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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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O

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Old Cebuano
Old Javanese

Òma Lóngh Kenyah
Onin

Orang Laut Malay
Ormu

Owa

522. Old Cebuano (2) WMP

nagenitive case marker for plural personal names (PAN: *na₃)

sanominative case marker for plural personal names (PAN: *sa₁)

523. Old Javanese (2165) WMP (Zoetmulder 1982)

a-belahseparated (PAN: *ma-belaq) *belaq

a-beŋkuŋbent, crooked (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

a-bohswollen (of eyes, feet) (PAN: *baReq)

a-buruto hunt, go hunting (LOAN)

a-buruto hunt, go hunting (NOISE)

a-bwatheavy, burdening, severe; burdened; serious, grave, earnest (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

a-cemerunclean, foul, low (LOAN)

a-ḍa-ḍawuhto give food, bestow gifts (on the part of the king) (PWMP: *dabuq)

a-dalemdeep (PMP: *dalem)

a-ḍapətclosely joined, compact, thick (darkness) (PMP: *dapet)

a-ḍimpitclosely joined, fastened together (PWMP: *diq(e)pit)

a-dohfar away, distant (PMP: *zauq)

a-dolto sell (LOAN)

aḍuhan exclamation of emotion (pain, surprise, etc.) (PMP: *aduq)

a-duhto contain fluid (PMP: *zuRuq)

āgamasacred tradition, doctrine or precepts; collection of such doctrines; sacred work (LOAN)

a-gatelitchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

agemcloudy sky (PWMP: *agem₃)

agemhandful; grasp (PWMP: *Ragem)

ager-agerkind of seaweed, Sphaerococcus lichenoides (LOAN)

Old Javanese (20 / 2165)

a-giliŋ-anchariot soldiers (PMP: *giliŋ)

agoŋwith gongs (LOAN)

a-guntiŋto cut (have cut) the hair (LOAN)

a-hawukgrey, ash-grey (PMP: *qabuk)

a-hudanwith rain (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

a-hutaŋ-hutaŋreceive gifts (PWMP: *qutaŋ qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

a-huyaŋhot, heated, hot and bothered, restless (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

ah-yaŋlike a god, divine, extraordinary (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

a-itik-anto keep, as a young bird (PWMP: *itik₂)

ajakask, invite (to do something together) (PWMP: *azak)

ajaranhorse ('trained animal') (LOAN)

ajiholy writ, "the scriptures", sacred text (containing e.g. rules of conduct for a brahman; instructions on administration, politics, the practice of arms, the writing of poetry, etc.); sacred or magically powerful formula (LOAN)

a-kakatoward an elder brother (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

a-kalishard, unfeeling, unreceptive, callous, indifferent; untouched, unscathed (PWMP: *kalis)

aka-ro-ro-ntwo together (PMP: *duha) *duSa

a-katirto use as an outrigger (PMP: *katiR)

a-kaṭukto chatter (of the teeth)? (PMP: *katuk)

a-kəmuhto rinse with (PMP: *kemuR)

a-kiŋdry, dried up, shrivelled (PWMP: *keRiŋ)

a-kira-kirato plan, think out how best...., intend (LOAN)

Old Javanese (40 / 2165)

akon-akonpossession (promised as war booty); acknowledged (adopted) child (PWMP: *aku-en) *aku

akupronoun of the first person: I, me (PAN: *aku)

a-kuḍuŋ-kuḍuŋcovered, wrapped in a veil (blanket, etc.) (PWMP: *kuduŋ)

a-kukubcovered, under a sheet (PWMP: *kubkub₂)

a-kumpulto gather, be together (PWMP: *kumpul)

(a)-kuniŋpale yellow, ivory-colored; copper (adj.) (LOAN)

a-kuruthin, emaciated (PWMP: *kuru₂)

a-kusumake fire by rubbing two sticks together (PMP: *kusu₁)

alahlose, be defeated, be worsted, give away, succumb (PWMP: *alaq₂)

alahlose, be defeated, be worsted (PWMP: *alaq₂)

a-lamalong, for a long time, already a long time, old; long ago (PAN: *lama)

alaŋ-alaŋ“to be in the way”, obstructing (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win (PAN: *alap)

alap alapa certain bird of prey. The texts suggest a large creature, which can attack a man; an eagle? (PAN: *alap)

a-laraŋinaccessible, withdrawn, keeping oneself aloof? (PAN: *laRaŋ)

alaswood, forest; also: quantity of flowers or plants growing in a thick cluster (PMP: *halas) *Salas

a-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee (PAN: *laRiw)

a-layulanguishing, withering (PAN: *layu)

a-ləbū-ləbūcovered with dust, playing in the dust (LOAN)

alihmoving to another place, changing (PMP: *aliq)

Old Javanese (60 / 2165)

a-liwermove about, dart to and fro (of many, without order), rush about, fly around, swarm, flash back and forth (PWMP: *liwed)

a-lonslow, gentle, soft (of wind, gait or other movement; of sound or speech); modest, self-controlled (PWMP: *laun)

alubput in the fire, heat (PWMP: *alub)

a-lumpatleaping (PWMP: *lumpat)

a-lumut-lumutmossy (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

a-ma-kan-ito feed, give someone something to eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

a-manḍəŋto look hard, gaze, stare at, fix with one’s eyes; (in battle) to look someone defiantly in the eye (LOAN)

a-ma-ŋan-ito hurt, wound (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

a-maŋkuto hold or receive on the lap; to carry in both hands or arms in front of the chest (PWMP: *paŋku)

a-maŋunto shape, form, build, compose, bring into existence, cause, perform (PWMP: *maŋ-baŋun) *baŋuN

a-mati matikill (in general, not in a particular case), commit the crime of killing (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

a-mayuŋlike a parasol (PWMP: *payuŋ)

ambetto lash (PWMP: *ambet)

ambuncloud (or mist?) (PWMP: *ambun)

ambuncloud (or mist?) (PWMP: *Rabun)

a-mebed, am-bebedtie, bind, bandage, entwine (PWMP: *maŋ-bejbej) *bejbej

a-məcutto whip, wield a whip (PWMP: *pecut)

a-məcutto whip, wield a whip (LOAN)

a-melar-akento spread out, open (PWMP: *maŋ-bekelaj) *bekelaj

a-mener-menergo straight (PMP: *bener)

Old Javanese (80 / 2165)

a-mentukto form, make, build (PMP: *bentuk)

a-menuh-ito fill, make complete (PWMP: *maŋ-penuq) *penuq

a-məpərto urge, press, push; to be insistent (in questioning), press for further particulars (PWMP: *perper₂)

a-meteŋbecome or be pregnant (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

a-mətəŋto darken, blind, obscure (PWMP: *peteŋ)

a-mijətto press with the fingers, squeeze, crush, knead, massage (PWMP: *pizet)

a-mikulto carry over the shoulder, carry with a carrying pole (LOAN)

a-milaŋcount, enumerate, calculate, consider one by one, take into account, consider (PWMP: *maŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

a-milihto choose, make a choice from (well-considered, not at random), select, give one’s preference to (PAN: *piliq)

a-mintato ask for, beg for (LOAN)

a-minturto fish with a bintur (PWMP: *bintur)

a-miŋkukto bend, curve (river) (PMP: *biŋkuk)

ami-rodo something twice (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ami-rwasecond cousin (PMP: *duha) *duSa

a-miṣabe powerful?, be poisonous? (LOAN)

a-misahto isolate oneself, withdraw (PWMP: *pisaq)

a-misan(to do something or to be done) in one act, at the same time, completely (not by halves, definitely) (PWMP: *pisan)

a-misik-i, w-in-isik-anwhisper to someone, give secret instruction (PWMP: *bisik₃)

a-monḍokto erect a temporary shelter, to camp (LOAN)

ampala particular kind of beetle (PWMP: *ampal)

Old Javanese (100 / 2165)

ampunshow mercy toward, receive with favor (PMP: *ampun)

a-mujito extol, praise (LOAN)

a-mujuk-mujuk-itry to persuade, cajole (LOAN)

a-mukətto fish with a dragnet or seine; to catch (in a net), entrap, entangle, enmesh (PWMP: *ma-muket) *puket₁

a-muktito enjoy, savor, taste (also said of unpleasant things), have to suffer or endure (LOAN)

a-mukulto beat (with a hammer); to play a percussion instrument (PWMP: *pukul)

a-mukut-mukut-ito bend over? (PMP: *bukut)

a-muluhlike bamboo, like a bamboo vessel (PAN: *buluq₂)

a-munihide, keep secret (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

a-munito hide, keep secet (PWMP: *maŋ-buni) *buNi

a-munuhslaughter, kill, put an end to, slay (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

a-muŋar-ibe the first in doing something, enjoy something in its prime, break fresh ground, taste the first fruits (PWMP: *buŋaR)

a-muta-muta-nito blindfold; turn a blind eye (PWMP: *maŋ-buta) *buCa

a-mutərto turn, rotate, spin; to churn, to produce as if by churning; to meditate in order to bring forth the deity; “to make go round”’ (PWMP: *puteR)

a-mwat tohto gamble (PMP: *taRuq)

anakchild; smaller of two things (as a small mountain at the foot of a bigger one) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak anakgive birth to a child (calve, etc.); consider as one's child (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anak anak-andoll or anything (which is treated and fondled) like a baby (PWMP: *anak anak-an) *aNak

anak anak-(an)pupil of the eye (PWMP: *anak anak-an) *aNak

anak-ḍaramaid, virgin (PWMP: *anak daRa) *aNak

Old Javanese (120 / 2165)

anak wanwaperson belonging to the wanwa-community (PMP: *anak i banua) *aNak

anak wesiservant, attendant, constant companion (PMP: *anak i qaRta) *aNak

a-nalinto change (PWMP: *salin)

a-nambutto seize, grasp, fetch, take up; take up (words), receive, continue, reply (PWMP: *sambut₂)

a-namirto put on a scarf? (PWMP: *samir)

a-naŋguŋto carry, bear (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

a-naŋisto weep, cry (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

a-naŋkəpto close (fit) together (PMP: *taŋkep)

a-naputo sweep, sweep away, slash (PMP: *sapu)

a-napu-naputo sweep, clean with a broom (PMP: *sapu)

a-nasapto level, raze to the ground (PWMP: *ma-ñapsap) *sapsap₁

a-natabto knock on (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

a-na-tahto shape with a punch (PAN: *taRaq₁)

a-nawiŋto hide behind a wall (partition) in order to overhear or spy (PWMP: *tabiŋ)

a-nawuŋto stage a cockfight (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

anawuŋ talunlive in the woods (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

aṇḍaladder (NOISE)

a-nəlatto appear between something else (PWMP: *selat)

a-nəmbahto worship, revere, pay respect to, pay homage to (LOAN)

a-nəmbiŋto go to the side (bank, etc.) (LOAN)

Old Javanese (140 / 2165)

a-nemer-ito defile (LOAN)

a-nenunto weave, intertwine (PAN: *tenun)

a-nəpakto hit with the (flat) hand, smack; to hit (stamp) with the foot (PMP: *tepak₁)

a-nəpisimple, plain, unadorned (PWMP: *sepi)

a-nəpi-nəpito go to the side, lie close to the edge (LOAN)

a-nəsəl-ito go in among or between (PAN: *selsel₁)

a-nətəkto cut, cut up; to slash at (PWMP: *ma-nektek) *tektek₁

a-nililto take over, borrow, use for a time (LOAN)

a-nimbato draw water from; to draw something (from a well) (PMP: *timba)

a-nimbunto heap up, pile up (PWMP: *timbun)

a-nimpaŋto deviate, deflect, leave the main road (PMP: *simpaŋ)

a-ninḍito allude to, make allusions to, hint at, intimate (LOAN)

a-nipat-akənto give the right direction to; to follow the direction of (PWMP: *sipat)

a-nipisthin, weak; lithe, lissom, supple (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

a-niramto wash, shower, bathe, water, (be)sprinkle (LOAN)

a-nisihto be on the side, to be on one side, to go to the side (to one side), to lean to the side (PWMP: *sisiq)

a-nisih-ito share (PWMP: *sisiq)

a-nisikto peck, scratch (PWMP: *ma-ñiksik) *siksik₁

a-nisik-ito delouse (PWMP: *ma-ñiksik) *siksik₁

a-noŋto seek cover under (PWMP: *saeŋ)

Old Javanese (160 / 2165)

anteŋquiet, calm, working steadily (PWMP: *anteŋ)

antiwait, stay, remain, live, wait for, expect (NOISE)

antih-antih-anspider-web (LOAN)

a-nusomeone (something, somewhere) or other, So-and-So, What's the name, you-know-who (-what, -where) (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

a-nudiŋ-ito point the finger at (esp. with the left hand in challenging) (PAN: *tudiŋ)

a-nuduhto point at, point out, indicate, show, guide; to order, instruct, appoint, designate (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

a-nuhun, s-um-uhunto carry on the head; to take or receive on the head; to raise over the head; to pay homage, accept respectfully, act respectfully (PAN: *suquN)

a-nujilike a quill (LOAN)

a-nukərto hinder, repel, resist (PWMP: *suker)

a-nulamto embroider (PMP: *sulam)

a-nuligito throw the suligi (LOAN)

a-nuligito throw the suligi (LOAN)

a-nuliŋto play the flute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

a-nulisto draw on, paint on, write on (LOAN)

a-numbakto spear, stab (PWMP: *tumbak)

a-numpahto enounce (launch) an imprecation against (PWMP: *sumpaq)

a-nuntunto lead, guide, conduct (PWMP: *tuntun)

a-nu-ŋsomething that ... In practice it is comparable to ikaŋ: who, which; or (a)siŋ: whoever, whatever (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

a-nuŋkalto force open by shoving something in (?) (PWMP: *suŋkal)

a-nurakto receive with shouts, shout at, urge with shouts; jeer at (LOAN)

Old Javanese (180 / 2165)

a-nuratto draw on, write on, write (a letter) (LOAN)

a-nuru-nurūto put to sleep, sing to sleep, sing a lullaby to (PAN: *tuduR)

a-nuruŋto push, shove forward, press (PWMP: *suruŋ)

a-nusahto disturb, confuse, stir up, rouse, move (LOAN)

a-nusulto follow after, catch up with (PMP: *sulsul₁)

a-nusu-nusuto hurry on, push on (NOISE)

a-nuturto remember, keep in mind, realize (PMP: *tutur₁)

anūt wurifollow behind, from behind (NOISE)

anyayaunjust action, the wrong way of acting; impropriety (LOAN)

aŋ-aduput face-to-face, bring into contact, make clash, have fight, pit against; to vie in, measure (PWMP: *maŋ-adu) *adu

aŋ-adu-aduincite (PWMP: *maŋ-adu) *adu

aŋ-agemhold (in one’s hand), grasp, hold firmly (PWMP: *maŋ-Ragem) *Ragem

aŋ-akumake something one's own, to appropriate; relate to someone; take possession of, master; regard as one's own, acknowledge, confess to, admit; claim (as one's own), be sure of, depend on, answer for, guarantee, declare that one is able to (often boastfully) (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

aŋ-alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win (PWMP: *maŋ-alap) *alap

aŋ-alunto undulate, billow; (of sound) to resound, swell (or "like the surf"?); also: like waves, i.e. in rows (stripes, layers), row upon row (PWMP: *maŋ-qalun) *qalun

aŋ-ampun-ishow mercy toward, receive with favor (PWMP: *maŋ-ampun-i) *ampun

aŋ-antelulay or sit on eggs (PWMP: *maŋ-qateluR) *qateluR

aŋ-antihto spin (LOAN)

aŋ-a-nudo something or other, do you-know-what (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

aŋ-anudo something or other, do you-know-what (PWMP: *maŋ-anu) *-nu

Old Javanese (200 / 2165)

aŋaŋwide open, gaping (ROOT)

aŋ-aŋkat-aŋkatlift, elevate; send off, make depart; take up one's belongings (weapons, baggage) in order to depart (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat-aŋkat) *aŋkat

aŋapgaping (PMP: *qaŋap)

aŋ-apain what way? how? (PWMP: *maŋ-apa) *apa₁

aŋ-apipurify by fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

aŋ-apitenclose on both sides, flank; grip, clamp (PWMP: *maŋ-hapit) *Sapit

a-ŋapuklike kapok (PWMP: *kapuk)

aŋ-apuybe on fire, to flame, blaze; set on fire, inflame, burn (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

aŋ-apuy-iset fire to; inflame, rouse to anger (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy-i) *Sapuy

aŋ-asahfile, grind, scour (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

aŋ-astato hold in one’s hands, govern (LOAN)

aŋ-asulow, vile ('like a dog') (PAN: *asu₁)

aŋ-ateraccompany, escort, take someone somewhere; bring, carry (PWMP: *maŋ-hateD) *SateD

aŋ-atipay attention to, bear in mind (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

aŋ-atus-iin hundreds (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

a-ŋawitto hook, catch, join by hooking on (PWMP: *ma-ŋawit) *kawit

aŋ-ayam-igive a cock-fight (PWMP: *qayam₂)

aŋ-dudutpull (PMP: *dutdut)

aŋ-ḍuḍuttear out (PMP: *dutdut)

a-ŋəkəp-ito embrace, to lock in one’s arms (PWMP: *kepkép₁)

Old Javanese (220 / 2165)

aŋ-embek-embekstifle one's sobs (PWMP: *he(m)bek)

aŋ-empan-ito light, start a fire (PWMP: *epan)

aŋen-aŋenthoughts, considerations, reflections; the seat of the thoughts, intellect, mind, heart, spirit (LOAN)

aŋ-entutto fart, break wind (PWMP: *maŋ-qetut) *qetut

aŋ-garitto scratch, graze (PMP: *garit)

aŋ-gərəŋto growl, snarl (NEAR)

aŋ-gigir-gigirto give a fright, startle (PWMP: *gigir)

aŋ-gugutto bite, nip (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

aŋ-halaŋ-ito obstruct, hinder (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

aŋ-hawubecome ashes (PWMP: *maŋ-qabu) *qabu

aŋ-hudanlike rain; walk through the rain (PWMP: *maŋ-quzan) *quzaN

aŋ-hudan-ito rain on, shower with (PMP: *quzan-i) *quzaN

aŋ-huyaŋ-huyaŋ-antoss and turn feverishly (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

a-ŋikik-anshouting with jeering laughter (PMP: *kikik)

aŋ-ikūto follow (PAN: *ikuR)

aŋ-isepto suck, suck in, suck out, suck up, absorb, inhale (PWMP: *maŋ-qisep) *qisep

a-ŋiwato go to the left (LOAN)

aŋkatdeparture, getting up (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋkepembrace tightly (PWMP: *hakep)

aŋkikpanting, gasping (ROOT)

Old Javanese (240 / 2165)

aŋkuppincers or tongs (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

aŋ-laki-lakimaking a virile appearance, plucky (PMP: *laki)

aŋ-lampitto carry the lampit (PWMP: *lampit)

aŋ-ləŋgakto fall over backwards (LOAN)

aŋ-liputto envelop, enwrap, engulf, enfold, cover, surround (PPH: *liput₁)

aŋ-lukatto free, release, deliver (from sin, etc.) (PWMP: *lukat)

aŋ-lumpat-ito leap on, leap over (PWMP: *lumpat)

aŋ-lumpuh-ito paralyze, rob of strength (PWMP: *lumpuq)

aŋ-luwaŋhollow (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

aŋ-rah-ito inflict a bleeding wound (PAN: *daRaq)

aŋ-rapətto take up positions (closely) side by side (PMP: *dapet)

aŋ-roto share (among two?) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

aŋ-rwa-rwato be double, divided, ambiguous (PMP: *duha) *duSa

aŋsudraw or scoop water (PMP: *asu₂)

aŋsudraw or scoop water (PMP: *qasu₁)

aŋ-ulih-igo home or come back to (PWMP: *maŋ-uliq) *uliq₁

aŋ-ulurloosen, release; lower on a rope; let go (PWMP: *maŋ-huluR) *SuluR

a-ŋumpulto gather (something) (PWMP: *kumpul)

aŋ-upahpay a wage, give a reward (PWMP: *maŋ-upaq) *upaq

aŋ-usīgo to, go in the direction of, take refuge with, try to reach or obtain, strive after, attack, assail, pursue (PWMP: *maŋ-usiR) *qusiR

