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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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S

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Sa
Sa'a
Saaroa
Sa'ban
Sa'dan
Sa'dan Toraja
Sadong
Saisiyat
Saisiyat (Taai)
Saisiyat (Tungho)
Sakalava Malagasy
Sakao
Sakizaya
Sakizaya Amis
Salako
Salayar
Salayar Makasarese
Saliba
Sama (Central)
Sama (Pangutaran)
Sama Linungan
Sama-Bajaw
Samal
Samal (Balangingi )
Samasodu
Sambal
Sambal (Botolan)
Sambal (Pinatubo)
Sambal (Tina)
Samihim
Samoan
Sangil
Sangir

Sangir (Siau)
Sangir (Tamako)
Santa Ana
Saparua
Sarangani Bilaan
Sarangani Manobo
Sarawak Malay
Sasak
Sasak (Sewela)
Satawal
Savu
Sawai
Sebop
Sebop (Long Luyang)
Seediq
Seediq (Tkdaya)
Seediq (Toŋan)
Seediq (Truku)
Seguliud
Seimat
Sekar
Seke
Seko
Selako
Selaru
Selau
Sengga
Sengseng
Sentah
Sentah Land Dayak
Serawai
Seru
Serudong

Serui-Laut
Sesake
Sesake, Woraviu
Sesayap
Sesivi
Sewela Sasak
Siang
Siau Sangir
Sichule
Sie
Sika
Sikaiana
Simalungun Batak
Simalur
Simbo
Sinaugoro
Sinauna
Sindangan Subanun
Singhi
Singhi Land Dayak
Sio
Siraya
Siraya (Gravius)
Siraya (Utrecht ms.)
Sissano
Siviri
Sobei
Soboyo
Solorese
Solos
Sonsorol
Sonsorol-Tobi
Soppeng Bugis

Sori
South Efate
Southeast Ambrym
Southern Arosi
Southern Nias
Southern Paiwan
Southwest Tanna
Sowa
Squliq Atayal
Suau
Suau (Daui)
Subanen/Subanun
Subanon
Subanon
Subanon (Siocon), Western Subanon
Subanun (Sindangan)
Sudest
Sula
Sula (Fagudu)
Sumatra Malay
Sumbawa
Sumbawanese
Sundanese
Sungai Beluran
Sungai Kuamut
Sungai Seguliud
Sun̄wadaga
Supan
Sursurunga
Sye

600. Sa (4) OC [sax] Vanuatu

lo-losswim (POC: *loso-loso)

mcurto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

roŋo bonto smell (POC: *bou roŋoR) *bahu

samanoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saRman

601. Sa'a (567) OC (Ivens 1929) [apb] (Sa’a) Solomon Islands

apersonal article, used with all names of persons, and with certain nouns, and also with verbs; (a) precedes all personal names (except in the vocative), both native and foreign, male and female; (b) used with relationship terms to indicate a particular person, (c) the relationship terms huʔe 'wife', poro 'husband', keni 'woman, wife', mwela 'child', are not ordinarily preceded by a, but require the addition of a demonstrative; (d) in stories the article a may be prefixed to poro and huʔe, which may be translated 'Lord' and 'Lady'; (e) after the Melanesian idiom the noun ola, prefaced by the personal article a; a ola/, denotes 'So-and-so'; (f) the nouns kei, denoting a female, mwai, denoting a male, mwau, boy, are used with the personal article and a demonstrative; (g) the interrogative atei 'who, what person' is made up of a and tei 'interrogative'; (h) there is a regular use of a in personification; (i) used with a verb to indicate a descriptive title (PMP: *a₁)

ada-loŋafour plates of turtle shell on the shoulders of the hawksbill turtle (LOAN)

aefeces, ordure (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

ahato cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising, to cross the ‘t’ in writing (POC: *tapa₂) *tapa₁

ahato cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising (POC: *tapar) *tabad

ahalashoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

aha-siŋemaking incisions in (POC: *tapa₂) *tapa₁

ahesurf, currents from wind or tide, tide-rip; to flow; to melt away, to waste, to disappear (POC: *tape₁)

ahe luluboiling tide (POC: *ruru)

ahes-ito cause to drift (POC: *tape₁)

ähi-ma-wayawn (POC: *mawap) *Suab

ähuriconch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

ahutaall, the whole of (NOISE)

aiexclamation of dissent, disapproval or surprise (PAN: *ai₂)

ake-aketwig, sprig (POC: *take₁) *taŋkay

alato bite, sting, be sharp-edged (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

aleleto be jubilant (NOISE)

