: *luaq)

faka-lua-luato expel from the mouth in driblets (PMP: *luaq)

faka-ma-aŋi-aŋirefresh oneself in the open air (POC: *paka-aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

faka-ma-liŋito pour out (PCEMP: *liŋi)

faka-maluto overshadow; protect, shelter (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

faka-malu-aŋaa porch, a shelter (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

faka-manoŋito give flavor to, to sweeten (POC: *manoŋi)

faka-maŋato open, of the mouth (POC: *paka-saŋa) *saŋa₁

faka-matato whet, to sharpen to a point; to have a certain facial expression, to look (PMP: *mata) *maCa

faka-mataku-takuto frighten (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

faka-matehold the tongue, keep quiet (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

faka-mate-hoŋeto starve to death (POC: *soŋe)

faka-mouito save, deliver; to start (as an engine) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

faka-mo-uito save, to deliver (PMP: *paka-qudip) *qudip

faka-papato stack neatly in layers (as banana cases) (POC: *baban) *papan

faka-tafeto express (as oil from copra) (POC: *tape₁)

faka-taputo make sacred (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

Niue (60 / 539)

faka-tatadraw near (POC: *tata₂)

faka-tonuto put right, to correct; to place in position; to aim; to tell plainly (POC: *tonuq)

faka-tuaislow, late (as work being done) (POC: *tuaRi)

falaŋaitree sp.: Barringtonia samoensis (NOISE)

fale tapuchurch (POC: *tabu) *tambu

fanabow; gun; arrow (PAN: *panaq)

fana-hiapply a hot poultice (PMP: *panas-i) *panas₁

fanogo (sg.) (POC: *pano) *paNaw

fano-fanoto rub (as in washing clothes) (POC: *paño) *bañaw

fatashelf, stage, cage, upper story of a house, stretcher (PMP: *pataR₁)

fatito snap, break off; to break, of waves (POC: *pati₁)

which?, where?, when? (used as adjective and adverb) (POC: *pea)

fe-kite-akito see each other (PAN: *kita₂)

fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration) (POC: *lakar) *lakaj

fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration (PMP: *laŋkaq)

fe-tata-akiadjacent (POC: *tata₂)

fetaua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

fetūstar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

fetū afi-afithe Evening Star (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

fi-filito choose, select (PAN: *piliq)

Niue (80 / 539)

fifinewoman; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

fihahow many?; (fig.) a few (POC: *pica) *pijax

fiha-fihavery few, scarce (POC: *pica pica) *pijax

filito plait, to twist (PMP: *pirit)

fili-filia chain; to chain up, to handcuff (POC: *piri-piri) *pirit

filoto twist (as a rope), to plain; string, thread, reel of cotton (POC: *piro)

fitiflip over (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

foloto swallow (POC: *polon) *belen

fonoa council, parliament, meeting; a prohibition placed on a plantation or a shellfishing area (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

fonusea turtle; (fig.) a quiet person, a person of few words (POC: *poñu) *peñu

fuafruit, seed, berry, nut, egg; swelling, tumor; snail shell; to bear fruit, to swell (POC: *puaq) *buaq

fuacarry on the shoulder; weigh; to survey (of land) (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

fua alilicoarse-shelled univalve mollusc (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

fua fuaswelling, tumor, bulge; natural curves on the body, as the forearm, the calf, on the cheek-bone (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

fua-fua huithe calf (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

fua niuthe fruit of the coconut (PMP: *niuR)

fua-ŋafruiting, harvest (POC: *puaq) *buaq

fuea creeping vine: Merremia peltata (POC: *puRe₂)

fufustrip off (leaves, bark, etc.) (POC: *puput) *buCbuC

Niue (100 / 539)

fufuunivalve shellfish, small and lumpy: sea snail (NOISE)

fu-fuito dip (in water) (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

fu-fuito dip in water (POC: *puqi)

fufulato swell (POC: *pupula₂)

fu-fulurinse, wash, wash out, make a clean sweep (as an epidemic disease that sweeps through a village) (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

fufuŋathe head (of chiefs) (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

fuidip in water (PMP: *puRiq) *buRiq

fui-fuito wash, to water (as plants), to fill with liquid (as a sponge) (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

fui-fuito wash, to water (as plants) (PMP: *puRiq) *buRiq

fui-fuito wash, to water (as plants), to fill with liquid (as a sponge) (POC: *puqi)

fuketo open, uncover (as an oven) (POC: *puke) *buka

fuliturn over, turn away (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

fuluhair, feather (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

fulu-fuluhairy (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

fulu-fulu mataeyelashes (POC: *pulu qi mata) *bulu₁

fuŋasurface (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

fuŋasurface (POC: *puŋa-puŋa)

fuŋa fatashelf (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

fuŋa huhuthe chest, above the breast (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

fus-i, fut-ito draw up (as fish); to hoist (as a flag) (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

Niue (120 / 539)

fus-i-abe drawn, be pulled (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

fus-i-akientice (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

futibanana, plantain (many named varieties) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

futua tree: Barringtonia asiatica (POC: *putun₁) *butun

hasingular indefinite article: a, an (PAN: *esa)

haito lash on, tie fast (as in tying two canoes or baskets together) (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

haiinterrogative pronoun, who?, whom? (PMP: *sai)

hakedirective particle, upwards, to the north or to the east (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

hakuswordfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

hā-ku, hō-ku1sg possessive pronoun: my, mine (POC: *-gu) *-ku

haku lātrue swordfish (compare haku piu 'sailfish') (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

halapath, track, way, mode, means, method, procedure (POC: *salan) *zalan

halasin, wrong; sinful; to sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

hala utaby land (POC: *salan) *zalan

hala vakaby canoe, by sea (POC: *salan) *zalan

haluscrape, peel, sharpen (POC: *palus)

hamaoutrigger of a canoe; (fig.) wife (POC: *saman) *saRman

haoescape (POC: *saRop) *saRep

hao-fiabe in danger (POC: *saRop) *saRep

hao-haotrumpetfish (POC: *sao)

Niue (140 / 539)

hapoto catch a thing thrown (POC: *sabot) *sapet

hauto make an incision in, to cut open (POC: *saRu) *saRu₃

hifodown, downwards, southwards, westwards; to go down, to go south or west; below, under (POC: *sipo)

hifo-hifoinclining downwards (POC: *sipo)

hikuend, tail; small end of a tree trunk usually cut into firewood (POC: *siku)

hipato slant slightly, to be askew, to list (POC: *siba₂) *simpa

hivanine; ninth (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

hoahelper, follower, companion (POC: *soRa)

hoa-nawife; to marry (of a man) (POC: *soRa)

hokato pierce, poke (as a fire), stir, thrust (with a spear) (POC: *soka)

hoŋefamine, hunger; to suffer from hunger (POC: *soŋe)

ho-ŋo-fuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

enter, emerge, push one's way in (PMP: *surup₁)

huhubreast, nipple (PAN: *susu₁)

huhu-abe filled with milk (of the breast) (PAN: *susu₁)

hu-huluto shine (as the moon) (PMP: *suluq)

hu-hunuto burn (PMP: *sunuR)

huifoot, leg; bone; keel of canoe (POC: *suRi₁)

hui-huibony (of fish) (POC: *suRi₁)

hukito pierce, lance, inoculate; needle, prickle, lance, injection, inoculation; fork (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

Niue (160 / 539)

hukito pierce, lance, inoculate; a needle, prickle, lance, injection, inoculation; fork (PMP: *suŋkit)

hulua torch (PMP: *suluq)

hulu-huluevening (PMP: *suluq)

humua species of fish (black in color, with yellow tints) (POC: *sumu)

ipreposition: in, at, from (PAN: *i₂)

iademonstrative: that, those (referring to something already mentioned) (PMP: *ia₂)

ifithe Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus fagiferus (introduced) (POC: *ipi₂)

ifofoam at the mouth; spittle (POC: *ipoR) *ibeR

īhi, ihi-ihisplit, divide, rip open (PCEMP: *isi₂)