Old Javanese (260 / 2165)

aŋ-yaŋworship as a god; implore, beg, pray (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

apawhat? (interrogative pronoun); also simply to introduce a question (PMP: *apa₁)

a-pahitbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

a-panḍəŋ-anto stare each other in the eye (LOAN)

a-papanusing a shield, bearing a shield (PMP: *papan)

a-pasaŋ-pasaŋ-anarm in arm (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

a-payuŋwith a parasol (PWMP: *payuŋ)

a-pikatto catch birds, using a decoy (PWMP: *pikat)

a-pilihhaving one’s preferences, particular in the choice of (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

api lupapretending not to know (PMP: *lupa)

a-pintato have a request, ask for (LOAN)

a-pisahto separate, part; to be separated, parted (PWMP: *pisaq)

a-pisanto be one, united, joined (PWMP: *pisan)

a-pisanto be one, to be united, joined; in one act, in one go (PWMP: *pisan)

aponlime (constituent of betel quid) (PWMP: *qapuR-an) *qapuR

a-pukulbeating, knocking (against each other); playing a percussion instrument (PWMP: *pukul)

a-pupuhto come to blows (PWMP: *puqpuq₃)

a-pupurwearing powder, powdered (PWMP: *purpur)

a-pusuhto die (close like a flower?) (PMP: *pusuq₁)

a-putihwhite (PMP: *putiq)

Old Javanese (280 / 2165)

apuy, apwifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

arahexact position or direction (LOAN)

arakarrack, a distilled alcoholic liquor (LOAN)

arakarrack, a distilled alcoholic liquor (LOAN)

aranname (PMP: *ajan)

a-rarahaving an unmarried daughter or sister (PMP: *daRa₂)

arekkiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

a-ro-rwa-ntogether with (PMP: *duha) *duSa

arthaaim, purpose; advantage, utility; object of the senses; substance, wealth, money (LOAN)

a-sabukto wear a sash (LOAN)

asahfile, grind, scour (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asah-angrindings (PMP: *hasaq-an) *Sasaq

a-sakitin pain, ill, hurt, wounded (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

a-salinto change (PWMP: *salin)

a-s<al>isib-anto go (attack, etc.) in all directions (hither and thither)? (NOISE)

a-samirwith a curtain or cloth cover (PWMP: *samir)

asanaa tree: Terminalia tomentosa, with deep golden, fragrant flowers; it plays a prominent role in descriptions in kakawins (LOAN)

a-sawah-sawahto work in the sawah, grow irrigated rice (PWMP: *sabaq)

a-sawur-anscattering, dispersing, raining (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

a-səḍəppleasant, agreeable; pleasing, kind (PWMP: *sedep₂)

Old Javanese (300 / 2165)

a-səlatwith space in between, interspersed (PWMP: *selat)

a-sənəŋto have a loved one; toward the loved one (LOAN)

asepincense (PWMP: *asep)

asepincense (PWMP: *qasep)

a-sepakto kick (esp. with the hind legs, of a horse) (LOAN)

a-səpideserted, empty, still, lonely, dismal, forlorn, bereft (PWMP: *sepi)

asihlove, affection, loving kindness, sympathy, benevolence, favor (PMP: *qasiq)

a-simpənbrought together in a limited space, grouped together, compressed, in a limited number, containing the basic essential; put away, hidden (LOAN)

a-sinaŋradiant, shining, brilliant, bright (PWMP: *sinaŋ)

a-sisikwith scales (PMP: *siksik₂)

a-soŋhaving as cover, covered by, in the shadow of, overshadowed by; also of feelings of sadness, etc. which are carried along like a soŋ (PWMP: *saeŋ)

a-soŋ-soŋwith a parasol (cover) of (PWMP: *saeŋ)

as-si-simpənto put away, hide (LOAN)

asudog, hound (PAN: *asu₁)

a-suliŋto play the flute; flute player (PWMP: *suliŋ)

a-sulit(-sulit)troublesome, hard to get out of (PWMP: *sulit₁)

a-sumpiŋto wear a sumpiŋ (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

a-surakto shout, cry, roar (LOAN)

a- suruŋat close quarters (pushing each other) (PWMP: *suruŋ)

a-susuwith breasts (PAN: *susu₁)

Old Javanese (320 / 2165)

a-suwəŋwearing a suwəŋ (PWMP: *subeŋ)

a-taŋgulto parry, fend off (PWMP: *taŋgul)

a-taŋistearful; addressing (imploring, etc.) with tears (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

a-taŋkəpclosing together (PMP: *taŋkep)

a-tarimato accept, receive gratefully, be grateful (LOAN)

a-tatāwell-ordered, well-arranged, in the correct position (NOISE)

a-tӧbthick, luxuriant (hair, foliage, fruits, rain) (PMP: *teReb)

a-təpak jajato beat one’s breast (PMP: *tepak₁)

ateraccompany, escort, take someone somewhere; bring, carry (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

athawaor (between both parts, or after the second part); and also (LOAN)

ati-atigive one's full (undivided) attention (PWMP: *hatay)

ati-atigive one's full (undivided) attention (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

a-tilikto visit, go and see how someone is getting on (LOAN)

a-timbunheaped up, piled up (PWMP: *timbun)

a-tuduhto give directions, give guidance, point out, give orders (PMP: *tuzuq₂) *Cuzuq

a-tuhaold, elder, eldest, senior; “old at”, consummate, accomplished, experienced (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

a-tuha-tuhaold, elder, senior (PAN: *ma-tuqaS tuqaS) *tuqaS

a-tukupto cover (with the hands) (PWMP: *tuŋkup)

a-tumpaŋin layers or tiers (PWMP: *tumpaŋ₁)

a-tumpukpiled up, heaped up, crowding together (PWMP: *tumpuk)

Old Javanese (340 / 2165)

a-tuntunjoined together in a row (PWMP: *tuntun)

a-tunuon fire, ablaze; seek death by fire, throw oneself into the fire (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

a-turu-turūto have a sleep, take a nap (PAN: *tuduR)

atushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

a-twashard (PMP: *teRas)

awakbody, embodiment, self, own self, own (special) form of being, nature, kind (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awaŋ-awaŋsky, air (PMP: *awaŋ)

a-watesbordered by, bordering on (PMP: *bates)

a-watuhaving as rocks (PWMP: *ma-batu) *batux

a-watukto cough (PMP: *batuk₁)

awaybeckon, wave (to) (PWMP: *ambay)

awaybeckon, wave to; signal (beckon) to come closer (PMP: *away₁)

a-welarbroad, widely spread, extensive (PWMP: *ma-bekelaj) *bekelaj

a-welito buy things, buying (in general) (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

a-weluk-welukbillowing (PMP: *beluk)

a-wetubring forth, having as product or result, express itself in (PMP: *betu)

a-wicārato discuss, talk about, have a talk (LOAN)

a-wiḍaŋbroad (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

a-wiṣapoisonous (LOAN)

a-wisik-wisikto whisper (PWMP: *bisik bisik) *bisik₃

Old Javanese (360 / 2165)

awu-hawu-n-enreduced to ashes? in a state of decay? (PWMP: *qabu-en) *qabu

a-wūkdecayed, decomposed, rotten, mouldered away (PMP: *ma-buRuk) *buRuk

a-wukirwith mountains (PAN: *bukij)

a-wulaŋto wear a wulaŋ (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

a-wuluwith hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

awun-awunfine rain, wet mist (PWMP: *ambun)

a-wunihave a secret; be secretive (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

awuŋto howl (of dogs) (PAN: *qauŋ)

a-wuŋar-anfor the first time, still fresh? (PWMP: *buŋaR-an) *buŋaR

a-wuwurscattered (PWMP: *bubud)

ayaksieve (PWMP: *ayak₂)

ayam alaswood fowl, jungle fowl (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ayam talunwood-fowl (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

babada clearing; to clear (a piece of forest) (PWMP: *bajbaj)

babahdoor, gate, entrance, opening, aperture (PMP: *baqbaq)

babaksplit open, laying bare, raw (wound), torn off (PMP: *bakbak₁)

babarparted, scattered, rent asunder; to scatter, disperse (PWMP: *baRbaR)

babarspread out, unfold, open (tr.), unfold, open (intr.) (PMP: *barbar)

babumother; older servant (LOAN)

bagus, wagushandsomeness; handsome (of a man (LOAN)

Old Javanese (380 / 2165)

baju, wajujacket (LOAN)

bala(g)bagstocks (NOISE)

balakaŋ, walakaŋback (PWMP: *balakaŋ)

balanaka sea fish, the grey mullet (PWMP: *balanak)

balaŋthrow at, fling down (NOISE)

bali, walicome back, return; once more (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

balikopposite, contrary; reverse (PMP: *balik₂)

balisahrestless (LOAN)

balukkind of sailing boat? (PMP: *baluk₁)

banakind of tree (Barleria) with blue flowers (NOISE)

banawaboat, ship (LOAN)

baṇḍuŋtogether, at the same time (PWMP: *banduŋ)

bantalcloth; a bundle of cloth (as a measure) (PWMP: *bantal)

banṭèŋ ~ banṭyaŋspecies of wild buffalo, Bos sundaicus (LOAN)

bantiŋ ~ wantiŋto strike, give a violent blow to; dash to the ground (PMP: *bantiŋ)

bantiŋ ~ wantiŋto strike, give a violent blow to; dash to the ground (LOAN)

ban-uwater (LOAN)

banyagamerchant, captain of a merchant-vessel; merchant-vessel; to trade (LOAN)

bañakgoose (LOAN)

bañu tawafresh (tasteless) water (PWMP: *tabaR)

Old Javanese (400 / 2165)

baŋbaŋred (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₈)

baŋgalaBengal (LOAN)

bara-baraall sorts of things (PWMP: *bara₃)

barabasstreaming (PWMP: *barasbas)

barabasstreaming (NOISE)

baraŋanything which, whatever, just any(-body); just as it comes, just anyhow, indiscriminately, without further thought, without sufficient cause; at any time, continually (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baratstrong wind, storm; west (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barisline, rank; various sorts of martial dances (LOAN)

barwaŋ, baroŋthe Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

basahwet; decomposed, rotting (PMP: *baseq)

basah-anlower garment; originally the piece of cloth that is not removed when bathing (PWMP: *baseq-an) *baseq

batisleg (PWMP: *baties)

béaexpenses, contribution (LOAN)

bebakscratched, grazed, abrased (PWMP: *bebak₁)

bebeda particular kind of big fish (PWMP: *bedbed)

bebedband, tie, bandage, girdle, lower garment fastened round the middle (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bebekgrind, pulverize (PMP: *bekbek₁)

bébékduck (LOAN)

bebeŋblocked, held up (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

beḍilfirearm (old type); musket, matchlock, blunderbuss am-bed.il fire at (LOAN)

Old Javanese (420 / 2165)

bekonomatopoetic particle (thumping sound) (PWMP: *bek)

bekelprovisions (for a journey) (PWMP: *bekel)

bélalay down one's life, be prepared to die with another person, die for and with another person b-in-éla to die (sacrifice oneself) for someone pa-béla weapon (kris) which one plunges into oneself to become a bela (LOAN)

belaha cleft or crack; be split, cleft, rent (PAN: *belaq)

belah-andivision, separate part (PAN: *belaq)

béléra particular kind of eye defect (?) (PWMP: *biliR)

benemroast under hot ash; lay in ashes, burn down (PWMP: *benem₁)

benem-anfood roasted under hot ash (PWMP: *benem₁)

benerstraight, in the right direction, right, due (with points of the compass), used substantively and adjectivally (PMP: *bener)

bentukform, shape; auxiliary word for counting (PMP: *bentuk)

beŋonomatopoetic particle: blow (PWMP: *beŋ)

beŋaŋgaping, open-mouthed (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

besarbig (LOAN)

besehswollen (NOISE)

besurto have had enough of, tired of, weary, bored with (PAN: *besuR)

betahtenacious, stubborn, persistent, tireless; possessing staying-power, endurance, tolerance, stamina (PWMP: *betaq₁)

bha gya, bagegood fortune, luck; fortunate, lucky (LOAN)

bhaŋgabreaking or destroying the laws of dharma (of social relations, etc.); arrogant, conceited, insolent, brutal, rude, reckless (LOAN)

bhuktiwhat is enjoyed; food (LOAN)

bibimother; my dear, as form of address to a woman (wife, beloved, etc.) (LOAN)

Old Javanese (440 / 2165)

bibitfishhook a-mibit to fish (with a hook) (ROOT)

biku, wikuperson who has a religious status or function, a person devoted to a religious life, holy man, sage; priest, monk, nun, ascetic, hermit (LOAN)

b-in-arutswaddled (PWMP: *barut)

b-in-ebedwas bound, tied by winding around (PWMP: *b<in>ejbej) *bejbej

b-in-ebekto grind, pulverize (PWMP: *b<in>ekbek) *bekbek₁

b-in-ekel-angive provisions (PWMP: *bekel)

b-in-elah(perfective) to split, cleave, rend (PAN: *b<in>elaq) *belaq

b-in-eŋaŋto open up (to provide space for a house, etc.) (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

b-in-eŋkuŋto bend, divert (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

b-in-isaskilled, skilful (LOAN)

bintura creel-trap to catch crabs (PWMP: *bintur)

b-in-uŋbuŋ-anto contain in a bamboo cylinder (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

b-in-urit-buritstriped (as an animal) (PMP: *burit₂)

b-in-uwaŋb-in-waŋbe thrown away, flung away, thrown down, hurled about, carried off (wind), routed (PWMP: *b<in>uaŋ) *buqaŋ

b-in-uyutelder (LOAN)

biŋkasbroken up, scattered (PMP: *biŋkas)

biŋuŋconfused (LOAN)

biŋuŋconfused (NOISE)

birublue (pale blue, greyish blue, greenish blue, turquoise?) (LOAN)

biṣavenomous (LOAN)

Old Javanese (460 / 2165)

bisudumb, mute (LOAN)

bisu-bisukeep mum (LOAN)

bokonomatopoetic particle (falling down) (PMP: *buk)

bokorkind of bowl (LOAN)

boŋohact foolishly (NOISE)

brata hawukpenance in ashes? (PMP: *qabuk)

buaŋ, bwaŋthrowing away (PMP: *buqaŋ)

bubarscattered, dispersed, broken up (LOAN)

bubukkind of termite (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bubulsplit open (intr.); open, crack, burst (PWMP: *bubul)

bu-burit saroyasome aquatic creature? (PMP: *burit₂)

buddhithe power of forming and retaining general notions, intelligence, reason, mind, discernment; opinion, notion, idea; character, nature, disposition; intention, purpose (LOAN)

buddhi-mānwise, perspicacious (LOAN)

bugarscattered, dispersed, broken up (PWMP: *bugar)

buhayacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bukuhsit respectfully bowed (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kuq)

bulw-an, bulo-nchameleon sp. (PWMP: *bulu-an) *bulu₁

bunterbulging, swollen, full (breasts); round, circular, global (PMP: *bunter)

buŋbuŋa bamboo cylinder (used as container for water, palm-juice, etc. (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bureŋakto scream (ROOT)

Old Javanese (480 / 2165)

bureŋaŋamazed, aghast (ROOT)

bureŋikshriek (ROOT)

burito follow (NOISE)

burikstriped (PWMP: *burik)

burilapflickering (as a torch) (ROOT)

buritrear guard (PMP: *burit₁)

buruhunter; hunting (LOAN)

buruhunter, hunting (NOISE)

burutkind of disease (LOAN)

burutkind of disease (NOISE)

burw-angame (PWMP: *buRaw-an) *buRaw

burw-angame (NOISE)

busuŋdropsical (PWMP: *busuŋ)

buṭakpartially bald, with bald patches (LOAN)

buteŋenraged, furious, angry (PMP: *buteŋ)

buteŋenraged, furious, angry (PWMP: *buŋet)

buyutgreat-grandfather, great-grandchild; elder (LOAN)

bwatweight, heaviness; burden; severity, force, intensity, violence (PMP: *beReqat)

bwat tohgambling (PMP: *taRuq)

caketclose by, not letting go, (holding) tightly (PMP: *ca(ŋ)ket)

Old Javanese (500 / 2165)

campurmixed; unclean, in a state of impurity (because of menstruation), defiled (NEAR)

cecekhouse-lizard (PWMP: *cekcek)

cekelseize, clutch (PMP: *cekel)

ceŋakcry of a caŋak bird (heron sp.) (ROOT)

céŋkokconcave (PMP: *ci(ŋ)kuk)

ceŋukof the cry (songs? warble?) of a quail (ROOT)

cucupdrink or suck in big gulps (PMP: *cupcup)

c<um>emer-ito defile (LOAN)

ḍaḍabreast, chest (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

ḍaḍapa tree, Erythrina indica (PMP: *dapdap₁)

daleminner part, interior; inner part of the kraton (palace) (PMP: *dalem)

daluwaŋclothing of bark cloth (worn by hermits, etc.) (PWMP: *zaluaŋ)

damirice-straw (PWMP: *zaRami)

damya-damy-ana whistle made from a rice-stalk (PWMP: *zaRami)

damy-anstubble (PWMP: *zaRami)

daŋananhilt of a kris (PWMP: *daŋanan)

ḍapətbeing close together, closely joined (PMP: *dapet)

ḍatəŋto come, arrive; arrival (PMP: *dateŋ)

ḍatəŋ-an(recently arrived) guest (PWMP: *dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

ḍawuhfalling, coming down (order, curse, anger, love); to fall, come down (PWMP: *dabuq)

Old Javanese (520 / 2165)

ḍawuh-andam (PWMP: *dabuq)

dawutpulled out, uprooted (ROOT)

ḍeḍekrice chaff (PMP: *dekdek)

ḍeḍetcompact, dense, thick, packed (both: filling completely, and: filled (PWMP: *detdet)

delepimmerse (PMP: *delep)

delesbowstring (PAN: *deles)

ḍəpafathom (the outstretched arms as a measure of length) (PMP: *depa)

dikepcatch with the flat of the hand (ROOT)

dinaday, daylight (ROOT)

d<in>wal ~ d<in>olto sell (LOAN)

doha distance, the distance, afar, being far away (PMP: *zauq)

doh dohat a distance, far away (PMP: *zauq zauq) *zauq

du ~ dūcorner, side, edge (PWMP: *zuRu)

duhjuice, sap, oil (for a lamp) (PMP: *zuRuq)

dukutgrass (PMP: *zukut)

ḍukutgrass (PMP: *zukut)

dukut ~ ḍukutgrass (PMP: *dukut₂)

dulitto make lime (for chewing betel) (PWMP: *dulit)

dulurcompanion, that which goes together with something (PWMP: *duluR)

ḍ<um>awuhto fall, come down (PWMP: *dabuq)

Old Javanese (540 / 2165)

ḍ<um>əpato span, enclose (PWMP: *d<um>epa) *depa

d<um>ohto go away, withdraw (PMP: *zauq)

d<um>oh-ito avoid, evade, shun, forsake, desert, abandon (PMP: *zauq)

duŋiswith a short (curled) upper lip (ROOT)

ḍuyuŋsea cow, dugong (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

dwal ~ dolwares (LOAN)

dwa-lap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten') (PAN: *alap)

ebus, embussnort, breathe violently (PMP: *qembus)

egapgasp for breath (PWMP: *egap)

ekahsigh, moan (PWMP: *eŋkaq)

elaklie open, with gaping opening (PMP: *elak)

elukbend, curve (PWMP: *qeluk)

eluŋyoung and flexible branch, shoot (esp. of climbing plants) (PMP: *eluŋ)

emasgold (LOAN)

empo-ndistinguished person, "master", "lord" (PWMP: *empu-an) *empu

(e)mpudistinguished person, "master", "lord"; often, but by no means exclusively, of religious persons (brahmans and others) and joined to a proper or categorical noun ("sir", "lord", "master", "the honorable or reverend") (PMP: *empu)

