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Updated: 11/3/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Proto-Languages

 PAdm    PAmb    PAru    PAty    PAn    PBun    PBunu    PCMP    PCEMP    PCha    PEFor    PEGor    PGor    PLam    PMJ    PMP    PMic    PMin    PMok    PNCV    POc    PPh    PPn    PPuy    PRuk    PSaBa    PSan    PSir    PSAru    PSF    PSHEB    PSS    PSVan    PSHG    PSAm    PWMP    PWMC    PWil    Languages   

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)

1. Proto-Admiralty (6) OC (Blust n.d. (1975))

*curonarrow-bodied barracuda (NOISE)

*kanafood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

*lamu-body hair, feather (POC: *lamu₂) *lamu₂

*mwapVtaro (POC: *mwapo) *mwapo

*panuavillage (POC: *panua) *banua

*pa-panakosteal (POC: *panako) *Cakaw

2. Proto-Ambon (82) CMP (Stresemann 1927)

*(ma-)nipito dream (PCEMP: *nipi) *Sipi

*alalihalibut, flounder (PMP: *alali) *alali

*ana(y)termite (PAN: *aNay) *aNay

*apu(y)fire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

*apurlime, chalk (PAN: *qapuR) *qapuR

*ataslave (PMP: *qaRta) *qaRta

*awa-loins, hips (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

*bana, *panahot (PMP: *panas₁) *panas₁

*datuking (PMP: *datu) *datu

*edanladder (PMP: *ezan) *ezan

*ena(y)sand (PAN: *qenay) *qenay

*esaone (PAN: *esa) *esa

*etutfart (PMP: *qetut) *qetut

*fata-tree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

*ikanfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

*iku-tail (PAN: *ikuR) *ikuR

*ilĕdark (PMP: *qilem) *qilem

*ilunose (PMP: *ijuŋ) *ijuŋ

*inaM (PCEMP: *ina) *ina

*inĕlie down, sleep (PAN: *qinep) *qinep

Proto-Ambon (20 / 82)

*inuto drink (PMP: *inum) *inum

*itito lighten; flash, of lightning (NOISE)

*kabuguts, belly (PCEMP: *kampuŋ) *kampuŋ

*kabu-guts, belly (PCEMP: *kampuŋ) *kampuŋ

*kabu-guts, belly (PMP: *kambu) *kambu

*kasawaricassowary (LOAN)

*katusend (PMP: *katu) *kaCu

*kədəto stand (PMP: *kedeŋ) *kedeŋ

*kĕtĕto bite (PMP: *keteb) *keteb

*kĕtĕto bite (PMP: *ketep₁) *ketep₁

*lebacarry on the shoulder (LOAN)

*lekufold, bend (PMP: *leku) *leku

*liəvoice (PCEMP: *liqə) *liqə

*luato vomit (PMP: *luaq) *luaq

*metiebb, low tide (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

*muḏecitrus fruit (PMP: *muntay) *muntay

*nadulong (of objects) (PMP: *anaduq) *anaduq

*nakawsteal (PMP: *nakaw) *nakaw

*nama(w)bay, harbor (PMP: *namaw) *namaw

*naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

Proto-Ambon (40 / 82)

*naraa tree: Pterocarpus indica (PMP: *nara) *nara

*nemsix (PAN: *enem) *enem

*niwərcoconut (PMP: *niuR) *niuR

*nugascab (PMP: *nuka) *Nuka

*nunuʔFicus benjamina L (PMP: *nunuk) *nunuk

*panikiflying fox (PMP: *paniki) *paniki

*patfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

*pukətdragnet (PMP: *puket₁) *puket₁

*saka(y)to climb, ascend (PMP: *sakay₄) *sakay₄

*siduladle out (PAN: *sidu) *sidu

*sidu-tspoon (PAN: *sidu) *sidu

*sila-nlightning (PMP: *silaq) *silaq

*sila-nlightning (PMP: *sila₁) *sila₁

*sukunArtocarpus sp. (PMP: *sukun) *sukun

*sumaŋəsoul of a living person (PMP: *sumaŋed) *sumaŋed

*tebacut off (PMP: *tebah) *tebaS

*tətəcut off; behead (PAN: *tektek₁) *tektek₁

*tita(y)bridge (PMP: *titey) *titey

*tuluknee (PCEMP: *turu₁) *turu₁

*tunuto burn, to shoot (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

Proto-Ambon (60 / 82)

*uaaunt (PMP: *uaʔ) *uaʔ

*uaaunt (PMP: *ua₂) *ua₂

*ubuancestor (PMP: *umpu) *umpu

*udancrustacean, shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ) *qudaŋ

*udu-point, tip (PMP: *quzuŋ) *quzuŋ

*ulĕworm (PMP: *qulej) *qulej

*unaqscales of fish (PCEMP: *qunap₁) *quSeNap

*usuenter (PMP: *usuk) *usuk

*utanvegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

*ute-pith, marrow, brain (PMP: *hutek) *hutek

*uti-penis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

*uvituber species (PMP: *qubi) *qubi

*uwa(y)rattan (PAN: *quay) *quay

*vakasplit (PMP: *bakaq) *bakaq

*valiturn around (PMP: *balik₂) *balik₂

*vavu(y)pig (PAN: *babuy₃) *babuy₃

*wagacanoe (PCEMP: *waŋka) *waŋka

*wakarroot (PMP: *wakaR) *wakaR

*wakatRhizophore (PMP: *wakat) *wakat

*walueight (PAN: *walu) *walu

Proto-Ambon (80 / 82)

*waretliana (PMP: *waRej) *waRej

*wayerwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

3. Proto-Aru (6) CMP (Nivens)

*kanasaa fish: the mullet (PMP: *kanasay) *kaNasay

*kuluRbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR) *kuluR

*leRvoice; neck, throat (PAN: *liqeR) *liqeR

*liacave (PMP: *liaŋ) *liaŋ

*lum(u)moss (PMP: *lumut) *lumut

*raRyoung unmarried woman (Richard Nivens, p.c.) (PMP: *daRa₂) *daRa₂

4. Proto-Atayalic (37) Form. (Li 1981)

*-akuI (PAN: *aku) *aku

*babuypig (PAN: *babuy₃) *babuy₃

*bagahcharcoal (PAN: *baRah) *baRah

*bagiǵaʔreed of loom (Li 1981:287) (PAN: *baRija) *baRija

*basagmillet (PAN: *baCaR) *baCaR

*batu-nuxstone (PAN: *batux) *batux

*begaygive (PAN: *beRay) *beRay

*biqərgoiter (PAN: *biqel) *biqel

*c<um>abuto wrap (PAN: *C<um>abu) *Cabu

*c-um-apaŋto patch (PAN: *Capaŋ) *Capaŋ

*daŋartrap (LOAN)

*gabiy-anevening (PAN: *Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

*hapu-niq, hapuyfire (PAN: *Sapuy) *Sapuy

*həmaʔtongue (PAN: *Sema) *Sema

*hikuʔelbow (PAN: *sikux) *sikux

*i-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *i-ami) *ami

*kariʔto dig (PAN: *kalih) *kalih

*l<um>aŋuyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

*libuden, nest (PAN: *Nibu) *Nibu

*limafive (PAN: *lima) *lima

Proto-Atayalic (20 / 37)

*luhuŋmortar (PAN: *Nusuŋ) *Nusuŋ

*ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁) *ma-₁

*ma-pusaltwenty (PAN: *ma-puSaN) *puSaN

*ma-sepateight (PAN: *Sepat) *Sepat

*pagabed (NOISE)

*palidwing (PAN: *paNid) *paNid

*pugaʔnavel (PAN: *puja) *puja

*qabu-lidashes (PAN: *qabu) *qabu

*qudasgray hair (PAN: *qudaS) *qudaS

*ruluŋcloud (PAN: *luNuŋ) *luNuŋ

*saukto smell (PAN: *Sajek) *Sajek

*sekanchew (NOISE)

*sepidream; to dream (PAN: *Sepi) *Sepi

*suwaiʔyounger sibling (PAN: *Suaji) *Suaji

*t<um>inunto weave (PAN: *tinun) *tinun

*y-amuyou (plural) (PAN: *amu) *amu

*ʔugacvein, sinew (PAN: *huRaC) *huRaC

5. Proto-Austronesian (96) PAN

*ba(R)kesbelt (ROOT)

*bakaŋbowlegged (ROOT)

*bakbak₂smacking sound (ROOT)

*balalaCukwoodpecker (ROOT)

*balalaCukwoodpecker (ROOT)

*ban-awwash, bathe (ROOT)

*baNiCto skin, flay (ROOT)

*beCiktattoo (ROOT)

*bekbeksound of breaking, etc. (ROOT)

*belaqsplit (ROOT)

*beŋbeŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*betakto split (ROOT)

*buCbuCpluck, pull out (ROOT)

*bukasrelease, undo (ROOT)

*buRbuRporridge (ROOT)

*Cebaksmack against (ROOT)

*ceqceqin pieces (ROOT)

*Cesekinsert, force into a soft surface (ROOT)

*Cumekpulverize; crumble (ROOT)

*danawlake (ROOT)

Proto-Austronesian (20 / 96)

*daŋdaŋwarm by a fire (ROOT)

*daRiŋto sound (ROOT)

*dekeCadhere, stick to (ROOT)

*dekepembrace (ROOT)

*demdemthink, ponder, consider (ROOT)

*deRuŋdistant rolling thunder (ROOT)

*detdetcrowded, crammed, dense (ROOT)

*dudemobscured by clouds (ROOT)

*dukuŋbend, curve (ROOT)

*gemgemmake a fist (ROOT)

*gergershake, shiver, tremble (ROOT)

*geriCsound of ripping, gnawing, etc. (ROOT)

*guŋguŋdeep resounding sound (ROOT)

*gurgursound of boiling water, splashing rain, etc. (ROOT)

*kabithook or tie together (ROOT)

*kakakcackle (ROOT)

*kaŋkaŋ₂resounding sound (ROOT)

*kapkapfeel in the dark; grope (ROOT)

*kawitto hook (ROOT)

*ke(m)pithold together, clamp (ROOT)

Proto-Austronesian (40 / 96)

*kelemdark (ROOT)

*keŋkeŋhollow, resounding sound (ROOT)

*kilaClightning (ROOT)

*kiluŋcurved, bay (ROOT)

*kiŋkiŋringing sound (ROOT)

*kiskisscratch, grate (ROOT)

*ku(ŋ)kuŋdeep resounding sound (ROOT)

*kupitpress together (ROOT)

*laduŋshelter; shade (ROOT)

*lawaŋpassageway (ROOT)

*litlitto wind (ROOT)

*Nabekbreakers, surf, waves (ROOT)

*n-awn-awrinse, wash (ROOT)

*Neŋgaze, stare at (ROOT)

*NeŋNeŋstare, look fixedly (ROOT)

*Nipisthin (of materials) (ROOT)

*Niteqsap of a tree or plant (ROOT)

*pakpakclap the hands, beat the wings (ROOT)

*paqpaqchew (ROOT)

*pasekwooden pin, stake; wedge; drive in a stake (ROOT)

Proto-Austronesian (60 / 96)

*peceqbreak into several large pieces, as a hatched egg (ROOT)

*peCikclicking sound (ROOT)

*pekpekbeat, hit (ROOT)

*pi(ŋ)ku(q)bent, crooked (ROOT)

*pikpikpat, tap (ROOT)

*pukpukbeat (with a hammer, etc.) (ROOT)

*qabuashes (ROOT)

*qaNiCskin, hide (ROOT)

*qapidbraid (ROOT)

*qe(n)tutflatulence (ROOT)

*qekuŋowl (ROOT)

*qeNebdoor(way); close a door (ROOT)

*qesepsuck (ROOT)

*qiNebdoor . (ROOT)

*qiS(e)lemdark color (ROOT)

*qudemdim, obscure, dark (ROOT)

*qupuŋbunch, cluster (ROOT)

*Ra(m)buCto weed, pull out (ROOT)

*reŋeCangry, annoyed (ROOT)

*ReŋeCangry, annoyed (ROOT)

Proto-Austronesian (80 / 96)

*reŋiCgrimace at pain (ROOT)

*Sa(m)pithold together (ROOT)

*Sen-awwash (ROOT)

*SeReCconstriction; tighten (ROOT)

*siNaRray of light (ROOT)

*Sin-awwash (ROOT)

*su(ŋ)kudcane, staff, walking stick (ROOT)

*tampakslap (ROOT)

*tañamtasty (ROOT)

*tekiqsharp sound (ROOT)

*tertershiver, tremble (ROOT)

*ti(m)bukpound, throb (ROOT)

*tikelbend (ROOT)

*tu(ŋ)kedwalking stick; prop up (ROOT)

*tuŋtuŋresound deeply (ROOT)

*u(m)buCpluck, pull out (ROOT)

6. Proto-Bungku-Tolaki (92) WMP

*baŋkaqboat (PMP: *baŋkaq) *baŋkaq

*gilito turn around (PMP: *giliŋ) *giliŋ

*giliNto grind (PMP: *giliŋ) *giliŋ

*hakiQpain, sickness (PMP: *sakit) *sakit

*halaqfault, debt (PMP: *salaq₁) *salaq₁

*hoduhiccough (PAN: *sedu) *sedu

*holayfry without oil (PMP: *saŋelaR) *saŋelaR

*kaaNeat (PAN: *kaen) *kaen

*kaRato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

*katoto itch, be itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

*kayuwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

*kilaQlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

*kimashell (PMP: *kima) *kima

*kireeyebrow (PWMP: *kiray) *kiray

*kireeyebrow (PWMP: *kiday) *kiday

*kitato see (PAN: *kita₂) *kita

*kompoNstomach, intestines (PWMP: *kempuŋ) *kempeŋ

*konato hit, to touch (PMP: *kena₁) *kena₁

*kotupick, break off (PMP: *ketuq) *ketuq

*kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Proto-Bungku-Tolaki (20 / 92)

*lakoto go (PMP: *lakaw) *lakaw

*layuwither (PAN: *layu) *layu

*limafive (bound numeral) (PAN: *lima) *lima

*liqohanit (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

*luabroad, wide; empty; expel (PMP: *luas₁) *luas₁

*maito come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

*mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

*mo-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁) *ma-₁

*mo-katoto itch, be itchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

*mo-paqiQbitter (PMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

*mo-tuʔaold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

*namitaste (PMP: *ñamit) *ñamit

*nanaqpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

*nipiQthin (objects) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

*ŋarapalate (PMP: *ŋadas) *ŋadas

*ŋeaNname (PMP: *ŋajan) *ŋajan

*ŋususnout (PAN: *ŋusuq) *ŋusuq

*o-limafive (independent numeral) (PAN: *lima) *lima

*o-pituseven (independent numeral) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