älilie curled up as a dog or a snake (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

alia cockle (POC: *kaRi₂)

äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

Sa'a (20 / 567)

älitea tree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

älulast year's yam garden; bananas and pawpaws and oha planted there (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

äluto put, to place; to change into, to become (PMP: *taRuq)

amafather, FB (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

ama-athe courtyard, outside, at the door (NOISE)

anoground, garden ground (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-anoto bury (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

ano-mito cover with earth, to inter (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

Ȁ-nutename of the island of Florida (POC: *a-nusa) *nusa₁

aŋato open (PMP: *qaŋab)

aŋato open (PMP: *qaŋap)

aŋa wawaopen the mouth to speak (PMP: *qaŋab)

aŋa wawaopen the mouth to speak (PMP: *qaŋap)

apa ~ apaapapart, side, half (NOISE)

apa-apawing; shoulder (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

äpihold under the arm, hold close to the body (PMP: *qabin)

apwa-belly (POC: *kapwa)

arakaufish hawk: Haliaster girrenera (POC: *taragau)

aroto brood (cited only in the English index) (POC: *adom) *handem

arustationary, of fish with their fins moving (NOISE)

Sa'a (40 / 567)

asi-sibling of the same sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

äsisea, saltwater; salt (late use); a month, January (PMP: *tasik)

äsi deuneap tide (PMP: *tasik)

äsi e honuhigh spring tide (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

äsi e honuhigh spring tide (PMP: *tasik)

äsuherat (POC: *kasupe) *kazupay

asusucoconut crab: Birgus latro (PMP: *qayuyu)

a-teiinterrogative pronoun, singular: who? (PMP: *sei)

atoa rafter, generally of bamboo (PMP: *kasaw₁)

ato, ato-atothrow, cast (POC: *asok) *hasek₁

ato tahathrow the first yam set into the hole, of priest (POC: *asok) *hasek₁

äubamboo (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

awaa tree: Nephelium pinnatum (PMP: *tawan)

awabe a sojourner in a place (NOISE)

dama-damain pairs; side-by-side, of canoes (PMP: *sama-sama) *sama

däniday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

däu talato aim and miss (PMP: *salaq₁)

dia-nagood, proper; accurate; beloved (PMP: *diqaq)

doŋaa pair, a couple (POC: *doŋan) *deŋan

duua covering of bast cloth worn over the head at night to preserve the hair after liming (POC: *tutup₁)

Sa'a (60 / 567)

eli ~ eli-elito dig, as in digging up yams or digging a grave (PCEMP: *keli)

eno(eno)lie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

enoh-ilie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

hahaunderneath; down, not used of points of the compass (POC: *papaq₃) *babaq₁

hahacarry a person on one's back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

hahicook in an oven with leaves and hot stones (POC: *papi)

hahoabove, used with locative i (i haho-mu 'above you'); uplands; wash-boards on gunwale of an overseas canoe (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

hahothe shore reef (POC: *papo₃) *papo

haifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

hakaa ship; white people, foreign (POC: *pakaq) *baŋkaq

halalato helve an axe (POC: *paRara) *paRada

haleyam shed outside a garden; any shed (POC: *pale) *balay

halistingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

halilop off branches (POC: *paRi₃) *paRi

halowither (POC: *palo₂)

halobore into with circular motion, as feet into sand; twist a stick in making a hole; the flint point of a drill, haro mao (POC: *paRo₁)

haloto bore, to drill (NOISE)

halusome (POC: *palu₆) *balu₃

hanashoot with a bow, shoot with a gun (PAN: *panaq)

hanayam with prickly vines (NOISE)