-ennon-past passive suffix used primarily with bodily afflictions; e.g. bubuh-en to suffer from a tumor (PAN: *-en)

endahout of the ordinary, striking, astounding, extraordinarily beautiful (etc.); it is amazing! (LOAN)

enebthat which has settled on the bottom (NOISE)

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

Old Javanese (560 / 2165)

enjakstep on (PWMP: *enzak)

entutfart, wind (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

eŋkabopen, unfold, develop, expand (PWMP: *e(ŋ)kab)

ésuk, m-ésukmorning; the next morning (LOAN)

gaḍuŋa climbing plant of the family Dioscorea. It has fragrant flowers and yields a tuber with narcotic properties (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

gagakcrow (PWMP: *gakgak)

galugakind of red dye made from the stones of the kusumba kliŋ; red (PWMP: *galugaʔ)

gambira small, white, fragrant flower, a kind of jasmine (LOAN)

gametkind of fish or other aquatic animal (PWMP: *gamet)

ganasswift, wild, impetuous, furious, savage (PMP: *ganas)

garut“scratcher”, hook (a kind of tool) (PMP: *garut) *garuC

gatelitching (n. and adj.) (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gaṭikstrike, clash (ROOT)

gayama particular kind of tree, Inocarpus (PWMP: *gayam)

gegesto shiver (PMP: *ge(s)ges)

gəgətto grit the teeth (with fury?) (PMP: *getget₁)

gek(onom.) jolts and jumps (PWMP: *gek)

gənəpcomplete, full (PWMP: *genep)

gereŋgrowl, snarl (ROOT)

getahsap of tree or plant (PWMP: *geteq)

Old Javanese (580 / 2165)

gigilague, a fever (malarial?) with hot and cold stages and fits of shivering (PMP: *gigil)

gi-gilap-anglittering (PMP: *gilap)

gigirfright (and its nervous reaction: shuddering, little screams, etc.) (PWMP: *gigir)

gigir-enin a fright, shuddering (PWMP: *gigir)

gigitto bite (PWMP: *gitgit)

gigutto bite (PWMP: *gigut)

gilagreat fear and anxiety, shuddering (PMP: *gila)

gila-gilasomething frightening, something giving the shudders (of horror, feeling aghast, etc.) (PMP: *gila-gila) *gila

giliŋwagon, carriage, cart (PMP: *giliŋ)

giliŋ-anwagon, carriage, cart (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

giliŋ-giliŋa little roll or ball? (PMP: *giliŋ)

g<in>untiŋto cut (with scissors) (LOAN)

giyakscreaming (PWMP: *giak)

giyuhmoving to and fro, shaking (NOISE)

goŋa gong (LOAN)

grahweak, powerless (of the limbs) (PWMP: *geraq)

gugut-enclenching the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

g<um>arutto scratch, paw; also of playing the saluki (a certain musical instrument, probably a percussion instrument (PMP: *g<um>arut) *garuC

g<um>ənəp-ito complete (PWMP: *g<um>enep) *genep

g-um-erthundering, roaring (laughter, shouting) (PMP: *ger)

Old Javanese (600 / 2165)

g<um>igilto shiver, shudder (with cold, fear) (PMP: *gigil)

g<um>ila-gilaŋshining, gleaming (PWMP: *gilaŋ)

g<um>ilapto gleam, glisten, shine, glitter (PWMP: *g<um>ilap) *gilap

g<um>iliŋto roll onward (PWMP: *g<um>iliŋ) *giliŋ

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

guŋguŋbooming (sound) (PAN: *guŋguŋ)

gurilapflickering (as a torch) (ROOT)

guritto scratch, engrave, paint; to write, write a poem (PWMP: *gurit)

guritto scratch, engrave, paint, write (ROOT)

gusi-gusigums (PAN: *gusi(ʔ))

habalaŋthrow (something) at (NOISE)

hadasanise (Foeniculum vulgare) (PWMP: *hadas)

(h)alaŋa weapon (“blocking-weapon”?) (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

halaŋ pakana particular kind of cloth (?) (PMP: *pakan)

hali-kukun, wali-kukuna tree: Schoutenia (family of the Tiliaceae) (PMP: *kukun)

haliwatto pass, pass by, pass over, travel along (PWMP: *qaliwat)

haluprobably a kind of club (with an iron point) (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

(h)alunlong rolling wave, swell of the sea (PMP: *qalun)

(h)ambawaŋkind of mango (PWMP: *qambawaŋ)

(h)ambeŋhalted, restrained, prevented (PWMP: *hambeŋ)

Old Javanese (620 / 2165)

(h)ambeŋhalted, restrained, prevented (PWMP: *qambeŋ)

hampasresidue after boiling (LOAN)

(h)amp(e)rugall (PAN: *qapeju)

hanirice in the field? (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

hanituevil powers? (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hanothe aren-palm (Arenga saccharifera (PWMP: *qanahaw)

hanteluegg (PMP: *qateluR)

hantimuncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

hantuto die, dead, extinguished; death (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hany-anrice ready for harvesting (PWMP: *qanih-an) *qaniS

(h)añutthrow something into the river (sea) to let it be carried away by the current (tide), especially of the ashes after cremation; to perform the funeral rites for; plunge something into, throw into, let something go down into, let something be carried away (PAN: *qañud)

(h)aŋetwarmth (less than panas), pleasant warmth (NOISE)

haŋistink, smell (PMP: *qaŋiR)

(h)aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

(h)aŋin-aŋina gust, draught, waft, current of wind caused by a swift movement, wing-beat, breathing, etc.) (PMP: *haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

haŋsagoose (LOAN)

haŋuscovered with soot, fire-blackened (PMP: *haŋus₂)

hapa hapaempty ears (of rice) (PWMP: *qapah qapah) *qapah

(h)apitenclosed, squeezed, pressed (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

(h)apitenclosed, squeezed, pressed; "inserted", name of the 11th and 12th months (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

Old Javanese (640 / 2165)

(h)apūlime (PAN: *qapuR)

(h)araa particular kind of tree (of the ficus family) (PMP: *qaRaʔ)

haramaedible marine creature (PWMP: *qaRama)

(h)areŋcharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

harepthe front, fore part; to stand before, to wish, desire, be on the point of (about to) (PMP: *qadep)

(h)asemtamarind (PWMP: *qalesem)

hasem-hasem(-an)something sour, a dish of various (pleasantly) sour items (fruits, preserves) (PWMP: *qalesem)

(h)asinsalt, salty (PAN: *qasiN)

hastahand, (lower) arm; the eleventh lunar asterism; a linear measure (LOAN)

(h)ataka certain legume (PWMP: *hametak)

(h)atatgreen parrot (LOAN)

hateproof, cover (PMP: *qatep)

(h)atia part of the body: liver?; heart as seat of feelings; be inclined, feel like, want (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

(h)awerrestrain, suppress, check, stop, prevent (PWMP: *habed)

(h)awinbear, bring along (weapon, insignia, betel set), of someone escorting a person of rank (PMP: *qabin)

(h)awisfinished, completely gone (PWMP: *qabis)

(h)awuash, ashes (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

hawu-hawupowder (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

hawuk-hawukgreyish (PMP: *qabuk)

(h)ayamfowl, cock, hen (PWMP: *qayam₂)

Old Javanese (660 / 2165)

(h)ayarunfold, spread out (to dry) (NOISE)

(h)ayunmoving to and fro, swinging, dangling (PWMP: *hayun)

hayuyucrab (PMP: *qayuyu)

(h)elarwing (of bird, insect, etc.) (PMP: *qelad₂)

(h)eledone swallow (PWMP: *qeled)

heletwhat lies between, separates one thing from another (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

(h)embanthat which carries or encloses (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

(h)embunmist, fine rain, dew, dew drops (PWMP: *qembun)

heneŋsilence, stillness, quiet (PMP: *qeneŋ)

(h)entiused up, finished so that nothing remains, utterly destroyed, exhausted (PMP: *qeti₃)

(h)enūroad, way (PMP: *qenuR) *qeNuR

(h)iaindeed, so, in fact, truly, right (PAN: *qia)

(h)idepeye-lashes (PWMP: *qizep)

hidepthe mind as the seat of cognition (knowledge, experience, sensation); the innermost recesses of the human being; knowledge, thinking, view, opinion, belief (NOISE)

(h)iduspittle, saliva (PWMP: *qizuR)

(h)ikanfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

hilaŋ, ilaŋvanished, disappeared, lost, destroyed, dead, come to an end, ceased (PMP: *qilaŋ)

(h)iliflowing, current (PWMP: *qiliR)

hilir-anflow, current (PWMP: *qiliR-an) *qiliR

h-in-atepcover with a roof (PWMP: *q<in>atep) *qatep

Old Javanese (680 / 2165)

h-in-atep-anput a roof on something (PWMP: *q<in>atep-an) *qatep

h-in-awu-hawumake into powder (PWMP: *q<in>abu) *qabu

hineb, inebbeing shut; door-panel (PAN: *qiNeb)

h-in-embancarry on both arms or in a carrying shawl; hold on one's lap; to nurse, be the guardian of (PMP: *h<in>eban) *SebaN

(h)inepspend the night (PAN: *qinep)

hintendiamond (LOAN)

(h)ireŋblackness; the dark half of the moon (PWMP: *qiReŋ)

hirienvious, jealous, watching what another will do or get (PWMP: *qiRih)

(h)iriŋborder or edge (of the sky) (PWMP: *qiriŋ₁)

(h)iriŋside, flank, slope (of mountain) (PWMP: *qiriŋ₂)

(h)isepthat which is sucked up, absorbed (PMP: *qisep)

hitemblack (only in certain compounds) (PMP: *qitem)

(h)ituŋto calculate, enumerate; to consider, think of; pay attention to, relish (PWMP: *qituŋ)

hosexerting oneself, (moving) with difficulty, going heavily, heavy (heart, breathing) (PMP: *qaRus)

hötnarrowness, etc. (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

(h)rebukpollen (PMP: *rebuk)

hreŋdeep persistent sound; rumbling, grumbling, growling, humming (PMP: *heReŋ)

hreŋ hreŋto rumble (PMP: *heReŋ)

(h)udanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

(h)ujuŋthe furthest point, projecting part, projecting corner, foot of a mountain (PMP: *quzuŋ)

Old Javanese (700 / 2165)

hulapdazzlement, being unable to look at a bright light (ROOT)

(h)ulescloth cover, covering, wrapping, piece of cloth to put on (wrap in, sleep under), sheet (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

huluhead; headwaters of a river; (often in inscriptions in the titles of officials or functionaries) head of, chief of (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

(h)ulunslave, bondsman, servant; be a servant (PMP: *qulun₁)

hulw-anthe head (of a bed, etc.) as opposed to the foot (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

h<um>alaŋ-alaŋ“to keep being in the way”, keep troubling (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

h<um>arepgo forward; stand or move in the direction of; turn towards, face (PMP: *qadep)

h-um-eneŋbe or become silent, keep silence, fall silent; keep quiet, take no action (PWMP: *q<um>eneŋ) *qeneŋ

h-um-uripgive life, bring to life, grant life (not kill) (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

(h)unteto twist together, wind (PWMP: *quntay₂)

(h)untutooth (PMP: *quntu)

(h)uŋloud noise, din (PWMP: *quRuŋ)

huŋkukhunchbacked; crooked (ROOT)

huraŋshrimp, prawn, lobster (PAN: *qudaŋ)

huriplife (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

(h)utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

huwangreyness, grey hair; grey (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

(h)uwiseveral kinds of tuberous plants; yam (PMP: *qubi)

huwusfinished, done, ended, already, over (PMP: *qubus)

(h)uyaŋheat, being heated, feeling hot (also of the heart) (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

Old Javanese (720 / 2165)

hwab, obyawn (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

hwirattan (PAN: *quay)

hyaŋ, yaŋgod, goddess, deified being; connected with the divine, sacred; person dedicated to the sacred, anchorite, monk, nun (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

iparticle with a prepositional function before nouns: in, on, by, through, with (PAN: *i₂)

i-particle with a prepositional function before nouns, often combined with the definite particle ŋ to . Occurs before nouns which in the sentence function as grammatical object (esp. before place-names) (PMP: *hi-) *Si-₂

ibumother; in address, for any female person (LOAN)

icircrawl about? (of catfish and crayfish in the mud) (PWMP: *icir)

icukseduction, enticement; deceit (NOISE)

iḍamexperience the cravings of pregnancy; be pregnant (PWMP: *qidam)

i harep-ñain front of, in the presence of (PMP: *qadep)

ikelcurled, wavy (as hair) (PWMP: *ikel)

iketband, tie (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikū, ikuhtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ikutto follow; be attached to (PMP: *ikut)

ilaggo away, retire, escape; go away from, evade, pass by, escape from (PWMP: *qilag)

ilepto lose (NOISE)

iliŋlook at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love) (PWMP: *hiliŋ)

iliŋlook at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love) (PWMP: *iliŋ₂)

ilolook at oneself (in the mirror, etc.); see, watch (PMP: *ilaw)

ilūsaliva (PMP: *iluR₁)

Old Javanese (740 / 2165)

imbuhincrease, addition (PWMP: *imbuq)

impungathered, brought together; bound up, combined; concise (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

inakwell-being, peace, ease, enjoyment, satisfaction; easy (smooth, untroubled) course (e.g. of a battle) (LOAN)

in-alapwas taken, fetched, carried off, stolen, seized, won (PAN: *in-alap) *alap

in-anudo something or other, do you-know-what (PWMP: *in-anu) *-nu

ina-ŋmother, elderly woman (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

in-aŋin-aŋinfluttering in the wind (PMP: *haŋin)

in-api, in-apuybe on fire (PWMP: *h<in>apuy) *Sapuy

in-arakto conduct in procession (PWMP: *in-aRak) *aRak

in-aterwas escorted, was brought (PWMP: *h<in>ateD) *SateD

indahbeing different, extraordinary beauty; (LOAN)

inda-ŋmother (PWMP: *inda₂)

iṇḍaŋgo round in or among (in order to search, inspect, etc.) (PWMP: *indaŋ)

indu-ŋmother; familiar or affectionate address to a woman (beloved, daughter): my good woman, my dear girl (PWMP: *indu-ŋ) *indu

in-eṇḍem-eṇḍemto foster, feel deeply (PWMP: *qendem)

in-ipidream (PMP: *h<in>ipi) *Sipi

in-isuh-anto wash (PMP: *hisuq)

in-isuk-ando something in the morning (early), start early (LOAN)

inte, intaykeep constantly in view, keep a watch on, watch narrowly, peer at (PWMP: *hintay)

intipto peep (LOAN)

Old Javanese (760 / 2165)

inumdrinking (subst.) (PMP: *inum)

in-umah-aninhabited (PAN: *Rumaq)

inum-andrink(s) (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

inum-inum-andrinks (PMP: *inum-inum-an) *inum

i-ŋaran(-an)give a name to, call, give or mention the name of someone; to regard, consider, believe to be (PWMP: *i-ŋajan(-an)) *ŋajan

iŋetawareness, memory (PWMP: *iŋet)

iŋet-iŋetthinking over, revolving in one's mind; souvenir, keepsake (PWMP: *iŋat-iŋat) *iŋat

iŋinlong for (to possess), desirous, avid, filled with desire or love (LOAN)

iŋisbared, visible (teeth, etc.), bare the teeth, grin, smile (ROOT)

iŋkabbe blown up, blown open (PWMP: *iŋkab)

iŋsershift, change place, move aside, move away (PMP: *ised)

iŋsershift, change place, move aside, move away (PMP: *iseR)

ipakto lap, splash, wash (waves) (PWMP: *ipak₁)

ipakto lap, splash, wash (waves) (ROOT)

ipidream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

iraform in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you) (PMP: *ida)

iraŋshame, embarrassment (PWMP: *iraŋ₁)

iridpull, draw, drag along; carry away, lead off, to lead (PWMP: *irid₂)

irirfan (PMP: *irid₁)

iristo cut, cut through (PMP: *qiris)

Old Javanese (780 / 2165)

irusladle of coconut shell (PAN: *qidus)

isermove aside (PMP: *ised)

isermove aside (PMP: *iseR)

isicontents, what is found (lives, etc.) in a place; the special content, the core or essence (PAN: *isiʔ)

isuh-isuhwashing (PMP: *hisuq)

isy-anfilling (PWMP: *isiʔ-an) *isiʔ

itekto live (play, wallow) in the mud (ROOT)

itikduck, young bird (PWMP: *itik₂)

ituŋgreat-great grandchild (NOISE)

japa tawaa formula to make poison, etc. harmless (PWMP: *tabaR)

jariŋnet (to catch fish, birds, kidangs [barking deer]) (PMP: *zariŋ)

jariŋ-jariŋspider web (PMP: *zariŋ)

jawaa grain (in particular barley or millet?). Perhaps a Prakrit form of Sanskrit yawa (barley). Was barley known in Java? Or should we assume jawa = jawawut (millet)? (PAN: *zawa₂)

jilakpartial eye defect (cross-eyed?) (PMP: *zilak)

jukuŋa small vessel (dugout canoe) (LOAN)

j<um>umputto take or hold between forefinger and thumb, pinch (LOAN)

juru kuruŋservant who looks after the cocks (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

ka-passive prefix: the ka- passive refers more to the state achieved, in contrast to the -in- passive, which refers more to the action: ka-bebed ‘bound, entwined’ (cp. bebed ‘band, tie, bandage’); ka-dawut ‘uprooted’ (cp. dawut ‘pull out, uproot’) (PMP: *ka-₇)

ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-turw-an ‘overcome by sleep, falling asleep, dropping off’ (cf. turū ‘to sleep’); k-āŋin-an ‘moved (driven) by the wind; in the wind’; ka-panas-an ‘suffering from the heat; angry’ (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ka-bebedto tie, bandage, entwine (PWMP: *ka-bejbej) *bejbej

Old Javanese (800 / 2165)

ka-benermake straight, put right, set in the right direction (PMP: *bener)

ka-bener-anhead straight for, hit right on something (PWMP: *ka-bener-an) *bener

ka-bener-anproperly done; fortunately, a lucky thing; just right (PWMP: *ka-bener-an) *bener

ka-besur-anbecoming tired of (PWMP: *ka-besuR-an) *besuR

ka-bisa-nskill, ability (LOAN)

ka-buruto hunt, chase (PWMP: *ka-buRaw) *buRaw

ka-buyut-anobject of worship, place of worship, holy place (because of its coming down from immemorial times? or because of its connection with ancestor worship?) (LOAN)

ka-bwaŋthrow away, fling away (PWMP: *ka-buaŋ) *buqaŋ

ka-bwat-anto weigh upon, burden, oppress, overwhelm; weight, gravity, ripeness (PWMP: *ka-beReqat-en) *beReqat

ka-ḍatəŋ-anbeing reached (PWMP: *ka-dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

kadi pirahow could it be? how is it possible that? (PAN: *pijax)

ka-doh-andistance (PMP: *zauq)

ka-garisstriped?, grazed? (PMP: *garis)

ka-halaŋ-anobstructed (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

ka-hantuto swoon (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ka-hulun-anprobably: the position (state, attitude) of a hulun (servant, follower) in relation to his lord or master; servitude, submission (PWMP: *ka-qulun-an) *qulun₁

ka-hurip-anescape with one's life, stay alive, be given one's life (PAN: *ka-qudip-an) *qudip

ka-hyaŋ-anabode of the gods or of a particular god, heaven (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

kajaŋmat-awning, canopy, screen of palm leaves (PMP: *kazaŋ₂)

ka-juŋjuŋto life; to raise in rank (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