*o-ruatwo (independent numeral) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Proto-Bungku-Tolaki (40 / 92)

*o-toluthree (independent numeral) (PAN: *telu) *telu

*pakuferns (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

*paluhammer (tool) (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

*paqathigh (PAN: *paqa₁) *paqa₁

*paqoQchisel (PMP: *paqet) *paqet

*pasoQpeg, nail (PAN: *pacek) *pacek

*piosqueeze in the hand (PAN: *peRes) *peRes

*pituseven (bound numeral) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

*ponofull (PMP: *penuq) *penuq

*ponuturtle (PMP: *peñu) *peñu

*po-piahow many? (independent numeral) (PAN: *pa-pija) *pijax

*puhoynavel (PMP: *pusej) *pusej

*pukoQnet (PMP: *puket₁) *puket₁

*puluʔten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

*puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁) *punti₁

*puquNbase; trunk; origin; cause (PMP: *puqun) *puqun

*putewhite (PMP: *putiq) *putiq

*putushort (PMP: *putul) *putun

*rakifine dirt (PMP: *daki) *daki

*rakoQto catch (as fish) (PAN: *dakep) *dakep

Proto-Bungku-Tolaki (60 / 92)

*ranolake (PAN: *danaw) *danaw

*rapuRspouse (PMP: *dapuR₁) *dapuR₁

*raqiforehead, face (PMP: *daqih) *daqiS

*raRaQblood (PAN: *daRaq) *daRaq

*rilocative preposition of very broad scope (Mead 1998) (PAN: *di) *di

*rindiNwall (PMP: *diŋdiŋ₁) *diŋdiŋ₁

*romdom-aNdarkness (PAN: *demdem₂) *demdem₂

*roŋaNtogether, with; companion; spouse (PMP: *deŋan) *deŋan

*roŋoRto hear (PMP: *deŋeR) *deŋeR

*ropafathom (PAN: *depah) *depah

*ruatwo (bound numeral) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

*ruithorn (PMP: *duRi) *duRi

*rusuthin, scrawny (person, animal) (PAN: *Rusuk) *Rusuk

*saapython (PMP: *sawa) *sawa

*sionine (bound numeral) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

*sipitongs (PAN: *sipit) *sipit

*sunuRto burn (PMP: *sunuR) *sunuR

*susubreast (PAN: *susu₁) *susu₁

*taqifeces (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

*taquclever (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

Proto-Bungku-Tolaki (80 / 92)

*taquNyear (PMP: *taqun) *taqun

*tasoNsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

*tawaNto capture (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

*tiaNbelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

*tokato perch, alight (as a fly or bird) (PMP: *tekas) *tekas

*toluthree (bound numeral) (PAN: *telu) *telu

*tondobarrier (PWMP: *tendek₂) *tendek₂

*towusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

*tuliearwax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

*tumbuto scoop, dip (PMP: *tabuq) *tabuq

*turuRto sleep (PAN: *tuduR) *tuduR

*tuuknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

7. Proto-Bunun (2) Form.

*ð-akun1sg acc (Ross 2006:533) (PAN: *aken) *aken

*ð-amun1sg acc (Ross 2006:533) (PAN: *i-amen) *amen

8. Proto-Central Malayo-Polynesian (2) PCMP

*letaybridge (ROOT)

*tetassnap, break off (ROOT)

9. Proto-Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (10) PCEMP

*belento swallow (ROOT)

*bitakmud (replaces Manggarai bitak in ART) (ROOT)

*gekeksnort, gasp (ROOT)

*kezakstep on, tread on (ROOT)

*kilukwavy or zigzag line (ROOT)

*lupasloosen, remove, untie (ROOT)

*peŋeldeaf (ROOT)

*pikelbend, curve (ROOT)

*sambakslapping sound (ROOT)

*seku(q)bent at an angle (ROOT)

10. Proto-Chamic (17) WMP

*abihall (PWMP: *qabiq) *qabiq

*apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

*bilitto twist (in making rope) (PMP: *bilit) *bilit

*gunamcloud (PWMP: *kunem) *kunem

*iāŋdeity (PWMP: *qiaŋ) *qiaŋ

*iāpcalculate (PMP: *ihap) *ihap

*laŋasesame (PMP: *leŋa) *leŋa

*paghăʔto forbid (NOISE)

*pagitomorrow (PWMP: *pagi) *pagi

*papa:nboard; plank (PMP: *papan) *papan

*pəsəyiron (LOAN)

*rayabig (PAN: *Raya) *Raya

*tasiʔsea; ocean (PMP: *tasik) *tasik

*trunto descend (PMP: *tuRun₁) *tuRun₁

*tuhaold (people) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

*tula:ŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ) *tuqelaŋ

*ʔayupto blow (PWMP: *hayup) *hayup

11. Proto-East Formosan (1) Form.

*banawlake, pond (ROOT)

12. Proto-East Gorontalic (17) WMP (Usup 1981)

*(w)ulasosweat, perspiration (PPH: *hulas) *hulas

*(w)ulosoblanket (used for sleeping) (PPH: *ules) *ules

*bokotiŋopig (PPH: *baketin) *baketin

*lambuŋojacket (PPH: *lambuŋ) *lambuŋ

*limoDukilled with closed eyes in an abandoned place (PPH: *liméd) *liméd

*lobukoto pound (usually of rice) (PPh: *lebék) *lebék

*pusoŋicheeks (PPH: *pis(e)ŋí) *pis(e)ŋí

*sapatoto put something above something else (PPH: *sapat) *sapat

*solagubig, large (PPH: *selaR) *selaR

*sukato vomit (PPH: *suka₂) *suka₂

*suŋehorn of an animal (PPH: *súŋay) *súŋay

*tanoto see from a high place (PPH: *taq(e)náw) *taq(e)náw

*tiŋogosound, voice (PPH: *tiŋeR) *tiŋeR

*toboloconstipated (PPH: *tebel₁) *tebel₁

*tondokofence (PPH: *tendek₁) *tendek₁

*tubagoto answer (PPH: *tebáR) *tebáR

*yaŋohandspan (PPH: *daŋaw) *daŋaw

13. Proto-Gorontalic (17) WMP (Usup 1981)

*bisakomuddy; mud (PWMP: *bicak) *bicak

*boletired, weary (PPh: *belay) *belay

*gimukuDosoul, spirit (usually of a good person, a parent or a sibling) (PPH: *Rimukud) *Rimukud

*liŋkisobracelet (ROOT)

*lubidotwist or twine (as fibers into rope) (ROOT)

*ninisoscour, rub clean (as a table top) (PPH: *nisnís) *nisnís

*pagutopull out (as tubers from the ground) (ROOT)

*sakitosick, painful (PMP: *sakit) *sakit

*salugowater (PWMP: *saluR) *saluR

*sologocurrent (PPH: *seleR) *seleR

*taŋagomarry by elopement (PPH: *taŋaR) *taŋaR

*timogatin (PWMP: *timeRaq) *timeRaq

*timuhoeast, east wind (PMP: *timuR) *timuR

*ulu-aupper part, head part (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

*usigopursue, chase away (PAN: *qusiR) *qusiR

*wulosoblanket used when sleeping (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

*βutitikind of small fish whose stomach inflates (PPh: *butítiq) *butítiq

14. Proto-Lampungic (4) WMP

*gatəlitch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

*kukutleg, foot (PAN: *kudkud) *kudkud

*kulitskin (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

*tuhelanbone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

15. Proto-Malayo-Javanic (2) PMJ

*kuduŋwear over one's head (ROOT)

*rubbuhto fall (ROOT)

16. Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (386) PMP

*(r)ebutsnatch away (ROOT)

*a(m)butpull out (ROOT)

*a(ŋ)kitto bite (ROOT)

*a(ŋ)kupcup in the hands (ROOT)

*akakcackling laughter (ROOT)

*aliRflow (ROOT)

*aluŋshade, shadow (ROOT)

*aŋawide open (of the mouth) (ROOT)

*aŋapopen the mouth, gape (ROOT)

*aŋkubcover (ROOT)

*apukdust, sawdust (ROOT)

*apuŋto float (ROOT)

*asukenter (ROOT)

*awaŋatmosphere, space between earth and sky (ROOT)

*babangroup, collection, swarm (ROOT)

*babawupper surface (ROOT)

*bakaqsplit (ROOT)

*bakascome apart, come untied (ROOT)

*bakasstrong, energetic (ROOT)

*bakbak₁peel off, remove bark (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (20 / 386)

*bakuqcurved, bent (ROOT)

*banaciaRradiance, as of rising sun (ROOT)

*banutcoconut husk (ROOT)

*baŋaŋto gape (ROOT)

*baŋaqwide open (ROOT)

*barikmottled, striped (ROOT)

*bawbawshallow (ROOT)

*be(n)sekovercrowded (ROOT)

*be(ŋ)kaŋunbent (as a fishhook) (ROOT)

*be(ŋ)kuŋcurved (ROOT)

*bejbejwind around (ROOT)

*bekasplit, crack open (ROOT)

*bekaqsplit (ROOT)

*bekbekdust of decaying wood (ROOT)

*bekugcurved, bent (ROOT)

*bekukcurved, bent (ROOT)

*belaŋspotted (ROOT)

*beletinterval (ROOT)

*belitto wind (ROOT)

*belukbend, twist (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (40 / 386)

*benutcoconut husk (ROOT)

*beŋaŋdisconcert, confuse (ROOT)

*beŋapsurprised, amazed (ROOT)

*beŋaqto open, as the mouth (ROOT)

*beŋeldeaf (ROOT)

*beŋkasuntie, undo (ROOT)

*beŋkuqbend, curve (ROOT)

*beŋuŋhumming sound (ROOT)

*beRkesbundle (ROOT)

*betastear, rip (ROOT)

*bezakstep, tread, stamp on (ROOT)

*bikaq₂split (ROOT)

*bikuthunched over (ROOT)

*bilakflash of light (ROOT)

*biliŋturn, revolve (ROOT)

*bilitto wind (ROOT)

*biŋkasundo, untie, unspring a trap (ROOT)

*biŋkukbent, crooked (ROOT)

*birbirrim, edge, border (ROOT)

*bitikjerk, spring up suddenly (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (60 / 386)

*bu(ŋ)kuqbend, bent (ROOT)

*bulitglue, paste; stick, caulk (ROOT)

*bunbun₁collect gather; heap over with dirt (ROOT)

*buŋbuŋ-anroof ridge (ROOT)

*buŋkukbent, crooked (ROOT)

*burikspeckled (ROOT)

*buRsukdrive or force into (ROOT)

*ca(m)paksmack (ROOT)

*ca(ŋ)ketsticky, stick to (ROOT)

*cabutpluck, pull out (ROOT)

*cahuRmix with liquid (ROOT)

*ceŋkuŋdeeply curved (ROOT)

*cepukdull sound (ROOT)

*ci(n)dukladle; scoop up (ROOT)

*ci(ŋ)kukhave a stiff or bent arm (ROOT)

*cieletintervening space (ROOT)

*cikepcatch with the hands (ROOT)

*cilakto shine, of heavenly bodies (ROOT)

*ciritsound of squirting (ROOT)

*da(m)paDflat, level (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (80 / 386)

*da(ŋ)ketstick, adhere (ROOT)

*da(R)paksound of clapping or slapping (ROOT)

*dabukdust, ashes (ROOT)

*dakepseize, arrest (ROOT)

*dakitjoin along the length (ROOT)

*dalitglue, paste, plaster; caulk (ROOT)

*daRaqblood (ROOT)

*de(m)pulblunt, dull (ROOT)

*de(ŋ)kittouching or joined along the length (ROOT)

*de(ŋ)kuŋbent, bowed (ROOT)

*debudust (ROOT)

*dekdekpound; pulverized rice (ROOT)

*dekucrooked (ROOT)

*dekukbow, bend downward (ROOT)

*dekuksound of a sob, grunt, etc. (ROOT)

*demdemdark (ROOT)

*deŋeRhear (ROOT)

*depakclip-clop, as of horse's hooves (ROOT)

*depuksnap, crack (ROOT)

*deReŋsound of groaning, moaning (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (100 / 386)

*diketsticky, adhesive (ROOT)

*dilapto shine, flash (ROOT)

*dumpulblunt, dull (ROOT)

*duŋduŋsheltered, as from weather (ROOT)

*duŋkukhunched over (ROOT)

*durusslide down (ROOT)

*dutdutpluck, pull out (ROOT)

*e(m)peŋplug up, dam (ROOT)

*e(ŋ)gukdeep muffled sound (ROOT)

*e(ŋ)keba cover, to cover (ROOT)

*ebunheap, pile (ROOT)

*embekdull sound of thud or sob (ROOT)

*eŋkaŋwalk with legs wide apart (ROOT)

*eŋkeŋmoan, hum, howl (ROOT)

*ga(m)pithold together (ROOT)

*gakgakto caw (crows), cackle (ROOT)

*garisscratch; draw a line (ROOT)

*gawaŋgate (ROOT)

*ge(n)tessnap, break (ROOT)

*gekgekanimal sound (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (120 / 386)

*gemhold in the fist (ROOT)

*geŋdull resounding sound (ROOT)

*gepiksound of light smacking (ROOT)

*gepitpinch, press together (ROOT)

*gepukbeat, break to pieces (ROOT)

*gi(n)tiktap or beat lightly on (ROOT)

*gikgiktitter, giggle (ROOT)

*gilaplustre, shine (ROOT)

*giliŋroll, grind (ROOT)

*giriscut or slice (ROOT)

*gukgukanimal sound (ROOT)

*gurpurring or grunting sound (ROOT)

*gurisscratch; draw a line (ROOT)

*ha(m)bawhigh, up, on top (ROOT)

*ha(m)pilgo together (ROOT)

*haŋitanger (ROOT)

*hasekjam, cram, crowd (ROOT)

*hasekdibble, make a hole to sow seeds (ROOT)

*heReŋsound of groaning, moaning, roaring (ROOT)

*hirisslice (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (140 / 386)

*huŋutgrumble, sulk (ROOT)

*huRuŋroar (of a current, crashing waves, etc.), moan, groan (ROOT)

*i(m)pesdeflate; subside (of a swelling) (ROOT)

*i(ŋ)kesbound firmly (ROOT)