Sa'a (80 / 567)

haneclimb trees in native fashion with a rope round the feet, ascending by alternate jumps of hands and feet (POC: *panek) *panahik

hanoa skin disease, small white spots on the skin, but no scales (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

hanualand, country, village, site of a village, place (POC: *panua) *banua

haolunew, fresh (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

hapaa canoe seat, removable (POC: *baban) *papan

hatato go together, to accompany one another (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

hatahardwood tree (POC: *pasa(rR))

häu menupumice stone (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

haʔa-hiuseven times (PMP: *paka-pitu) *pitu

haʔa-laŋia house on piles (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

haʔa-limefive times (POC: *paka-lima₂) *lima

haʔa tauto be far off, distant (POC: *sauq₁) *zauq

haʔa-urito save, make alive (PMP: *paka-qudip) *qudip

haʔupandanus with broad leaves used to make umbrellas; an umbrella of haʔu leaves (POC: *pakuŋ) *bakuŋ₂

haʔu onashore rocks, rough and spiky (POC: *ona₁) *ona

hilito choose for one’s own, to desire and take (PAN: *piliq)

hili-sito pick, to choose (PAN: *piliq)

hilua ridge covering of sago-palm leaves, laid on flat (POC: *piRu) *biRu

hilu-hiluzigzag (POC: *piluk₂) *biluk

hinaŋaa yam pudding eaten at sacrifices (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

Sa'a (100 / 567)

hinaŋayam pudding (PMP: *p<in>aŋan) *paŋan

hinubark; shell of shellfish (POC: *pinut)

hiolohungry (POC: *pitolon)

hiolo-ŋafamine (POC: *pitolon)

hirito lap with string, bind spears or arrows (PMP: *pirit)

hiri-hiria plaited spear (POC: *piri-piri) *pirit

hiteto split, hit, strike, arrive at (POC: *pisak₁) *biseqak

hiuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hoamake an incision in (POC: *potak) *betak

hoi huufruit of the Barringtonia (POC: *putun₁) *butun

hokaburst open, come apart (POC: *pokaq) *bekaq

hokaburst open, come apart (PMP: *beka)

hokaburst open, come apart (PMP: *peka)

hokoa bundle (POC: *pokos) *beRkes

hoko i daŋobundle of firewood carried on head by women (POC: *pokos) *beRkes

hoko i saobundle of sago leaves (POC: *pokos) *beRkes

holato spring up, to grow spontaneously, as mushrooms, wild taro or yams, the growths appearing after a fire (NOISE)

holibarter, buy (PEMP: *poli) *beli

holoto cross; across (as sea); divide (POC: *polos₁)

holos-icut a piece off, sever a pig's head; to cross (POC: *polos₁)

Sa'a (120 / 567)

honoto shut, to bar; a door (ROOT)

honufull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

honuturtle; chorea, when the patient is said to move his hands and feet as a turtle moves its flappers (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honu iʔegreen turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honu makeatefull to overflowing (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

hoteto paddle, to row (late use); a paddle, an oar, an incantation for protection at sea, an incantation to a sea spirit (POC: *pose) *beRsay

huasacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

hudia banana; twenty-one kinds of native bananas are named at Sa’a; the cultivation of native bananas ceased at Ulawa owing to ceremonial restrictions (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

hue hua-naits fruit (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

hue huefruit, seeds of Malay apple (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

hue-na, hue-niarticle, a, one, used of fruits only (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hue-si daŋokidney (POC: *puaq) *buaq

huhupluck, pick off (POC: *puput) *buCbuC

huhuleak, drip, pour, spill, of powdered substance (POC: *pupus) *busbus

huhupluck, pick off (PMP: *pupu₁)

huhupluck, pick off (PMP: *puqpuq₁)

hu-hulecataract in the eye (POC: *pulaR₂) *bulaR₁

huhulecataract in the eye (NOISE)

huhu mwakanadry, powdery earth (POC: *pupus) *busbus

hu-hunu, romastupefy fish with the fruit of the Barringtonia (POC: *putun₁) *butun

Sa'a (140 / 567)

huhus-ipluck, pick off (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

huhus-ipour on (POC: *pupus-i) *busbus

huipour water on (as in washing a corpse) (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

huitaro, Caladium esculentum, dry ground taro only (NOISE)

huitaro, Caladium esculentum, dry ground taro only (NOISE)

hui-huiturn from side to side, be troublous (POC: *pui pui) *bui₃

hui-huipour water on (as in washing a corpse) (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

hulephases of the moon; full moon (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

hulea convolvulus growing on the beaches, used to produce a blue dye for the hair (POC: *pula₂)

hule-hulewater springs (POC: *puraq puraq) *budaq₁

hule i ladename of a month, July (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

hulosponge (POC: *puro₁) *budeq

huluhairy (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hulu-hulu-ito sting, of leaves (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hulu motaʔahairy; rough and prickly, of the backs of certain leaves (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

huniskin disease, ringworm (POC: *puni₃) *buqeni

huni-lasuffering from ringworm (POC: *puni₃) *buqeni

hunucut up an animal; sudden death, ceasing completely (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