Old Javanese (820 / 2165)

kakaelder brother or sister; also used in addressing somewhat older persons, and for the husband (between man and wife) (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

ka-kampil-anto put in a bag (PWMP: *kampil)

kakapa large (predatory) fish, Lates calcarifer (“cockup”) (PWMP: *kakap)

ka-kayw-antrees (PWMP: *ka-kahiw-an) *kaSiw

ka-kəna-nto catch, seize, get hold of; to hit, touch (PMP: *kena₁)

ka-kəna-nto apply to, use on, subject to, put something on someone; make wear (PWMP: *kena₂)

ka-kilala-ngiven to rule over temporarily (PWMP: *ka-kilala-an) *kilala

ka-kilat-anto illuminate with flashes of lightning, shine on (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

ka-kiŋ-andried up (PWMP: *keRiŋ)

ka-kiwato the left of (LOAN)

k-ākumake something one's own, to appropriate; relate to oneself, take possession of, master; regard as one's own, acknowledge, confess to, admit; to claim (as one's own), be sure of, depend on, answer for, guarantee, declare that one is able to (often boastfully) (PAN: *k-aku) *aku

kalascorpion (LOAN)

ka-laki-laki(n)manliness, manly courage, virility (PWMP: *ka-(la)laki-an) *laki

ka-laŋkah-anto have something pass over one; be trodden underfoot (PMP: *laŋkaq)

k-ālaptaken, fetched, carried off (PWMP: *ka-alap) *alap

k-ālap-antaken, fetched, carried off (PWMP: *ka-alap-an) *alap

k-ālas-anovergrown by the forest (PWMP: *ka-halas-an) *Salas

ka-ləŋgakto fall with the head back; to sink down (limply, with the head back, fainting) (LOAN)

ka-ləsw-anbecoming weak, exhausted (PWMP: *lesu₃)

kalideep watercourse, river-bed, channel (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

Old Javanese (840 / 2165)

ka-likutwisted, crooked, perverted (PWMP: *liku₂)

ka-limathe fifth month (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

ka-lorto the north of (PWMP: *ka-lahud) *lahud

ka-luŋsurto lay down, put down, take off, let slip down (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)suR)

ka-luŋsur-anto put down, take off; to dismiss, remove (from office) (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)suR)

kamalira particular kind of (religious?) building (PMP: *kamaliR)

ka-mata-nseen, visible (PMP: *mata) *maCa

kambiŋgoat (LOAN)

kamilst person pronoun (sg. and pl.) (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamiri ~ kamerithe candle-nut tree: Aleurites triloba (PMP: *kamiri)

kampilbag, pouch (for money or valuables) (PWMP: *kampil)

kamu2nd person (sg. and pl.) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kamuniŋkind of tree with yellow wood: Murraya sp. (PMP: *kamuniŋ)

kanaŋatree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata (PMP: *kanaŋa)

kanciŋlock, bar, bolt (LOAN)

kanḍaŋpen, cowshed (PWMP: *kandaŋ)

ka-ŋaran-angive a name to, call, give or mention the name of someone; to regard, consider, believe to be (PWMP: *ka-ŋajan(-an)) *ŋajan

k-āŋin-anmoved (driven) by the wind; in the wind (PWMP: *ka-haŋin-an) *haŋin

ka-pa-ciritto defecate inadvertently (PWMP: *cirit)

kapa-kapal-əncallused, to develop calluses? (PWMP: *kapal)

Old Javanese (860 / 2165)

kapalaŋ-alaŋimpeded, defective, disturbed, troubled (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

ka-pa-ŋan-andevoured by; addicted to? (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

kapascotton-tree, cotton (LOAN)

ka-patfour altogether; as fourth; the fourth month (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

ka-patideath (concrete case of dying) (PWMP: *ka-p-atay) *aCay

kapa-tulibe deafened (temporarily) by a loud noise (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

ka-penuh-anto fill, make complete (PWMP: *ka-penuq-an) *penuq

ka-pəpərhard-pressed (PWMP: *perper₂)

ka-pətəŋ-anplunged in darkness, in the dark, blinded, with everything becoming dark (PWMP: *peteŋ)

ka-pilihto choose (?) (PWMP: *ka-píliq) *piliq

ka-pipitsqueezed, pinched, jammed (PAN: *pitpit₂)

ka-pisa-nat the same time, together, at once; straightaway, completely (PWMP: *pisan)

ka-pituthe seventh month (PMP: *ka-pitu) *pitu

kapukkapok (PWMP: *kapuk)

ka-pukětto fish with a dragnet or seine; to catch (in a net) (PWMP: *ka-puket) *puket₁

ka-puŋkurto turn one’s back on something, have something at one’s back; leave something behind (LOAN)

ka-pupusto beat, thrash, crush? (PWMP: *puspus₂)

ka-putih-anto cause to become pale (with fright, shame, etc.) (PWMP: *ka-putiq-an) *putiq

karaŋcoral, coral rock, coral reef; probably also more general: any rock (in the sea or on the sea shore) (PMP: *karaŋ)

karaŋ-karaŋgarland of flowers (LOAN)

Old Javanese (880 / 2165)

ka-rara-nmaidenhood (PWMP: *ka-daRa-an) *daRa₂

ka-ratu-nkingship, royal dignity (PMP: *datu)

ka-rotwo, both; with (PWMP: *ka-duha) *duSa

kashardness, inflexibility (PMP: *keRas)

ka-sakit-ansuffering pain, aching, ill (PWMP: *ka-sakit-an) *sakit

ka-sākṣy-anto witness, be a witness at (LOAN)

ka-salahfault, mistake (PWMP: *ka-salaq) *salaq₁

ka-salah-anto do wrong to; to deviate, go away from, avoid, refuse (PWMP: *ka-salaq-an) *salaq₁

ka-sawur-anto bestrew, strew on (PWMP: *sabuD)

ka-sawur-anto bestrew, strew on (PWMP: *ka-sabuR-an) *saq(e)buR

ka-səpy-an ~ ka-səpe-nto feel abandoned, forlorn (PWMP: *sepi)

k-asih areppitiful, in a pitiable condition (PMP: *ka-qasiq) *qasiq

ka-sikuto prod or jab with the elbow (PWMP: *ka-siku) *sikux

ka-soŋ-anto shade, overshadow, hang (project) over (PWMP: *saeŋ)

ka-sulit-anstand in each other’s way, too tightly packed (PWMP: *sulit₁)

ka-sulit-ento be in difficulties with, having something hampering (being in the way) (PWMP: *sulit₁)

ka-suluh-anshine upon, illuminate (PMP: *suluq)

ka-susukthat which (a person who is) a thorn in the side; a cause of pain (PWMP: *ka-suksuk) *suksuk

ka-susuk-anentered, possessed (PAN: *suksuk)

ka-susun-anto attack in row after row, to shower (arrows) on (PMP: *susun) *susuN

Old Javanese (900 / 2165)

ka-susu-susuhurried on, in a hurry (NOISE)

ka-tahw-anskilled, used (to), familiar (with) (PWMP: *ka-taqu-an) *Caqu

ka-takutfear; object of fear (PMP: *ka-takut) *takut

ka-tama-nstruck, hit by (PAN: *tama₁)

ka-tama-npenetrated by, affected by, moved by, full of (PWMP: *ka-tama-an) *tama₂

ka-tambak-anto provide with a dam, be provided with a dam (PWMP: *ka-tambak-an) *tambak₂

ka-tanem-anto plant with, to make something enter into and stick (PAN: *ka-tanem-an) *CaNem

ka-taŋkəp-anto close in on, assail (PMP: *taŋkep)

katapaŋthe Indian almond tree, Terminalia catappa (PMP: *katapaŋ)

ka-təkaarrived; (come) as far as, including (PMP: *teka₁)

ka-təka-n(“reached by something”) to suffer, undergo; to succeed in, manage to, win; to reach, up to (PMP: *teka₁)

ka-təluthree (all together) (PMP: *ka-telu) *telu

ka-tinḍəsoverrun, trampled under foot (PMP: *tindes)

katiroutrigger of a jukuŋ (PMP: *katiR)

ka-tuduhto point at, point out, indicate, show, guide; to order, instruct, appoint, designate (PWMP: *ka-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

ka-tuduh-anpointed out, shown, demonstrated; demonstrable, visible, known to everybody (PWMP: *ka-tuzuq-an) *tuzuq₁

ka-tuduh-anpointed out, shown, demonstrated; demonstrable, visible, known to everybody (PWMP: *ka-tuzuq-an) *tuzuq₁

ka-tuha-nold age, relatively older age, being the elder (PWMP: *ka-tuqah-an) *tuqaS

ka-turuh-andripped upon, affected (destroyed ) by rain and humidity (PAN: *tuduq)

ka-tūtcarried along, carried away; along with, included (PWMP: *tuRut)

Old Javanese (920 / 2165)

ka-tutuknocked, struck (?) (PAN: *tutuh)

kawahcauldron, cauldron of hell (in which the souls are punished); hell (PWMP: *kawaq)

kawancompanion; group (PWMP: *kaban₁)

ka-waŋkay-anas if dead (?) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

kawatwire (LOAN)

ka-wekasleft behind, left, remaining, from now; last, highest (PMP: *bekas₃)

ka-wekas-anbeing left behind (PMP: *bekas₃)

ka-weŋa-namazed, speechless (PMP: *beŋa₁)

ka-weŋy-annight-time (PWMP: *ka-beRŋi-an) *beRŋi

ka-wintaŋ-ansown with stars (LOAN)

kawithook (PAN: *kawit)

ka-wurileft behind, stay behind, in the rear; leave behind, leave unfinished (NOISE)

ka-wutahthrow up, vomit out (PWMP: *ka-utaq) *utaq

kayuwood, tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu hayam-hayam-ankind of tree? (NOISE)

kayu-kayutrees (PMP: *kahi-kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu tahulantree stump?; leafless tree? (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

kaywan, kayontrees (PWMP: *kahiw-an) *kaSiw

kəbowater buffalo (LOAN)

keḍepekthudding or bumping noise (ROOT)

Old Javanese (940 / 2165)

keḍiksmall number, measure or degree; short time (PWMP: *kedik)

kəjəŋstiff (of arms or legs, e.g. from sitting in a cramped position, as the result of damage, etc.) (PMP: *kezeŋ)

kəjəpclosing the eyes, sleeping; to close the eyes, sleep (PWMP: *kezep)

kə-kənḍo-nloosely done up (of a chignon) (PWMP: *kenduR)

kelebbe submerged, sink (ROOT)

keléŋto ring a prayer-bell (ROOT)

kəmbaŋflower (PWMP: *kembaŋ)

kəmbartwin, alike in appearance (LOAN)

kənahit by, touched by, subjected to, being the object of (PMP: *kena₁)

k-énakthe best thing, the most convenient (LOAN)

kenassmall game; in particular deer, roe? (PMP: *kenas)

kənḍoloose, slack (PWMP: *kenduR)

kəpəlwhat is compressed (held) in the clenched hand, a ball (of rice) (PWMP: *kepel)

kəpəl-kəpəla light meal (“a few balls of rice”), esp. for breakfast (?) (PWMP: *kepel)

kepukonomatopoetic particle (blow) (PMP: *kepuk)

kepuŋencircle, besiege (PWMP: *kepuŋ)

kəramonkey (LOAN)

kəraŋ ~ kraŋmussel, mussel shell: Cardulum edule (LOAN)

kerepeksound of cracking (ROOT)

kerepuksound of clashing, clanging, clattering (ROOT)

Old Javanese (960 / 2165)

kerikscrape off (PMP: *keriqik)

kəris ~ krisa particular kind of dagger (LOAN)

kesimade the contents (core, essence) of something, kept in, treasured in (PMP: *ka-isiʔ) *isiʔ

kətəg-kətəgthe signs of life and esp. emotion, including (quickened) breathing and heartbeat as well as more general movements (PWMP: *keteg)

kətərtrembling, shaking, quivering, vibrating, (soft) rumbling (PWMP: *keter)

kətikkind of bird or other animal of which the sound is compared to that of the gecko (PWMP: *ketik)

kətua cap (worn by religious persons) (LOAN)

kətugbooming, thundering, rumbling, crashing, roaring, rattling, thumping; thunder (NOISE)

kiduŋsong (PWMP: *kiduŋ)

kikirfile (PMP: *kiDkiD)

kilala-nsomething of which one has the use (PWMP: *kilala-an) *kilala

kilana span (of the hand) (PWMP: *kilan)

kilaŋfermented drink made from sugar-cane (PWMP: *kilaŋ)

kilatlightning, flash of lighting (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

k<in>a-səḍəp-anwas found pleasing (PWMP: *sedep₂)

k<in>awitto hook (PAN: *kawit)

k<in>əkəpto clasp, encircle, embrace (PWMP: *kepkép₁)

k<in>ukub-anto cover up (PWMP: *kubkub₂)

k<in>ulubto boil lightly, stew (PWMP: *kulub₂)

k<in>uŋkuŋto lock up, confine, hold captive (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

Old Javanese (980 / 2165)

kira-kirathoughts which one fosters, ideas; plan, scheme, devices and designs (LOAN)

kirigshake oneself (like a dog after a (PWMP: *kirig)

kitapersonal pronoun of the second person (singular or plural) (PAN: *kita₁)

kiṭukmake a knocking sound (ROOT)

kiṭukmake a knocking sound (ROOT)

kiwaleft (LOAN)

kopronoun of the second person: you (generally disparaging or when addressing oneself) (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

konṭolscrotum (NOISE)

-kusuffix for the first person (after stems that end with a consonant other than n) (PAN: *-ku)

kuḍis-enscurvy, scabby (PAN: *kudis)

kuḍuŋ-kuḍuŋcover, wrapping, veil, shroud (PWMP: *kuduŋ)

kujura measure (pile) or bar of cake-shaped objects (NOISE)

kukubsheet, covering (PWMP: *kubkub₂)

kukuhstrong, firm, inflexible, tough, sturdy, relentless (PMP: *kukuq)

kukuhstrong, firm, inflexible, tough, sturdy, relentless (LOAN)

kukuŋstiff, rigid (PWMP: *kukuŋ)

ku-kuruŋ-anwomen reserved for the king (PWMP: *kuruŋ-an) *kuruŋ

kukussmoke, spray, cloud (of dust, pollen, etc.) (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kukus-ancone-shaped basket of woven bamboo in which rice is steamed (PWMP: *kuskus-an₂) *kuskus₁

kukus-ancone-shaped basket of woven bamboo in which rice is steamed (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

Old Javanese (1000 / 2165)

kula certain mollusc (mussel, oyster, clam?) (PWMP: *kuhul)

kuləmnight (PWMP: *kulem)

kulubboiled lightly (PWMP: *kulub₂)

kulub-anlightly boiled dish of vegetables (PWMP: *kulub-an) *kulub₂

k<um>ərətto sever (the head), chop, cut (the throat) (PWMP: *keret)

k<um>ilalato enjoy the usufruct of, have a right to the services, etc. of (PWMP: *k<um>ilala) *kilala

k<um>ilatto flash, of lightning (PWMP: *k<um>ilat) *likaC

kumismoustache (PMP: *kumis)

k<um>ukupto take together, gather up (PWMP: *k<um>upkup) *kupkup₃

k<um>ukussmoking, like smoke (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

k<um>ullike a kul, to clam up (PWMP: *kuhul)

kunirturmeric (PMP: *kunij)

kunir-enyellowish? (PMP: *kunij)

kuŋkuŋa particular kind of ornament (ring?, bracelet?) (PWMP: *kuŋkuŋ₄)

kupiŋ ~ kopiŋear (PWMP: *kupiŋ)

kupu-kupu ~ ku-kupubutterfly (LOAN)

kuratortoise (LOAN)

kuraŋtoo little, not enough; having too little, lacking (deficient) in (LOAN)

kureblie in an overturned position, lie face downward (PWMP: *kureb)

kurenhusband, wife, partner, consort (PAN: *kuden)

Old Javanese (1020 / 2165)

kuriskind of scabious cutaneous eruption (PAN: *kuris₁)

kuruthinness (PWMP: *kuru₂)

kuruŋcage (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

kuruŋ-ancage (PWMP: *kuruŋ-an) *kuruŋ

kusikrushing, rustling, making a confused sound, murmuring (PMP: *kusik)

kusumake fire by friction (PMP: *kusu₁)

kusutin disorder, disturbed, dishevelled, not done up (hanging down, hair), unkempt (PWMP: *kusut)

kuṭafort, stronghold, fortfied encampment, walled palace, wall (LOAN)

kutil-ənsuffering from pimples (?) (PWMP: *kutil)

kuwudwelling, housing, quarters, lodgings (often of temporarily erected housing or buildings at feasts or pleasure trips); tents, encampment; but also residence of patih (high official in the court), mantri (king’s counselor, minister) (PMP: *kubu)

labw-anrainfall (after the dry season) (PWMP: *labuq)

ladiŋtype of cleaver or jungle knife (PWMP: *ladiŋ)

lagicontinuously, constantly, again and again, always, usually; continuing for some time already, going on, keeping on, still (PMP: *lagi)

laguuse, custom; behavior, bearing (PWMP: *lagu)

lakiman, male, husband (PMP: *laki)

laki-lakiman, male, husband (PMP: *laki)

la-lamaksomething laid down to put something else on, a mat (PMP: *lamak)

lalateŋstinging nettle (PMP: *la-lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lalera fly (PMP: *lalej)

lalito forget, fail to notice (NOISE)

Old Javanese (1040 / 2165)

laluto pass, go by, elapse, continue, proceed; thereupon, subsequently; passing the limit, going too far, too much (LOAN)

lamalength of time, duration (PAN: *lama)

lambaŋthat which is stretched out horizontally (PWMP: *lak(e)baŋ)

lambattenacious, difficult to move (LOAN)

lambuŋside, flank of the body, of a mountain, of a battle-array (LOAN)

lamlamcarried away by desire (longing); being a prey to one's emotions; feeling uncertain; acting according to one's own desire (whim) (PAN: *lamlam₁)

lampita mat of rattan (PWMP: *lampit)

lamuk-lamukvaguely visible (PWMP: *lamuk₁)

landakporcupine (PWMP: *landak)

lantemat of rattan (distinctive of high rank) (PWMP: *lantay)

laŋitsky, firmament (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋit-laŋitcanopy (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkahstep, stride (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lapāhunger (also thirst?) (PMP: *lapaR)

latahbewildered, perplexed, dumbfounded (NOISE)

latekmud, bog (ROOT)

latu-latu, lalatusparks, flying parts of a burning object (PWMP: *lalatu₂)

lawanmatch, opponent, adversary (PMP: *laban₂)

lawaslength of time, duration (NOISE)

laway-anyarn reel (PWMP: *labay)

Old Javanese (1060 / 2165)

lawethread, yarn (PWMP: *labay)

layw-anfallen (picked) and fading flower (PAN: *layu)

ləbūdust (LOAN)

lelebexpired, lapsed, forfeited (PWMP: *le(b)leb)

lələsto disappear (NOISE)

lembahlow-lying ground, valley (PWMP: *le(m)baq)

ləmbucow, bull (when distinct from sapi, probably a white cow or bull’ (LOAN)

ləmbutfine, soft, thin; delicate, gentle, refined (PWMP: *lembut)

lemeŋ-lemeŋ-anfood cooked in a vessel of green bamboo (PWMP: *lemeŋ₂)

lempagto deal a blow (PWMP: *le(m)pag)

ləmukindly disposed, sympathetic? (PWMP: *lemu)

lenother, different, otherwise, and also (PMP: *lian)

lenother, different, otherwise, and also (PWMP: *lain)

ləŋaseseame; sesame oil; oil (PWMP: *leŋa)

leŋenarm (PMP: *leŋen)

leŋeŋa state of daze, of being unaware of about one, rapture, ecstasy; being enraptured by beauty or love (LOAN)

ləpasfree (from bonds), released; let go, thrown (flying missile); set going, moving off, leaving, going away, leaving others behind; moving unhindered and swiftly (PWMP: *lepas)

lepettight, tightly bound, compressed, compact (PWMP: *lepet₁)

ləpitcleft, narrow valley (PMP: *lepit₂)

ləsuweak, tired, limp; drained of energy (PWMP: *lesu₃)