*ibakbreak or split off (ROOT)

*ikelcurled, coiled (ROOT)

*ilawreflected light (ROOT)

*inzakstep, tread, dance (ROOT)

*isekinsert, put in (ROOT)

*ka(m)pitfasten thatch with slats; hold together (ROOT)

*kaksound of a cackle, loud laughter, etc. (ROOT)

*kakaqsplit (ROOT)

*kampuŋassembly, meeting (ROOT)

*kaŋanimal sound (ROOT)

*kaŋabe open, as the mouth (ROOT)

*kaŋkaŋ₃cramps, stiffening of the limbs (ROOT)

*kapakbeat the wings (ROOT)

*karisscratch mark (ROOT)

*kaskasloosen, untie (ROOT)

*katukknock (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (160 / 386)

*katukknock (ROOT)

*ke(m)pisshrunken, deflated (ROOT)

*kebakpalpitation (ROOT)

*kebkebto enclose, shut in (ROOT)

*kebuRto churn (of water agitated by fish) (ROOT)

*kekshriek, screech (ROOT)

*kelaqcrack, split (ROOT)

*kempuscome to an end (ROOT)

*kemuRrinse the mouth (ROOT)

*keŋstiff, as a corpse (ROOT)

*keŋhollow, resounding sound (ROOT)

*keŋkeŋcramps, stiffening of limbs (ROOT)

*keŋkeŋshrink (ROOT)

*kepukbeat, crunch, break (ROOT)

*ketakmake noise (ROOT)

*ketascut (a knot, etc.) (ROOT)

*ketikmake a noise (ROOT)

*ketukknock, pound (ROOT)

*ketukknock, pound (ROOT)

*ki(m)pesshrunken, shrink (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (180 / 386)

*kikpeep, squeak, giggle (ROOT)

*kikikgiggle (ROOT)

*kilaplustre, shine (ROOT)

*kilatlightning (ROOT)

*kilatopen the eyes wide (ROOT)

*kiŋringing sound (ROOT)

*kizakstep on, tread on (ROOT)

*kuksound of a sob, croak, etc. (ROOT)

*kumkumfold the arms; fold the wings (of a bird) (ROOT)

*kuŋanimal sound (ROOT)

*kur(e)clitscratch mark, line (ROOT)

*labaksound of a heavy slap (ROOT)

*labuqfall; cast anchor (ROOT)

*lambukhit, beat, pound (ROOT)

*laŋaqgaping, wide open (ROOT)

*laŋkaqstride (ROOT)

*laŋkawhigh, tall (ROOT)

*lawithook (ROOT)

*le(m)pitfold (ROOT)

*le(ŋ)kuŋconcave (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (200 / 386)

*leblebsink, disappear under water (ROOT)

*lecitsqueeze out, squirt out (ROOT)

*lekas₁open, undress, remove, release (ROOT)

*lekesroll, curl up (ROOT)

*lekutbent, as a limb (ROOT)

*lekuʔbend, fold; folding part of the body; curl up (ROOT)

*lepi(q)fold, hem (ROOT)

*lepiksnap, break off (twigs, etc.) (ROOT)

*letukcrashing, thudding or knocking sound (ROOT)

*letukcrashing, thudding or knocking sound (ROOT)

*li(m)pitpress between two flat surfaces (ROOT)

*li(ŋ)ku(q)bend, curve (ROOT)

*libuRmurky, clouded, turbid (ROOT)

*likeswind around (ROOT)

*liketsticky, adhesive (ROOT)

*liteqsap of a tree or plant (ROOT)

*lu(ŋ)kasremove, loosen, untie (ROOT)

*luslusslip off, slip away (ROOT)

*ma-iRaqred . (ROOT)

*mampusgone, used up (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (220 / 386)

*masukenter (ROOT)

*mekmekbroken to bits (ROOT)

*muRmuRgargle, rinse the mouth (ROOT)

*nabuqfall (ROOT)

*ñamñamto taste, savor (ROOT)

*n-aŋketsticky, adhesive (ROOT)

*nilawbright light (ROOT)

*niŋniŋclear, of water (ROOT)

*nipidream (ROOT)

*ŋakraucous sound (ROOT)

*ŋakŋakraucous sound (ROOT)

*ŋaŋagape, open the mouth wide (ROOT)

*ŋarŋartalk loudly or angrily; howl (ROOT)

*ŋe(ŋ)ŋeŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*ŋekgrunt (ROOT)

*ŋekŋekmumble, etc. (ROOT)

*ŋeŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*ŋiksqueal, screech, shriek (ROOT)

*ŋikŋiksqueal, screech, shriek (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (240 / 386)

*ŋiŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*ŋisŋisgrin, bare the teeth (ROOT)

*ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*ŋuŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*pa(n)tukknock, strike against (ROOT)

*pa(n)tukknock, strike against (ROOT)

*panitto skin, flay (ROOT)

*paŋaforked, pronged (ROOT)

*paŋaqforked, pronged (ROOT)

*pe(R)citspurt, squirt (ROOT)

*pekaŋstretch open or apart (ROOT)

*peketviscous (ROOT)

*pekuqbend, curve (ROOT)

*pelukcurve; embrace (ROOT)

*peŋafork of a branch (ROOT)

*pessound of escaping air, etc. (ROOT)

*petpetsealed, leak-proof (ROOT)

*pi(n)tikthrob, beat (ROOT)

*pi(ŋ)kittied or attached to (ROOT)

*piciksplash, spray, sprinkle (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (260 / 386)

*pilitsticky, adhesive (ROOT)

*piRlatscar (ROOT)

*pitakmud (ROOT)

*pitikfly off with a jerk (ROOT)

*pitpitpinch (ROOT)

*pulitglue, paste; stick, caulk (ROOT)

*pulittwine around (ROOT)

*puŋpuŋgather, collect (ROOT)

*puputblow (ROOT)

*pushiss (ROOT)

*pusekpress in by force (ROOT)

*puspuscompletely, to the finish (ROOT)

*putpuffing sound (ROOT)

*qa(m)pusterminate, reach the end (ROOT)

*qa(R)bukdust (ROOT)

*qi(m)pitjammed, wedged close together (ROOT)

*qi(m)puncollect, gather (ROOT)

*qi(ŋ)suDshift, budge, move slightly (ROOT)

*qiristo cut, slice (ROOT)

*qitemblack (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (280 / 386)

*Ra(n)dutpluck, pull out (ROOT)

*Ra(ŋ)kittie together; raft (ROOT)

*ra(ŋ)kupgather in the cupped hands (ROOT)

*rabekhit, strike, break (ROOT)

*rakaqopen (ROOT)

*raketsticky, adhesive (ROOT)

*re(n)zakstep on, place one's foot on (ROOT)

*recikspeckled, stained (ROOT)

*regeŋresonance (ROOT)

*Remekcrush, pulverized (ROOT)

*repekbrittle, friable; to crumble (ROOT)

*Retasrip (ROOT)

*retuksound of chopping, etc. (ROOT)

*retuksound of chopping, etc. (ROOT)

*rikasquick, fast (ROOT)

*riketsticky (ROOT)

*rimpuŋtie the feet together (ROOT)

*rintikdot, spot, speck (ROOT)

*riŋisbare the teeth in smiling or laughing (ROOT)

*ru(n)tassever, tear (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (300 / 386)

*ru(ŋ)kubprotection (ROOT)

*rumpakthud, strike against (ROOT)

*Runutplant fibers (ROOT)

*Ruŋkebcover over (ROOT)

*rupuksound of breaking, cracking (ROOT)

*rusukpierce, stab (ROOT)

*sa(m)bitclasp, hook on (ROOT)

*sa(m)buRstrew (ROOT)

*sa(m)pakcrack, split, break (ROOT)

*sakaŋbowlegged (ROOT)

*saliRflow (ROOT)

*saŋaforking (ROOT)

*sawaŋatmosphere, distance (ROOT)

*sekaŋcrossbar, strut, something to hold things apart (ROOT)

*seksekstuff, cram in (ROOT)

*seletinsert between (ROOT)

*seŋekdifficulty in breathing (ROOT)

*sepetobstructed, of the flow of water (ROOT)

*sepsepsuck (ROOT)

*si(ŋ)ketstick, adhere to (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (320 / 386)

*sikuelbow (ROOT)

*sikutbent, of the arm (ROOT)

*silakray, beam of light (ROOT)

*silapsparkle, dazzle (ROOT)

*silaqsplit (ROOT)

*simbuRsprinkle, bespatter (ROOT)

*simpetclose, plug, shut off (ROOT)

*siŋkabopen, uncover (ROOT)

*siŋkulbent, of the arm (ROOT)

*siŋkuquŋcurved, crooked (ROOT)

*sipitsqueeze, pinch, narrow (ROOT)

*siRaqred, reddish (ROOT)

*su(ŋ)kabto open, break open (ROOT)

*su(ŋ)kukhang one's head (ROOT)

*sudukspoon, ladle (ROOT)

*suksukinsert, enter (ROOT)

*ta(m)pikslap, pat lightly (ROOT)

*ta(ŋ)kasquick, agile (ROOT)

*ta(ŋ)kubcover over with, cover, lid (ROOT)

*tabuRstrew (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (340 / 386)

*takcrack! clap! (ROOT)

*taktakcrash, clatter (ROOT)

*tambunheap (ROOT)

*tampelto patch, plaster over (ROOT)

*taŋkasloosen, untie (ROOT)

*taytaysuspension bridge (ROOT)

*te(m)puksound of clapping, cracking, breaking (ROOT)

*teduŋtake shelter, cover the head (ROOT)

*tegukgulp (ROOT)

*tekedsupport, prop (ROOT)

*tekteka knock; gecko (onom.) (ROOT)

*teku(q)bent, crooked (ROOT)

*telebsink, vanish from sight (ROOT)

*telemsink, disappear under water (ROOT)

*telento swallow (ROOT)

*teŋbuzz, hum (ROOT)

*tepakslap or beat with the hand (ROOT)

*testear (ROOT)

*ti(n)zegstand erect (ROOT)

*ti(ŋ)kasquick, agile (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (360 / 386)

*tidemdark (ROOT)

*tiktikto click or tick (ROOT)

*tikuŋcurl, bend, curve (ROOT)

*tilento swallow (ROOT)

*tiŋtiŋring clearly (ROOT)

*tirtirshiver, tremble (ROOT)

*titaysuspension bridge (ROOT)

*tu(m)pusto complete, finish (ROOT)

*tu(ŋ)kadprop, support; staff (ROOT)

*tuduŋhead cover (ROOT)

*tuktukknock, pound, beat (ROOT)

*tuktukknock, pound, beat (ROOT)

*tuktuktop, summit, crown (ROOT)

*tukukbent (ROOT)

*tumbukknock, pound, hit (ROOT)

*tumpulblunt, dull (ROOT)

*tusukstab (ROOT)

*u(n)tutflatulence (ROOT)

*uliqreturn, restore (ROOT)

*uritstroke, line (ROOT)

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian (380 / 386)

*usekpress into (ROOT)

*usukpress into, penetrate (ROOT)

*zeŋkuŋcurved (ROOT)

*zuluŋprow (ROOT)

*zumpitpinch, squeeze (ROOT)

*zuŋkukbent, crooked (ROOT)

17. Proto-Micronesian (129) OC (Bender et al. 2003, 2003a)

*[tT]upafish poison (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

*a[sS]ejaw, chin (POC: *qase) *qazay

*alosun (POC: *qalo₁) *qalo₁

*auyes (in response to request, command) (PAN: *au₂) *au₂

*awamouth (POC: *qawa₂) *qawa₂

*-ca1pl. incl. possessive pronoun; of us, our (POC: *da₂) *ita₁

*camwaforehad, brow (POC: *damwa) *damwa

*faa(expected **/fafa/) under, underneath; the bottom (POC: *papaq₃) *babaq₁

*fanogo (POC: *pano) *paNaw

*faŋus-blow the nose (ROOT)

*faSoplanted; to plant; a planted thing (POC: *pasok) *pasek

*fatu, *fatufatuto weave, plait (POC: *patuR) *batuR₁

*fau-fautie, bind, lash (POC: *paRu) *baRu

*filichoose (PAN: *piliq) *piliq

*fili-filichoose (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

*fisikomeat, flesh (POC: *pijiko) *pijiko

*fiSikoflesh (POC: *pisiko) *pisiko

*fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

*fituustar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

*fouto feel cold (POC: *pout) *pout

Proto-Micronesian (20 / 129)

*iprefix of time or place (PAN: *i₂) *i₂

*-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂) *-i₂

*ikafish (generic) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

*ikutail (PAN: *ikuR) *ikuR

*irathey, them (PEMP: *ira) *ida

*iralight, flash, lightning (NOISE)

*iralight, flash, lightning (NOISE)

*iri irito rub, scrub, grind, erase (NOISE)

*irolook at, look for (POC: *qiro) *qiro

*kamiwe (exclusive), us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

*kamʷu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

*kanafood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

*karaninear, close (POC: *karani) *karani

*kayuwood; pole (POC: *kayu) *kaSiw

*kelito dig (PCEMP: *keli) *keli

*kieplaited mat (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

*kiekieplaited mat (POC: *kiRe-kiRe) *kiRay

*kili-fausea hibiscus: Hibiscus tiliaceus (POC: *paRu) *baRu

*koropubic hair (POC: *koRo) *koRo

*kosococonut husking stick (POC: *kojom) *kojom

Proto-Micronesian (40 / 129)

*koso-mito husk coconuts (POC: *kojom-i) *kojom

*lakogo, proceed; (as directional) away (POC: *lako) *lakaw

*laloinside (POC: *ralom) *dalem

*laŋoprop (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

*lapabig, main (POC: *lapat) *lapat

*laSacoconut shell; skull (POC: *lasa₂) *lasa₂

*leasail (PAN: *layaR) *layaR

*lumito fold (PMP: *lumiq) *lumiq

*maand, with (PAN: *maS) *maS

*maifrom (POC: *mai) *ai₃

*mamatato stand watch, stay awake (POC: *mamata) *mamata

*ma-ramamoon; bright, luminous (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR₁

*masakibe painful, hurt (POC: *masakit) *sakit

*masusated (with food or drink) (POC: *masuR) *masuR

*misismack one’s lips (POC: *misi) *misi

*mʷataworm (POC: *mwata) *mwata

*mʷataworm (POC: *qumata) *qumata

*-mʷu2sg. possessor, your (PMP: *-mu) *-mu

*mʷumʷutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

*ñamʷumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk) *ñamuk

Proto-Micronesian (60 / 129)

*nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

*natuchild; classifier for cherished possessions (PEMP: *natu) *natu

*-niof, pertaining to, often referred to as “the construct suffix” (PAN: *ni) *ni

*nowuscorpion fish, stonefish (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

*ŋaa-ŋaasea bird, duck (PMP: *ŋaRaq) *ŋaRaq

*-ŋawuluunit of ten, in counting (PMP: *ŋa) *ŋa

*paabait, worm (POC: *bayan) *bayan

*pakewashark (POC: *bakewak) *bakewak

*palaiwild, bitter, common yam: Dioscorea bulbifera (POC: *balai₂) *balai₂

*paŋus-iblow the nose (NOISE)

*papaboard, plank (POC: *baban) *papan

*pepebutterfly (POC: *bebe) *bebe

*pia, *pia-piasand, beach (POC: *bia) *bia

*pikasand, sandbank (POC: *pika) *pika

*pili-piliEuphorbia: spurge (milky sap herb used medicinally) (NOISE)

*pʷaŋahole (POC: *pwaŋa) *pwaŋa

*pwekabat (POC: *bweka) *bweka

*pwepwebutterfly (POC: *bebe) *bebe

*pʷono, *pʷono-ti, *pʷono-tabe shut, blocked, to shut, block, close (POC: *bonot) *bonot

*pwuabetel palm and nut: Areca catechu (POC: *buaq) *buaq

Proto-Micronesian (80 / 129)

*pwukato boil (POC: *bukal₂) *bukal

*pwukuknot, node, joint (POC: *buku) *buku

*pwuku-ajoint, knee, protuberance; cape; knot in wood (POC: *buku-an) *buku

*pwulaburn; alight (POC: *bula₁) *bula₁

*pwulicowrie shell (POC: *buliq₁) *buliq₁

*pwupwutrigger fish (POC: *bubu₇) *bubu₇

*pwupwuconstellation Southern Cross (POC: *bubu₁) *bubu₁

*pwuro-pwurofoam (POC: *puro puro) *puro

*pwuso pwusofoam (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

*pwutonavel (POC: *buto) *buto

*pwutugroup, crowd, flock, school (of fish) (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

*raaniday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

*ramalight, luminous (POC: *ramaR) *damaR₁

*rocobe dark (POC: *rodrom₁) *demdem₂

*ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

*rukuenter with the head bowed (POC: *rukuq) *dukuq

*Sakeup, upward (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

*Saŋainner thigh, crotch (POC: *saŋa₁) *saŋa₁

*siwodown, westward (POC: *sipo) *sipo

*Solopeak, hill (POC: *solos) *solos

Proto-Micronesian (100 / 129)

*soŋo, soŋo soŋoto smart, sting (POC: *soŋot) *seŋet₂

*sS]ipa, [sS]ipa-kislice, chunk; to cut, to slice (POC: *siba) *siba

*sulutorch (PMP: *suluq) *suluq

*susubreast; to suckle (PAN: *susu₁) *susu₁

*tai, ta-not (POC: *taqe₁) *taqe

*takuruback (of body) (POC: *takuRu) *takuRu

*taŋirituna (PMP: *taŋiRi) *taŋiRi

*tapatapa, *tapaŋ-ihelp, support, aid, benefit (PMP: *tabaŋ) *tabaŋ

*tapiabowl; constellation Delphinus (POC: *tabiRa) *tabiRa

*tauseason, sun (PMP: *taqun) *taqun

*tauperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

*tawuitriton or trumpet shell (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

*teluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

*tiastomach, belly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

*tiroto peer, have a look (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

*tokoto alight, land (POC: *toko) *toko

*tu(sS)ufinger, toe (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

*tunafreshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

*turahouse post (POC: *tura) *tura

*uageneral counting classifier; also for round things (POC: *puaq) *buaq

Proto-Micronesian (120 / 129)

*ua-icarry, ride, transport, take, bring (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

*uat-aa load (esp. of fruit); crop (POC: *puat-an₁) *buat₁

*wakararoot (POC: *wakaR-a) *wakaR

*walueight (PAN: *walu) *walu

*wanestraight, steady, direct (POC: *wane wane) *wane wane

*watudirectional suffix: towards addressee (PMP: *wa-tu) *-Cu

*woñusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

*wukofishnet (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

*wuko-ticatch in a net (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

18. Proto-Minahasan (183) WMP (Sneddon 1978)

*abuash, dust (PMP: *qabu) *qabu

*abutpull out (PMP: *abut) *abut

*adejaw (PMP: *qazay) *qazay

*ahdanladder, stairs (PMP: *haRezan) *haRezan

*alabatfence (PPH: *alabat) *alabat

*aladenclosure for animals (PAN: *qalad) *qalad

*amiannorth; north wind (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

*anakoffspring, child (of someone) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

*apədubile, gall (PAN: *qapejux) *qapejux

*apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

*apo-ʔgrandparent; ancestor; lord (title) (PPh: *apu-q) *apu

*apuhlime (PAN: *qapuR) *qapuR

*asaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ) *hasaŋ

*asaʔwhet, grind sharp (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

*aseŋbreath; to breathe (PWMP: *qaseŋ) *qaseŋ

*asinsalt (PAN: *qasiN) *qasiN

*asudog (PAN: *asu₁) *asu₁

*ataslave (PMP: *qaRta) *qaRta

*atasabove, on (top) (PMP: *atas) *aCas

*ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

Proto-Minahasan (20 / 183)

*atədtransport, convey (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

*ateluhegg (PMP: *qateluR) *qateluR

*ayamplait, weave (PWMP: *ayam) *ayam

*aʔefoot, leg (PAN: *qaqay) *qaqay

*bakulbasket (PWMP: *bakul₁) *bakul

*balahancucumber (PWMP: *balaRen) *balaRen

*balahancucumber (NOISE)

*balehouse (PMP: *balay) *balay

*baliaccompany, escort, lead (PPh: *báli) *báli

*balian(pagan) priest, shaman (PWMP: *balian) *balian

*balulaŋskin, hide (scar of wound; callus; thick hide of various animals) (PWMP: *balulaŋ) *balulaŋ

*balunprovisions for a journey (PWMP: *balun₂) *balun₂

*baŋəhsmell bad (PMP: *baŋ(e)qeR₂) *baŋ(e)qeR

*baŋunbeautiful, excellent; strong, vigorous (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

*baratat an angle, slanting (PAN: *barat₁) *barat₁

*barugastone house-shaped tomb (PWMP: *baruga) *baruga

*batustone (PMP: *batu) *batux

*bulbulfeather, fur, body hair (PPh: *bulbúl) *bulbúl

*dahassecondary pounding of rice (PPH: *deR(e)qas) *deR(e)qas

*dataheven, level; plain, level land (PAN: *dataR) *dataR

Proto-Minahasan (40 / 183)

*dayoto praise (PPH: *dáyaw) *dáyaw

*diʔdiʔto boil (PMP: *diqdiq) *diqdiq

*dumunnest, lair (PPH: *dug(e)mún) *dug(e)mún

*duniʔrainbow (PWMP: *duniq) *duniq

*edamlease land, rent (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

*ehdoʔearthquake (PPH: *Riduq) *Riduq

*eletintervene, between; put between; partition (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

*emissweet (PMP: *emis₁) *emis

*emissweet (PMP: *hemis) *hemis

*enemsix (PAN: *enem) *enem

*erutroar, rumble; thunder (PWMP: *erut) *erut

*esaone (PAN: *esa) *esa

*esemsour (PWMP: *esem) *esem

*etabran, chaff (PMP: *qeta) *qeCah

*etidry up (PMP: *qeti₁) *qeti₁

*iapcount (PMP: *ihap) *ihap

*iaʔithis (PMP: *iaqi) *iaqi

*ilamole (on body) (PMP: *qila) *qila

*ina-ŋM (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

*ina-ʔM (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

Proto-Minahasan (60 / 183)

*indotake, get, fetch (NOISE)

*ipagbrother-in-law, sister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

*ipentooth (PMP: *ipen) *ipen

*ipescockroach (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

*ipidream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

*ipustail (PPh: *ipus) *ipus

*ipustail (PPh: *ipus) *ipus

*itəmblack (PMP: *qitem) *qitem

*kahaŋscab (PAN: *keRaŋ₂) *keRaŋ₂

*kaɁisscrape off, scratch away; make streaks (PWMP: *kaqis) *kaqis

*kaka-Ɂelder sibling (PMP: *kaka₂) *kaka₂

*kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

*kampetgrip, clutch for support (e.g. railing) (PPH: *kapét) *kapét

*kamu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

*karisstripe, streak, scratch (PMP: *karis₁) *karis

*karkarscratch, dig out (as a fowl scratching up the ground) (PAN: *karkar) *karkar

*karutscrape out, scratch out (PAN: *karut₁) *karut₁

*kasilieel (PWMP: *kasuli) *kasuli

*kəbkəbto cover (PMP: *kebkeb) *kebkeb

*kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *k-ita) *ita₁

Proto-Minahasan (80 / 183)

*lagaʔlarge red tree ant (PWMP: *alagaq) *alagaq

*lakogo (PMP: *lakaw) *lakaw

*lampaŋwalk (PMP: *lampaŋ) *lampaŋ

*lanaoil (PMP: *laña) *laña

*lansatfruit sp., Lansium domesticum (LOAN)

*lanuttough (of meat, fibers) (PWMP: *lañut) *lañut

*ləbuhturbid, muddy (PWMP: *lebuR) *lebuR

*lempadto fly (PPH: *lepad) *lepad

*lenoclear, pure (of water) (PMP: *linaw) *linaw

*ləpətto fold (PMP: *lepet₂) *lepet₂

*ləseʔanit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

*li-muhmuhrinse out mouth (PAN: *muRmuR) *muRmuR

*liputsurround, encircle (PWMP: *liput₁) *liput₁

*loaŋwide (PPH: *luaŋ₂) *luaŋ₂

*lueʔtears; to weep (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

*lunəksoft (PWMP: *lunek₁) *lunek₁

*mataʔgreen; unripe; raw (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

*nisnisto wipe, brush (PPH: *nisnís) *nisnís

*ŋalŋalto groan, moan (with pain) (PPH: *ŋalŋál) *ŋalŋál

*ŋaʔŋaʔto chew (PPH: *ŋaqŋaq₂) *ŋaqŋaq₂

Proto-Minahasan (100 / 183)

*pagərfence, enclosure (PMP: *pager) *pager

*pahiray fish (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

*pakutype of edible fern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

*palaʔpaʔpalm branch (PMP: *palaqpaq) *palaqpaq

*pasuʔhot (PPH: *pásuq) *pásuq

*patedie; kill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

*patiukanlarge bee sp. (PWMP: *patiukan) *patiukan

*pədəŋblind; shut eyes (PMP: *pezeŋ) *pezeŋ

*petikheartbeat; to beat (of heart) (PAN: *peCik) *peCik

*pipicheek (PMP: *pihpih) *piSpiS

*pitpitblink the eyes (PAN: *pitpit₂) *pitpit₂

*putiʔwhite (PMP: *putiq) *putiq

*rekoʔbent, curved; to bend (ROOT)

*sabudspread, scatter (PWMP: *sabuD) *sabuD

*sabutpluck out, pull out (PMP: *cabut) *cabut

*sahapscoop up, scoop out (PPH: *saRap) *saRap

*sakeyguest (PWMP: *sakay₃) *sakay₃

*sarufacing, in front of; to face (PPH: *saru) *saru

*saɁuhto mix, mingle, blend (PPH: *sahuR) *sahuR

*sawalarge snake sp. (PMP: *sawa) *sawa

Proto-Minahasan (120 / 183)

*səbufoam, froth; extinguish fire; cool with water (PMP: *sebuh) *sebuS

*sədaɁfish; eat meat (PPH: *sedaq) *sedaq

*sədəmant (PWMP: *sejem) *sejem

*səksəkcram in tightly, squeeze in (PAN: *seksek₁) *seksek₁

*səlahbig (PPH: *selaR) *selaR

*sələtinsert (between two things) (PMP: *selet) *selet

*sənsəncrammed full (PPH: *sensén) *sensén

*səpsəpsuck (PAN: *sepsep) *sepsep

*sərəppenetrate (PMP: *serep) *serep

*sia3sg. (PAN: *si ia₁) *ia₁

*sikəpkind of hawk (PWMP: *sikep₁) *sikep₁

*sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux) *sikux

*siownine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

*sisichicken (baby fowl) (PAN: *siwsiw) *siwsiw

*suliɁtake revenge, repay (PMP: *suliq) *suliq

*sulunail, claw (PPH: *sulu₂) *sulu₂

*sumbiŋjagged, chipped (PWMP: *sumbiŋ) *sumbiŋ

*suŋehorn (of animal) (PPH: *súŋay) *súŋay

*supuboundary, border (PMP: *supu) *supu

*sururcomb (PWMP: *sujud) *sujud

Proto-Minahasan (140 / 183)

*suysuyspeak, say something (PPH: *suysuy) *suysuy

*tabaŋto help (PMP: *tabaŋ) *tabaŋ

*tabaʔfat (on animal body) (PWMP: *tabeq) *tabeq

*tabtabchop through, cut off (PWMP: *tabtab₁) *tabtab₁

*tahastree sp. (used for timber) (PMP: *teRas) *teRas

*tahuʔput into, store in (PMP: *taRuq) *taRuq

*talunforest (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

*tambəlaŋkind of bamboo (PWMP: *tambelaŋ) *tambelaŋ

*tariktikdrizzle, light rain (PPH: *tariktik) *tariktik

*tariktikdrizzle, light rain (LOAN)

*tasiksea (PMP: *tasik) *tasik

*tawahcall, call to, summon (PWMP: *tawaR₂) *tawaR₂

*taʔansnare; set a snare (PAN: *taqan₁) *taqan₁

*taʔuknow (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

*tebiʔbreak off (piece of something) (PMP: *tebiq) *Cebiq

*telebfly away; fade (PWMP: *tilib) *tilib

*tembiredge, side, bank (Also Maranao tebir 'sew, esp. the seam') (ROOT)

*təmbiredge, side, bank (PPH: *tebir) *tebir

*təndəkpost, stake; to stick (post) in ground (PMP: *tenzeg, te(n)dek) *tenzek

*təndəkpost, stake; stick (post) in ground (PPH: *tendek₁) *tendek₁

Proto-Minahasan (160 / 183)