hunu-hunuvertigo (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

hunu poobutcher a pig (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

Sa'a (160 / 567)

huŋaofather-in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law (POC: *puŋao)

huŋao-naused with ro ma of two people who call one another huŋao-ku (POC: *puŋao)

huŋeto be many, enough, too much, to abound (POC: *puŋa₂) *puŋa

huŋe-huŋa-ʔafrequently (POC: *puŋa₂) *puŋa

huru huru-huruto run (NOISE)

huru-laamessenger; a chief's dependent (NOISE)

huru ni heliŋeto run races (NOISE)

huta-ŋabirth; generation (POC: *pusa₁)

hutebe born (POC: *pusa₁)

hute liuliube born on different sides of the family, of cross-cousins (POC: *pusa₁)

huto-hutofroth, foam (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

huua littoral tree: Barringtonia speciosa (POC: *putun₁) *butun

huuclump, stool, bunch, group (as of excrement, leaves, trees, bamboo) (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

huʔofishing-net, seine (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

huʔu-huʔuto cough, to have a cold in the head (POC: *pukuR)

huʔu-ŋacoughing (POC: *pukuR)

-itransitive suffix (PMP: *-i₂)

i-instrumental prefix forming noun from verb (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

iedemonstrative pronoun: this, these (follows a noun) (PMP: *ia₂)

iebelly, stomach, bowels, womb (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Sa'a (180 / 567)

i-hahoover, above (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

ihe-WZ, WB, HB, HZ (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

ihuhair, feather; used with genitive i (POC: *ipu-)

ihu-i menua bird's feather (POC: *ipu-)

ihu i pweua hair of the head (POC: *ipu-)

iia buzzing or whistling noise in the ear (POC: *titiŋ) *tiŋtiŋ

i-iloa mangrove oyster (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

i-keuto pull a thing out of the eye (POC: *kau₂)

iki (< *titik-i)knock with the knuckles; beat a wooden gong; teeth chattering with cold (PAN: *tiktik)

ilalato divine; the charms used are apai dili, dracaena leaf, la’o shell forehead ornament, bows, spears, ähui, dancing club, paddles (PAN: *kilala)

i laloin the middle of (POC: *i rarom) *dalem

ilea pandanus with slender leaves, used to make pwaso armlets (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

ilea stone axe (PMP: *kiRam)

i-leŋisky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

ilithe second plank of a canoe (POC: *ili)

i-lolobowstring (PAN: *deles)

i-maaoutside, at the door; a stick, a match; a round thing; article, one (PMP: *mata) *maCa

i melu-neunder the shadow, the rule of; used in names of chiefs (PEMP: *maluRu)

i Melutei rara‘In the shade of the coral tree’, name of a village on Uki (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

i-neu1sg., used as subject only and followed by nou (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

Sa'a (200 / 567)

inithat (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inonia man, a human being, as opposed to a ghost (PEMP: *tinoni)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

inu-inuto drink (POC: *inum-inum) *inum

i-pelumake war on, fight (POC: *i-palu)

i-pelu ~ i-pai-paluto make war, to fight (POC: *palu₄)

i-pelu-ŋafighting (POC: *palu₄)

i puriin the stern (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

i puri-kuin my absence (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

iroto look for, to collect (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iro, iro-irolook for, collect (POC: *qiro)

iro-hito cause a person to be ill, of the action of a ghost (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iro-hito clear the head of lice (POC: *tidros) *tindes

iro-iroa pool among rocks used as a mirror (POC: *qiro)

iro-iroto look for, to collect; a pool among rocks used as a mirror; a glass (late use) (POC: *tiro-tiro) *tindaw

iutwin (NOISE)

iʔefish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

kaaclear the throat (PAN: *kak)

kaabang, bash, fall with a bang (PMP: *kaŋ)

kaatococonut leaf basket (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

Sa'a (220 / 567)

kakatorn, split (PMP: *kakaq)

kakato be torn, to be split (POC: *kakas(-i))

kaka-sito tear, to split (POC: *kakas(-i))

ka-kawetentacles of octopus; branching of the fingers of the human hand (POC: *kawe₂) *kaway₂

ka-kawetentacles of octopus; branching of the fingers of the human hand (POC: *kawe₁) *gaway

kämu i niufallen sheath of coconut (POC: *kamu₁)