Old Javanese (1080 / 2165)

ləsuŋrice-pounder (PWMP: *lesuŋ)

ləwihsuperior, higher, better, more; surpassing, exceeding(ly), prominent, eminent; more so, especially; superiority, etc. (PWMP: *lebiq)

licinfree(dom) from any encumbrances, free(dom) from passions ... complete perfection (PWMP: *licin)

liketglutinous, syrupy, sticky, thick (PMP: *liket)

liku-likutwists, bends; twisted, bending, winding (PWMP: *liku₂)

likur-anside? (PAN: *likud-an) *likud

lilita pattern of wavy lines, rippling (PAN: *litlit)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limasa container for food (PMP: *limas)

limoa citrus fruit, the lime (PWMP: *limaw)

l<in>aler-anfull of flies (PMP: *lalej)

l<in>araŋforbidden to others, reserved for, declared (PAN: *laRaŋ)

lin-cakleap, hop (ROOT)

linḍūto shake, quake; earthquake, tremor (PMP: *linduR)

linḍuŋ-anhiding place, cover (PWMP: *linduŋ-an) *liduŋ

l<in>əŋa-nto rub with oil (PWMP: *leŋa)

l<in>əpitto pleat, fold (PMP: *lepit₂)

l<in>or-anto pass on the north side (PAN: *lahud)

liŋwhat one says: words, command, suggestion, etc.; what one says to oneself (in one's heart): thought, opinion; what something says (conveys): meaning, tenor (PMP: *liŋ₂)

liŋissharp-bladed crowbar (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

Old Javanese (1100 / 2165)

liŋsanit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lonslowness (PWMP: *laun)

lornorth (PAN: *lahud)

lukatwiped out, undone (of sin, a curse); released, purified (of the person); to get free (from a restriction)? (PWMP: *lukat)

l<um>abuhto cast oneself (into the fire, into the water, onto the rocks), to seek one’s death; to cast anchor (PWMP: *labuq)

l<um>aki-lakito incite to manly action, fire the fighting spirit of (PMP: *laki)

l<um>aluto go on regardless of the consequences, determinded to face (difficulties, death, etc.); to pass by, ignore (LOAN)

l<um>aŋkahto advance, proceed (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lumba-lumbaporpoise (LOAN)

lumbarfree, unfettered, left open (field where crop has been reaped) (PMP: *lumbar)

lumbua water plant with limp leaves (an image of weakness) (PMP: *lumbu)

l<um>əsuto cause to grow weak, tire, abate (PWMP: *l<um>esu) *lesu₃

l<um>iputto envelop, enwrap, engulf, enfold, cover, surround (PWMP: *l<um>iput) *liput₁

lumpatjump, leap (PWMP: *lumpat)

lumpuhlame (of the leg) (PWMP: *lumpuq)

l<um>umpatto leap, jump (PWMP: *lumpat)

l<um>uŋsurto come down, slip down, slide down (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)suR)

lumutmoss, lichen, small vegetation growing on rocks, trees, etc; small ferns; a kind of powder (beḍak), esp. on the breasts (PMP: *lumut)

lumut-encovered with lichen, etc. (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

lumut-lumutmoss, lichen, small vegetation growing on rocks, trees, etc; small ferns; a kind of powder (beḍak), esp. on the breasts (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

Old Javanese (1120 / 2165)

luŋkachasm, gap (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)ka)

luŋsurcoming down, slipping down, sliding down (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)suR)

lupaloss of memory, loss of consciousness (PMP: *lupa)

lutuŋblack or grey long-tailed monkey: Semnopithecus maurus (PAN: *luCuŋ)

luwaŋpit, hole, cavity (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

luwarto separate, disperse, break up, part, go away; loose from, freed from, to escape from (PMP: *luqar)

lūyaexhausted, powerless (PWMP: *luya(ʔ))

lyaŋhole, burrow, opening (PMP: *liaŋ)

ma-asihto love, have sympathy or compassion (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

ma-asy-asihshow one's love, do a favor, be so kind (PMP: *ma-qasiq) *qasiq

m(a)-atidie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-baŋunwith the shape of, like (PWMP: *ma-baŋun) *baŋuN

ma-bukutsit respectfully bowed (PMP: *bukut)

ma-cəkuk-cəkukto choke (or to hiccup?) (PWMP: *cekuk)

ma-dwalto sell (LOAN)

ma-garutto scratch (PWMP: *ma-garut) *garuC

ma-hapūwith (having) lime (PAN: *qapuR)

ma-hastawith hands (LOAN)

ma-hawusmear oneself with ash? (PWMP: *ma-qabu) *qabu

(m)a-huluwith a head, having the head of (PWMP: *ma-qulu) *quluh

Old Javanese (1140 / 2165)

(m)a-huripto live, living (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

ma-inebwith closed doors (PAN: *qiNeb)

ma-isi, mesifilled with, containing, possessing; full, meaningful, pregnant, full of love (PMP: *ma-isiʔ) *isiʔ

maka-besur-anto have something one has had enough of (PWMP: *maka-besuR) *besuR

maka-lakito have a husband, be married to, have sexual intercourse with (of a woman) (PMP: *laki)

ma-kampilcarrying the treasures (regalia, heirlooms, etc.) (PWMP: *kampil)

mak-ānakhave as a child, consider as one's child (PWMP: *maka-anak) *aNak

maka-ŋaranwith the name, called (PMP: *ŋajan)

maka-puputhaving as end, finally, end in, result in, turn into (PWMP: *putput₃)

ma-karaŋwith coral; with rocks (PMP: *karaŋ)

(m)a-kashard, inflexible, unyielding, obstinate (PMP: *keRas)

maka-sākṣito have as witness (LOAN)

maka-soŋhaving (using) as cover (protection), covered by, in the shadow of; being (serving as) cover, etc. (PWMP: *saeŋ)

maka-sumpiŋto use as a sumpiŋ, to serve as a sumpiŋ (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

maka-tasikhaving as sea, surrounded by sea (PMP: *tasik)

maka-tiruto serve for a model (LOAN)

maka-tohto have as a stake, put up for stake; to stake, risk (PMP: *taRuq)

ma-kəkəbclosed, covered, quiet (PMP: *kebkeb)

ma-kəmu-kəmuto keep in the mouth (a liquid), rinse with (PMP: *kemuR)

ma--kəraŋwith mussels (LOAN)

Old Javanese (1160 / 2165)

ma-kilalato have the usufruct (right to the service) of (PWMP: *ma-kilala) *kilala

mak-olihobtain, get, overpower, defeat, catch (PWMP: *maka-uliq₁) *uliq₂

ma-konto tell someone to do something, order (PWMP: *kuan₂)

ma-kukukto cluck, of a hen (PWMP: *kukkuk)

(m)a-kukuswith smoke, smoking (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

(m)a-labuhto cast oneself down (on or into something) and seek one’s death; to cast something into the water (PWMP: *labuq)

m-ālaptake, fetch, carry off (PAN: *ma-alap) *alap

ma-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

(m)a-linḍuŋ-anto hide behind, seek cover behind (PWMP: *ma-linduŋ-an) *liduŋ

m-ālunin waves (PWMP: *ma-qalun) *qalun

(m)a-lupaforgetting, not thinking of (PMP: *lupa)

ma-matato look at, observe, inspect (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m-ānakto have (bring forth) a child (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

m-ānak anakbring forth a child (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

ma-nakitto cause pain? to be a disease? (PWMP: *ma-ñakit) *sakit

maṇḍibathe (PWMP: *um-andiʔ) *andiʔ

ma-nəgəsto make clear, explain (NOISE)

ma-nimbaŋ-ito be on a par with, be a match for, equal; to put in the balance, weigh, compare; to be (go, sit, etc.) at the side of, flank, accompany, support (PWMP: *ma-nimbaŋ) *timbaŋ

manukbird (PMP: *manuk)

ma-nututo pound rice (PWMP: *ma-nutu) *tutuh

Old Javanese (1180 / 2165)

maŋ-alahgive in, admit oneself beaten (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₂) *alaq₂

maŋa-limadivide into five (PWMP: *maŋ-lima) *lima

maŋa-lorgo to the north, northward (PAN: *lahud)

maŋ-anak-ihave children (PWMP: *maŋ-anak-i) *aNak

maŋ-asih-asihto flatter (PMP: *qasiq)

(m)aŋ-awaŋ-awaŋ(being) in the air, moving through the air (PMP: *awaŋ)

maŋ-hapūmake lime (PWMP: *maŋ-qapuR) *qapuR

maŋ-hwab, maŋ-obto yawn (PWMP: *maŋ-huab) *Suab

ma-ŋilalato enjoy the usufruct of, have a right to the services, etc. of (PWMP: *ma-ŋilala) *kilala

m-aŋkatget up, rise, set out, depart (PWMP: *aŋkat)

maŋ-ududsuck at (PWMP: *qudud)

ma-paŋkatin formation, in well-ordered arrangement, lined up (LOAN)

ma-pasar-pasarto come to market (as a buyer or seller) (LOAN)

ma-pintudoor-keeper (LOAN)

ma-pirakto possess wealth, be rich (LOAN)

ma-pitudivide into seven (PWMP: *ma-pitu) *pitu

ma-rahbleeding (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

mar-baŋuncome to life, revive (PWMP: *maR-baŋun) *baŋuN

ma-ron ~ ma-rwanwith leaves, sprouting leaves (PWMP: *ma-dahun) *dahun

mar-patseparate into four parts (PWMP: *maR-epat) *Sepat

Old Javanese (1200 / 2165)

ma-rwi ~ ma-rithorny (PWMP: *ma-duRi) *duRi

(m)a-sanḍiŋ(m)a-sanḍiŋ at the side, having at the side, side by side (LOAN)

ma-saŋətvehement, harsh (PWMP: *saŋet)

ma-səlāinterspaced, with space in between (PWMP: *sela)

ma-sənḍiwith pillar supports, with a sedan-chair (PMP: *sendiR)

ma-suŋutwith feelers (PWMP: *suŋut₃)

ma-suratwith letters, written (LOAN)

ma-susukpenetrating or entering into something (PWMP: *ma-suksuk) *suksuk

mataeye; meshes (of a net); stone (set in a ring, etc.) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tahi-tahirusty (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

(m)a-tambakwith a wall, etc.; to stand like a wall or dam, tightly packed (along the way), blocking (the way); a certain functionary (inspector or dikes?) (PWMP: *ma-tambak) *tambak₂

(m)a-tasakripe, cooked (PWMP: *ma-tasak) *tasak

(m)a-təŋahto be halfway; half (adj.) (PWMP: *ma-teŋaq) *teŋaq

ma-təpi-təpiedged, bordered (LOAN)

ma-timpuhto sit somewhat sideways on one of the bent legs tucked under the body (sitting position of women) (PWMP: *timpuhuq)

(m)a-tiruto follow, imitate, take for a model (LOAN)

(m)a-tuluŋto render help (aid, assistance) (PWMP: *ma-tuluŋ) *tuluŋ

ma-tunw-a-tunw-anto set everything on fire (PAN: *ma-tunuh) *CuNuh

(m)a-tuŋguto stay and wait on, keep watch over, guard, be a guardian (LOAN)

(m)a-turūto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

Old Javanese (1220 / 2165)

ma-turusto erect a fence (PMP: *turus)

m-ātusto be a hundred (hundreds?) in number (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

m-ātus-atusto be hundreds (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

ma-usukwith rafters (PWMP: *ma-Rusuk) *Rusuk

ma-utaŋto owe (PMP: *ma-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

m-āwakhave or assume a body, be an embodiment of (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

(m)a-wukir-ango to the mountains, make a mountain excursion, live in the mountains (PAN: *bukij)

(m)a-wuwuhincreasing, growing (in number or strength); being added to (PMP: *bubuq)

mayuŋ-anhold an umbrella or parasol over someone or something; to shade something, as a tree shading a house (PWMP: *payuŋ)

m-eḍemextinguished, lustreless (PWMP: *ma-edem) *edem₁

meḍemextinguished, lustreless (PWMP: *medem)

m-énakat ease, relieved, satisfied; easy, smooth, untroubled; pleasant, agreeable, comfortable (LOAN)

meŋāto open, be or stand open (PMP: *beŋa₁)

metucome out, come forth, appear, be born, rise (sun) (PMP: *betu)

m<in>ataset with (stones, etc.) (PMP: *m<in>ata) *maCa

miñakbutter, especially the butter which is cast as an oblation on the sacrificial fire (PMP: *miñak)

mirahruby; red, ruby-red, blood-red (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

misanfirst cousin (PWMP: *pisan)

(m)-olemshining (only) palely, dim, wan, languishing, faded (PMP: *ma-hulem) *Sulem

m-omahto have a house, run a household (PAN: *Rumaq)

Old Javanese (1240 / 2165)

m-ombakwith waves, undulating, surging (PWMP: *ma-humbak) *humbak

m-ombak-ombak-anundulating, surging, in waves (PWMP: *ma-humbak) *humbak

m-uḍikto rise; to proceed upstream (PWMP: *um-udahik) *udahik

m-ulihreach (go to) one's destination; go (come) home, go (come) back (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

muŋkurto turn one’s back on (LOAN)

mutablindly (PWMP: *maŋ-buta) *buCa

m-utahto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

naŋkaa particular kind of tree and its fruits, Artocarpus integrifolia (LOAN)

nasicooked rice (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

natargrounds, yard (in front or around a building, house, temple, etc.); ground, surface of a piece of cloth on which the pattern is painted (PMP: *natad) *NataD

nipaha particular kind of palm tree (in swamps) (PMP: *nipaq)

niraform in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you) (PWMP: *ni ida) *ida

nūsaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

nūsāntarathe other islands (PMP: *nusa₁)

-nya3sg. possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

ŋaranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋikikshouting with jeering laughter (demons.) (ROOT)

-ŋkusuffix for the first person (after bases that end with n, or a vowel) (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

od-wad, od-odhanging plant, hanging parasite, climber, creeper, liana (PMP: *waRej)

oranot (PMP: *wada)

Old Javanese (1260 / 2165)

ot-wat, ot-otmuscle (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

p(a)-atideath (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pa-bunuhoverseer of slaughtering? (PMP: *pa-bunuq) *buNuq₂

pacekspike, pin (PAN: *pacek)

paḍaequal; the equal of; equally; an indication of the plural (PWMP: *pada)

paḍa-paḍaequal; the equal of (PWMP: *pada pada) *pada

paḍetcompact, compressed, having become a solid mass (PWMP: *pa(n)det)

pagehfirmness, stability, constancy, stabilization, repair (PWMP: *pageq)

pagerhedge, fence, enclosure (PMP: *pager)

pahitbitter, (of sea water) salt (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-hutaŋ-anhe to whom one owes a debt; that for which one owes a debt, leasehold (PWMP: *paR-qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

pakonomatopoetic particle, blow (PMP: *pak)

pa-kilalato have the usufruct (right to the service) of (PMP: *pa-kilala) *kilala

pakö ~ pakunail, pin; (fig.) what gives stability (LOAN)

pakufern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pa-kurenbe married, live as husband and wife (PAN: *kuden)

pa-labw-ananchorage, harbor (PWMP: *labuq)

p-alaŋcross-beam (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

palaŋkapalaŋka-ncouch, seat, bench, throne (LOAN)

palapahcondiments, flavorings (PWMP: *palapaq)

Old Javanese (1280 / 2165)

palarin the hope that, in view of, in order to, expecting, perhaps (PWMP: *palaj₂)

palatukwoodpecker (ROOT)

palatukwoodpecker (ROOT)

pa-layūrunning, running away, flight (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

pa-layw-anrunning, running away, flight (PWMP: *pa-laRiw-an) *laRiw

pali-pali, pa-palithe various ritual requisites (with purifying and strengthening power), used in ceremonial blessings (wedding, return after a battle, festive reception, etc.) (PAN: *paliSi)

palipidedging, frame (PWMP: *p<al>idpid) *pidpid

palipirborder, edge, side; going along, (being on) the border or side (PWMP: *p<al>idpid) *pidpid

paluhammer, mallet (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

paluŋ-antrough, vat, tub, container for drinks? (PWMP: *paluŋ-an) *paluŋ₁

palu-palumace, war-club (or battle hammer?) (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

palyaŋkaparyaŋkabed, couch, sofa, litter, palanquin, seat, bench, throne (LOAN)

pa-maŋsy-anthat to which a bamboo flute is played (LOAN)

pa-mata-nlooks, way of looking, glance (PMP: *mata) *maCa

pa-matimeans (instrument) for killing, instrumental in killing; killer, slayer (PWMP: *paŋ-m-atay) *aCay

pam-bebek-angrindstone (PMP: *bekbek₁)

pa-mekaswhat is at the end or at the top; what is left behind at departure (PWMP: *paŋ-bekas) *bekas₃

pa-milaŋa means of counting (PWMP: *paŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

pa-mulucomplexion, color of the skin (PMP: *bulu₁)

pamunia means of hiding something (PWMP: *paŋ-buni) *buNi

Old Javanese (1300 / 2165)

pa-muŋkuranus (LOAN)

pa-musw-anplace where cotton is carded (PWMP: *paŋ-busuR) *busuR₂

panaharrow; bow; bowman (PAN: *panaq)

p-ānak-anwoman by whom one has a child, wife (PWMP: *paR-anak-an) *aNak

pa-nakitdisease (PWMP: *pa-ñakit) *sakit

pa-naŋisto weep, cry (PWMP: *pa-naŋis) *Caŋis

panasheat (PMP: *panas₁)

panasajackfruit (LOAN)

panay, paneearthen vessel, pot (PMP: *panay)

pancurspouting (LOAN)

pancur-anwaterspout, fountain, waterworks, bathing place with waterspouts (LOAN)

paṇḍankind of tree: Pandanus (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

panḍay ~ panḍeskilled worker; smith, goldsmith, etc. (LOAN)

panék, penékclimb, climb on, get on or in, mount, ascend (PMP: *panahik)

pa-nəpiborder area, border, side (LOAN)

pa-nikuone’s ‘right hand’ helper (‘he who occupies the place of the elbow’) (PWMP: *pa-ñiku) *sikux

pa-niramsomething to bathe with or to sprinkle on (LOAN)

panjiname; title (used before a proper name) (LOAN)

pantəsfitting, appropriate, only right, only to be expected; in style, becoming, in accordance with all the rules; immaculate; adroit; in keeping with custom (LOAN)

pa-nuhaeldest (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

Old Javanese (1320 / 2165)

pa-nunw-ancremation place, pile, pyre (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

paŋ-alapa means of catching (PWMP: *paŋ-alap) *alap

paŋ-alap-anplace for fetching something (PWMP: *paŋ-alap-an) *alap

pa-ŋanfood, eating (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

paŋanfood; eating (PMP: *paŋan)

paŋ-anakbringing forth (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

pa-ŋan pa-ŋan-anfood (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen-an) *kaen

paŋ-apuyset on fire (PWMP: *paŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

pa-ŋaranname, named, called (PMP: *i-pa-ŋajan) *ŋajan

pa-ŋaranname, named, called (PWMP: *paŋ-ŋaran) *ŋajan

paŋ-asahone who grinds or sharpens (PWMP: *paŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

paŋ-empw-an"he who is considered as (addressed with) mpu", his (your) lordship or reverence (PWMP: *paŋ-empu-an) *empu

paŋgagakind of creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica (PWMP: *paŋgaga)

paŋgaŋto roast (on spit, fork, etc.), toast (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgaŋtree of the fig family (NOISE)

paŋ-gənəpthe means to make complete (PWMP: *genep)

paŋgilplant sp. (LOAN)

paŋ-giliŋ-anroll, rolled meat? (PMP: *giliŋ)

paŋguŋscaffolding, raised platform, stand for spectators, "tower" in the cremation ceremony, stage for play (wayaŋ) (PWMP: *paŋguŋ)

paŋ-hatepcovering (PWMP: *paŋ-qatep) *qatep

Old Javanese (1340 / 2165)

paŋ-huluthe one in the forefront, leader (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paŋitree with edible fruits: Pangium edule (PWMP: *paŋi)

paŋ-inum-andrinking-bout (PWMP: *paŋ-inum-an) *inum

paŋ-ipy-anstate of dreaming; dream-vision (PWMP: *paŋ-hipi) *Sipi

paŋ-isicontents; core, essence (PMP: *pa-isiʔ) *isiʔ

paŋ-layaŋto move (float) through the air, fly (PWMP: *layaŋ)

papahthe long stalk of a palm- or banana-leaf (PMP: *papaq₁) *papaq

papahthe long stalk of a palm or banana leaf (PMP: *paqpaq₂)

papanboard; (round wooden) shield (PMP: *papan)

paraa personal demonstrative particle for a number of persons belonging to the same category (PMP: *paRa₂)

paradaquicksilver; gold-leaf (LOAN)

parahuboat (PMP: *paraqu)

paraŋrock, crag (NOISE)

parasthat which is trimmed by shaving (hair, eyebrow); razor; to shave (trim) the eyebrows (PWMP: *paras₁)

par(e)patformation, arrangement (PWMP: *paR-epat) *Sepat

paririce (in the field or still in the straw), paddy (PAN: *pajay)

parigilow encircling wall of stones (of yard, trees), paved (terraced?) bank or slope (of pond) (PWMP: *paRigi)

parlakdry rice field (PWMP: *parelak)

pa-ro, pa-rwawavering, in two minds (PMP: *pa-₁)

par-pat-ana fourth part, quarter (PWMP: *paR-epat-an) *Sepat

Old Javanese (1360 / 2165)

pasaŋyoke (LOAN)

pasaŋ-anyoke (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasarmarket, bazaar; the space of a pasar-week (five days) (LOAN)

pa-sawuŋa certain tax (on cockfights?) (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