īhi (length unexplained)split, divide, rip open (PMP: *Risi)

īhi (length unexplained)split, divide, rip open (PMP: *Risiq)

ihu-ŋāone who speaks through the nose (PMP: *ŋaŋ)

iki-ikismall (POC: *rikit) *dikit

ilito fan; to swing, as a weapon (PMP: *irid₁)

ilo-ato know (NOISE)

ilo-ilowisdom; wise (NOISE)

ipucup (POC: *ibu) *ibu₃

kafikaa tree: Eugenia inophylloides; also a name given to the stocks (an introduced method of punishment abandoned many years ago), because made of kafika timber (POC: *kapika)

ka-filotough, stringy, hard to snap (POC: *piro)

kahoa light rafter in a thatched house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

Niue (180 / 539)

kaito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

kai-aŋaa meal, feast (POC: *kani) *kaen

ka-kanokernel, flesh, meaning, contents (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

ka-kauto swim (POC: *kaRu)

kanograin, seed (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kanon-iafull, filled (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

kano pu-puluglutinous (as taro) (POC: *bulut) *pulut

kapa-kapato flutter, to flap the wings (as a bird) (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

kapit-ito pick up something with tongs (PMP: *kapit)

katobasket (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

kato letasuitcase (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

kato tāpulupocket of a garment (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

kato tupepurse (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

kavathe pepper plant (Piper methysticum); drink made from the bruised roots of the kava; any intoxicating liquor (LOAN)

kava-hoŋeperiod between taro crops (POC: *soŋe)

whistle in shrill manner (PMP: *kik)

kipreposition: to, used before proper names, pronouns and the local nouns lunga, lalo, loto, fafo, hinei, hinā, uta, etc. (POC: *ki₁)

kipreposition: to, used before proper names, pronouns and the local nouns (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

kiatooutrigger booms on canoe (POC: *kiajo)

kikismall; stunted (PMP: *kikit)

Niue (200 / 539)

ki-kilato shine; brightness; smooth (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kiliskin, husk, outer surface (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kilia saw, a file; to saw or file (POC: *kikir) *kiDkiD

kili-manuleather (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

kiokiocry of a bird; to chirp, to cry (as a young bird) (PAN: *kiaw)

kite ~ kiseto see, to know (PAN: *kita₂)

kite-kite ~ kise-kiseto look at, examine (PAN: *kita₂)

koe2sg., thou, you (POC: *koe)

kohodigging stick (POC: *kojom)

kokaa tree the wood of which is used for rafters: Baccaurea seemannii (POC: *koka)

kolofort, tower, lookout point (POC: *koro₂)

kukuto hold fast: to grasp, clench (POC: *kukup) *kupkup₃

kukusmall black mussel (POC: *kukur) *kuDkuD

kulared; brown (POC: *gurat)

kulukuluthe native dove (POC: *kurukuru)

kutulouse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

sail (PAN: *layaR)

lafa-lafalevel, flat-topped (POC: *rapaR) *dapaR

lahoscrotum (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

lakato step; to cross over (POC: *lakar) *lakaj

Niue (220 / 539)

lakato step; to cross over (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laka-aŋaa step, pace (POC: *lakar) *lakaj

laka-aŋaa step, pace (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laka-fiastepped over, exceeded (POC: *lakar) *lakaj

laka-fiastepped over; exceeded (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lakiwest (PCEMP: *raki)

lalobelow, under; the bottom; the west (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo laŋithe earth, world (lit. ‘beneath the sky’) (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo taŋatathe common people (POC: *ralom) *dalem

laŋa-uatwice, double (POC: *rua) *duSa

laŋisky, heaven; thunder; head, hair (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lauleaf of a tree; page of a book (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

(lau)kakathe fibrous wrapping round the base of a young coconut frond (POC: *kaka₃)

lau-lautable; plaited coconut leaves on which a feast is spread; to spread (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lau-lautable, plaited coconut leaves on which a feast is spread (POC: *raun-raun) *dahun

lau-papafloor; board, platform (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lau-uluhair (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

forehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

leleto fly; to flow (as water) (POC: *rere₂)

li-liŋito pour, to gush (PCEMP: *liŋi)

Niue (240 / 539)

li-liuto change (POC: *li-liu) *liu₂

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-ŋo-fulufifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

limumoss, seaweed (PMP: *limut)

limu-limuvery old (PMP: *limut)

liuto turn, change; to return; again (POC: *liu₂)

ant (POC: *loRo)

lotowithin, inside, between; the heart (moral, not physical); the seat of the emotions, the mind (POC: *loto₂)

luato vomit, throw up food (as an infant does) (PMP: *luaq)

luluowl; (fig.) spouse; a European woman (from the pale face of the native owl) (POC: *druru)

maconjunction: and (with numerals) (PAN: *maS)

ma-fus-iplucked out (as hair, etc.) (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

mahaempty; calm; to empty (as a coconut when drinking); to be calm, as the sea (PMP: *maja)

mahina alilioperculum or "cat's eye" of the above mollusc (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

ma-hokapierced, poked with a stick or knife (POC: *soka)

mahuto abound in food; abundance of food; plentiful (POC: *masuR)

maidirective particle: hither, this way, towards the speaker; to give (towards the speaker only); from (POC: *mai) *ai₃

malowaist belt or cloth; menstrual cloth; baby’s napkin (PCEMP: *malaw)

malo tauwar girdle (PCEMP: *malaw)

malushade, shadow; protection; shaded, sheltered (PEMP: *maluRu)

Niue (260 / 539)

ma-luato flow out of the mouth accidentally; to overflow (PMP: *luaq)

ma-lua-luato become rough (of the sea) (PMP: *luab)

malu-iacovered (PEMP: *maluRu)

malu-malushady; lowering (of the sky) (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

mamaa mouthful; that which is chewed; the cud (modern) (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-maŋascattered (e.g. troops in defeat) (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

ma-matato look at, to watch in admiration (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-matuaparents (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

manapower; authority (supernatural); miracle; powerful (POC: *mana₂)

manavastomach, belly, womb; health (occasionally) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manoŋisweet-smelling; to give out fragrance (a favorite name for girls) (POC: *manoŋi)

manuanimal, bird, living creature (POC: *manuk)

maŋaforked, divided (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

māŋadivision, part, fragment; village, town (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

maŋa-ahoan hour; division of time; part of a day (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

maŋa-ito place between, to insert (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

maŋa-maŋabetween two things; mature (of the mind) (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

maŋa-uacloven (POC: *maŋa-ua) *duSa

ma-pelubend up, curl up (POC: *belu)

mataunripe; raw, uncooked; new, fresh (POC: *mataq) *hataq

Niue (280 / 539)

mataeye, face; edge, blade, prong; mesh of a net; headland, point; to look at (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata alili“cat’s-eye”, operculum of the alili shellfish (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata atethe core of the heart (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata fanaan arrow (fana = ‘bow’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata fūbase, stump (of a tree); source, origin (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata halaentrance; beginning of a road (POC: *mata ni salan) *maCa

mata helenoose (hele = ‘to snare, entangle’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-hikua twig, extremity, end (POC: *siku)

mata hoecape, point of land; gable of a building, end of a building (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata huhunipple of the breast, teat (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mata kaverays of the sun (kave < *PMP *kaway ‘tentacles of octopus’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-kitekeen-eyed; to be on the alert (PAN: *kita₂)

matakuto fear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

mata kupeŋamesh of a net (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mataku-takufear (n.); to fear, be nervous (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataku-taku-inafeared, dreaded; frightened (POC: *matakut) *takut

ma-talaunderstanding, wisdom, knowledge; wise, educated (LOAN)

mata limafinger (lima = ‘hand, arm’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata makaa pinnacle of rock (maka = ‘rock’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-matareticulated; appearing like the meshes of a net (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