kana ~ kana-kanato sing; a song (POC: *kanam)

käu ~ käukeuto clutch hold of, of thorny creepers; to catch old of with a crook (POC: *kau₂)

keketo crunch coconuts, canarium nuts, etc., of pigs or rete (a large rat: Mus rex) (POC: *keke₁)

kile-kileonomatopoetic, a small light green parrot that figures in a story of Muumuu (ogres from the hill country of southeast Guadalcanal); the parrot’s cry (POC: *kiRak)

kiokioa kingfisher: Halcyon saurophaga (PAN: *kiaw)

kirito cut (NOISE)

kokonarrow, confined (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₃)

kokoto be narrow, confined; a plaited basket of coconut leaves with a narrow mouth, used as a food receptacle (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

kopitouch with the fingers (POC: *kobit₂) *kebit

korito scrape yams (POC: *korit) *kerit

korito scrape yams (POC: *kori)

kori-sito scrape yams with henu (k.o. cockle) shell (POC: *korit) *kerit

-ku1sg possessive pronoun: my; suffixed to nouns; suffixed to certain verbs as object and also to verbal nouns used as prepositions (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kuadomestic fowl (POC: *kua kua)

Sa'a (240 / 567)

kurukuru(onom.) a wood pigeon (POC: *kurukuru)

kuubark at (PMP: *kuk)

kuuto bark at (PMP: *kuŋ)

ladato thrust (LOAN)

lahabig (not in common use) (POC: *lapa) *laba

lahaa pudding of grated yams and new nuts pounded and mixed with the pudding; coconut cream added if necessary (NOISE)

lalaa shellfish and arm ring made of its shell (PMP: *lalak)

laloinside, within; middle (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lamaspread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood) (PMP: *lama)

läŋiup (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

läŋi-leŋi-ʔealoft, lifted up; tall and strong, of a person (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋothe bluebottle fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lasia tree with juice causing sores (PMP: *laji₁)

lawaspider’s web, spider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

laʔe rahuan albino (laʔe = leprosy) (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

lele säuthe cry when bonito are sighted (POC: *qatun)

lieginger, called ‘äi ha‘angäu keni, tree given to women to eat (to enlist their affections); used in malevolent magic it causes boils when put down on a man’s path for him to pass over (PMP: *laqia)

lieto change shape, of ghostly appearances, to throw back, of trees, e.g. oranges (PMP: *lian)

lilidoor posts (POC: *ariRi) *SadiRi

limefive (PAN: *lima)

Sa'a (260 / 567)

liŋi-liŋito pour (intr.) (POC: *liŋi-liŋi) *liŋi

liŋi-sito pour (tr.) (PCEMP: *liŋi)

lisicut off a piece or section (PMP: *Risi)

lisicut off a piece or section (PMP: *Risiq)

liʔocommit suicide by hanging (POC: *liko)

abscess (POC: *loto₁)

lohoto fly; to swoop; to reach, of words (PMP: *Rebek)

lolored ants, sugar ants (POC: *loRo)

loʔuto bend, to double back (as a pocketknife) (POC: *loguŋ) *leŋkuŋ

lua haahigh spring tide (POC: *pāq) *baSaq

ludacarry cargo, load a canoe (PMP: *Rujan)

luda-acargo (PMP: *lujan)

ludeto carry cargo, to load a canoe, to be heavily laden (PMP: *lujan)

ludeŋ-ito carry, as cargo; to recruit men (PMP: *Rujan)

lude-ŋito carry as cargo (PMP: *lujan)

lueflood tide (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

lue-luea flood (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

luheto remove, to free, to loosen (POC: *Rupas)

luheto remove, to free, to loosen (POC: *lupas₂)

luhe-sito loosen, to free, to let go (POC: *Rupas)