(p)a-sawurstrewing, spreading (PWMP: *sabuD)

(p)a-sawurstrewing, spreading (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

p-asep-anincense-burner (PWMP: *asep)

p-asep-anincense-burner (PWMP: *qasep)

pasi-sisea; beach, strand, shore (PWMP: *pasiR)

pasuroot of the nose (PAN: *pasu₁)

(p)a-susunconsisting of several parts one above the other, in layer upon layer, in row after row (PWMP: *pa-susun) *susuN

patfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

pa-tales-antaro field or garden (PMP: *tales)

pa-tanek-ankitchen (PMP: *tanek) *taNek

pat-aŋfour (PWMP: *pat-aŋ) *Sepat

pa-timbun-anbeing heaped up; heap (PWMP: *timbun)

pat-patfour?; or in groups of four? (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

pa-tuduhto give directions, give guidance, point out, give orders, dispose (PAN: *pa-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

(pa)-tulaŋ-ana container for the bones which are to be cremated (often in the shape of an animal) (PWMP: *pa-tuqelaŋ-an) *tuqelaŋ

pa-turw-ansleeping place, bed-chamber, bed (PWMP: *pa-tuduR-an) *tuduR

Old Javanese (1380 / 2165)

pa-tūtfollowing, along; concordant, in harmony, in accord; appropriate, apposite, right, fitting (PWMP: *tuRut)

pa-tūtfollowing, along, concordant, in harmony, in accord; appropriate, apposite, right, fitting (LOAN)

pa-warahtell, report, teach, instruct (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

pa-wekasto have an end (result), give instructions (PWMP: *pa-bekas) *bekas₃

pa-winih-anseed-bed (PWMP: *paR-binehiq-an) *bineSiq

payuŋparasol, umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

pəcuta whip (PWMP: *pecut)

pəcuta whip (LOAN)

pəḍaŋsword (LOAN)

peDeshot (of taste), biting (of words) (PMP: *hapejes)

pegeŋrestrain, hold back (feelings, breath) (PWMP: *pegeŋ)

pekulembrace, hug, throw the arms around (ROOT)

pelekuŋan arch (ROOT)

pəlukbend, curve (PMP: *peluk)

pénanaunt (PWMP: *paR-ina-an) *ina

penuhfull; filling, filling all; complete in number; in masses, in droves (PMP: *penuq)

peñuturtle (PMP: *peñu)

pəpədcompleted (PWMP: *pedped₂)

pəpətblocked, cut off, jammed, covered; all-pervading, enveloping (PWMP: *petpet₂)

periŋ buŋbaŋkind of bamboo (NOISE)

Old Javanese (1400 / 2165)

pes-an ~ pe(s)pes-anfood cooked and broiled in leaves (esp. fish) (PWMP: *paqis)

pətəŋdarkness; dark (PWMP: *peteŋ)

picekblind (PWMP: *picek) *picek₁

pihak-anone side, one half (PWMP: *pihak-an) *pihak

pihak-anone side, one half (PWMP: *piqak)

pijərmortar (LOAN)

pijetpress with the fingers, squeeze, crush, knead, massage (PWMP: *pizet)

pikat-andecoy (PWMP: *pikat)

pikul-ancarrying pole (LOAN)

pilih-enbe chosen, selected (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pilih-palahnot determined, uncertain, varying, with various possibilities (PAN: *piliq)

pilistemple (part of the head) (PWMP: *pilis)

p<in>aka-sabukused as a sash (LOAN)

p<in>a-nuliŋ-akənplayed the flute for someone (PWMP: *suliŋ)

p<in>aŋanto eat, swallow, devour (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

p<in>aŋkuto hold or receive on the lap (PWMP: *paŋku)

p<in>a-pitudivide into seven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

p-in-atikill, mortify, cause to be like dead (PWMP: *p<in>atay) *aCay

pinḍahto change, turn into the opposite (PWMP: *pindaq)

pinḍaŋa kind of soup or bouillon of fine meat or fish, usually made sour with tamarind (PWMP: *pindaŋ)

Old Javanese (1420 / 2165)

p<in>esto cook as pespesan (PWMP: *p<in>aqis) *paqis

p<in>ijətto press with the fingers, squeeze, crush, knead, massage (PWMP: *pizet)

p<in>ijət-anto massage (PWMP: *pizet)

p<in>ilihwas chosen (PWMP: *p<in>iliq) *piliq

p<in>ipisto pound, crush (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

p<in>ipit-anto hem in, cut off, squeeze; put in a tight place (PAN: *pitpit₂)

p<in>ituin seven categories? (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

p<in>i-tuhato make old, put at the head of, consider as the elder (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

pintarequest (LOAN)

pintw-andoor, gate (LOAN)

p<in>ukětwas caught in a net, entrapped (PWMP: *p<in>uket) *puket₁

p<in>upusto beat, thrash, crush? (PWMP: *puspus₂)

p<in>upw-anto collect, bring in (PMP: *pupu₁)

piŋgana deep bowl (LOAN)

piŋ-rwatwice; the second (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pipithe cheeks (PAN: *pipi₁)

pi-pilisointment applied to the temples against a headache (PWMP: *pilis)

pi-pirak-anriches (LOAN)

pipis-anplace or instrument in which rice is pounded (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

pipitclose side by side, cheek by jowl (PAN: *pitpit₂)

Old Javanese (1440 / 2165)

pira ~ piraŋhow much?; a certain number (an indefinite measure) of, some, several (PAN: *pijax)

piraksilver; money, wealth (LOAN)

pira-pira ~ piraŋ-piraŋquite a few, many (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

pira-piraŋ tahun-ənto keep thinking: how many years... (PMP: *taqun)

pi-salinnew clothes (weapons, etc.), usually as a gift (PWMP: *salin)

pisanonce, the first one, one (PWMP: *pisan)

pisanonce, the first one, one; at the same time, in one act, all together (PWMP: *pisan)

pisaŋbanana (LOAN)

pi-takutscarecrow (PAN: *takut)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pohthe mango (tree and fruit), Mangifera (PMP: *pahuq₁)

pokonomatopoetic particle: blow, thud (PMP: *puk₂) *puk

p-omah-omahproperty brought into a marriage (PAN: *Rumaq)

pucuktop, highest or foremost point, beginning or end (PAN: *qapucuk)

pucuktop, highest or foremost point; beginning or end (PWMP: *pucuk)

pujistanding out high above the others, lofty; arrogant, haughty (LOAN)

pukahwith a point broken off, broken in two, truncated (PMP: *pu(ŋ)kaq)

pukahwith a point broken off, broken in two, truncated (PMP: *pukaq)

pukaŋthigh (PWMP: *pukaŋ)

pukətdrag-net, seine (PMP: *puket₁)

Old Javanese (1460 / 2165)

pulihcome back to its former condition; recovered, healed (PWMP: *puliq)

puliŋturning round, spinning; dizzy, giddy (PMP: *puliŋ₁)

puloisland (LOAN)

puṇḍutpick up and carry off; take along; carry with one (PWMP: *pundut)

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

puŋkurbehind, back (LOAN)

puŋkur-anrear (LOAN)

puputo collect, gather in, pluck (PMP: *pupu₁)

pupuhstroke, blow; a fight (in general), battle; mallet for striking a musical instrument (PWMP: *puqpuq₃)

pu-pukulhammer (PWMP: *pukul)

pupurpowder, scented white rice powder used as a cosmetic (PWMP: *purpur)

pupusthe limit, utmost (PWMP: *puspus₁)

puputend, result; culmination, summit (PWMP: *putput₃)

pu-putihwhite of the eye (PMP: *putiq)

pusərnavel; center, apex (of casting net) (PMP: *pusej)

pusuhflower-bud, unopened or closed flower (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusuh-pusuh ~ pu-pusuhliver (PMP: *pusuq₁)

putatkind of tree and its flower: Barringtonia (PMP: *putat)

putərturning, rotating, gyrating (PWMP: *puteR)

putihwhite (PMP: *putiq)

Old Javanese (1480 / 2165)

putik-ento suffer from a certain eye disease (cataract?) (PWMP: *putik₁)

puṭul ~ mu-muṭul-ihaving the antlers broken off (PMP: *putul) *putun

putusend, completion, conclusion, result (PWMP: *putus) *putus₁

putusend, completion; conclusion, result; acme, last word; having completed, having reached the highest degree; accomplished, perfect (PWMP: *putus₂)

rabudust, dried mud (ROOT)

rāh, rahblood (PAN: *daRaq)

rah-enblood-stained, covered with blood (PAN: *daRaq)

rahiforehead; face (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

rahukind of breadfruit tree (PAN: *daqu₁)

raketadhering, sticking, clinging, being attached (to) (PMP: *raket)

r-āmafather, also used for uncle, guru, etc.; eldest, senior (in religious community, village, army) (PAN: *da-amax) *amax

rampasrob something, rob someone of, plunder, sack (PMP: *raŋ(e)pas)

raŋkepcomplete, equipped with, accompanied or assisted by; complement, match, companion (PMP: *raŋkep₂)

raŋkuŋhunched? (ROOT)

raŋsukenter (PWMP: *ra(ŋ)suk)

rapət(pressed) close together, tight, closed tight (PMP: *dapet)

rara ~ rarāgirl, maiden (PMP: *daRa₂)

rasukdress, attire; mail (PWMP: *ra(ŋ)suk)

rātthe world; the visible, inhabited world; mankind, created beings (PMP: *daRat)

ratā ~ ra-ratāa level place, plain (PAN: *dataR)

Old Javanese (1500 / 2165)

ratuking (rarely, queen) (PMP: *datu)

recahcut into pieces (ROOT)

reguŋmake a loud noise, trumpet, bellow (usually of a furious elephant, but also of a bull or a demon, and of a hollow tree) (ROOT)

renamother (PMP: *ra-ina) *ina

reŋatcleft, crack, crevice, fissure; split, cleft, cracked (PWMP: *reŋat)

rəŋə-rəŋəremaining in the ear, continuously audible (PMP: *deŋeR)

riparticle with prepositional function (also expressed as i, ); occurs before nouns, and as a preposition with the meaning ‘in, on, by, through, with’ (Zoetmulder 1982) which function as grammatical subject (esp. before place-names), as grammatical object (PAN: *di)

rimpekbroken, broken up; out of joint, smashed (ROOT)

rimpuŋlame, crippled, injured (on the leg or foot), especially of horses (PMP: *rimpuŋ)

ririssoft rain (PWMP: *risris)

riwutgust of wind, squall, storm; stormy, dark (PWMP: *ribut)

ron ~ rwanleaf (PMP: *dahun)

ron-ḍonleaves (PMP: *dahun-dahun) *dahun

roŋhole, cave, cavern (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

(ro)-rotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

r<um>arain her maidenhood, young (of a woman) (PWMP: *d<um>aRa) *daRa₂

r<um>əŋöto hear (PWMP: *d<um>eŋeR) *deŋeR

r<um>əŋö-rəŋöto listen in an effort to hear everything that is said (PWMP: *d<um>eŋeR) *deŋeR

ruŋkukhunched, huddled, crouching (PMP: *duŋkuk)

rwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Old Javanese (1520 / 2165)

rwa-ŋ-puluhtwenty (PMP: *ŋa)

rwa-rwaby twos (?) (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

rwi ~ rithorn, thorny plant (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

sabuksash (LOAN)

sa-hastaone (of flowers) (LOAN)

sakapost, pillar (LOAN)

saka-pituseven at a time (PAN: *saka-pitu) *pitu

saka-ro-rotwo together, two by two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

saka-rwatwo by two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

saka-səḍəpto one’s heart’s content (PWMP: *sedep₂)

sa-kawana group (belonging together) (PWMP: *kaban₁)

sa-kawan-anin groups (PWMP: *kaban₁)

sakitpain (esp. physical) (PMP: *sakit)

sākṣieye-witness, witness (LOAN)

sa-kurenmarried man and wife (lit. ‘one cooking pot’) (PAN: *kuden)

salahchanging into something different, deviating from what is right (normal, intended, expected, etc.); wrong, at fault, mistaken, missing (the target); missed, not attained; escaped from (PMP: *salaq₁)

salah alaptaking the wrong one (PMP: *salaq₁)

salah bhāsausing the wrong words or speech (PMP: *salaq₁)

salah gawechanging one’s work, doing something different (PMP: *salaq₁)

salah huluupside down, reversed (PMP: *salaq₁)

Old Javanese (1540 / 2165)

salah surupin disorder (entering the wrong place) (PMP: *surup₁)

sa-lap-aneight (etymologically = 'one taken away from ten') (PAN: *alap)

salinchange, replacement (PWMP: *salin)

sama-kawantogether, in a group (PWMP: *kaban₁)

sambecall, beckon, invoke, invite, bid come, call out (PWMP: *sa(m)bay) *sabay₁

sambəla hot condiment (LOAN)

sambitto hook, catch (also fig.) (PMP: *saqebit)

samircurtain, cloth, cover (of wagon, salver, etc.) (PWMP: *samir)

sampankind of small boat (for harbor traffic?) (LOAN)

sampaŋname of a tree of which the resin is used for perfumery (PWMP: *sapaŋ)

sampatin a high degree, completely, perfectly, very; perfectly similar (LOAN)

sampirscarf, shawl (PWMP: *sampir)

sanḍasupport, prop (PWMP: *sandaR)

sanḍapledge, security, pawn (PWMP: *sanda)

sandapledge, security, pawn (LOAN)

sanḍaŋthat which one carries from birth, nature; cloths, clothing (PWMP: *sandaŋ)

saṇḍeslanting, leaning over (PAN: *saŋeday)

saṇḍetslowed down, blocked, impeded (PWMP: *sa(n)det)

sanḍiŋside (LOAN)

sanḍiŋ-anside (LOAN)

Old Javanese (1560 / 2165)

santanessence, quintessence; pollen, flower; coconut milk (pressed from coconut meat) (LOAN)

s-ānubeing connected with something, or in some way possessing something (PWMP: *sa-anu) *-nu

saŋāto roast, bake, scorch (PMP: *saŋelaR)

saŋa-saŋanroasted food (PMP: *saŋelaR)

saŋəthigh degree, vehemence, intensity; very, intensely (PWMP: *saŋet)

saŋkalthe handle of an adze (PWMP: *sa(ŋ)kal)

saŋkalthe handle of an adze (LOAN)

saŋkəpcomplete; fully equipped, armed (LOAN)

sa-pasaŋone yoke or pair, one cart (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

sa-pasaŋone yoke or pair; one cart (LOAN)

sa-pa-turw-ansleeping together (PAN: *tuduR)

sa-pikulone load (LOAN)

sapubroom (PMP: *sapu)

sapu matasomething to wipe the eyes with (PMP: *sapu)

saputcover, covering; a piece of cloth to cover the breasts (PMP: *saput₁)

saruŋcloth (PWMP: *saruŋ)

saruŋ-ana sheathe (PWMP: *saruŋ)

sa-sisihon one side (PWMP: *sisiq)

sa-tanḍaeach company (banner) separately (LOAN)

sawahirrigated ricefield (PWMP: *sabaq)

Old Javanese (1580 / 2165)

sawaŋindistinct, unclear, vaguely visible (in the distance?) (PWMP: *sawaŋ₁)

sawaŋ-sawaŋindistinct, unclear, vaguely visible (in the distance?) (PWMP: *sawaŋ₂)

sa-wulihone stem (PMP: *sa buliR) *buliR

sawuŋfighting cock; cockfight (PWMP: *sabuŋ₁)

sawura scattering, a rain (of arrows) (PWMP: *sabuD)

sawurscattering, rain (of arrows) (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

sawurscattering, rain (of arrows) (PMP: *sabuR)

sayatwith a piece (pieces, shreds) torn off, laid bare (PWMP: *sayat)

səḍəŋright time (not too early or too late); right moment, right measure (not too big or too small); just, just while, while (LOAN)

səḍəppleasantness, agreeableness (of smell or taste; of appearance or manners) (PWMP: *sedep₂)

segerfresh, healthy, buoyant (PMP: *se(ŋ)ger)

səgukto sob (PWMP: *seguk)

səksək ~ səsəkcompletely filled, brimful, crammed; filling completely; packed; in throngs (PAN: *seksek₁)

səlāspace or time in between, gap; interrupting thoughts, preoccupation, worries (PWMP: *sela)

səlaŋturn, change, alternation; mutually, one another (PWMP: *selaŋ₁)

səlatappearing in between, interruption (PWMP: *selat)

sələpto lie (stick) in between (PMP: *selep)

səlutband or ring of metal (PWMP: *selut)

semayacoming together; mutual understanding, agreement, promise; meeting (as agreed on); appointed or fixed time (LOAN)

səmbahworship, veneration, reverence (LOAN)

Old Javanese (1600 / 2165)

səmishoot, sprout, bud (just emerging; of twig, leaf, also flower?) (NOISE)

sənḍisupport, seat, sedan-chair, supporting block of a pillar (PMP: *sendiR)

sənəŋloved one, beloved (LOAN)

səntula particular kind of tree with edible fruit: Sandoricum indicum (LOAN)

sepainsipid, tasteless, weak (PAN: *qasepa)

səpəttart (taste), acid (PWMP: *sapelet)

səpi-səpi ~ səpa-səpito free oneself from everything, abandon all (PWMP: *sepi)

səpuha mixture (of alum, saltpeter, bluestone and other materials) to harden iron, steel or horn, and to give gold a darker color (LOAN)

səsəlreproach (PWMP: *selsel₂)

sesep-ento suck, kiss, nip (PAN: *sepsep-en) *sepsep

siparticle used before a noun designating a person; it is also used to personify or substantivate concepts denoting quality, condition or action (PAN: *si₁)

sikepcatching, gripping, seizing, taking on, tackling, coming to grips (PWMP: *sikep₃)

sikəpequipment, arms, weapons (NOISE)

siku(right) angle, line with an angular bend; elbow (PAN: *sikux)

siku lalawaacute angle (‘bat’s elbow’) (PAN: *sikux)

siku-sikucarpenter’s square (PWMP: *siku-siku) *sikux

śīlamoral character, action, conduct; good conduct, good character (Sanskrit: practice, conduct, disposition, charact er, good conduct, morality, piety, virtue) (LOAN)

silihone another, each other, mutually; in turn, alternating (LOAN)

silukbend, twist, concavity, dip, gap, inlet, cove, recess (PWMP: *siluk)

simpaŋdeviating, deflecting, swerving from, branching off; branch (of river, road), by-road (PMP: *simpaŋ)