Niue (300 / 539)

mata mataŋidirection from which the wind blows (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata muathe leading person in the front of a battle or a dancing party (mua = ‘front’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata niuthe “eye” of a coconut (PMP: *niuR)

mata niuthe eye of a coconut (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataŋiwind (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata patusource of anything, origin; stem of a plant (patu = ‘chief, head of a family, elder’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata pitonavel (pito = ‘navel’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata tohia letter of the alphabet (tohi = ‘to mark, to write’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata tuliknee (tuli = ‘knee’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matauright (as opposed to left) (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

mata uharaindrop (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

mata vakathe front man in a four man canoe (vaka = ‘canoe’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedie, die out (as a fire); stop (as an engine); be desirous of, need intensely, be ill with deprivation; be destroyed (POC: *mate) *aCay

mate-aŋadeath (POC: *mate-qaŋa) *aCay

matoluthick, as a tree (POC: *matolu) *təlu

matuaparent; relative of the same generation as one’s parents (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

matua tupunagrandparent (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

miti ~ misisuck; absorb (POC: *miti)

mo-kopu-nagrandchild (POC: *mo-kobu) *kempu

mo-motuaold folk, elders (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

Niue (320 / 539)

motuaold age; an old person (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mo-uilife; living; to live (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

m-uithe last; be last, follow; unripe, immature (POC: *muri) *udehi

namolake, pond (PMP: *namaw)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nifotooth; tenon (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niucoconut palm (13 varieties listed); copra (PMP: *niuR)

niu-niua grove of coconuts (PMP: *niuR)

nofoto sit; to dwell; to become established (POC: *nofo)

nofo-aa seat, chair (POC: *nofo)

nonosmall beetle (PMP: *neknek)

nonua shrub: Morinda citrifolia (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋatasnake (POC: *mwata)

ŋauto chew, as sugarcane (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋau-ŋauto bite (POC: *ŋau-ŋau) *ŋau₁

ŋōnoise, tumult; make a noise, to clamor (PMP: *ŋek)

ŋūto moan, grunt, roar (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋuluto growl (as a dog with a bone) (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

ŋuŋurheumatism (PMP: *ŋulŋul₁)

ŋutumouth, entrance (e.g. of cave, channel in reef); beak of pipefish (PAN: *ŋusuq)

Niue (340 / 539)

ŋutu loalong-tongued person, gossip, busybody (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ōto go, to come. This is the dual and plural form of both fano (to go) and hau (to come) (POC: *oRo)

oeexclamation, ho! Also, the answer to a call (POC: *oe)

ofaa fathom; to measure in fathoms (i.e. with outstretched arms) (POC: *ropa) *depa

onepowder, gunpowder (POC: *qone) *qenay

one-onesand (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

onomend nets (POC: *qono₂)

oŋoa report, message (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

otato eat raw; a dish of raw fish fixed with coconut cream (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

otifinish, be ended; entirely (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

oti manavaoverdone with work (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

paha-hūdamp, wet by dew (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

palaiyam variety (POC: *balai₂)

palufish sp. (NOISE)

pano-panoa plant: Guettarda speciosa (POC: *pwano-pwano)

papaflat (POC: *baban) *papan

pekaflying fox, fruit bat; to cling (POC: *bweka)

peka-pekaa bird, the swiftlet (often called the swallow) (POC: *bweka)

peluto fold, bend; ancient type of curved club; sword; bush-knife (modern) (POC: *belu)

Niue (360 / 539)

peluto fold, bend; an ancient type of curved club (ROOT)

pepebutterfly, moth; the butterfly pea vine: Clitoria terneata (introduced) (POC: *bebe)

pihito splash (POC: *bisik) *bicik

pihito splash (PMP: *picik)

pihi-kiaspattered (PMP: *picik)

pihi-pihito spatter (POC: *bisik) *bicik

pihipihito spatter (PMP: *picik)

pikicleave to, adhere; touch (POC: *bikit) *pikit

pilito stick together; resin, cement, plaster; anything sticky (PMP: *pilit₁)

pili-pilianything glutinous, clammy (PMP: *pilit₁)

pitonavel (POC: *bito)

piuumbrella; parachute; the fan palm: Eupritchardia pacifica (introduced) (POC: *piRu) *biRu

poŋiweak, inactive (mentally) (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

poŋi-poŋimorning, morrow (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

poporotten, decayed; ulcer, have ulcers (POC: *popok) *bekbek₁

univalve mollusc shell; trumpet; horn of a motor-car (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

puabud (of a flower) (POC: *buaq)

puaa tree: Fagraea berteriana (NOISE)

puabud of a flower (NOISE)

pua likibanyan tree: Ficus prolixa and Ficus obliqua (NOISE)

Niue (380 / 539)

pua puacome into bud (POC: *buaq)

puhabox, case; coffin (POC: *busa₃) *busa₂

pulato shine (of the moon) (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pulastare vacantly (POC: *bulat₂) *bulat

pula hoŋethe moon two or three nights old (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pula mui i mahinathe new moon (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pulecowrie shell (POC: *buliq₁)

pule-otocowrie shell; vagina (POC: *buliq₁)

pule-pulestiped, variegated, spotted (POC: *buliq₁)

pule-tuacowrie shell used as octopus lure (POC: *buliq₁)

pulucoconut husk; fiber; sennit (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

pulustale, fusty, mouldy (POC: *bulut) *pulut

puŋatype of coral rock, very light in weight, which is burned to a powder and used to plaster walls; plaster; sinker for a deep-sea fishing line (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

pupuweed; overrun with weeds (POC: *buburu)

putuheap, collection; gathering of relatives at a funeral (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

putu-putuheap, collection (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

pū-uathe throat (POC: *Ruqa)

saospear (POC: *jaot) *saet

to strike; to kill; to adze; to build; to cast (a speaer or a dart); to wield (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taakind of red fish (PMP: *taRaqan)

Niue (400 / 539)

tafeto flow (POC: *tape₁)

tafe-abe carried away by a current; a sickness of women (causing continual menstruation) (POC: *tape-a) *tape₁

tafe-tafeflowing freely (POC: *tape-tape) *tape₁

tafolascattered about (POC: *tapola)

tahaone, any, an; singly, by itself; another (POC: *tasa)

taha-tahavery few (POC: *tasa)

tahithe sea (more especially near the coast, as compared with moana, the open sea); the coast (PMP: *tasik)

ta-hifoto lower, make inferior (POC: *sipo)

ta-hokato pierce (with an implement) (POC: *soka)

taki-takito lead; a leader (NOISE)

takuaa fish, the bonito (POC: *takua)

talaa barb, prong (POC: *salaŋ)

talaa barb, prong (PEMP: *sala)

tala-talaprickly (POC: *salaŋ)

talisince (POC: *tari)

tali-talito expect (POC: *tari)

talothe taro plant (Colocasia esculenta). Five groups are recognized, each with many varieties, the groups being distinguished according to differences in color and the marking of the petioles, or leaf stalks (POC: *talos) *tales

talu-ēfallow, unproductive (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

talu-melieproductive (soil), fertile (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

talu-ŋaplants remaining on an old plantation (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

Niue (420 / 539)

talu-taluland out of cultivation (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

talu-tūvaothick bushland (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tamanua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (= fetau) (POC: *tamanu)

tā-matekill (POC: *mate) *aCay

tanuto cover up, to bury; to surface (as a road) (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tanu-miato be covered up or buried (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋabag, bale, sack (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋa-fanaquiver (POC: *taŋa₂)

taŋataman, person, mankind (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taŋito weep, cry; a wake over the dead (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋi auēloud lamentation (PCEMP: *qaué)

ta-oŋoto echo (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

tapusacred, prohibited to common people (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tapu-tapustrictly prohibited (POC: *tapu-tapu) *tambu

tapu-tapuflapping of wings; the sound made by the wings of a bird (PMP: *tampuk₁)

tatanear; closely related (POC: *tata₂)

ta-talito wait; to come in the future (POC: *tari)

ta-taoto hide, lie in wait, lie in ambush, keep a look-out (POC: *taqon) *taqen

tā-ta-tauto let blood surgically; to tattoo (POC: *sau₃)

tauact together, at the same time (PMP: *saRup₂)