*təŋtəŋlook at, stare at (PWMP: *teŋteŋ₂) *teŋteŋ₂

*təpehmat (PMP: *tepiR) *tepiR

*təruŋshelter (PMP: *teduŋ₁) *teduŋ₁

*tihisdrip, leak (PMP: *tiRis) *tiRis

*tiŋafood caught between teeth; pick the teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

*tiŋtiŋclang, ring (noise); produce clanging noise (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ) *tiŋtiŋ

*tontonto lower, let down (PPH: *tuntún) *tuntún

*toŋomite (insect) (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁) *tuŋaw₁

*toʔodstand up; put up, erect (PMP: *tuquD) *tuqud

*tubaplant used as fish poison (PAN: *tuba) *tuba

*tuduʔto point out, indicate (PAN: *tuzuq₁) *tuzuq₁

*tumidheel (PWMP: *tumid) *tumid

*tundəkto point; stab (PPH: *tundek) *tundek

*tunuburn, bake, roast (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

*tutuŋkindle, set alight (PMP: *tutuŋ) *tutuŋ

*tuʔuindeed, really, truly (PMP: *tuqu₂) *tuqu₂

*tuʔudorigin, beginning, base, stump (PAN: *tuqed) *tuqed

*tuʔunplace pot on fire (PPH: *tuqun₁) *tuqun₁

*ualueight (PAN: *walu) *walu

*uaŋhowl, yelp (of dog) (PAN: *quaŋ₂) *quaŋ₂

Proto-Minahasan (180 / 183)

*uaseyiron (PWMP: *wasay) *wasay

*ubaduntie, unravel (PPh: *hubád) *hubád

*ulahsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

*umaʔsheath; to sheathe (PAN: *Rumaq) *Rumaq

19. Proto-Moken-Moklen (1) WMP

*pɔkɔntree trunk, plant, nominal classifier for trees (PMP: *puqun) *puqun

20. Proto-North-Central Vanuatu (14) OC

*bunefruit dove (Ptilinopus) (POC: *bune) *punay

*kai-masisorceror (cf. masi-ŋa ‘love magic’) (POC: *kai) *kai

*mavohealed (of sore) (POC: *mapo) *mapo

*sumutriggerfish (POC: *sumu) *sumu

*suʔu-nicarry or wear on head (POC: *suqun) *suquN

*tabusacred, forbidden, taboo (POC: *tabu) *tambu

*taRamʷiallow, accept, agree (POC: *taRamwi) *taRamwi

*tatafather (term of address) (PAN: *tata₁) *tata₁

*tirogaze, look at reflection (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

*tokalaunortherly wind (POC: *tokalaur) *tokalaur

*torofill with liquid (POC: *toRop) *teReb

*tuailong time, long ago, old (POC: *tuaRi) *tuaRi

*tuakaelder same sex sibling (POC: *tuaka) *tuaka

*tusimark, draw, write (PCEMP: *tusi) *tusi

21. Proto-Oceanic (4) OC

*maŋewakind of shark (PCEMP: *tusi) *tusi

*rukustoop, bow (ROOT)

*upublow with the mouth (ROOT)

*wawoto weed; weed; uncultivated land' (Milke 1968) (NOISE)

22. Proto-Philippines (12) WMP

*bayqaignore, neglect (NOISE)

*faŋublow the nose (NOISE)

*kahuRmix, mingle (ROOT)

*kebithook (with finger) (ROOT)

*kubkub₁to surround, lay siege to (ROOT)

*pulpulblunt (ROOT)

*sigpíttongs, clips, pincers (ROOT)

*suŋetangry (ROOT)

*tákaŋspread wide open (ROOT)

*tarsiksplash, spatter (ROOT)

*tukákkind of loud frog (ROOT)

*túnawmelt, dissolve (ROOT)

23. Proto-Polynesian (7) OC

*faanau (length unexpl.)give birth, be born (PMP: *pañaRu) *pañaRu

*kima1pl. excl., focal pronoun, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

*malaʔemeeting place (POC: *malaqe) *malaqe

*maŋabranch (POC: *maŋa₂) *maŋa₂

*numito fold (POC: *numi) *numi

*refuashes, dust; spray (LOAN)

*tufato spit (PMP: *suba) *suba

*tufato spit (PMP: *supaq) *supaq

24. Proto-Puyuma (1) Form.

*inithis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

25. Proto-Rukai (87) Form. (Li 1977)

*agiyounger sibling (PAN: *Suaji) *Suaji

*-ako1sg.; I’ (PAN: *aku) *aku

*a-la-liŋoshadow (PAN: *liŋaw₁) *liŋaw₁

*aLimahand (PAN: *qalima) *qalima

*aɭimahand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

*aɭisəəsənit (PAN: *liseqeS) *liseqeS

*amafather (PAN: *amax) *amax

*apoyfire (PAN: *Sapuy) *Sapuy

*asoƚopestle (PAN: *qaSelu) *qaSelu

*avaŋəboat, canoe (PAN: *qabaŋ₁) *qabaŋ₁

*aθayliver (PAN: *qaCay) *qaCay

*aθodog (PAN: *asu₁) *asu₁

*baboywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃) *babuy₃

*banawwash, bathe (PAN: *bañaw) *bañaw

*baraŋəbelly (PAN: *baRaŋ) *baRaŋ

*baraŋəbelly (NOISE)

*baʔalung (PAN: *baRaq₁) *baRaq₁

*bələbələbanana (PAN: *beNbeN) *beNbeN

*bəʔəkədomesticated pig (PAN: *beRek) *beRek

*caviliyear (PAN: *CawiN) *CawiN

Proto-Rukai (20 / 87)

*cənəkəthorn (PAN: *Cenek) *Cenek

*comaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay) *Cumay

*daɭanəroad (PAN: *zalan) *zalan

*DərəDərthunder (PAN: *deRdeR) *deRdeR

*əbəɭəsmoke (PAN: *qebel) *qebel

*ecahusk of rice (PAN: *qeCah) *qeCah

*elebeto close (PAN: *qeNeb₁) *qeNeb₁

*ənaysand (PAN: *qenay) *qenay

*enemesix (PAN: *enem) *enem

*inowhere? (PAN: *inu) *inu

*kanominative case marker for common nouns (Ross 2006:529) (PAN: *ka₃) *ka₃

*kakaelder sibling (address) (PAN: *kaka₂) *kaka₂

*kanəto eat (PAN: *kaen) *kaen

*kaʔacəto bite (PAN: *kaRaC) *kaRaC

*ko-igan-əwhen? (PAN: *ijan) *ijan

*ko-so, *mo-sothou (PAN: *Suʔu) *Suʔu

*laand (PAN: *Na₁) *Na₁

*laand (NOISE)

*la-laLicicada (PAN: *Nali) *Nali

*lamekerotten (as a log) (ROOT)

Proto-Rukai (40 / 87)

*laŋoyswim (PAN: *Naŋuy) *Naŋuy

*lataɖəoutside (PAN: *NataD) *NataD

*ɭavaflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR) *lawaR

*ɭəsətears (PAN: *luSeq) *luSeq

*ɭidamətongue (PAN: *lidam) *lidam

*ɭikacəlightning (PAN: *likaC) *likaC

*ɭimafive (PAN: *lima) *lima

*limatəkəleech (PAN: *qaNi-matek) *-matek

*ɭinoʔoearthquake (PAN: *linuR) *linuR

*lotokorabbit (PAN: *lutuk₁) *lutuk₁

*ma-banawwash, bathe (PAN: *ma-bañaw) *bañaw

*ma-bosokodrunk (PAN: *ma-buSuk) *buSuk

*macaeye (PAN: *maCa) *maCa

*mai-ceɭeŋeblack (PAN: *qeCeŋeN) *qeCeŋeN

*ma-kiLoŋocrooked, curved (PAN: *kiluŋ) *kiluŋ

*maLato take (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

*ma-ŋetaraw (PAN: *qetaq) *qetaq

*ma-roɖaŋəadult/old person (PAN: *Rudaŋ) *Rudaŋ

*ma-swabto yawn (PAN: *ma-Suab) *Suab

*mo-a-baLiwreturn home (PAN: *baliw₂) *baliw₂

Proto-Rukai (60 / 87)

*o-alopoto hunt (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

*obaləbody hair (PAN: *qubaN) *qubaN

*odalrain (PAN: *quzaN) *quzaN

*okoDostick, pole (ROOT)

*omafield, swidden (PAN: *qumah) *qumah

*ovayrattan (PAN: *quay) *quay

*pacaydie (PAN: *pa-aCay) *aCay

*pagogall, gall bladder (PAN: *paqeju) *paqeju

*panashoot (with arrows) (PAN: *panaq) *panaq

*pa-pacaykill (PAN: *pa-p-aCay) *aCay

*sa-eleb-anedoor (PAN: *qeNeb₁) *qeNeb₁

*sepatefour (PAN: *Sepat) *Sepat

*simaʔafat, grease (PAN: *SimaR) *SimaR

*sinawwash (clothes) (PAN: *Siñaw) *Siñaw

*sipidream (PAN: *Sipi) *Sipi

*soLaʔasnake (PAN: *SulaR) *SulaR

*timosalt (PAN: *timu) *timu

*tinonoto weave (PAN: *tinun) *tinun

*toɭothree (PAN: *telu) *telu

*vaLaythread (PAN: *walay) *walay

Proto-Rukai (80 / 87)

*vaLoeight (PAN: *walu) *walu

*valohoneybee (PAN: *waNu) *waNu

*vaʔisun (PAN: *waRi₁) *waRi₁

*ʔi-diʔito stand (PAN: *diRi) *diRi

*ʔoacsinew, artery (PAN: *huRaC) *huRaC

*ʔoɖasəgray hair (PAN: *qudaS) *qudaS

*θoθofemale breast (PAN: *susu₁) *susu₁

26. Proto-Sama-Bajaw (3) WMP

*lalaktrochus, top shell (Pallesen 1985:323) (PMP: *lalak) *lalak

*paligsurgeonfish (probably < Tausug) (PMP: *qapaliR) *qapaliR

*tuludto push (PPH: *tulúd) *tulúd

27. Proto-Sangiric (210) WMP (Sneddon 1984)

*abitclimb a tree (PWMP: *abit₁) *abit

*abuashes, dust (PMP: *qabu) *qabu

*adaychin (PMP: *qazay) *qazay

*adikto kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

*alapget, fetch (PAN: *alap) *alap

*alinto move, transfer (PMP: *halin) *halin

*anakchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

*anamto weave (mats, baskets) (PMP: *añam) *añam

*anupto hunt (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

*aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin) *haŋin

*apuRlime (PAN: *qapuR) *qapuR

*aRaklead, conduct, convey (PMP: *aRak) *aRak

*aRawrob, snatch away (PAN: *qaRaw) *qaRaw

*asaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ) *hasaŋ

*asikto dibble; plant rice (PMP: *hasek₁) *hasek₁

*asinsalt (PAN: *qasiN) *qasiN

*atayliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

*atissoursop (Anona squamosa) (LOAN)

*atissoursop: Annona squamosa (LOAN)

*atuproof; thatch (PMP: *qatep) *qatep

Proto-Sangiric (20 / 210)

*balayhouse (PMP: *balay) *balay

*balianshaman (PWMP: *balian) *balian

*balikreturn, go back (PMP: *balik₂) *balik₂

*baliuŋaxe (PWMP: *baliuŋ) *baliuŋ

*balukto sell (PMP: *baluk₂) *baluk₂

*bataŋlog, fallen tree (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

*bəbuRporridge (ROOT)

*bəkato split (PMP: *bekaq) *bekaq

*bəkistie together in a bundle (PMP: *beRkes) *beRkes

*belito buy (PMP: *beli) *beli

*benanto sneeze (PMP: *beñan) *beñan

*benitto peel off (rind, bark) (ROOT)

*beŋaRmolar tooth (PAN: *beReqaŋ) *beReqaŋ

*bəŋaʔopening (PMP: *beŋat₁) *beŋat

*beŋkolbent, crooked (ROOT)

*beRatheavy (PMP: *beReqat) *beReqat

*biaRalive; to live (PWMP: *bihaR) *bihaR

*bibiRlip(s) (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

*biəRaygive (PMP: *beRay) *beRay

*bilatmat; spread out (PMP: *bekelaj) *bekelaj

Proto-Sangiric (40 / 210)

*bilatmat; to spread out (PMP: *bilaj) *bilaj

*biliŋturn around or over (PMP: *biliŋ) *biliŋ

*biRashusked rice (PMP: *beRas) *beRas

*bisu(R)full, satisfied (PAN: *besuR) *besuR

*bisu(R)full, satisfied (PAN: *bisuR) *bisuR

*bisulboil (PMP: *bisul) *bisul

*bitinto hang (PPh: *bítin) *bítin

*bitiscalf of leg (PMP: *bities) *bities

*boboʔdumb, mute (LOAN)

*bombábomb; inflammatory speech by politician (LOAN)

*boyoŋ-boyoŋwasp (PWMP: *buyuŋ) *buyuŋ

*buafruit (PMP: *buaq) *buaq

*buatstand up, depart (PMP: *buhat₃) *buhat₃

*bubufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂) *bubu₂

*bubuRkapok (NOISE)

*budakblossom (PWMP: *bujak) *bujak

*buk-andrunk (PMP: *buhuk) *buSuk

*bukidmountain, hill (PAN: *bukij) *bukij

*bukuknee; joint; knot (PMP: *buku) *buku

*bulanmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

Proto-Sangiric (60 / 210)

*bulawangold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

*bulobamboo (PAN: *buluq₂) *buluq₂

*bumbunheap (PMP: *bunbun) *bunbun

*bunito hide (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

*bunokill; fight (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

*bunutcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁) *bunut₁

*buŋkutbent, stooped (PMP: *bukut) *bukut

*buRasmear, rub in (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

*buRukto stink; stinking (PAN: *buRuk) *buRuk

*butablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

*butasbehead, cut off head (as of fish) (PWMP: *butas₂) *butas₂

*butucastrate (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

*dakelbig; many (PPH: *dakél) *dakél

*dakit, *dakiʔcontagious (of diseases) (PWMP: *za(ŋ)kit) *za(ŋ)kit

*dalikanfire-place, hearth (PMP: *dalikan) *dalikan

*damaypeace (PWMP: *damay) *damay

*daŋawspan (of hand) (PPH: *daŋaw) *daŋaw

*dapuR-anhearth, kitchen (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR₁

*dayawto praise (PPH: *dáyaw) *dáyaw

*denobathe (ROOT)