Old Javanese (1620 / 2165)

s<in>abukto cover, as with a sash (LOAN)

s<in>akit-anto inflict pain, hurt, wound (PMP: *sakit)

s<in>ākṣy-akənto promulgate before witnesses (LOAN)

s<in>alahto blame, disapprove (PWMP: *s<in>alaq) *salaq₁

s<in>ambəl-anto supply with a hot condiment (LOAN)

s<in>aŋāto roast, bake, scorch (PMP: *s<in>aŋelaR) *saŋelaR

s<in>apitto clasp, clench, pinch, hold tight (PWMP: *sapit)

s<in>apsapto level, raze to the ground (PWMP: *s<in>apsap) *sapsap₁

s<in>apusweep (PWMP: *s<in>apu) *sapu

s<in>aruŋto sheathe (PWMP: *saruŋ)

sinḍiallusion, innuendo (LOAN)

s<in>əlut-anto ring with (PWMP: *selut)

s<in>iku-sikuto prod or jab with the elbow; (of a path) with sharp bends, zigzag (PWMP: *s<in>iku) *sikux

s<in>ipatto make staight for, aim directly at ? (PWMP: *sipat)

s<in>isikshaped like scales (PMP: *siksik₂)

s<in>ujito embroider (with quill or thorn as instrument?) (LOAN)

s<in>ulamto embroider (PMP: *sulam)

s<in>uratto draw on, write on, write (a letter) (LOAN)

s<in>uruŋ-akənto push forward, force to push on? (PWMP: *suruŋ)

s<in>usunto pile up in later upon layer, build (construct, etc.) in layers (tiers, storeys) (PMP: *susun) *susuN

Old Javanese (1640 / 2165)

siŋkabmove apart, open (PMP: *siŋkab)

sipatstraight line, direction, fixed directionj, rule; point toward which something is directed or one orients oneself, objective, aim, end (PWMP: *sipat)

sirathey, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

siremlosing its splendour, dimmed, with fading light; evening-time (PWMP: *sidem)

siriŋ(that which comes alongside or is at the side:) equal, match, peer, border (PWMP: *sidiŋ)

sisigpolish one's teeth (PWMP: *sisig)

sisihside: at the side, on each side (PWMP: *sisiq)

sisih-another half, husband/wife, companion (PWMP: *sisiq)

sisih-sisih-anto be always together (PWMP: *sisiq)

sisikscales (PMP: *siksik₂)

sisikpeck oneself, scratch oneself (bird looking for lice) (PWMP: *siksik₁)

si-sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

sisipgrazing, brushing (only slightly wounding), not fully hitting the mark; grazed, only slightly wounded, not really hit (NOISE)

sol ~ ma-soluprooted (PMP: *sual)

soŋsun-shade, cover, protection (PWMP: *saeŋ)

soŋ-soŋparasol, umbrella (PWMP: *saeŋ)

sujispine, quill (of a porcupine); embroidery; embroidered piece of cloth (LOAN)

sukərhindered, hampered, having trouble, in difficulties, feeling uneasy (PWMP: *suker)

sulapblinding (by a bright light) (ROOT)

suligia kind of spear, javelin (LOAN)

Old Javanese (1660 / 2165)

suligia kind of spear, javelin (LOAN)

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

sulittrouble, difficulties (PWMP: *sulit₁)

suluhtorch, light (PMP: *suluq)

sulurshoot of a creeper; aerial root (LOAN)

s<um>ākṣy-anito witness, be a witness at (LOAN)

s<um>alin-ito give a change; change, replace (PWMP: *salin)

s<um>ambutto seize, grasp, fetch, take up; take up (words), receive, continue, reply (PWMP: *sambut₂)

s<um>anḍato lean against (PWMP: *sandaR)

s<um>anḍaŋto carry, wear, dress in; to experience, undergo, suffer; be in or accept a certain condition (PWMP: *sandaŋ)

s<um>anḍiŋto be at the side of, be close to, come close, approach (LOAN)

s<um>aŋət-ito treat (address) harshly (PWMP: *saŋet)

s<um>aputto cover completely, cover everything; overwhelm; in overwhelming numbers (PMP: *saput₁)

s<um>awurstrewn, spread, scattered (PWMP: *sabuD)

s<um>awurstrewn, spread, scattered (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

s<um>ayabto move (drift, float, sail) through the air (NEAR)

sumbuwick (LOAN)

s<um>əlaŋto do something for a change, interrupt an action temporarily to do something else; in between, in the meantime (PWMP: *selaŋ₁)

s<um>əlatto appear between something else, come in between; do something different from the others; to be scattered between, interspersed (PWMP: *selat)

s<um>əsəkpacked, in throngs (PWMP: *s<um>eksek) *seksek₁

Old Javanese (1680 / 2165)

s<um>əsəlto reproach, blame (another, oneself, former deeds). to lament (something) (PWMP: *selsel₂)

s<um>əsəpto suck, kiss, nip (PAN: *s<um>epsep) *sepsep

s<um>ikepto seize, catch, grasp (PWMP: *sikep₃)

s<um>ilihto succeed, take over; in turn (LOAN)

s<um>ināshining, radiating (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

s<um>oŋoverhanging (PWMP: *saeŋ)

sumpahoath, imprecation (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpiŋflower (leaf, etc.) worn on the ear; ear ornament in the shape of a flower (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

s<um>uluhto shine (PWMP: *s<um>uluq) *suluq

s<um>uluh-ishine upon, illuminate (PWMP: *suluq-i) *suluq

s<um>uŋsaŋto be upside-down (LOAN)

sumur matidried-up well (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

s<um>urupto enter (a narrow opening), penetrate, enter and become invisible, set (sun, moon, stars) (PMP: *surup₁)

s<um>usuto suck at the breast (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

s<um>usukto enter, penetrate into, pierce (PAN: *s<um>uksuk) *suksuk

suṇḍulto, reaching up to, touching (from below) (PWMP: *sundul)

suṇḍuŋto push (PWMP: *su(n)duŋ)

suntiŋa particular kind of flower: Cassia occidentalia (PWMP: *asuntiŋ)

suŋkembend forward, lie face-down (ROOT)

suŋsaŋupside-down, reversed (LOAN)

Old Javanese (1700 / 2165)

suŋuhorn (of an animal); a wind instrument (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

suŋutantenna, feeler (insect, shrimp), tendril (PWMP: *suŋut₃)

supitpincers (of a lobster, etc.) (PWMP: *supit)

surakshout, cry, roar (LOAN)

suramby-anouter verandah, front porch (PWMP: *surambi)

surat(drawn) line, writing, drawing, letter (LOAN)

surudto diminish, decrease, draw to a close; to retreat, fall back, recede, withdraw, ebb, vanish; to be dismissed, removed (LOAN)

surupgoing down, setting (of sun, moon, stars) (PMP: *surup₁)

surup-anplace of entering (setting); time of setting, death (PMP: *surup₁)

susahdisturbed, in disorder, in confusion, stirred (LOAN)

susuwomans breasts, udder; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

susuhsnail (PMP: *susuq)

susukanything piercing or penetrating into something (dart, thorn, sting, etc.), esp. into the heart (PAN: *suksuk)

susunlayer, tier, storey, row (PMP: *susun) *susuN

susw-anwet nurse (PWMP: *susu-an) *susu₁

suwaldig out (PWMP: *qasual)

suwəŋrolled-up leaf or any other ornament worn in the ear, stuck through the pierced ear-lobe (PWMP: *subeŋ)

swar ~sorlower, inferior; to lose, be defeated, worsted; that which is below or underneath (PWMP: *saur₂)

taemphatic particle (PWMP: *ta₂)

tabeforgive me (LOAN)

Old Javanese (1720 / 2165)

tabəhbeating, striking (esp. a musical instrument); the stick or hammer for this (NOISE)

tagihto claim, demand (LOAN)

tahənto restrain oneself with respect to, be in awe of (LOAN)

tahiexcrement, dropping; rust (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tahuskilled, practiced, trained, used (to) (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

tahulanbone, fish bone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

tahunyear; (seasonal) crop (PMP: *taqun)

tajemsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tajia sharp, pointed instrument; a metal cockspur, a spike on a fish (LOAN)

takəra measure of capacity, amount contained in a takĕr (LOAN)

takis ~ taŋkisrepelling, warding off; defense; clash, collision; shield?, weapon of defence? (PWMP: *taŋkis)

takutfear (PAN: *takut)

takut-takut-enin the grip of fear (PWMP: *takut-en) *takut

talagatank, pool, pond (LOAN)

talestaro, Colocasia antiquorum (PMP: *tales)

talirope, cord, string; bond, tie (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

talukia particular kind of fabric (perhaps muslin) (PMP: *taluki)

talunouter gardens (on the edge of the wood, not long opened up) (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

taly-anbound (PWMP: *talih-an) *CaliS

tamato enter, penetrate; to have penetrated into, mastered thoroughly, accomplished in (PMP: *tama₂)

Old Javanese (1740 / 2165)

tamanflower-garden, pleasure-garden, park (NOISE)

tambacure, remedy, medicine (PMP: *tambar)

tambakwall, dike, dam, fence (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambak saya(of warriors) defence, rampart (against the enemy) (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambəŋdam, dike, wall, partition (PWMP: *tambeŋ)

tambulrefreshments (taken with drink) (LOAN)

tampokcoming down with a thud (PMP: *tampuk₁)

tamyaŋkind of bamboo (PMP: *tamiaŋ)

tanahland, country (PMP: *taneq)

tanḍaspecial sign on a banner belonging to each hero, ensign, standard, banner (LOAN)

tanḍakdance (with song) (PWMP: *tandak)

tanḍiŋequal, match, peer; matched (compared) with (PWMP: *tandiŋ)

tanembeing planted in something, having gone in and stuck fast (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanem-anthat which has been planted, plants, crops (PAN: *tanem-an) *CaNem

tanem-tanem-anthat which has been planted, plants, crops (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tan (m)a-pilihhaving no preferences, not discriminating, indiscriminately, at random (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

tan pa-hatilose one's spirit (heart); be distracted, disconsolate (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

tan pa-kəkəp-anwithout the possibility of locking somebody in one’s arms, without a close companion (PWMP: *kepkép₁)

tan pa-siŋkab-anwithout an opening, completely closed (of darkness) (PMP: *siŋkab)

taŋgapaccept, take, receive (also with person as object) (PWMP: *taŋgap)

Old Javanese (1760 / 2165)

taŋgulparrying, defense (PWMP: *taŋgul)

taŋguŋcarrying, bearing, burden, load (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

taŋisweeping, tears (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tapefermented glutinous rice (PWMP: *tapay)

tapelclosely linked, joined; close together (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

tapiwinnow (PMP: *tapi)

tapihgarment worn by women around the lower part of the body (PWMP: *tapiq₂)

tapisthin layer (PWMP: *taRpis)

tarajupair of scales, balance (LOAN)

tarimareceiving, accepting; gratefulness (LOAN)

tarompahsandals, slippers (LOAN)

tasakaccomplished, expert; thoroughly mastered, brought to maturity (PMP: *tasak)

tasiksea (PMP: *tasik)

tatāarrangement, ordering; fixed order, rule (NOISE)

tatabknock on (PAN: *CabCab)

ta-tahsmall chisel, punch (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tatalcut-off piece, chip (PWMP: *tatal)

ta-talirope, band, girdle (PMP: *ta-talih) *CaliS

tatasbroken, snapped (PWMP: *tastas)

tawapowerless, weak, inefficacious, harmless (PWMP: *tabaR)

Old Javanese (1780 / 2165)

tawanwhat is carried off, booty, a captive (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tawaŋair (esp. as empty or boundless) (PWMP: *tawaŋ)

tawiŋwall, partition, screen, curtain (PWMP: *tabiŋ)

tawwan ~ tawonbee (PMP: *tabuqan)

tӧbthickness, luxuriant growth (PMP: *teReb)

təbasto cut down, chop down, fell (LOAN)

təḍuhquiet (after motion), quietened down, calm, having lost its fierce heat or glare (sun) (LOAN)

təgəsclearness; meaning, explanation (NOISE)

təkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal; coming (PMP: *teka₁)

təkənstick, prop, support (PMP: *teken)

təkən-təkənto be a support (PMP: *teken-teken) *teken

teken wuwuŋridge-pole (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

tekukbend or fold over (PMP: *tekuk)

tekuŋsit bowed and in silence (PMP: *tekuŋ₁)

telebukwith a thud (ROOT)

telegukmaking the sound of gulping or swallowing (in craving for food or drink), with the mouth watering (ROOT)

təluthree (PAN: *telu)

témbakfire at, hit (with a gun) (PWMP: *ti(m)bak)

təmbiŋside, border, bank, flank, shore (LOAN)

tembiŋside, border, bank, flank, shore (NOISE)

Old Javanese (1800 / 2165)

təmumeeting, joining, touching (PWMP: *temu₂)

tənuŋdivining magic (esp. as performed with a cock?) (LOAN)

təŋahthe middle (PMP: *teŋaq)

təŋənthe right hand side (LOAN)

təpakblow of the (flat) hand, smack (PMP: *tepak₁)

təpak-anto accompany with rhythmic beating (clapping?) of the hands (PMP: *tepak₁)

təpətexact, correct, right, true, sincere; direct, straight ahead, undeviating, steadfast, firm (PWMP: *tepet)

təpətexact, correct, right, true, sincere; direct, straight ahead, undeviating, steadfast, firm (LOAN)

təpiedge, border, side (LOAN)

təpiedge, border, side (LOAN)

t(ə)ruspenetrating (PWMP: *terus)

tətəkcut, slash (PAN: *tektek₁)

tətəspenetrated, pierced; penetrating, breaking through, coming out, hatching (PWMP: *testes)

teweka pointed weapon for stabbing (PAN: *tebek)

tiḍemlosing its lustre, fading, dimmed (PMP: *tidem)

tihaŋmast, pole, pillar (NOISE)

tikusmouse, rat (LOAN)

tilammattress, sleeping mat; bed, bedstead (LOAN)

tilemnight of the dark moon (PWMP: *tilem₁)

timahtin (PWMP: *timeRaq)

Old Javanese (1820 / 2165)

timbabucket for drawing water from a well (PMP: *timba)

timbaŋmatch, the equal of (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timpaŋcrippled, limp (PMP: *timpaŋ)

timpaŋ-timpaŋlimping, stumbling (PMP: *timpaŋ)

t-in-ali gajahwith garlands hung crosswise? (PMP: *t<in>alih) *CaliS

t-in-ali talimade into a string, in continuous succession (PMP: *t<in>alih) *CaliS

t<in>ambal-anto patch (of a torn garment) (PMP: *tambal)

t<in>anekto cook, to boil (PMP: *t<in>anek) *taNek

t<in>anemto plant (PWMP: *t<in>anem) *CaNem

t<in>aŋguŋto carry, bear (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

t<in>apy-anto winnow (PMP: *tapi)

t<in>atabwas knocked on (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

t<in>a-tahto shape with a punch (PAN: *taRaq₁)

t<in>awanto carry off as captive or booty, to loot (PWMP: *t<in>aban) *tabaN

t<in>ənunto weave, intertwine (PAN: *t<in>enun) *tenun

t<in>imbaŋ wratto weigh one against the other (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

t<in>uduhpointed at, pointed out, indicated, shown, guided; ordered, instructed, appointed, designated (PWMP: *t<in>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

t<in>uhaveteran, experienced, leader (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

t-in-unube burned, burned up, burned down, set fire to, be put in the fire, heated; cremated (PMP: *t<in>unuh) *CuNuh

t<in>urw-anto sing to sleep, lull to sleep; to sleep with (PAN: *tuduR)

Old Javanese (1840 / 2165)

tiŋkaharrangement, ordering, situation, condition, state; the “how” of something, appearance or look, way of being, way of acting, what is going on, course of events (LOAN)

tiŋtiŋto warble (of the song of a certain bird) (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

tipisthin, weak; lithe, lissom, supple (PMP: *tipis)

titifootbridge (PMP: *titey)

titifootbridge (PMP: *taytay)

tiwasfailing, coming to nothing, being a disappointment; broken down, defeated, ruined, dead (NOISE)

tohstake (in game, gambling, wager, competition, combat); main stake (in combat), the person on whom one relies as the main or sole support (PMP: *taRuq)

tomindigo plant (PMP: *taRum)

toya siramwater for washing or bathing (LOAN)

trus-anright through to (PWMP: *terus)

tubaa fish-poison (PAN: *tuba)

tudiŋindex finger (?) (PAN: *tudiŋ)

tuduhinstruction, direction, directive, order, guidance (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tuduhinstruction, direction, directive, order, guidance (PMP: *tuzuq₂) *Cuzuq

tuhaold age (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuha-ganaconstant, unremitting, sedulous (in doing or practicing) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuha-tuhaancestor, elder (PMP: *tuqah tuqah) *tuqaS

tuhutrue, right, sincere; really, in fact, indeed, in the real sense (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuhu-tuhutrue, right, sincere; really, in fact, indeed, in the real sense (PMP: *tuqu-tuqu) *tuqu₂

tujuto go straight to, head for, aim directly at, hit, charge, deliver a direct blow (PMP: *tuzu)

Old Javanese (1860 / 2165)

tuku-tukupanything which covers (PWMP: *tuŋkup)

tuladexample, model (PWMP: *tulad)

tulad-anexample, model (PWMP: *tulad-an) *tulad

tulajegstand erect (ROOT)

tulaŋbones (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tulideaf (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

tulispainting, drawing; writing, letter (LOAN)

tuli-tulipretend not to hear? (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

tuluŋhelp (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tuluŋ tutuhelp in pounding rice (PAN: *tutuh)

tulupblowpipe (NOISE)

tulusgoing on, lasting, constant, permanent; going to the end, finished, accomplished, perfect (PMP: *tulus)

tuluy, tulwi, tuliimmediate continuation (PMP: *tuluy₁)

tumalouse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t<um>agih-akənto demand repayment on something; inflict the punishment for; to demand the payment of (LOAN)

t<um>ahənto hold out, stand, endure, bear, sustain, suffer; resist, restrain (LOAN)

t<um>ahuto think that one should know or be familiar with (being still uncertain) (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

t-um-alīto tie, bind, string (PMP: *t<um>alih) *CaliS

t<um>amato enter, set foot in, appear in; to penetrate as far as (of weapons); to hit (PMP: *tama₂)

t<um>ambakto put oneself in the way (PWMP: *t<um>ambak) *tambak₂

Old Javanese (1880 / 2165)

t<um>anekto cook, boil (PMP: *t<um>anek) *taNek

t<um>anemto enter into and stick fast, to be deeply implanted (PAN: *t<um>anem) *CaNem

t<um>aŋis-ito address (entreat, etc.) with tears (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

t<um>aŋtaŋto challenge (NOISE)

t<um>arimato receive, accept, take; to be presented with gifts; to allow, tolerate, resign oneself to, submit to, yield to, suffer (LOAN)

t<um>asakto bring to maturity, season, cook through (PMP: *tasak)

t<um>atasended, cut off (PWMP: *t<um>astas) *tastas

tumbaklance (PWMP: *tumbak)

tumbaklance (NOISE)

tumbukto hit with a thump (PMP: *tumbuk)

t<um>əkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal (PMP: *teka₁)

t<um>imbaŋto be one the same level (on the same line); to assist (PWMP: *t<um>imbaŋ) *timbaŋ

t<um>iruto follow, imitate, take after, copy (LOAN)

t<um>oh-ito put up a stake (for someone or something), bet on, vouch for, guarantee (PWMP: *t<um>aRuq) *taRuq

tumpaŋlayer, tier, storey, shelf (PWMP: *tumpaŋ₁)

tumpukheap, pile, mass (PWMP: *tumpuk)

tumpuk-tumpukamong various kinds of food dishes (in heaps?) (PWMP: *tumpuk)

t<um>rusto penetrate, go right through (PWMP: *terus)

t<um>uha-tuheto be the leader (in command) of (PWMP: *t<um>uqah) *tuqaS

t<um>ukupto cover (PWMP: *tuŋkup)