Niue (440 / 539)

tauyear, season (PMP: *taqun)

tauact together, at the same time (POC: *jaRu)

tauto hang, suspend (POC: *saur₁)

tauto hang, suspend (POC: *tau₂) *tau

tau-anuto spit (plural) (POC: *qanus₂)

tau ki talato talk, spin yarns, talk business (PMP: *sau₄)

tau-pilibe attached to one another, be constantly in one another’s company (PMP: *pilit₁)

tau-pili-ācompanion, helper, follower (PMP: *pilit₁)

tau-tauto hang; to catch fish with a line or net (POC: *saur₁)

tau-tauto hang; to catch fish with a line or net (POC: *tau₂) *tau

tau tupuspringtime (‘growing season’) (PMP: *taqun)

tavaa tree: Pometia pinnata (PMP: *tawan)

tavahia tree: Rhus taitensis (POC: *tawasi)

excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

teliea large spreading tree that has autumn-tinted leaves at certain times of year: Terminalia catappa (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

teliŋa tulideaf (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

teŋa lahotesticle (lit. ‘seed of scrotum’) (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

tiato mesh, to make netting (POC: *tia)

tiheto sneeze (POC: *tise)

tikadart with smooth hardwood head (used in the game of tā-tika) (POC: *tika)

Niue (460 / 539)

tike-tiketo squat on the heels (POC: *tike)

tiko ~ sikoto defecate, evacuate the bowels (POC: *tiko)

tinothe body; the flesh; a person; hull of a canoe (LOAN)

tioto glance (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tipa-tipato sway, dance (used in old chants) (POC: *tibaŋ) *timpaŋ

toathe ironwood tree (Casuarina equisetifolia) (POC: *toRas) *teRas

toawarrior, brave (POC: *toqa)

tofichisel; cut into strips (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

tohito mark (as with stripes or dots); to write; letter, book (PEMP: *tosi)

tokathe bottom of the sea (POC: *toka₂)

tokelaunorth, northern (POC: *tokalaur)

tokoto support; a prop, stays of a roof (POC: *tokon) *teken

toko-fituseven (of persons) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

toko-tokostaff, walking stick, support (POC: *tokon-tokon) *teken

toko-uatwo (of persons); wife, husband (POC: *rua) *duSa

tolea woman's private parts (PMP: *teli)

toluthree, third (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tolu-ŋo-fuluthirty (POC: *tolu-ŋa-puluq) *telu

tonuproper, right (POC: *tonuq)

toŋoa legendary tree (said to be the mangrove, one of which is supposed to have formerly existed in a chasm near the Hakupu coast) (PMP: *teŋeR)

Niue (480 / 539)

totoblood; sap, juice; a plant with milky sap (Euphorbia atoto) (POC: *toto)

totoblood; sap, juice; a plant with milky sap (Euphorbia atoto) (NOISE)

to-tofibreak up (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

to stand; to stand up against (in opposition); to appear (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

tuathe back; behind, beyond, over, outside (POC: *tuqa₁)

tuaiold, ancient; ancient times (POC: *tuaRi)

tufato be scattered, strewn about (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tufa-aŋaa share, portion; assignment (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tufa-tufato divide, apportion (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuhito point (POC: *dusiq)

tuito sew; to pierce (with a needle or other sharp point); to wear, to put on clothes (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

tui-tuithe candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana (PEMP: *tuRi₂) *tuRi

tuk-ito knock, pound, mash (as in pounding kava root) (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tuk-i-tuk-ito knock, rap, scrabble (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tuki-uanape of the neck (POC: *Ruqa)

tuku-oŋoto publish, pass on (as news) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

tumaclothes louse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

tunaeel; freshwater fish found in caves (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tunuto boil, broil, roast (as yam over the fire) (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tuŋ-ito kindle, to light a fire or lamp; to burn (PMP: *tutuŋ)

Niue (500 / 539)

tu-oŋofame; to be widely known (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

tupaa crab (POC: *tubaRa)

tupaa crab; a slave (NOISE)

tuputo grow, spring up; to be descended from (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tupuathe ancient gods, demons; an idol; a giant (POC: *tupuqa)

t-upu-naancestor (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tupuna fifinegrandmother (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tupuna tanegrandfather (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tupu noaby chance, to grow by itself (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tutuk-ipegs driven into the outrigger of a canoe to secure it to the booms; to grind (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

uatwo, second, double (POC: *rua) *duSa

uathe neck (POC: *Ruqa)

ufigeneral name for the yam: Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

uharain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uha tulihail, hailstorm ( = "congealed/frozen rain") (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uhipurple (POC: *quciŋ) *qujiŋ

uhocore, center (POC: *uso)

uicall, invite (POC: *ui) *huy

uluhead, hair, bow of a ship (POC: *qulu) *quluh

uluafish sp. (POC: *qulua)

Niue (520 / 539)

ulu-akifirst-born (POC: *qulu) *quluh

ulu-limahand (POC: *qulu) *quluh

uluŋ-apillow, headrest (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

umuthe Polynesian stone oven; food cooked in a Polynesian oven (PMP: *qumun)

unatortoise-shell; a comb made of tortoise-shell (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

unuto shed (as a shell); to peel, to bark (as a shrub) (POC: *uñus) *huñus

unumove along, draw near, move over (PMP: *qunus)

uŋathe coconut crab (POC: *qumwaŋ) *qumaŋ

uŋa-uŋaa sea-dwelling hermit crab (PMP: *qumaŋ qumaŋ)

uocrayfish (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

utathe shore, as opposed to the sea (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utato load (as a canoe or truck); a load (PMP: *ujan)

utubarracuda: Sphyraena spp., grey jobfish: Aprion virescens (PMP: *qutun)

vahe-ŋaclass, sect, division, space of time (POC: *wa(n)se-ŋa) *wa(n)se

vai-lelestream, river, flowing water (POC: *rere₂)

vakaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

vakacanoe, vessel (POC: *waŋka)

valito paint, whitewash (POC: *wali)

vaoforest, waste place, desolate area; area where gardens are made (POC: *wao)

vao motuathe original dense forest, virgin bush (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

Nodup Raluana (3) OC. see: Tolai (Nodup)

Nokon Raluana (1) OC. see: Tolai (Nokon)

508. Nokuku (1) OC

kuv-kuvuashes (POC: *kupuk)

509. Nonona (1) OC

tuamother’s brother (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

510. North Ambrym (4) OC [mmg] (Ambrym, North) Vanuatu

sa-ŋ-ulten (PMP: *ŋa)

tanearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

varspongy kernel of a mature coconut (PMP: *para)

wera-ŋhand (POC: *paRa₃) *baRa₁

511. North Efate (2) OC [aka: North Efate]

kakcoconut mat, mesh formed by the coconut palm, used for straining liquids (POC: *kaka₃)

karakawalk bent over, hands supporting body (indicates child will soon walk properly) (POC: *kaRaka)

North Efate (2) OC. see: Efate (North)

512. North Malo (5) OC [mla] (Malo) Vanuatu

bito-navel (POC: *bito)

lo-lososwim (POC: *loso-loso)

loso-biwash (POC: *loso-loso)

maturuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

xan-xanto eat (POC: *kani kani) *kaen

513. North Tanna (2) OC [tnn] (Tanna, North) Vanuatu

mawulleft hand (POC: *mauRi) *wiRi

nə-mpaŋhole (POC: *pwaŋa)