Proto-Sangiric (80 / 210)

*əlawday; sun (PMP: *qalejaw) *qalejaw

*emayrice in the field (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

*ema-ʔmother (PMP: *ema-q) *ema₁

*emissweet (PMP: *emis₁) *emis

*emissweet (PMP: *hemis) *hemis

*endumlearn; remember; brood (PWMP: *qendem) *qendem

*epatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

*əRetall grass sp.: Imperata cylindrica L. (PAN: *eRiq) *eRiq

*esaone (PAN: *esa) *esa

*esimeat (PMP: *hesi) *Sesi

*inumto drink (PMP: *inum) *inum

*kaka-Ɂolder sibling (PMP: *kaka₂) *kaka₂

*kasilieel (PWMP: *kasuli) *kasuli

*katilitch; itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

*kauyou (sg.) (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

*kayabto fan fire (PWMP: *kayab) *kayab

*kəbittouch to attract attention (PMP: *kebit) *kebit

*kədutto pinch (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

*kəkiRshiver, tremble (ROOT)

*kəmisto squeeze, wring (PMP: *kemes) *kemes

Proto-Sangiric (100 / 210)

*kəpalthick (PPH: *kepal) *kepal

*kuRuŋcage, enclosure (PWMP: *kuruŋ) *kuruŋ

*kusuto rub between hands (PMP: *kusu₁) *kusu₁

*ləmisto drown (PMP: *lemes) *lemes

*leŋasesame (PMP: *leŋa) *leŋa

*leReʔneck (PAN: *liqeR) *liqeR

*ləsianit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

*lətawto float; rise to surface (PWMP: *le(n)taw) *le(n)taw

*linawclear (of water); pool (PMP: *linaw) *linaw

*lipancentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

*loaŋwide (PWMP: *lawaŋ₁) *lawaŋ₁

*loaŋwide (PPH: *luaŋ₂) *luaŋ₂

*ludanload; to load (PMP: *lujan) *lujan

*lumusoft, weak (PMP: *lumu₂) *lumu₂

*lunawgreen (PPH: *luh(e)naw) *luh(e)naw

*maRuanaymale (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

*ŋudayoung (PMP: *ŋuda) *ŋuda

*pakuedible fern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

*paRəpatmangrove (PWMP: *paRepat) *paRepat

*paRigiwell (PWMP: *paRigi) *paRigi

Proto-Sangiric (120 / 210)

*patedie; kill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

*patiukanbee (PWMP: *patiukan) *patiukan

*pədissting, smart (PMP: *hapejis) *hapejis

*pədugall, bile (PAN: *qapejux) *qapejux

*pipicheek (PMP: *pihpih) *piSpiS

*puluhandle (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

*Rampasrob, plunder (PMP: *raŋ(e)pas) *raŋ(e)pas

*Raŋudry (PMP: *Raŋu) *Raŋu

*Rapusto bind, tie up (PMP: *Rapus) *Rapus

*Rəsamfern sp (PMP: *aResam) *aResam

*Rəsamfern sp. (PMP: *qaRsam) *qaRsam

*Ribalap; to hold in the lap (PMP: *riba) *riba

*Riəkto thresh (grain) (PAN: *Riqek) *Riqek

*Rimukudsoul, spirit (PPH: *Rimukud) *Rimukud

*Rindukto hiccup (ROOT)

*Romasheath (PAN: *Rumaq) *Rumaq

*Rusukrib; thin (of person) (PAN: *Rusuk) *Rusuk

*sabuRto sow, scatter (PMP: *sabuR) *sabuR

*sadeRto lean against (PMP: *sandiR) *sandiR

*sakato climb (mountain) (PPH: *saka) *saka

Proto-Sangiric (140 / 210)

*sakelheel (PMP: *sakil) *sakil

*saliRfloor (PMP: *saleR) *saleR

*saliuexchange (PAN: *saliw) *saliw

*saluRriver (PWMP: *saluR) *saluR

*sampiŋside whiskers (PWMP: *sampiŋ) *sampiŋ

*sandeRto lean against (PMP: *sandiR) *sandiR

*saRupto scoop up (with ladle, etc.) (PMP: *saRup₁) *saRup₁

*sawasnake (PMP: *sawa) *sawa

*səbaŋto rise (of sun) (PPH: *sebaŋ) *sebaŋ

*səbufroth, foam; to extinguish fire (PMP: *sebuh) *sebuS

*səlatspace between two things (PWMP: *selat) *selat

*sənsiŋto plug up (PAN: *seŋseŋ) *seŋseŋ

*sənsiŋto plug up (PAN: *seŋseŋ) *seŋseŋ

*siawnine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

*sidito separate grain (PMP: *siji) *siji

*siduŋto shelter (PWMP: *ci(n)duŋ) *ci(n)duŋ

*siduŋto shelter (PWMP: *siduŋ) *siduŋ

*sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux) *sikux

*silaRa palm: Corypha spp. (PPH: *silaR) *silaR

*sintakto lift (PWMP: *sintak) *sintak

Proto-Sangiric (160 / 210)

*sipitto nip, pinch; nippers (PAN: *sipit) *sipit

*soRobto scorch over fire; to burn (wood) (PPH: *seReb) *seReb

*suanto plant (PMP: *suqan) *suqan

*suanto plant (PWMP: *suan) *suan

*sukato vomit (PPH: *suka₂) *suka₂

*suŋayhorn (of animal) (PPH: *súŋay) *súŋay

*tadacockspur (PMP: *tada) *tada

*tainset up a snare trap (PMP: *taqen) *taqen

*talisaytree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa L. (PMP: *talisay) *talisay

*tambunheap; to cover with earth (PMP: *tabun₂) *tabun₂

*tanaŋawinsect which damages rice (PWMP: *tanaŋaw) *tanaŋaw

*tanito isolate oneself, be alone (PWMP: *taniq) *taniq

*tapisto strain, filter (PWMP: *tapis₃) *tapis₃

*tapiʔcloth worn when bathing (PWMP: *tapiq₂) *tapiq₂

*taRəndummemory; remember, think of (ROOT)

*taRitirain (PPH: *taRihtih) *taRihtih

*taRitirain (LOAN)

*tasakripe, cooked (PMP: *tasak) *tasak

*tasiksea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik) *tasik

*təbasto chop (down) (PWMP: *tebas₂) *tebas₂

Proto-Sangiric (180 / 210)

*teluRegg (PMP: *qateluR) *qateluR

*tənikmosquito (PPH: *taRenek) *taRenek

*təpiRmat (PMP: *tepiR) *tepiR

*təsikspurt, spray out (ROOT)

*tətasto cut (stitches, thread) (PAN: *tastas) *tastas

*timbawon top (PWMP: *timbaw₂) *timbaw₂

*timbulto rise (PWMP: *timbul) *timbul

*tinawclear (PPH: *tin(e)qaw) *tin(e)qaw

*tinawclear, pure (of water) (PPH: *tenaw) *tenaw

*tiŋadato look upwards (PWMP: *tiŋadaq) *tiŋadaq

*tiŋiRvoice, sound (PPH: *tiŋeR) *tiŋeR

*tiŋkodheel (PMP: *tiked) *tiked

*tipoto pick fruit (PPH: *tipuq) *tipuq

*tiRashard (of wood) (PMP: *teRas) *teRas

*tiupto blow (PMP: *tiup) *tiup

*t-uadiyounger sibling (PMP: *ta-huaji) *Suaji

*tuboto grow (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

*tuidstump (of chopped-down tree) (PAN: *tuqed) *tuqed

*tukadladder, stairs (PWMP: *tukad₁) *tukad₁

*tukusto wrap up (PWMP: *tuŋkus) *tuŋkus

Proto-Sangiric (200 / 210)

*tulidstraight (PWMP: *tuq(e)lid) *tuq(e)lid

*tuludto push (PPH: *tulúd) *tulúd

*tuluŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ) *tuluŋ

*tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

*tunaythorn (PPH: *tunay₁) *tunay₁

*tunuto bake, roast (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

*tuŋawmite which causes skin irritation (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁) *tuŋaw₁

*tuRutto follow (PWMP: *tuRut) *tuRut

*tutuŋto burn (PMP: *tutuŋ) *tutuŋ

*uaimango (PMP: *wai) *wai

*unawdip, plunge in water; melt (PWMP: *huñaw) *huñaw

28. Proto-Siraya (5) Form. (Adelaar 2013)

*bukinmountain, hill (PAN: *bukij) *bukij

*damaγlight (PAN: *damaR₁) *damaR₁

*ka-γatus-anhundred (PAN: *RaCus) *RaCus

*tuktuktop, summit, crown (PAN: *tuktuk₂) *tuktuk₂

*uduweed, grass (PAN: *udu) *udu

29. Proto-South Aru (1) CMP

*lum-lummoss, algae (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

30. Proto-South Formosan (1) PSF

*biLuaqHibiscus tiliaceus (Tsuchida 1976:170) (NOISE)

31. Proto-South Hebridean (1) OC

*ku(m)penafishing net (Lynch 1978:757) (POC: *kupwena) *kupwena

32. Proto-South Sulawesi (159) WMP (Mills 1975)

*(d)ehdeto boil (PMP: *diqdiq) *diqdiq

*+rruŋdrone, roar (ROOT)

*a (m)pi (c)nearly, almost (NOISE)

*a(b)aŋfloat, drift (PWMP: *qabaŋ₂) *qabaŋ₂

*a(b)udust, ashes (PMP: *qabu) *qabu

*a(m)pa(r)unroll, spread out (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

*ambuRstrew, scatter (PWMP: *qambuR) *qambuR

*ampiɨllastree sp., Ficus politoria L. (the leaves of this tree can be used like sandpaper) (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qa(m)pelas

*apawhat (PMP: *apa₁) *apa₁

*apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

*awakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

*bala(b)orat, mouse (PMP: *balabaw) *balabaw

*bali₁side (friend, partner) (PMP: *baliw₁) *baliw₁

*bali₁ + istand beside, help (PMP: *baliw₁) *baliw₁

*bali₂enemy (oppose) (PMP: *baliw₁) *baliw₁

*bali₃answer (contradict, answer back) (PMP: *baliw₁) *baliw₁

*balulaŋthick hide (as of buffalo); callus (as on the hands) (PWMP: *balulaŋ) *balulaŋ

*baŋkecorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay) *baŋkay

*bɨssikspatter (PMP: *becik) *becik

*busawhite (Mills 1975:664) (PMP: *buseq) *buseq

Proto-South Sulawesi (20 / 159)

*damu(ɣ?)dew (PWMP: *dahemuR) *dahemuR

*datuprince, chieftain (PMP: *datu) *datu

*dilocative marker (Mills 1975) (PAN: *di) *di

*diŋincold (PMP: *diŋin) *diŋin

*dɨŋŋanaccompany (PMP: *deŋan) *deŋan

*garuto stir (PWMP: *garu) *garu

*gere[tʔ]slaughter, cut an animal's throat (PAN: *gereC) *gereC

*ɨ(dz)ɨnpress out (with reference to straining at stool, or childbirth) (PMP: *qezen) *qezen

*ɨ(n)sicontents (PMP: *hesi) *Sesi

*ɨmpugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *empu) *empu

*ɨnɨmsix (PAN: *enem) *enem

*insɨmsour (PWMP: *isem₂) *isem₂

*inumto drink (PMP: *inum) *inum

*iŋɨtremember (PWMP: *iŋet) *iŋet

*irascut, slice (PMP: *hiras) *hiras

*i-r-bakcut, make an incision (PMP: *ibak) *ibak

*iriscut, slice (PMP: *qiris) *qiris

*ɨrrɨrttight (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

*ɨrruŋdrone, roar (PWMP: *heRuŋ) *heRuŋ

*ɨttiebb, recede (of water) (PMP: *qeti₁) *qeti₁

Proto-South Sulawesi (40 / 159)

*kakaolder brother (PMP: *kaka₂) *kaka₂

*karaŋcoral (PMP: *karaŋ) *karaŋ

*katuto send (PMP: *katu) *kaCu

*ketubreak, break off (PMP: *ketuq) *ketuq

*kɨbbɨlinvulnerable (PWMP: *kebel) *kebel

*kiloglean, shine (PWMP: *kilaw₂) *kilaw₂

*kɨnniŋeyebrow (PWMP: *keniŋ) *keniŋ

*kɨrru(t)shave, scrape (PWMP: *kerud) *kerud

*kɨtto(k)to hit (PMP: *ketuk) *ketuk

*la(b) a(ɣ)dish made of raw meat/fish seasoned with lemon juice, spices, etc. (NOISE)

*lakoto go (PMP: *lakaw) *lakaw

*lamba(ɣ)sheet (counter for thin, flat objects, cloth, paper, etc.). (LOAN)

*lambu(k)pound rice (PMP: *lambuk) *lambuk

*lambu(k)to pound rice (PWMP: *la(m)buk) *la(m)buk

*lasopenis (PMP: *lasuq₂) *lasuq₂

*lawa-lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

*liaŋcave (PMP: *liaŋ) *liaŋ

*-lim-bua[Cʔ]well up, bubble up (PWMP: *buag) *buag

*lɨmmɨsto drown (PMP: *lemes) *lemes

*linduŋshade, shelter (PAN: *liduŋ) *liduŋ

Proto-South Sulawesi (60 / 159)

*li-ntikant (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

*litakearth, ground (ROOT)

*mayaŋblossom (spadix) of the coconut and other palm species (PWMP: *mayaŋ) *mayaŋ

*naand (NOISE)

*paluhammer (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

*paluŋtrough (PWMP: *paluŋ₁) *paluŋ₁

*pani(C)wing (PMP: *panid) *paNid

*pɨ(dz)isburning sensation; sick (PMP: *hapejis) *hapejis

*pɨddɨmto close the eyes (PWMP: *pezem) *pezem

*pilisside of the face (PWMP: *pilis) *pilis

*pɨzzugall, bile (PAN: *qapejux) *qapejux

*piʔpi(C)to beat (PAN: *pitpit₃) *pitpit₃

*piʔpitsmall sparrow-like bird species (PWMP: *pitpit₁) *pitpit₁

*po(ŋ)kasplit, break apart (PMP: *pu(ŋ)kaq) *pu(ŋ)kaq

*po(ŋ)kato split, break apart (PMP: *pukaq) *pukaq

*po(ŋ)kasplit, break apart (ROOT)