Old Javanese (1900 / 2165)

t<um>uladto follow, imitate, copy, take for a model, use as an example (PWMP: *tulad)

t<um>ulisto draw on, paint on, write on (LOAN)

t<um>uluŋto help, aid, assist (PWMP: *t<um>uluŋ) *tuluŋ

t-um-uluycontinue immediately, proceed from one thing to the next (PMP: *tuluy₁)

t<um>umpaŋto lie (sit, stand) on (PWMP: *tumpaŋ₁)

t-um-unuto burn, burn up, burn down, set fire to, put in the fire, heat; cremate (PMP: *t<um>unuh) *CuNuh

t<um>ūtto follow, go along; to follow (in time), come after; to go along with, accompany; to follow, obey; to follow, go after, chase, pursue, try to obtain (PWMP: *tuRut)

t<um>utugto strike (knock, bump) against, hit (PMP: *t<um>ugtug) *CugCug₂

t<um>utup-ito cover, close (PMP: *tutup₁)

t-um-uwekstab with a kris (PAN: *t<um>ebek) *tebek

t<um>uwuhto grow, live; come out, arise (feelings); that which grows or lives, living creature (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

tuntunrope or string for leading (PWMP: *tuntun)

tunw-an, tuno-nwhat is burnt down, burnt remains; pile, pyre (PAN: *tunuh-an) *CuNuh

tuŋgulbanner, standard (LOAN)

tuŋkulbending down, bowing the head (PAN: *Cukul)

tuŋtuŋtop, tip, end, farthest point, the deepest or the highest (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

turūsleep (PAN: *tuduR)

turusquick-set fence, hedge (PMP: *turus)

turw-anthe act of sleeping; sleeping place, bed-chamber, bed (PWMP: *tuduR-an) *tuduR

tūtfollowing; following along (PWMP: *tuRut)

Old Javanese (1920 / 2165)

tut ~ tūtfollowing (LOAN)

tutubany means of covering or closing; lid (PMP: *tutub)

tutugstrike (knock, bump) against, hit (PWMP: *tugtug)

tutugto strike (knock, bump) against, hit (PMP: *tugtug₁) *CugCug₂

tutupcover, lid, covering; probably helmet (PMP: *tutup₁)

tuturmemory, recollection, consciousness; innermost recesses of the spiritual part of the human being, “the inner mind” (PMP: *tutur₁)

tuwekkris (PAN: *tebek)

tuwuhgrowth, growing; life, age, span of life; condition of life, lot; body (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tuwuh-anplace of growing (PWMP: *tubuq-an) *Cubuq

tuwu-tuwuh-anplants (PWMP: *tubuq-an) *Cubuq

twak ~ tokpalm wine, usually from the aren palm (PWMP: *tuak)

twashardness; the hard core; core, heart (as part of the body and as seat of feelings) (PMP: *teRas)

uauncle, aunt (older than father or mother; also used to address an older person who is not a relative) (PMP: *uaʔ)

ucaptalk, speech, words (LOAN)

uḍikupstream (PWMP: *udahik)

udud-ansmoking materials (PWMP: *qudud)

uḍuhan exclamation (oh! ah!) (PMP: *uduq₁)

ugahshaking; to shake (PWMP: *ugaq)

ujurlengthwise; directly ahead (PMP: *qunzur)

ukircarve, chisel (out), sculpture, provide (adorn) with carvings (sculptures, reliefs) (PMP: *ukir)

Old Javanese (1940 / 2165)

ukurone's portion or lot (LOAN)

ukurmeasure (LOAN)

ulāsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulahwhat one does, action, activity (performing, cultivating, being engaged in); way of acting, conduct; sexual intercourse (LOAN)

ulamfish; flesh; meat; fish and meat (PWMP: *qulam)

ulā sawapython (PMP: *sawa)

ula welaŋa particular kind of snake (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

ulemshining (only) palely, dim, wan, languishing, faded (PMP: *hulem) *Sulem

ulemshining (only) palely, dim, wan, languishing, faded (ROOT)

ulercaterpillar, grub, maggot (also worm?) (PMP: *qulej)

ulihthat which one obtains, attains or achieves; result, product, consequence, effect, fruit, achievement; prey, victim (PWMP: *uliq₂)

ulih-ulihthat which one brings back (home), esp. for those left behind (PMP: *uliq uliq) *uliq₁

-um-verbal infix used primarily in intransitive bases, including those that refer to natural conditions (e.g. kilat 'lightning', k-um-ilat 'flashing'; guruh 'thunder', g-um-uruh 'thundering, roaring') (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

umahhouse, home, abode (PAN: *Rumaq)

um-alaŋto lie athwart, across (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

um-alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win (PWMP: *um-alap) *alap

um-ampilunite, join with (PMP: *hampil)

um-anak akengive birth to (PWMP: *um-anak) *aNak

u-ma-ŋanto eat, swallow, devour (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

u-maŋunrise, stand up (PWMP: *maŋ-baŋun) *baŋuN

Old Javanese (1960 / 2165)

um-ateraccompany, escort, take someone somewhere; bring, carry (PMP: *h<um>ateD) *SateD

umbakwave (PWMP: *humbak)

umbaŋto float (PWMP: *umbaŋ)

umbularise, come up, well up (PWMP: *umbul)

(u)m-enaŋable, capable, have the right to, assume the right to, be superior, win, gain the victory (LOAN)

um-enuh-ito fill, make complete (PWMP: *p<um>enuq) *penuq

(u)m-eŋeŋcausing a state of drowsiness or dazedness (of buzzing bees, etc.); deafening (of trumpets) (PWMP: *eŋeŋ)

um-iketto bind, tie, bind together (PWMP: *h<um>iket) *Siket

um-ilaŋ, w-in-ilaŋto count (PAN: *bilaŋ)

(u)m-inumto drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

um-ipisto pound, crush (PMP: *pipis₂) *pipis

um-isuh-ito wash (PMP: *hisuq)

um-usīgo to, go in the direction of, take refuge with, try to reach or obtain, strive after, attack, assail, pursue (PWMP: *um-usiR) *qusiR

um-watto bear, carry, bring, convey, contain (PMP: *buhat₃)

undurretiring, retreating (PWMP: *undur)

unisound, voice; contents of a letter ("what it says") (PMP: *huni) *Suni

unusto draw, take out, extract (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

uny-an uny-an, une-n une-nmusical instruments (PWMP: *huni huni) *Suni

uŋapwith wide-open mouth (PMP: *uŋap)

uŋkab(the act of) opening (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

Old Javanese (1980 / 2165)

upahpay (PMP: *upaq)

upah-anpay, reward (PWMP: *upaq-an) *upaq

upamacomparison, example, illustration, likeness (LOAN)

upas(vegetable) poison; also figuratively of love, etc. (PMP: *upas)

upihspathe, sheath of the spadix of the unexpanded fruit of certain palms (used to make leathery water-proof wrappers) (PMP: *hupiq) *Supiq

uray, urehanging loose; spread out, open; let down, loosen (hair), loosen from their string (beads), spread, unfold (PWMP: *quray)

urubto burn; flare, flame, blaze, glow (PWMP: *urub)

usīgo to, go in the direction of, take refuge with, try to reach or obtain, strive after, attack, assail, pursue (PAN: *qusiR)

usuhbathe (NOISE)

usukrafter (PAN: *Rusuk)

usuŋcarry or transport jointly (a heavy object) (PMP: *qusuŋ)

usuŋ-anpalanquin, stretcher (PWMP: *usuŋ-an) *qusuŋ

utahspit out, vomit up (PAN: *utaq)

utekbrains (PMP: *hutek)

utusorder, command (PWMP: *utus₂)

uwabvapor? (PWMP: *huab₁) *huab

uwahrepetition, change (LOAN)

uwatmedicine, remedy (LOAN)

uyagbe shaky, wobble (PWMP: *Ruyag)

uyahsalt (LOAN)

Old Javanese (2000 / 2165)

wā, walive coal, piece of burning material which is aglow (PMP: *baRah)

waderkind of small freshwater fish (NOISE)

wagalrude, unmannered (PMP: *bagal)

wah, wāhflood, spate, freshet, river swollen by rains, torrent (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

wai, way, wesun; day (PAN: *waRi₁)

wakula type of basket (PWMP: *bakul)

wakuŋa lily-like flower, Crinum asiaticum. The petals are very slender; fingers are compared with them (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

walain compounds it seems to be 'all kinds of, in every respect' (PMP: *bala₃)

walaŋcricket, grasshopper, locust (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

walatukwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

walen, walyanphysician, healer (PWMP: *balian)

walerboundary, limit, end (PWMP: *balej)

walesreturn, reaction, countermove, repayment, retaliation, revenge (PAN: *bales₁)

waliritual requisites (offerings, etc.) for ceremonial occasions (wedding, installation, etc.); also: the whole ceremony, feast (NOISE)

walikturn round, reverse (PMP: *balik₂)

walikatshoulder blade (PWMP: *balikat)

waliŋmistaken belief, thinking (wrongly) (PWMP: *baliŋ₁)

walirapart of the weaver's loom (a stick or bow) with which the threads are pressed together (PMP: *balija) *baRija

waliraŋsulphur (LOAN)

waliwiskind of duck (Anas casarca) (PWMP: *baliwis)

Old Javanese (2020 / 2165)

walulaŋleather, hide (PWMP: *balulaŋ)

waluna cloth for wrapping or covering (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

walu-waluwidow (PWMP: *balu balu) *balu₄

wānicourage, bravery, valor, prowess; to dare, daring, courageous, brave, valiant (PMP: *baRani)

wantahclash together, collide (PWMP: *bantaq)

wanwainhabited place or area; village, settlement (PMP: *banua)

waŋifragrance (PMP: *baŋehih) *baŋeSiS

waŋkay ~ waŋkedead body, corpse, carcass (PWMP: *baŋkay)

waŋkuḍua plant the root of which produces a red dye: Morinda spp. (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

waŋsibamboo; or bamboo flute? (LOAN)

waŋunrising, starting, taking shape (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

waŋun ḍahinadawn (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

waŋun udhāniregain consciousness (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

warah-warahcommunication, information, report, instruction, teaching (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

warakrhinoceros (LOAN)

warua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

warugakind of building ("bale"? hall, pendopoʔ). It seems to be part of the housing of persons of distinction and a tax can be levied on it (PWMP: *baruga)

wataŋtree trunk (fallen, felled), bar, piece of wood; pole; kind of lance or pike, probably of wood or bamboo, with an iron tip (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

wataŋ-anshaft of an arrow; tree trunk (as bridge) (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

watesborder, end (PMP: *bates)

Old Javanese (2040 / 2165)

watustone, rock (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

watukcough (PMP: *batuk₁)

watu karaŋcoral, coral stone, rock (PMP: *karaŋ)

watwan ~ watonedge, border (architectural term) (PWMP: *batu-an) *batux

wawacarry, carry along, take along, bring (PMP: *baba₁)

wayawakiguana, monitor lizard (PWMP: *bayawak)

weashusked rice (unboiled) (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

weḍakpowder (a cosmetic of rice-flour, scented water and other ingredients, having a cooling effect on the body and used for medicinal purposes) (LOAN)

wehaŋjaw (PMP: *baReqaŋ)

wehaŋjaw (PAN: *beReqaŋ)

wekaswhat is left: the last of a stretch in time or space, end, limit, final aim; finally; the highest point, top, height, what surpasses all others, paramount, non plus ultra, first, best or worst; what is left behind, what it comes to, what has finally become of, result, remains, trace; instructions (before departing), order, commission, injunction (PMP: *bekas₃)

wekas-anin the end, finally (PWMP: *bekas-an) *bekas₃

welahcleft, narrow opening; split bamboo (as trap or defense) (PAN: *belaq)

welah-ancleft, opening, entry; part of the river where it widens (PAN: *belaq)

welaŋvariegated, spotted, speckled, banded (in coloring), marked in contrasting colors (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

welaŋ-welaŋvariegated, spotted, speckled (PWMP: *belaŋ belaŋ) *belaŋ₂

welarbroadness, etc. (PMP: *bekelaj)

welaspity, compassion, sympathy (NOISE)

welit/alaŋ-alaŋ/ (sword-grass) bound with bamboo, used for roof cover (PWMP: *belit₁)

welutthe common mud-eel (LOAN)

Old Javanese (2060 / 2165)

wely-anthat which one buys (PWMP: *beli-an) *beli

wenaŋthread, string (PWMP: *benaŋ)

wenaŋhave within one's reach or power, be able to, be capable of, have a right to, be entitled to, have authority (LOAN)

wentisof the belly (PWMP: *bentis)

weŋāopening, being open (PMP: *beŋa₁)

weŋinight (PMP: *beRŋi)

weŋisangry, furious (especially if things do not go as wished?); (in later texts it appears to be) afraid; dispirited, in panic (PMP: *beŋis₁)

wesiiron (LOAN)

wesi waranimagnetic iron (LOAN)

wetahwhole, undamaged, intact, unscathed; recovered, afresh (PWMP: *betaq₁)

weteŋbelly, womb (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

wetihparched rice? (PWMP: *beRtiq)

wetiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

wetucoming out, coming forth, appearing, birth, (sun)rise, product (PMP: *betu)

wicāradeliberation, discussion (LOAN)

wijiseed, kernel; (fig.) kernel, contents, content, substance (LOAN)

wilahprobably a board or panel of split bamboo (PWMP: *bilaq)

wilaŋnumber, sum (PAN: *bilaŋ)

wilutbent, crooked (PWMP: *bilut)

wilut-angone crooked (PWMP: *bilut)

Old Javanese (2080 / 2165)

w-in-aliŋto think (wrongly) (PWMP: *baliŋ₁)

w-in-aŋunshaped, formed, built, composed (PWMP: *b<in>aŋun) *baŋuN

wina sautterly lost, annihilated, disappeared, etc. (LOAN)

w<in>atuthrow a stone at, hit with a stone (PWMP: *b<in>atu) *batux

w-in-ekasa particular category of functionaries (PMP: *bekas₃)

w-in-elar-akento spread out, open (PMP: *bekelaj)

w-in-eteŋ-akenconceive a child (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

w-in-etu-wetubring forth, cause to appear, cause, produce, create (PMP: *betu)

winihseed, seedling (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

wintaŋstar, planet (often used in comparisons) (LOAN)

wintaŋ wuwurThe Milky Way (PWMP: *bubud)

w-in-ulaŋto bind with a thread, to attach spurs (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

w-in-ulaŋmade black (PMP: *buluŋ₁)

w-in-ulat-anlook at, watch (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

w-in-uluhbecoming a wuluh, overflowing with sweetness or compassion, deeply moved; also (as if) pierced by a sharp piece of bamboo (PAN: *buluq₂)

w<in>unito hide, keep secret (PWMP: *b<in>uni) *buNi

w-in-unuhslaughter, kill, put an end to, slay (PWMP: *b<in>unuq) *buNuq₂

w-in-uwuh-anincrease, add to (PMP: *bubuq)

w-in-uwuŋ-anroofed, covered with a roof (PWMP: *b<in>ubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

w-in-wat-anto load something (with pack) (PWMP: *b<in>uhat-an) *buhat₂

Old Javanese (2100 / 2165)

wiŋisto bare, unsheathe (PMP: *biŋis)

wiŋisto bare, unsheathe (PMP: *wiŋis)

wiŋitawe-inspiring, dangerous to approach; in a sad mood (often with the nuance of: unapproachable, sullen, sulky, petulant, ill-tempered, morose, cross) (PMP: *biŋit)

wiŋkapotsherd (PWMP: *bika)

wiṣapoison (LOAN)

wisik wisikwhispering, whispered conversation, secret instruction (PWMP: *bisik bisik) *bisik₃

wisuhwater for washing (PMP: *biseq)

wiwigoat (LOAN)

wökpig, hog, boar (PAN: *beRek)

wokabundant hair-growth on the body (esp. under the chin, chin-whiskers) (PWMP: *bauk)

woŋ, wwaŋhuman being, man (woman), people, servant, attendant (LOAN)

wuḍugleprosy (LOAN)

wuḍugleprosy (NOISE)

wugat, wugat-wugatback; back-part, tail (NOISE)

wujaŋyoung (unmarried) man or woman (LOAN)

wujuktrying to persuade, cajoling (LOAN)

wūkliquid oozing from corpses or any putrescent matter (PAN: *buRuk)

wūk-anrotten (egg) (PAN: *buRuk)

wukirmountain (PAN: *bukij)

wukir anaksmall mountain (promontory?), hill (PAN: *bukij)

Old Javanese (2120 / 2165)

wūk nanahpus (PAN: *buRuk)

wūk nanahliquid oozing from corpses or any putrescent matter, pus; always in the combination wūk nanah (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

wūk turuaddicted to sleeping, sleepy-head (PAN: *buRuk)

wukusection (of bamboo, etc.) between the joints; grain, seed (PMP: *buku)

wulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulan-anmonthly, by the month; menstruation (PWMP: *bulan-an) *bulaN

wulan-wulansomething moon-like (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulaŋband, binding (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

wulatlook, glance; sight, seeing, looking (PMP: *bulat₁) *bulat

wulihstem (PMP: *buliR)

wuluhair on the body, feather (PMP: *bulu₁)

wuluhbamboo, bamboo shaft, bamboo vessel, esp. the bamboo vessel in which liquid sugar (syrup) is kept (PAN: *buluq₂)

wulu-ncovered with hair, hairy (PWMP: *bulu-en) *bulu₁

wuluŋbluish black, black, dark (PMP: *buluŋ₁)

wulus-anmouth of a river (PWMP: *bulús-an) *bulus

wulw-ankind of hairy fruit and its tree: Nephelium, rambutan (PWMP: *bulu-an) *bulu₁

wunia secret (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

wunia tree and its fruit: Antidesma bunius (PWMP: *buRnay)

wuntufull, blocked, clogged (NOISE)

wuntuttail (PMP: *buntut₁) *buntut

Old Javanese (2140 / 2165)

wunuh-anan animal for slaughtering (PWMP: *bunuq-an₁) *buNuq₂

wunutkind of tree of the Ficus species (PWMP: *bunut₂)

wunwun-anfontanelle, crown of the head (PWMP: *bunbun-an₁) *buNbuN

wuŋaflower (PMP: *buŋa)

wuŋa-n bawahthat which is on everybody's lips, general topic, constantly recurring theme (PMP: *buŋa)

wuŋa-n tahun(annual) tribute (PMP: *buŋa)

wuŋa-wuŋanipple (PMP: *buŋa)

wuŋkukhunchbacked, crooked (PMP: *buŋkuk)

wuŋkuk-anthe mark on the moon (lit. rendering of Sanskrit aŋka 'hook, anything curved; mark, line') (PMP: *buŋkuk)

wuŋkuswrap up; surround (in battle) (PWMP: *buŋkus)

wuŋsuthe youngest (in a family) (LOAN)

wuŋūa particular kind of tree (Lagerstroemia Reginae) with large clusters of purple flowers (PAN: *buŋuR)

(w)uŋuviolet, purple (PAN: *buŋuR)

wuriback, behind, rear; leaving behind; that which (or the person who) is left behind, trace (NOISE)

wury-anthat which is left behind or is left over from, trace (NOISE)

wusucotton-card (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

wūthalf-ape (tarsier, lemur) (PAN: *buhet)

wutablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

wutbutkind of night bird (owl?) (PWMP: *butbut₁) *butbut

wuwūa particular kind of (wicker) fish-trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

Old Javanese (2160 / 2165)

wuwuhincrease, growth (PMP: *bubuq)

wuwuŋridge (of a roof) (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

wuwuŋ-anridge of a roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

wuyuŋdisturbance of one's inner peace; anger, bad temper, crossness (LOAN)

wuyuŋdisturbance of one's inner peace; anger, bad temper, crossness (NOISE)

wwahfruit, esp. betel-nut (PMP: *buaq)

wwaŋ anak-ensuffer from excessive fondness for one's relations (PWMP: *anak-en) *aNak

wwaŋ lenunrelated people (PWMP: *lain)

wwatto present, offer, convey, report, show, show oneself, appear (PMP: *buhat₃)

yugayoke; pair, couple, set (of clothes) (LOAN)

Òma Lóngh Kenyah (5) WMP. see: Kenyah (Òma Lóngh)

524. Onin (3) CMP [oni] Indonesia (Papua)

iafcount (PMP: *ihap)

pesaoar, paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

wakirroot (PCEMP: *wakir)

Orang Laut Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Orang Laut)

525. Ormu (1) OC

ka-ruperson (POC: *ka₅)

526. Owa (1) OC

misuto spit (loss of CV- unexplained) (POC: *kamisu)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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