514. Northeast Ambae (26) OC [aka: Wailengi, Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi]

afifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

asosun (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

fuhubow and arrow (POC: *pusuR) *busuR₂

kaitree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ka-kanito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

kamalimen’s house (PMP: *kamaliR)

karuto swim (POC: *kaRu)

-ku1sg possessive suffix: my (directly attached to most kin terms, body parts, natural behavior and intimate personal property, but to possessive classifiers ga- ‘food possession’, me- ‘drink possession’, bula- natural or valued object possession’, no- ‘general possession’ for non-intimate or alienable possessive relationships) (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

matakufear (POC: *matakut) *takut

matoluthick (POC: *matolu) *təlu

matueright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

-(n)iconstruct suffix (gamali-ni Robert ‘Robert’s clubhouse’, leo-ni tama-ku ‘My father’s language’) (PAN: *ni)

roŋo namᵇonato smell (POC: *bou roŋoR) *bahu

ruetwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

sinae-guts (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

tai-excrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai-excrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

ta-icut (PAN: *taRaq-i) *taRaq₁

tanoearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

Northeast Ambae (20 / 26)

titito suck (NOISE)

toβusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tokato sit (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

ufito blow (PCEMP: *upi)

vihikoflesh (POC: *pisiko)

vinueMacaranga involucrata (POC: *pinuan)

Northeastern (1) Form.. see: Paiwan (Northeastern)

Northern Bunun (5) Form.. see: Bunun (Northern)

515. Notsi (1) OC

pilito peel sweet potato (POC: *pilit₂)

516. Nuaulu (6) CMP [nni] (Nuaulu, North) Indonesia (Maluku)

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

hakacanoe (PMP: *baŋkaq)

ia-u-manilaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

kapi-toru-nethick (PCEMP: *təlu)

wananeright side (PMP: *wanan) *waNan

wananeright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

517. Nukuoro (293) OC (Carroll and Soulik 1973) [nkr] Micronesia

apersonal article (PMP: *a₁)

aathe sound of hesitation noise (PAN: *a₄)

adutoward the hearer (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

adufish sp., skipjack tuna (POC: *qatun)

aduconglomerate, islet (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adutoward hearer (PMP: *atu)

adu-daiislands to the west of Nukuoro (the Mortlocks?) (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adu-gauarrangement of things into a straight row (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adu-halevillage, compound (aggregation of houses); to from house to house (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adu-henuagroup of islands or atolls, archipelago (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adu-modugroup of islets; atoll (collection of islets) (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

ahi-ahilate afternoon and early evening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

ahofishing line of the sort used for adu fishing (POC: *apon) *hapen

aipredicate complement (POC: *ai₁)

alo-alochest, front (opposite of back); lagoon shore as opposed to seaward reef shore (POC: *qarop) *qadep

amaoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

aŋathe span of the outstretched thumb and little finger; a measurement of one span (POC: *saŋa₁)

aŋiblow gently (of wind); a disturbance (of the water) (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-ablow away, cause to move (in the water) (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-aŋiblow with increasing force (wind); blow continuously (wind); fan (POC: *aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

Nukuoro (20 / 293)

aodaylight (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

asuscoop up (liquids only), to spoon (POC: *qasu) *qasu₁

authe generic term for the major types of currents in the open sea (PMP: *qaRus)

babalevel (not bumpy); any sort of flat base (esp. the board on which mats are plaited), the consolidated reef under water or sand; the back of a human; the shell of a turtle, crab, etc (POC: *baban) *papan

bebebutterfly; nervous, anxious (for reasons not connected with other people) (POC: *bebe)

bebe-abe very nervous, be very anxious (POC: *bebe)

benua pandanus plug after it has been chewed; seed of the pandanus (POC: *benu)

bibimollusk sp.: Cyclotinella remies, also Tellinidae spp. (POC: *bibi₂) *bibi

bigobent; bedridden with illness (POC: *biko)

bigo-bigobent up (having several bends) (POC: *biko)

bilibe caught or hung up on something so as unable to fall (as a felled tree) (PMP: *pilit₁)

bosube satiated with food (singular) (POC: *bosuR) *besuR

buatree sp.: Guettarda speciosa L. (NOISE)

buduthe appearance of many fish (or birds or animals that are good to eat) after a death (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

budu-buducrowded together (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

buguMon veneris (POC: *buku)

bugu-buguswollen (POC: *buku-buku) *buku

bugu limawrist bone (POC: *buku ni lima) *buku

bui-buisoak in water (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

bulato light a torch (POC: *bula₁)

Nukuoro (40 / 293)

bulecowrie shell, many species (POC: *buliq₁)

buluthe short fibers of the mature coconut husk (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

bulud-iato hug (POC: *bulut) *pulut

bulu giidagia type of caulking compound, made from bulu (the short fibers of the mature coconut husk) and sap (POC: *bulut) *pulut

buuconch shell trumpet (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

buubladder, balloon, ball; head of the octopus; conch shell trumpet, or any other round, hollow, inflatable object (NOISE)

daasquirrelfish (PMP: *taRaqan)

dabuforbidden; awesome (POC: *tabu) *tambu

daeguts, intestines; buttocks (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

da-gu, do-gumy one (POC: *-gu) *-ku

daguayellowfin tuna (POC: *takua)

dahe-ato drift (POC: *tape-a) *tape₁

dailagoon; sea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

d-ai-nasibling, cousin (POC: *taci) *Suaji

dalatame; not be timid or uneasy in another’s presence (POC: *lasa)

dalaappendage, fin, spine (extending from a fish, etc.) (POC: *salaŋ)

dalafin, spine (extending from a fish, etc.) (PEMP: *sala)

dalifibers of the coconut leaf rachi (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

daloplant sp.: taro (Colocasia esculenta), also the corm of this plant (POC: *talos) *tales

dama-nafather, uncle, senior male relative, male elder, person in a fatherly relationship (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

Nukuoro (60 / 293)

danuburied; sunken from view (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

danu-danuto bury a great many; to keep going down (so that it becomes hidden from view) (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

danu-miabe buried (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

daŋadaperson, human being; relative (when preceded by a possessive pronoun) (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

daŋi-daŋito cry a lot; beg; apologize; a type of aboriginal chant (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

daŋiifish sp. (PMP: *taŋiRi)

daŋi taliŋatinnitus, a ringing sound in the ear [an omen] (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

daospear; branch of, part of (POC: *jaot) *saet

dauseason (PMP: *taqun)

dauchant (ancient) (PMP: *saRup₂)

dauto fasten (a rope, etc.) between two points; hung up, suspended from (POC: *saur₁)

dau namumosquito net (POC: *tau ñamuk)

dia-diato make a cover for something (e.g. a coconut shell) by plaiting or lashing around it (POC: *tia)

dibanot level, tipped to one side (POC: *tibaŋ) *timpaŋ

dilolook at (inspect) (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

dinaebelly; the edible white part of clam meat (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

dina-namother, aunt; senior female relative, person in a mothering, or motherly, relationship (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

dodoblood (POC: *toto)

dodoblood (NOISE)

dogaland on (as a bird lands on the branch of a tree) (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