*pucuksprout; budding leaves (PWMP: *pucuk) *pucuk

*pusoheart (PMP: *pusuq₁) *pusuq₁

*puʔpusto consume, use up (PWMP: *puspus₁) *puspus₁

*rusukribs (PAN: *Rusuk) *Rusuk

Proto-South Sulawesi (80 / 159)

*sa(b)eto arrive (PWMP: *sabay₂) *sabay₂

*sa(m)pohouse (PAN: *sapaw) *sapaw

*sa(n)de(γ)to lean on (PMP: *sandeR) *sandeR

*salawrong; lack; fault (PMP: *salaq₁) *salaq₁

*salagaharrow (tool) (LOAN)

*salɨppasmall case for betel chew ingredients (LOAN)

*salu(C?)river (PWMP: *saluR) *saluR

*sampeto hang up (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

*saŋki(C)to tie (PMP: *sa(ŋ)kit) *sa(ŋ)kit

*saŋki(C)to tie (ROOT)

*saputo rub, wipe (PMP: *sapu) *sapu

*sapu(t)to cover over (PMP: *saput₁) *saput₁

*sarakto separate (PWMP: *sarak) *sarak

*sau(r)conquered, powerless (PWMP: *saur₂) *saur₂

*sayoto move, dance (PWMP: *sayaw) *sayaw

*siaŋdaylight (PWMP: *siaŋ) *siaŋ

*silolight, glare (PMP: *silaw) *silaw

*sintakrapid, sudden movement (PWMP: *sintak) *sintak

*sɨrrefragrant grass sp.: Andropogon nardus Linn. (PWMP: *seray) *seray

*subɨŋearring, ornament (PWMP: *subeŋ) *subeŋ

Proto-South Sulawesi (100 / 159)

*susu(r)edge (PWMP: *susuR) *susuR

*t(iɨ)(n)disto squeeze (esp. lice between the nails) (PMP: *tindes) *tindes

*ta(m)bakto hit, pound (PWMP: *tabak₁) *tabak

*ta(m)pito winnow (PMP: *tapi) *tapi

*taanwithstand, endure (PWMP: *taqan₂) *taqan₂

*tabu(ɣ)to sow, scatter (PMP: *tabuR₁) *tabuR₁

*tamato enter (PMP: *tama₂) *tama₂

*tamaenter (PMP: *tamaq₂) *tamaq₂

*tamanaŋbarren (of a woman) (PWMP: *tamanaŋ) *tamanaŋ

*tambaadd to, increase (PWMP: *tambaq) *tambaq

*tamba(k)hit, pound (PMP: *tambak₁) *tambak₁

*tamba(k)hit, pound (ROOT)

*tambunheap, pile (PMP: *tabun₂) *tabun₂

*taŋguŋto carry, be responsible for (PWMP: *taŋguŋ) *taŋguŋ

*tapisto filter (PWMP: *tapis₃) *tapis₃

*taroto put, place (PMP: *taRuq) *taRuq

*tasakripe (PMP: *tasak) *tasak

*tauperson (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

*tawato laugh (PMP: *tawa₁) *Cawa

*tembakto shoot (LOAN)

Proto-South Sulawesi (120 / 159)

*ti(bw)i(C)carry (ROOT)

*ti(dr)olook, look out (PMP: *tindaw) *tindaw

*ti(q)tikto drip (PMP: *tiktik₂) *tiktik₂

*tɨbbaŋto chop, cut down (PMP: *tebaŋ) *tebaŋ

*tɨdduŋshelter; shade(d) (PMP: *teduŋ₁) *teduŋ₁

*tɨggukto swallow (PMP: *teguk) *teguk

*tɨkɨnstick, staff (PMP: *teken) *teken

*tɨllɨnto sink (PMP: *telem) *telem

*timbabucket (PMP: *timba) *timba

*timbaŋto weigh (PWMP: *timbaŋ) *timbaŋ

*tɨmmusurround, go around; meet (PWMP: *temu₂) *temu₂

*tɨntucertain (LOAN)

*tiŋa(dr)ato look up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq) *tiŋadaq

*tɨppuŋflour, meal (LOAN)

*tɨrrusstraight, direct (PWMP: *terus) *terus

*tu(dr)oto point (PAN: *tuzuq₁) *tuzuq₁

*tu(ŋ)ka(r)to exchange, barter (LOAN)

*tu(ŋ)kusto wrap (PWMP: *tuŋkus) *tuŋkus

*tuagood fortune, happiness (PWMP: *tuaq) *tuaq

*tuakpalm wine (PMP: *tuak) *tuak

Proto-South Sulawesi (140 / 159)

*tujuaim, intention (PMP: *tuzu) *tuzu

*tukatto climb (PWMP: *tukad₂) *tukad₂

*tulakprop up, support (PMP: *tulak) *tulak

*tumbakspear, lance (PMP: *tumbak) *tumbak

*tumbu(r)well up; spring (PMP: *tubuR) *tubuR

*tumbukto push, to butt against (PMP: *tumbuk) *tumbuk

*tumbunto heap, pile up (PWMP: *tumbun) *tumbun

*tumpato pour out (PWMP: *tumpaq) *tumpaq

*tundato pull, drag (LOAN)

*tundukbend, bow; submit (PWMP: *tunduk) *tunduk

*tuŋgaleach, single (LOAN)

*tuqtukto beat, pound (PAN: *tuktuk₃) *tuktuk₃

*turu(t)to follow (PWMP: *tuRut) *tuRut

*tusukto stick, stab (PMP: *tusuk) *tusuk

*-um-verbal infix which "parallels //maN// to a considerable extent: as an "infinitive" or "participial" marker, or to mark transitive verbs with indefinite or implicit objects. In all of these the focus seems to be less on the agent than on the action itself, and in this respect it is noteworthy that /um/, unlike /maN/ can co-occur with clearly intransitive verbs (at least in the Sa'dan group) like 'sit', 'go' and 'walk'." (Mills 1975:1:145ff). (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

*waiwater (PMP: *wahiR) *wahiR

*wakatroot (PMP: *wakat) *wakat

*wanibee (PMP: *wani) *wani

*waseaxe (PWMP: *wasay) *wasay

33. Proto-Southern Vanuatu (1) OC

*nə-pwaŋVhole (POC: *pwaŋa) *pwaŋa

34. Proto-South-Huon-Gulf (2) OC

*wamother's brother (and also father's sister?) (PMP: *uaʔ) *uaʔ

*wamother’s brother (and also father’s sister?) (PMP: *ua₂) *ua₂

35. Proto-Sub-Ambon (5) CMP

*galustir (PMP: *galu) *galu

*kumanəsmall crab (PMP: *kumaŋ) *kumaŋ

*nipa(y)snake (PMP: *nipay) *nipay

*pasu-cheek (PAN: *pasu₁) *pasu₁

*valahand (PMP: *baRa₁) *baRa₁

36. Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (484) PWMP

*agemhold, grip (ROOT)

*akaŋstep over (ROOT)

*aluRpond, stream (ROOT)

*ambúnheap, pile (ROOT)

*ampetcheck, stanch, stop the flow (ROOT)

*ampikpat, clap (ROOT)

*anzakstamp the feet (ROOT)

*aŋkebcovering, lid (ROOT)

*arudscrape off (ROOT)

*badutuproot, pull out (ROOT)

*bahuRmix with liquid (ROOT)

*bajbajunravel, untie; to clear forest (ROOT)

*bakpop! smack! (ROOT)

*bala(n)tikspring-set spear trap (ROOT)

*balaŋstriped, banded, multicolored (ROOT)

*balíkisbind, wrap around firmly (ROOT)

*balikutkútbend, stoop, curl (ROOT)

*baliŋto wind (ROOT)

*bambekmuffled sound (ROOT)

*ban_atstretch (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (20 / 484)

*banuitfishhook (ROOT)

*baŋkuŋcurved, crooked, bent (ROOT)

*baRaqred (ROOT)

*barisstraight line (ROOT)

*baseqwet; to wash (ROOT)

*batikbatik pattern (ROOT)

*batiqaffinal relative (?) (NOISE)

*bawaŋopen expanse of land or water (ROOT)

*be(n)tukbend, curve (ROOT)

*becikspatter, fly off in all directions (ROOT)

*beksound of hacking or chopping (ROOT)

*bekas₂swift, fast (ROOT)

*bekurturtledove; coo (ROOT)

*belatukwoodpecker (ROOT)

*beluŋbend, curve (ROOT)

*bentascut open, cut through (ROOT)

*benteŋstretch taut (ROOT)

*beŋbeŋblock, prevent passage (ROOT)

*beŋeRdeafened (ROOT)

*beritburst, tear open (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (40 / 484)

*beritscratch a line (ROOT)

*beRkisbind up; bundle (ROOT)

*bi(ŋ)kisbind, tie together (ROOT)

*bi(ŋ)kuŋadze (ROOT)

*bikapotsherd (ROOT)

*bikbiksound of slapping, bubbling, etc. (ROOT)

*bilaqchip, splinter (ROOT)

*bilukto tack (in sailing) (ROOT)

*biŋitmoody, irritable (ROOT)

*biŋkugcurved, bent (ROOT)

*birisslice (ROOT)

*bitastear, rip (ROOT)

*bitbithold by the fingertips (ROOT)

*bu(n)tascut through (ROOT)

*buk(e)latopen the eyes wide (ROOT)

*bukaqopen, undo (ROOT)

*bukbukwood weevil (ROOT)

*bukelcurve, wave, billow (ROOT)

*bukutbent, stooped (ROOT)

*buŋetanger, angry (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (60 / 484)

*buŋkaqsplit apart; piece split off (ROOT)

*buŋkugbent over, hunchbacked (ROOT)

*buŋkusbundle (ROOT)

*buritmark, line (ROOT)

*buRtaqearth, ground, land (ROOT)

*ca(ŋ)kemgrasp, hold (ROOT)

*ca(ŋ)kupclose, enclose (ROOT)

*ce(ŋ)kikchoke (ROOT)

*cegukhiccough (ROOT)

*celukcorner (ROOT)

*ceñebimmerse, submerge (ROOT)

*cepakcrack, split, break (ROOT)

*cibithook, pinch, clasp (ROOT)

*ciŋapcatch one's breath (ROOT)

*cu(ŋ)kubcover with a hollow container (ROOT)

*cukupclose, cover (ROOT)

*cupitnarrow (ROOT)

*curitmark, line, dash (ROOT)

*dabuqfall (ROOT)

*dasekpress together, compress (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (80 / 484)

*de(ŋ)gukdeep throaty sound (ROOT)

*debakpound, thud (ROOT)

*dekakshriek, as of laughter (ROOT)

*deŋkulbend a limb (ROOT)

*deŋussnout (ROOT)

*deRiŋto ring, buzz (ROOT)

*desekpress together, compress (ROOT)

*detikthrob, tick (ROOT)

*diŋeRhear (ROOT)

*diŋkittouching or joined along the length (ROOT)

*diŋkulbend a limb (ROOT)

*diq(e)pitjoin, fasten together, probably lengthwise (ROOT)

*duŋkulbend a limb (ROOT)

*dupakstamp, trample (ROOT)

*e(m)pisempty rice husk (ROOT)

*e(ŋ)gikhigh-pitched animal sound (ROOT)

*e(ŋ)kabopen, uncover (ROOT)

*ebutpluck, pull out (ROOT)

*egaŋdry (ROOT)

*eguŋgong (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (100 / 484)

*elebdisappear under water (ROOT)

*elejsink (ROOT)

*empaksplit, break off (ROOT)

*eNgeŋmoan, hum (ROOT)

*enzakstep, tread, stamp the foot (ROOT)

*eŋikpeep, squeak, squeal (ROOT)

*eŋutgrunt, whine (ROOT)

*epuscomplete, finish (ROOT)

*galiŋroll, grind (ROOT)

*gampuŋto float (ROOT)

*gaŋgaŋheat or dry something near a fire (ROOT)

*gaRawhoarse (ROOT)

*garusto scratch (ROOT)

*gasiŋspinning top (ROOT)

*ge(n)tasbreak, break off (ROOT)

*geksound of a thud (ROOT)

*gelemgloomy, dark (ROOT)

*gepi(q)fold, folded (ROOT)

*geRuŋrumbling sound (ROOT)

*geteqtree sap (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (120 / 484)

*getukknock, pound on (ROOT)

*getukknock, pound on (ROOT)

*gigiksqueal, squawk (ROOT)

*giteqtree sap (ROOT)

*gu(m)pitpinch together (ROOT)

*guliŋto roll (ROOT)

*gutgutnibble off (ROOT)

*ha(ŋ)kepgrasp, embrace (ROOT)

*hagakraucous throaty sound (ROOT)

*he(m)pitpress between two surfaces (ROOT)

*heluŋshelter, shade (ROOT)

*heŋaqpant, breathe (ROOT)

*hidemsilent; secret (ROOT)

*higpítpinch or squeeze between two surfaces (ROOT)

*hikn_atstretch (ROOT)

*hiŋ(e)pisthin (of materials) (ROOT)

*hiRettighten; constriction, belt (ROOT)

*hírudscrape, rub off (ROOT)

*hu(n)tukbend, flex (ROOT)

*hu(ŋ)kabopen, uncover (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (140 / 484)

*hubun₂group, collection (ROOT)

*hukastake off, loosen, undo (ROOT)

*hunatstretch (ROOT)

*hurusslip or slide down or along (ROOT)

*i(n)tilclitoris (ROOT)

*iliŋshake the head in negation (ROOT)

*iluRflow; saliva (ROOT)

*inaRlight of the sun (ROOT)

*ínatstretch (ROOT)

*iŋgukthroaty sound (ROOT)

*iŋkabto open, uncover (ROOT)

*iŋkaŋwalk with legs wide apart (ROOT)

*iŋkulbent into a curve (ROOT)

*iŋus₁sniffle; snot (ROOT)

*ipaksplit (ROOT)

*ipidream (ROOT)

*kabangroup, flock, herd (ROOT)

*kabejtie, wrap up (ROOT)

*kalawithook (ROOT)

*kaluŋcurved (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (160 / 484)

*kaŋkaŋ₁spread the legs wide (ROOT)

*kawaŋapart, separated (ROOT)

*ke(m)pesdeflate (ROOT)

*ke(n)tutflatulence (ROOT)

*keliŋhave a ringing sound (ROOT)

*kelukbend, curve (ROOT)

*keluŋcoil, curl, undulation (ROOT)

*keluŋshield (ROOT)

*kentuŋbird-clapper (ROOT)

*kepiqfold, folded (ROOT)

*kepkepgrasp, hold (ROOT)