Sa'a (280 / 567)

luhe-sito loosen, to free, to let go (POC: *lupas₂)

luluto back water with paddles (POC: *ruru)

luluto fold (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lulu-ŋifold it (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lumiturn over the edges, hem (PMP: *lumiq)

lumu ~ lumu-temoss (PMP: *lumut)

lumu-ʔemoss-covered (PMP: *lumut)

lusuthe ribs in a canoe cut out of the solid from a hard wood (PAN: *Rusuk)

lusu keruseat and rib combined; broad; the ribs of a clam shell (PAN: *Rusuk)

maa-the eye, not generally used with an article; the face; (with genitive i in Sa’a, ni in Ulawa) hole, mesh, opening, outlet; core of a boil; door, gate; edge, point, blade, brim; front of a house (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-ito eye,to watch (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-i litawaa canoe landing place (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-i numehouse door (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-i paragate (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-na nahithe edge of a sword (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-na suʔuthe opening of the bay (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa taetaheopening in the shore reef (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madalamorning star (PMP: *mantalaq)

ma-daligreasy, slippery (PAN: *ma-dalis) *dalis

maedie; ill; become unconscious; numb; eclipsed, of moon; a fighting column; enemies; war; weapons; used with 3p. possessor and ni genitive to denote excess (POC: *mate) *aCay

Sa'a (300 / 567)

mae apoloparalyzed (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae-hasickness (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae-ladeath (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae-maedie, be ill, become unconscious (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

mae-ŋasickness, death (POC: *mate-qaŋa) *aCay

mäiebb tide, low tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maihither, here, this way (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mäluto shade, to overshadow (PEMP: *maluRu)

mälu-meluto shade, to overshadow (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

mälu-sito shade (PEMP: *maluRu)

mälu-teshade (PEMP: *maluRu)

ma-matato be high and dry, of a reef, to be dry at low water (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mamito taste (POC: *mamis) *hemis

manatato be taught, quiet, of animals, broken in, tamed; nature, disposition, custom (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

manata-ito know, be accustomed (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

mänubird, insect (POC: *manuk)

mänu(menu)to float (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

ma-potabroken to pieces (POC: *ma-posaq) *peceq

masa, masa-masashy, ashamed, respectful (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

masa-nashame, confusion, shyness (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

Sa'a (320 / 567)

mataʔito have an attack of malarial fever (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mæuaripe, of yams (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mä-urilive, be alive; to recover health; be green, of timber; be delivered, of a child (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mäuruto sleep, to slumber (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mäʔuto fear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

mäʔu-ta-the fear of (something) (POC: *matakut) *takut

melato glow, of fierce heat (POC: *meRaq) *ma-iRaq

mela-melato glow, of fierce heat (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *ma-iRaq

-memi1pl. excl. possessive, our (PMP: *m-ami) *ami

momosweepings, rubbish (PMP: *mekmek)

momosqueeze, press on each side (PMP: *mesmes)

monakicuttlefish (POC: *monaki)

mona telea dish made from taro (POC: *moñak₁) *moñak

mu hei ama-dafathers and children (POC: *paRi-tamax) *amax

mumunito hide, be hidden; to conceal (POC: *mumuni)

munolarva of caterpillar, chrysalis (POC: *muno)

mwaa hilu-hiluzigzag in tattoo, a canoe decoration (POC: *piluk₂) *biluk

-nä3sg. pronoun suffixed to nouns of a certain class, the equivalent of the genitive (nime 'hand': nima-na 'his hand'); noun ending used with nouns denoting relationship (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nacopulative, and (PAN: *Na)

nahosurf, wave (PAN: *Nabek)

Sa'a (340 / 567)

nanato eat (used to children) (PAN: *ñamñam)

na-namato be powerful, to exercise force … Ulawa speaks of ghosts as being na-nama ‘spiritually powerful’ (POC: *mana₂)

na-nama-ŋapower, force (POC: *mana₂)

nao ~ nao-naowidow(er) (POC: *ñao)

näua fruit tree, teak (PMP: *ñatuq)

naʔofront; before (POC: *nago)

nigenitive: of; expresses purpose; expresses condition (PAN: *ni)

nini-hohornet (PMP: *ñikñik)

niuthe coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, (PMP: *niuR)

nono äsimidge, sandfly (PMP: *neknek)

no-nolayesterday (PMP: *neRab)

no-nolayesterday (PMP: *ñeRab)

nunuto quake, of ground; to be loose, unstable, of a post; earthquake (POC: *nunu₁)

nunu i niureflections of coconut leaves; a zigzag in tattoo; a canoe decoration (POC: *qanunu)

nunu(ku)shadow of persons, reflection, likeness, carvings, soul, consciousness; a new set of gongs is said to be the nunu of the old set (POC: *qanunu)

nunu-laostinging nettle tree with large leaves used to cover a chief’s body exposed for burial (POC: *latoŋ) *laCeŋ

nu-nunuto quake, of ground; to be loose, unstable, of a post; earthquake (POC: *nu-nunu) *nunu₁

nutosquid (POC: *nuso)