Nukuoro (80 / 293)

dogato land on (as bird on branch) (POC: *toka₂)

dogoto punt (propel a canoe by poling); punt pole (POC: *tokon) *teken

dohi-dohidivide up (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

doluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

duaaway from; in back of; after; back (of the body) (POC: *tuqa₁)

duaiold (in the past) (POC: *tuaRi)

dubaland crab sp. (small) (POC: *tubaRa)

dubuexceed (the amount required), too (e.g. many) (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

d-ubu-nagrandparent/ancestor (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

dug-ipunch, hit, strike; bump into; pound (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

duhato divide among; division (as in arithmetic) (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

duistab with a sharp object, pierce with a sharp object, sew, string (flowers or fish, etc.); straight course (of a canoe) (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

dunalarvae (of mosquito, etc.) found in water (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

dunucook, heat up, boil (water) (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

dunu-dunucook, heat up, boil (water) (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

duu-daefeces (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

eidughost, spirit, god (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

eidu aitreat as a totem, worship, treat as a supernatural being (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

gabato flap (as wings) (POC: *kabak) *kapak

gadibite (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

Nukuoro (100 / 293)

gadi-gadiitch (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

gagafibrous sheathing (at the base of the petiole sheath of the flower) of the coconut tree (POC: *kaka₃)

gaieat; food (POC: *kani) *kaen

ganavatree sp.: Cordia subcordata Lam. (PMP: *kanawa)

ganoflesh of, meat of (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

gasoroof thatch rafters (of pandanus slats) (PMP: *kasaw₁)

geahawksbill turtle (PCEMP: *keRa)

geedifferent, of a different sort; away from; strange (PCEMP: *kese)

gee-geecompletely differently (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

gi-toward, to, in order to (POC: *ki₁)

gitoward, to, in order to (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

giadooutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

gidesee (PAN: *kita₂)

gide-eseen (PAN: *kita₂)

gide salamisidentify (PAN: *kita₂)

giliskin (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

gili-gilihuman skin in an unhealthy condition (POC: *kuli-kulit) *kuliC

gimahorse hoof clam (Hippopus hippopus) (PMP: *kima)

givi-givibird sp, the Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) (POC: *kiwiwi)

go-aiwho? (PMP: *sai)

Nukuoro (120 / 293)

gootaro spade (POC: *kojom)

gudulouse (head), or similar exoparasite of plants or animals (e.g. bird lice, scale insects, sap-feeding beetles, darkling beetles, etc.) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

gulutree sp.: breadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

haahinewomen (POC: *papine) *bahi

haa-usuckle at the breast (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

hadustone, rock; weathered coral (POC: *patu₂) *batux

hadu-hadu-astony, full of stones (POC: *patu₂) *batux

hadu madaeyeball (POC: *patu₂) *batux

hadu manavaheart (POC: *patu₂) *batux

haga-causative prefix, cause to be, become, have, know (made ‘dead’ : haga-made ‘do as hard or fast as possible’, daŋi ‘to cry’ : haga-daŋi ‘to play a musical instrument’) (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

haga-lue-iato vomit; vomitus (PMP: *luaq)

haga-mmasato dry something (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

haga-uusuckle, nurse (feed milk) (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

hahamouth odor (POC: *papaq₂) *baqbaq

hahinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

hanogo (sg.) (POC: *pano) *paNaw

haodrill through, burrow (POC: *paRo₁)

hao-ŋaa hole in something (POC: *paRo₁)

hedauAlexandrian laurel tree: Calophyllum inophyllum L. (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

heduustar, planet (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

Nukuoro (140 / 293)

heewhere?, what kind?, which? (POC: *pea)

h-hoacrack open; break into pieces; cut a hole in (POC: *posaq) *peceq

hiahow many? [in compounds only] (POC: *pica) *pijax

hiduseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hilipick from among several, choose, elect; particular (choosy) about (PAN: *piliq)

hili-hilichoose carefully from among many; election (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

hilomix; braid strands of sennit (POC: *piro)

hilo-amix, braid strands of sennit (POC: *piro-a) *piro

hinefemale, woman (must be preceded by an article) (POC: *pine) *bahi

hoa laloanvil or other hard object (such as a stone) on which something can be struck hard; mortar stone (POC: *posaq) *peceq

holoto swallow (POC: *polon) *belen

honufull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

honugreen turtle (two varieties) (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honu-afilled with (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

honu taihigh tide (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

huacome out in front; sing (a song); bear (fruit); a swelling (on the skin, or of dough, etc.); a swell (of the sea); numeral classifier (by tens) for fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

huasing a song (NOISE)

hudibanana tree (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

huevines (several spp.) (POC: *puRe₂)

huluhair on the body (rarely heard) (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

Nukuoro (160 / 293)

hulu-huluhair on the body (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

hulu-hulu-ahairy (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

hulu-hulu madaeyebrows (POC: *pulu qi mata) *bulu₁

hulu i de leŋato paint one's body with turmeric (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hulu madethe fading of one's hair color (becoming white) (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hulu manufeathers (POC: *pulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

huŋa-huŋa a nuithe flower of the coconut tree (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

ihoget down, climb down; down (POC: *sipo)

iloworm, maggot, intestinal parasites (PMP: *qulej)

isipeel off in long, thin strips (PCEMP: *isi₂)

isipeel off in long thin strips (NOISE)

ivibone; needle (POC: *suRi₁)

ivi-ivi-askinny, thin (person), emaciated (POC: *suRi₁)

laaa branch (of a tree) (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

laasail (PAN: *layaR)

laa-gauwood, stick (of wood) (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan₁

laa-gauwood; stick (of wood) (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

laeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

laga-lagaput down one foot after the other (as in walking or marching in place) (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lalato roast (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

Nukuoro (180 / 293)

lalodown; under (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo adesolar plexus (considered the seat of feeling); ade = ‘liver’ (POC: *ralom qate) *dalem

lalo de laŋibeyond the horizon, far away from the atoll (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lamaa dry coconut leaf (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

laŋirain; heaven, sky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi haanaua certain kind of rain [an omen of an impending childbirth] (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋofly, flying ant, wasp, or other similar flying insect (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

leleto fly; jump (POC: *rere₂)

lele ageregain consciousness; epilepsy; surfacing (of flying fish) (POC: *rere₂)

lele tuliparturition (POC: *rere₂)

ligismall (POC: *rikit) *dikit

lilimad at, angry (POC: *lilim)

lili mahaŋahaŋamad as the devil (POC: *lilim)

lillilieasily angered, short-tempered (POC: *lilim)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

liŋito pour (PCEMP: *liŋi)

liŋi-liŋi-ato pour little by little (POC: *liŋi-liŋi) *liŋi

lodoinside of; want, desire (POC: *loto₂)

lodo aheaheunstable temperamentally, inconstant (POC: *loto₂)

lodo laneaindecisive, confused (POC: *loto₂)

Nukuoro (200 / 293)

lodo manegestubborn, be a poor loser (POC: *loto₂)

lohafathom (the span of one’s outstretched arms) (POC: *ropa) *depa

loha-lohato measure off in fathoms (POC: *ropa) *depa

loŋohear, feel; news (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-dulideaf (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo ihobe aware of, experience, perceive, feel (in one’s mind or body) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-loŋoacuity of hearing (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-loŋo i leaalarumor (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

luatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

lue-ito spit out (especially food) (PMP: *luaq)

maand, and so, and thus, and then; with, including (PAN: *maS)

maadoluthick (object); heavy or dense, of rain (POC: *matolu) *təlu

madauncooked, raw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

madafront part of, face, beginning (of a thing); tip of; point, blade; common antecedents who are daina (sibling, cousin) or other connecting links of kin relationship (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-a moniprow of a canoe (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-a-ŋa-huluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

mada-a-ŋa-huluten (PMP: *ŋa)

mada-a uadrop (of liquid or rain) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madaguafraid, scared (POC: *matakut) *takut

madagu-aŋafear (POC: *matakut) *takut

Nukuoro (220 / 293)

madagu-dagucowardly (concerning others or supernaturals) (POC: *matakut) *takut

mada-nniafinger (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada nnuihaving big holes (or entrances, etc.) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madauright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

mada uduathe point of a promontory or peninsula (especially if large) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada umaŋathe bud of a Cyrtosperma taro corm (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madedead (of plants only); numb, paralyzed; go out (of a fire) (POC: *mate) *aCay

made salamistaken (in identifying); mistake someone for another (PMP: *salaq₁)

maduaold (persons), mature, full-grown; parent, elder (senior relative) (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

magisick, sickness; ill, illness; disease (physical or mental) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

magi-aaenvious, jealous (non-sexual jealousy) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

magi dabeomenstruation (lit. ‘unclean sickness’) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

ma-hanahot (PMP: *ma-panas) *panas₁

ma-hana-hanawarm (POC: *ma-panas-panas) *panas₁

maitoward the speaker; less; nearer (POC: *mai) *ai₃

ma-lamamonth, moon (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

maloclothes, cloth (PCEMP: *malaw)

malo gahushirt (PCEMP: *malaw)

malushade (under trees); lee (of wind) (PEMP: *maluRu)

malu-malu de mecloudy day (not bright) (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