*kerudscratch, scrape (ROOT)

*kerusrustling sound (ROOT)

*keskeswrap tightly around (ROOT)

*ketekmake a noise (ROOT)

*ketertremble, vibrate (ROOT)

*ki(m)pitpress together (ROOT)

*kilawreflected light (ROOT)

*kipakflap the wings (ROOT)

*kitaysuspension bridge (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (180 / 484)

*kitirtremble, shake (ROOT)

*kitkitto bite (ROOT)

*ku(n)tilwart (ROOT)

*kubkub₂cover (ROOT)

*kukukcackle, cluck (ROOT)

*kulintaŋan ensemble of gongs, the gamelan (ROOT)

*kulkulcurled up, doubled up (ROOT)

*kumuRrinse the mouth (ROOT)

*kupascome off in thin layers, desquamate (ROOT)

*kupkupcover with a thin layer (possibly identical to Dempwolff's *kupkup 'grasp, hold') (ROOT)

*kurisline (ROOT)

*kurudscrape (ROOT)

*la(m)pesutslip, slide out of one's hold (ROOT)

*la(m)pisflat layer (ROOT)

*la(m)pusgone, vanished, terminated (ROOT)

*la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋspread the legs (ROOT)

*la(ŋ)keblie face down (ROOT)

*la(R)paksound of clapping or slapping (ROOT)

*lagecikfly off, spatter (ROOT)

*laketsticky, viscous (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (200 / 484)

*lakubencircle, surround, enclose (ROOT)

*lantawto float (ROOT)

*lantaybridge, floor (ROOT)

*lanuttough, as old meat (ROOT)

*le(n)tawto float (ROOT)

*le(t)aksplit, crack (ROOT)

*lebakpound, thud (ROOT)

*lebekpound in a mortar (ROOT)

*lebukpound, thud (ROOT)

*lebuRturbid, murky (ROOT)

*lecakmuddy (ROOT)

*lecutslip, squirt or squeeze out; be born (ROOT)

*legeŋboom, thundering sound (ROOT)

*leguŋbooming sound (ROOT)

*lekabopen, uncover (ROOT)

*lekas₂quick, quickly (ROOT)

*lekebpatch, cover (ROOT)

*leketstick, adhere (ROOT)

*lenebdisappear under water (ROOT)

*leñebdisappear under water (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (220 / 484)

*len-ejdisappear under water (ROOT)

*lentukbend, flex (ROOT)

*leŋaŋamazement, astonishment (ROOT)

*leŋkiqscream (ROOT)

*leŋkukbend, curve (ROOT)

*lepakthud (ROOT)

*lepapflattened (ROOT)

*lepascome loose, free (ROOT)

*lepukfall with a thud (ROOT)

*lepusto puff, blow into (ROOT)

*leq(e)gukgulp, swallow (ROOT)

*lesekpress into (ROOT)

*letiksound of snapping or cracking (ROOT)

*li(n)demdark (ROOT)

*li(ŋ)kubsurround, encircle (ROOT)

*li(ŋ)kugcurl, curve (ROOT)

*li(ŋ)kuŋconcave (ROOT)

*li(ŋ)kupencircle (ROOT)

*libejwind around (ROOT)

*libuRmixture; gruel (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (240 / 484)

*lidekcrush rice (ROOT)

*linduŋshelter, protect (ROOT)

*liŋkitjoined along the length (ROOT)

*lipuksnap, crack (ROOT)

*litakclick, clatter (ROOT)

*litukbend, twist (ROOT)

*lu(m)pakbreak, split off (ROOT)

*lu(ŋ)kebcover, shelter (ROOT)

*lucakmuddy (ROOT)

*lucutsqueeze out (ROOT)

*ludemcloudy, obscure (ROOT)

*lukabturn up at the edge (ROOT)

*lukuŋcurve (ROOT)

*lunawmelt, liquefy (ROOT)

*lupitpress between two flat surfaces (ROOT)

*luqukbay (ROOT)

*lurusslip off (ROOT)

*lutakearth, mud; muddy (ROOT)

*lutekmud (ROOT)

*m-alemnight (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (260 / 484)

*maŋ-qiristo cut, slice (ROOT)

*muteqgummy secretion of the eyes (ROOT)

*nupidream (ROOT)

*ŋetŋetgnash the teeth (ROOT)

*ŋutŋutmumble, whimper (ROOT)

*pa(n)tiksound of ticking, flipping, light tapping (ROOT)

*padetsqueezed in; compact (ROOT)

*pagpágbeat to remove dust (ROOT)

*pagutpeck, pick at (ROOT)

*pakcrack, clap! (ROOT)

*palaŋstriped, spotted (ROOT)

*pale(n)tikspring-set spear trap (ROOT)

*paletawto float (ROOT)

*pampetstop flowing (ROOT)

*paŋgaŋroast (ROOT)

*paRawhoarse (ROOT)

*paritmark with lines (ROOT)

*parudscraper, grater (ROOT)

*paspasremove, take off (ROOT)

*pasukenter (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (280 / 484)

*patekmake a dull clicking sound (ROOT)

*patikmottled pattern (ROOT)

*pe(n)tikspot, dot (ROOT)

*pe(R)takknock; pop, burst (ROOT)

*pegpegto box, give a blow (ROOT)

*pekakcackle (ROOT)

*pekeŋkeŋstiff, of the body (ROOT)

*pelpelto fill, cram full (ROOT)

*peRawhoarse (ROOT)

*peRciksplash, spatter (ROOT)

*pespessqueeze, press out (ROOT)

*pesutsqueeze out, spurt out (ROOT)

*petukknock, bump (ROOT)

*petukknock, bump against (ROOT)

*pi(n)tascut off, break (ROOT)

*picekblind in one eye (ROOT)

*pikclick (ROOT)

*piketbird lime (ROOT)

*pikulbend, turn (ROOT)

*pilantikspring-set spear trap (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (300 / 484)

*pinzakstep on, tread on (ROOT)

*pishiss (ROOT)

*pisákmuddy ground (ROOT)

*pispispound fine (ROOT)

*pitekmud (ROOT)

*pituktap, rap (ROOT)

*pitukflick, tap (ROOT)

*pukbang! (ROOT)

*pukaŋcrotch (ROOT)

*pukas₂release, loosen, untie (ROOT)

*punpunassemble, gather (ROOT)

*putusbreak off (ROOT)

*qambejwind around (ROOT)

*qaŋabopen, of the mouth (ROOT)

*qatuknod (ROOT)

*qe(n)(t)akknock (ROOT)

*qe(n)demthink, brood, remember (ROOT)

*qi(n)demdark, black (ROOT)

*qiliRflow down, downstream (ROOT)

*qiŋeRloud, noisy (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (320 / 484)

*qisepsuck up (ROOT)

*quRuŋroar, moan (ROOT)

*Ra(m)pastear off (ROOT)

*ra(ŋ)sukinsert, put or drive in (ROOT)

*Rab(e)quncover with earth (ROOT)

*Rabukdust, powder (ROOT)

*rabutpull out something rooted in soft matter (ROOT)

*ragukgulp (ROOT)

*rakepseize, grasp, catch (ROOT)

*rambuthairy (ROOT)

*Rampisthin, thin layer (ROOT)

*raŋgutsnatch at, pull with a jerk (ROOT)

*Raŋkubcover (ROOT)

*Rátawto float (ROOT)

*rawaŋopen space (ROOT)

*re(n)tessever, cut (ROOT)

*re(ŋ)kikhave a squeaky voice (ROOT)

*re(t)akburst, split (ROOT)

*regutbite, nibble (ROOT)

*rekaŋwide apart (as the legs) (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (340 / 484)

*reketstick, adhere (ROOT)

*rempungather together (ROOT)

*Remukcrumbs (ROOT)

*repifold, turn back (ROOT)

*Repikbreak to pieces (something brittle) (ROOT)

*retassplit (of a seam) (ROOT)

*ri(m)puncollect, gather (ROOT)

*ri(n)tastear off, separate (ROOT)

*Ri(n)tastear open, rip (ROOT)

*ri(ŋ)kittouching or joined along the length (ROOT)

*riciksound of splashing, etc. (ROOT)

*ripakloud clap (ROOT)

*risrislight rustling sound (ROOT)

*ru(ŋ)kuqbowed, hunched over, as from age (ROOT)

*ruitbarbed; sharp (ROOT)

*Rumekcrush (ROOT)

*rumpuncluster, clump (ROOT)

*runawmelt, liquefy (ROOT)

*ruŋkábto force open (ROOT)

*rupitnarrow (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (360 / 484)

*Ruristear into strips (ROOT)

*rusrusrustling sound (ROOT)

*rusrusslip or slide off (ROOT)

*Sa(m)buRstrew, spread (ROOT)

*sa(m)pukcollide, bump into (ROOT)

*sa(n)detpacked tightly (ROOT)

*sa(ŋ)kepclose, shut (ROOT)

*sabutcoarse hair or fiber (ROOT)

*sakuŋresounding sound (ROOT)

*salapidbraid (ROOT)

*saletekclicking sound (ROOT)

*salukuba cover; to cover (ROOT)

*saluRpond, stream (ROOT)

*sandaRlean on (ROOT)

*sandukspoon, ladle (ROOT)

*sapaDflat, of things that are expected to be more rounded (ROOT)

*sawitbarb (ROOT)

*se(m)pittight, narrow (ROOT)

*se(m)putblowpipe, shoot with a blowpipe (ROOT)

*se(ŋ)gukhiccough (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (380 / 484)

*se(ŋ)kebcover (ROOT)

*sedemdark (ROOT)

*sedettightness, congestion (ROOT)

*selemdark (ROOT)

*selukcorner (ROOT)

*sempukbump into (ROOT)

*sendukspoon (ROOT)

*seŋitirritated, annoyed (ROOT)

*sepaqchew (ROOT)

*si(m)paksplit (ROOT)

*si(n)deksob, inhale suddenly (ROOT)

*si(ŋ)kebcover (ROOT)

*si(ŋ)kukbent (ROOT)

*sidemobscure, dusky (ROOT)

*siduŋto shelter (ROOT)

*sikaŋwide apart, of the legs (ROOT)

*sikephawk sp.; seize, grasp (ROOT)

*silawglare, blinding light (ROOT)

*silemfade from sight; gloom, obscurity (ROOT)

*silukcorner; curve (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (400 / 484)

*siŋitviolent emotion (ROOT)

*sipaqchew (ROOT)

*sipungather, collect (ROOT)

*su(m)birrim, border (ROOT)

*su(m)pitnarrow; tongs (ROOT)

*su(ŋ)kubcover with a hollow container (ROOT)

*su(ŋ)kuŋstooped, bent (as the back) (ROOT)

*suluRflowing water; flood (ROOT)

*sumpelstopper, plug (ROOT)

*susukprick, pierce (ROOT)

*ta(m)bejtie up, wind around (ROOT)

*ta(m)birrim (ROOT)

*ta(m)pascut or strip off (ROOT)

*ta(m)pukclap, thud (ROOT)

*ta(n)demremember (ROOT)

*ta(n)zegstand erect (ROOT)

*ta(ŋ)kebcover, overlapping part (ROOT)

*ta(ŋ)kepcatch, trap (ROOT)

*takemtightly closed (ROOT)

*takepfold over (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (420 / 484)

*takupenclose, cover up (ROOT)

*tambeŋobstruct, block, impede (ROOT)

*tampilattach, connect, join (ROOT)

*tampuŋcollect, gather (ROOT)

*tapusend, finish (ROOT)

*taRpisthinness, fineness of texture (ROOT)

*tascrack, snap! (ROOT)

*tastastear off (ROOT)

*tawaŋclearly visible (ROOT)

*te(m)pusend, conclude (ROOT)

*tebtebcut off, prune, cut down (ROOT)

*tegaŋdry, dehydrated (ROOT)

*teka knock (ROOT)

*tekakcackle (ROOT)

*tekekclucking or gasping sound (ROOT)

*tekepcover, covering (ROOT)

*tekesbind firmly (ROOT)

*tekikhigh-pitched sound (ROOT)

*tekubcover, shut (ROOT)

*telukbay (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (440 / 484)

*teneRvoice (ROOT)

*tepiklight slap (ROOT)

*testestear (ROOT)

*ti(m)bakclap, make a clapping sound (ROOT)

*ti(m)bawheight, be high (ROOT)

*ti(m)pukclap, clack (ROOT)

*ti(m)puncollect, gather (ROOT)

*ti(ŋ)kaŋspread the legs (ROOT)

*ti(ŋ)keswind around, encircle (ROOT)

*tiksound of a click or tick (ROOT)

*tiku(q)bent, crooked (ROOT)

*tikugbend (ROOT)

*tikupshut, close (ROOT)

*tilemdark, black (ROOT)

*tiliŋringing sound (ROOT)

*timbunheap (ROOT)

*tiŋclear ringing sound (ROOT)

*tipakslap; sound of slapping or clapping (ROOT)

*tu(ŋ)kabbreak open, force open (ROOT)

*tu(ŋ)kubcover (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (460 / 484)

*tu(ŋ)kupto cover (ROOT)

*tuksound of heavy knocking, pounding, beating (ROOT)

*tuksound of knocking, pounding, beating (ROOT)

*tukudcane; prop, support (ROOT)

*tumpukheap, mound (ROOT)

*tuŋdeep resounding sound (ROOT)

*tuŋkusbundle (ROOT)

*u(m)punswarm together (ROOT)

*u(ŋ)kaŋspread open, as the legs (ROOT)

*ubusto finish (ROOT)

*un-atstretch, straighten out (ROOT)

*unawwash, wash off (ROOT)

*unzurshove, thrust forward (ROOT)

*uŋetanger, wrath (ROOT)

*uŋittease, vex, annoy (ROOT)

*uŋurmoan, growl (ROOT)

*upekcrumble; piece broken off (ROOT)

*utassever, divide (ROOT)

*zapitpinch, press (ROOT)

*zatuqfall (ROOT)

Proto-Western Malayo-Polynesian (480 / 484)

*zegzegstand erect (ROOT)

*zeritshrill or crackling sound (ROOT)

*ziŋkittouching or joined along the length (ROOT)

*zuliŋcross-eyed (ROOT)

37. Proto-Western Micronesian (1) OC

*ka(a)mami1pl. excl., we, us (POC: *kamami) *ami

38. Proto-Willaumez (2) OC

*variligrass (Goodenough 1961) (POC: *palici) *baliji

*variligrass (Goodenough 1961) (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi <>

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/3/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-l_plg.htm