ŋa hue ʔakuʔean areca nut for me to eat (POC: *puaq) *buaq

ŋäs-ito chew (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

Sa'a (360 / 567)

ŋäuto eat (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋäu-hea feast; food (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋäu-ŋeuto eat (POC: *ŋau-ŋau) *ŋau₁

ŋuluto roar, of surf (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋuru ~ ŋu-ŋuruto growl or roar, of animals; to mumble or groan, of persons (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

odo ~ odo-odostraight; go straight forward; be correct and proper (POC: *kodo)

odo(odo)be straight, go straight forward; be correct and proper (POC: *oto)

odo-odoto be straight; to go straight forward; to be correct and proper (POC: *kodos)

ohoattempt, make trial of (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

ohomake a propitiatory offering after a term of absence (NOISE)

okom-iroll around in the mouth and swallow whole (POC: *oŋkom) *eŋgem

okom-iroll around in the mouth and swallow whole (POC: *qoŋkom) *qeŋkem

oli(oli)return, relieve, replace (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

oli-sichange, alter (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

olocut the ends off; to cut the hair of the head (POC: *koRot) *keRet

olo-ito sever the shoots of (POC: *koRot) *keRet

oluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

olu-nethird, third time (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

onastakes of puepue palm or areca palm set in a hole as an enemy trap (POC: *ona₂) *ena

onafreshwater limpet with poisonous spines; stakes of puepue palm or areca palm set in a hole as an enemy trap (POC: *ona₁) *ona

Sa'a (380 / 567)

onesand; beach (POC: *qone) *qenay

oneonea littoral tree, light-colored leaves, pigeons eat the berries (LOAN)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

onoa fish, the barracuda (POC: *qono₁)

oohusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

opugreen drinking coconut (NOISE)

opwabelly, bowels, stomach (POC: *topwa)

opʷa-belly, bowels, stomach (POC: *tobwa₂)

ora lulubelch (POC: *toRap) *CeRab

ori-oriscrape the charcoal off yams or taro roasted on the coals; peel yams (POC: *orit) *erit

ori-orito scrape, to scrape the charcoal off yams or taro roasted on the coals; to peel yams with a roa (black lip pearl shell) held between the thumb and index finger, the motion being away from and not towards the body. (POC: *ori)

osicut, score, bevel canoe planks for joints (NOISE)

otocooked food taken on a journey (POC: *qoso)

oʔato settle, of birds; to squat on the haunches (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

palalight in color (coconuts, people, animals); cataract in eye; pale; faded (POC: *balaR₂) *balaR

paladorsal membrane of a swordfish (NOISE)

palalight in color, pale, faded (NOISE)

pala-palagrey, whitish (POC: *balaR₂) *balaR

paŋato wonder, stagger at a matter (PAN: *paŋa₁)

parato fence with upright posts, to guard (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

Sa'a (400 / 567)

pasathe stern bonito hook, trailed behind the canoe, made anciently of clam with a tortoise shell barb (POC: *bayan)

pasathe stern bonito hook, trailed behind the canoe, made anciently of clam with a tortoise shell barb (POC: *bayan₃) *payan

pasuto threaten (POC: *basu)

pepebutterfly, moth (POC: *bebe)

pilethe young areca nut in its early stages (POC: *piras)

pile-naroe of fish, yolk of egg; to spawn (POC: *piRa₁) *biRaS

pinehornbill (POC: *binam)

pine ni anoNicobar pigeon (POC: *binam)

pine ni usibooby (POC: *binam)

pinuturn over the edge of a thing; to hem (POC: *pinu)

pono-ponoto close, to be solid, to mend, to be closed, stuffed up; lid, stopper, cork of bottle (late use) (POC: *bonot)

poŋia time, a season (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

poŋi-kumy appointed time (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

potato break by knocking one thing against another (POC: *posaq) *peceq

pota niuto crack coconuts (POC: *posaq) *peceq

pue puea palm used for making bows, combs, heavy spears (POC: *bual bual)

pue pue rodoheavy palm-wood spear (POC: *bual bual)

pulicowrie shell, used as sinkers for nets (POC: *buliq₁)

puloto turn about, turn over; to tie around, to twist (POC: *bulos)

pulos-ito roll, to twist; to be moved, of bowels (POC: *bulos)