Nukuoro (240 / 293)

mamithe taste of something (POC: *mamis) *hemis

manasupernatural power (POC: *mana₂)

manavabreath; breathe; having a good lung capacity (able to remain under water for a long time) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manava-navabreathing (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

maŋaa branch, part of (something having coordinate parts) (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

maŋa lua taecleft in the buttocks (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

mataŋiwind, gas, flatus (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

ma-toluthirty (POC: *ma-tolu) *telu

meared (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

misia sound made by sucking through pursed lips (like a stage kiss) (POC: *misi)

misi-misia sound made by sucking through pursed lips (like a stage kiss) (POC: *misi-misi) *misi

mmasato be dry (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mmeared (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *ma-iRaq

mog-obu-nagrandchild, descendant of (POC: *mokobu) *empu

mo-uliliving, alive; life; life-style; that on which life seems to depend (e.g. favorite food or activity); life-principle (spirit, soul, etc.) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mudu-mududamsel fish (PMP: *mutu₁)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nihotooth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

nonuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L. (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋauchew (to suck juice out) (POC: *ŋau₁)

Nukuoro (260 / 293)

ŋudumouth; mouth of, rim of (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋudu aiact as an interpreter (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋuua faint sound, like humming (POC: *ŋuRuR)

odaeat (something) raw (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

odialready; very; gone, finished, used up; all (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

odi-odilong since finished, done, or gone; long since, a long time ago (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

o-nahis several, her several, its several (POC: *o₂)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

onoa fish, the barracuda (POC: *qono₁)

oŋefamine (POC: *soŋe)

o-oyour (sg.) several (POC: *o₂)

oo-douyour [3] several (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

salamistake, error, accident (PMP: *salaq₁)

saoget out from or through, escape (POC: *saRop) *saRep

s-saerip, tear, deflower (a virgin) (POC: *saRe)

suaroot up (soil) (PMP: *sual)

sugitail (POC: *siku)

sugipierce (slightly), stab (lightly), lance (e.g. a boil) (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

sumutriggerfish, filefish (the native term is applied to many species); a method of lashing which is diamond-shaped, and of decorating mats (with a diamond-shaped design) (POC: *sumu)

tigoto defecate (POC: *tiko)

Nukuoro (280 / 293)

tuluooze a lot at one time (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

udato board (a ship or canoe) (PMP: *ujan)

udosoft wood around the center of a tree trunk (POC: *quto)

ulifish sp. (several species) (POC: *sulik) *sulig

ulutopmost part (POC: *qulu) *quluh

uluenter, join (a group), get in; wounded (by something which has pierced) (PMP: *surup₁)

uluŋ-apillow; lie with one's head on a pillow (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

umuearth oven (PMP: *qumun)

unudrink (PCEMP: *unum)

unum-iadrink (trans.) (PCEMP: *unum)

unus-ipull out (e.g. a sword from its scabbard) (POC: *unus-i) *SuNus

uumilk (PAN: *susu₁)

vaowilderness, uninhabited place (POC: *wao)

518. Nukuria (1) OC

te-hikoWhite-headed kingfisher: Halcyon saurophaga (PMP: *sikek)

519. Numbami (91) OC [sij] Papua New Guinea

abugrandparent (PMP: *ampu) *apu

aeleg, foot (POC: *qaqe) *qaqay

aitree; wood; stick (of wood) (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

a-itawe, us (inclusive) (PAN: *kita₁)

aiyowanabanyan (PEMP: *qayawan)

alafence (e.g. garden fence) (POC: *qalar) *qalad

alilipillar, housepost (POC: *ariRi) *SadiRi

a-malatongue (POC: *maya)

-ambihold, get, take (POC: *abit₂) *ambit

-ambihold, get, take (POC: *abi)

-ambihold, get, take (POC: *qabi)

amu2nd person plural free pronoun; you (plural) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

anito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

anofruit; meat; essence (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

asechin, jaw (POC: *qase) *qazay

asowaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

atawathatch, roof (made of sago leaf) (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ate-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

aulawind (POC: *aura)

awamouth (POC: *qawa₂)

Numbami (20 / 91)

awilalime (for betelnut) (PAN: *qapuR)

awilafishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

banifish bait (POC: *baniŋ) *paniŋ

bolapig; large mammal (POC: *boRok) *beRek

bunalabatfish, Platax spp. (PMP: *bunaR)

buwaareca palm/nut; betel nut quid (POC: *buaq)

buwaareca palm/nut; betelnut quid (POC: *puaq) *buaq

dodoŋaa plug (POC: *joŋjoŋ) *seŋseŋ

dulicorm, bulb (of plant) (PMP: *suli₁)

ilamaadze of iron (PMP: *kiRam)

iwacousin-in-law; spouse’s (usually wife’s) cross-sex classificatory siblings (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

iyafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

iya-nusasquid (iya = ‘fish’) (POC: *nusa₂)

kai-mbombobutterfly (POC: *boboŋ) *beŋbeŋ₄

kukufinger, toe (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kulawiEpinephelus spp. (PMP: *kuRapu)

kuliawadolphin (POC: *kuriap)

kulitaoctopus (traditional monster in legends) (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

laiginger (PMP: *laqia)

laloinside; mind, intelligence, understanding (POC: *ralom) *dalem

Numbami (40 / 91)

laŋanacanoe rollers (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

laŋa-naspider conch (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

lauleaf; page, sheet of paper (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lulithorn; needle (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

luwato vomit, throw up (PMP: *luaq)

luwatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

luwa-luwatwo at a time (POC: *rua rua₁) *duSa

luwawafloodtide, high tide (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

mamafather, uncle (POC: *mamaₐ) *mamah

mamasaebbtide, low tide; go dry, dry out (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mandedie, faint, be paralyzed, long for (POC: *mate) *aCay

mat-anoeyeball (POC: *kanoŋ qi mata) *kanoŋ

me-meyashy, ashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

ni-niwidream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

niwotooth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

paido, make, cause, affect (POC: *pait) *bait₂

-puto blow (instrument) (POC: *puu) *buu₁

pusi-eto blow (wind) (POC: *pusi)

samanaoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

saŋabifurcation, fork (of tree) (POC: *saŋa₁)

Numbami (60 / 91)

sisipeel with teeth (PCEMP: *sisi₃)

susubreast; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

taisaltwater, sea, ocean; salt (PMP: *tasik)

talachop, carve (as a log in making a canoe) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tama-father (term of third person reference) (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

taŋicry, sing, sound (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋilimarlin, sailfish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tiwiloincloth (POC: *tipi)

-toloŋato swallow, gulp down (POC: *toloŋ)

tonowastraight (POC: *tonuq)

-tumbuto grow, get fatter (POC: *tubu₃) *tubu₂

ulihair, feathers, fur (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

umagarden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

undibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

unidead (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

usanarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

ut-ipluck, pull out, dig out (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

wat(a)four (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

wa-waito weave (mats, baskets) (POC: *pai₂)

wisoflesh, meat, muscle (POC: *pijiko)

Numbami (80 / 91)

wisoflesh, meat, muscle (POC: *pisiko)

witiache, pain; to hurt (PMP: *pi(n)tik)

wiyagood, well (PMP: *pia₂)

wokaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

wosaa paddle, oar (POC: *pose) *beRsay

woseto paddle, row (POC: *pose) *beRsay

wounew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

wowaimango (POC: *na wai, na waiwai) *wai

yaweto wag (as a dog wagging its tail) (POC: *awe) *away₁

yawifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

yuwaya tinaseahorse (lit. ‘crocodile mother’) (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

520. Numfor (148) SHWNG (van Hasselt and van Hasselt 1947) [bhw] (Biak) Indonesia (Papua) [aka: Biak, Numfor-Biak]

aferlime, calcium (PAN: *qapuR)

a(i)wood; tree (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

ānto eat (PAN: *kaen)

ān-ānto eat (PMP: *kaen kaen) *kaen

asto smoke, of a fire (PMP: *qasu₃)

asengills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

au2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

bano, not (PMP: *bak₂)

ba-biserhunger (PMP: *bitil₁)

bakənpull up with brute force, as a stone without using tools (PMP: *bantun)

banwash with water (body and objects, not clothes) (PMP: *bañaw)

bānwake up from sleeping; set something upright, as a mast or a house; lifting of the hand, as in saluting (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

banfather or mother of son-in-law or daughter-in-law (NOISE)

barekwest (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barenstir into food (PEMP: *balun₁)

binwoman; female (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

bissick; illness, particularly fever (PSHWNG: *bisik₂)

biserhungry (PMP: *bitil₁)

borspread out, as a cloth over a table (PEMP: *bolaj) *bekelaj

bòstie together, as the hair; bundle, bunch (PEMP: *bokes) *beRkes

Numfor (20 / 148)

brahand (PMP: *baRa₁)

brawengold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bukmarry (LOAN)

bukmarry (NOISE)

burbamboo (Smits and Voorhoeve 1992:219) (PAN: *buluq₂)

burleave, depart, vacate, forsake a place (PAN: *buRaw)

enəfsleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

fasheath of a palm blossom (PMP: *paqa₂)

fakerfoundation of stones, wood, etc. (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

fakokforked sticks that connect the outrigger float to the booms (PEMP: *patoto)

fasrice (in general) (PAN: *pajay)

fa-sárpunish, condemn (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

fikseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

f-rārrun, run away, flee (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

f-ukenask (PMP: *kutaña)

guntiŋscissors [found only in the English index] (LOAN)

i3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ifpeeling or-bark of fruit or tree (NOISE)

infish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

inaM (obsolescent term) (PCEMP: *ina)

Numfor (40 / 148)

inĕmto drink (PMP: *inum)

in maminkind of fish (can reach large size) (PMP: *mamin)

ir ~ rircool oneself by fanning (PMP: *irid₁)

isscour, scrub (PEMP: *isug) *hisuq

isslide oneself over the ground, as someone who is lame (PMP: *isu₁)

isshow the teeth (NOISE)

isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.) (PMP: *ised)

isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.) (PMP: *iseR)

isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.) (PMP: *isuR)

isukrub, scour something until it breaks in two (PWMP: *isut₂)

(ka)-borespaddle, oar; to paddle, row in native fashion (with scooping motion) (PEMP: *boRse) *beRsay

kaka-mother's brother (PAN: *tata₁)

kakugenuine, true (PMP: *tatuqu)

kanəsto weep, cry; howl (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

karto hack, shape by adzing (a canoe) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

kemafather (ref.) (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

k-epugrandparent/grandchild; totemic animal or plant (may not be eaten out of a kind of piety) (PMP: *t-empu) *empu

kiorthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

kobfloat (of fishing line, fishnet) (PCEMP: *tobV)

kobsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

Numfor (60 / 148)

ku-kərtree with edible nut (PEMP: *tuRi₂) *tuRi

kunto fry (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

kunburn, fry, roast; ignite a fire or lamp (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

kurto string (as beads) (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

maand (PAN: *maS)

mashy, ashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

matoward the speaker (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-babyawn; in general, open the mouth (PCEMP: *mawab) *Suab

makerto itch (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

mamfather (PMP: *mama) *mamah

ma-mashame (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

manbird (PMP: *manuk)

man-duməkgreen (PMP: *lumut)

mārloincloth (originally of pounded tree bark) (PCEMP: *malaw)

masensalt; saltwater, sea (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

mbriflaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

menuvillage (PMP: *banua)

mgaeye; countenance (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mguhard, as nuts harden when they are ripe (PCEMP: *matu)

mkākto fear, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

Numfor (80 / 148)

momleftovers from a meal (PMP: *mekmek)

mukbroken; to come to an end, of questions/quarrels (PEMP: *mutu₂)

nasantitle; office (PMP: *ŋajan)

nuisland, only used in compounds, as Nu-mfor, Nus Mapi, etc. (PMP: *nusa₁)

paŋantouch, taste, feel (PMP: *paŋan)

go (PMP: *lakaj)

rabəkpull up by the roots (PMP: *Rabut) *RabuC

rā-macome hither (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

rā macome (PMP: *lakaj)

ramenvery deep (PCEMP: *laman)

ramespress out with both hands (PAN: *Rames)

rankind of small fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

riksap of trees (PMP: *liteq)

rimfive (PAN: *lima)

rirpost, pile, pillar (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

robto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

roffathom (PMP: *depa)

rowinsea cow, dugong (PCEMP: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rumhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

ruməkmoss (PMP: *lumut)

Numfor (100 / 148)

rurjuice of fruits; decoction produced from boiling leaves; boiled water (PMP: *zuRuq)

sa-m-furten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sārleft side (PMP: *salaq₁)

sārsharp (PEMP: *sala)

sa-sarerror, mistake; sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

sauanchorage (PMP: *sauq₂) *sauq

sinarshine, luster, glitter (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sisərcoast (PMP: *siDsiD)

snaM (ref.) (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

snonman (PEMP: *tinoni)

suto stir, of sago porridge (PEMP: *sua₂)

sufcut with a knife, of soft things, as the manufacture of little boats carved from soft wood, the peeling of yams, etc. (PEMP: *supi)

sursprout, shoot; to grow (PMP: *suli₁)

susmilk; breast (PAN: *susu₁)

swaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

tinanparents (of people and animals) (PCEMP: *tinana)

u2sg. subject marker on verbs (PEMP: *u₂) *Suʔu

ubagunpowder (LOAN)

ufto blow (PCEMP: *upi)

ufround, yellow germination in a coconut (PEMP: *upu)

Numfor (120 / 148)

uklouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uk nàfdog louse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

uneffish scale (PCEMP: *qunep)

untuŋwindfall, piece of good luck (LOAN)

urbreadfruit tree and fruit, Artocarpus communis; the fruit is prepared for eating in various ways; the young leaves are eaten as vegetables, and the trunk is hollowed out as a canoe hull (PMP: *kuluR)

urekvein, vessel (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

urenearthenware cooking pot; clay used to make pots (PAN: *kuden)

urocaterpillar, seaworm (PMP: *qulej)

uspufferfish (both spiny and spineless types) (PMP: *utik)

wa(i)single or double outrigger canoe. Used only of canoes with dugout hulls (PEMP: *waŋka)

wam-barekwest wind, west monsoon (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

warriver, brook, stream (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wareight (PAN: *walu)

war masensaltwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

wāsdivide into two parts, as when a path runs through a garden (PEMP: *wa(n)se₁) *wa(n)se

wefoot, leg (PAN: *waqay)

we-foot, leg (PAN: *waqay)

wonemsix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

ya1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

yàfenharpoon for spearing fish and turtles (PEMP: *apen) *hapen

Numfor (140 / 148)

yaifather (PMP: *aya₂)

yakerescort, show a person out (as a rule this is festive) (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

yaker binescort a bride to her bridegroom; also the preparations connected with this: to wit, the bringing of bridewealth (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

yanəmto plait, weave (PMP: *añam)

yāra tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *aRuhu)

yāra tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *qaRuhu)

yāsnative manner of kissing, by sniffing the face (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

yāswhet, sharpen (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

Numfor-Biak (148) SHWNG. see: Numfor

521. Nyelâyu (2) OC

1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

phatake (POC: *pa₂)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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