Sa'a (420 / 567)

pulublack (as volcanic rock); gall, fluid ejected by an octopus (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

puluthe putty nut, Parinarium laurinum used to caulk canoes); tree gum (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pulut-esticking a thing with gum (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pupuluthick, dense (as branches) (POC: *buburu)

pupuluthick, dense (as branches) (NOISE)

puriback of, behind the back of, stern of a canoe (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

puri-neafter that (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

pwau-head (POC: *batu) *batuk₃

pwaʔato rise, of heavenly bodies (POC: *pwaka)

pwisisplurt, splash (PMP: *picik)

rarathe coral tree, Erythrina indica (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

rara ~ raa-rarabe in the sunlight, be hot, pungent; be zealous over, be jealous over (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

rara meaadminister a public rebuke (lit. ‘burn the tongue’) (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

räuleaf; leaf used as a wrapper in cooking (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

raʔugather up with the hand (PMP: *ra(ŋ)kup)

ronumeral, two; used only in composition (POC: *rua) *duSa

rodonight (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

rodo-sibe benighted (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

rokato open, set open wide (ROOT)

roŋo-ŋahearing (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

Sa'a (440 / 567)

roŋo-roŋoto hear, to listen, to hear tidings of; to understand; to ask in marriage (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo saaito understand (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ruetwo, used by itself or with ro, of phases of the moon (POC: *rua) *duSa

saeheart, mind, liver, lungs, chest (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sae-asiforgive (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sae esoesofeel indignation; know, know how to, to name, give a name to (used in many expressions relating to mental or emotional states) (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sae hutohutolungs ( = 'frothing liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sahaogrub found in fallen logs of breadfruit tree, supposed to turn into the cockchafer beetle (POC: *qapator) *qabated

sähulime, lime gourd; magic lime put over doorway outside on the ridge-pole with an incantation, a charm to protect the house and its belongings; used in black magic (PAN: *qapuR)

sälilibrown gastropod: Turbo petholatus (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

säluthe ironwood tree, Casuarina equisetifolia; the needles are crushed and placed over bodies exposed for burial; a red stain is made from the scraped bark of the trees and used as a preservative for fishing-lines (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

sälubarracuda (PMP: *qalu)

sanewhite ant, the food of ghosts on Malapa? (POC: *ane) *aNay

sane-ʔaeaten by white ants (POC: *ane) *aNay

saothe sago palm, Sagus sp., four kinds known, the leaves used for thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

sao ni ʔaholokite made of sago palm leaves and used in fishing for mwanole (large garfish), the bait a spider's web (POC: *qatop) *qatep

saroto face, to turn oneself; breast (POC: *qarop) *qadep

säsuto smoke, of fire; smoke; steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

sataname (PMP: *ajan)

sataa climbing fern, very strong, used for tying (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

Sa'a (460 / 567)

sata-aʔichafe, rub (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

satehuman jaw (POC: *qase) *qazay

sat-erub down, grind, sharpen on a stone (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

satosun, sunshine, fine weather, no rain (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

säuthe bonito fish (POC: *qatun)

säukill, pound taro, ram, blow strong (of winds); pound taro and canarium nuts at a feast (POC: *qatu)

säu-lehievening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

säu-sesuto smoke, of fire (PMP: *qasu qasu) *qasu₃

sawafreshwater mullet (PMP: *qawas)

siho hai anocome down to the ground (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

siho i oneto land from a canoe on the beach (POC: *sipo)

siho-lito descend upon (POC: *sipo)

siho-ŋaa descent, disembarcation (POC: *sipo)

sineto throw light with a torch; to use a torch of coconut leaves (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sine-lito brighten; moonlight (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

siŋe-siŋeto shine, of the stars (PMP: *siŋaR)

sisito grin like a dog, lay bare the teeth (PMP: *ziziq)

sisito grin like a dog, lay bare the teeth (PMP: *zizir)

sisito roll back as a fold, to grin like a dog, to lay bare the teeth (POC: *sisi₂)

si-sihoto descend, to disembark, to land (POC: *sipo)

Sa'a (480 / 567)

siwa-naninth, for the ninth time (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

siwenine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sululiquid, water (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sulu ni niuthe liquid of a green coconut (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sulu ni waiwater (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

susu-breast, paps, dugs of animals (PAN: *susu₁)

susuto suck the breast; to have children at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susuto prick, pierce, impale; to stake; to sew (PAN: *suksuk)

susu-ito prick, to set up, fix firmly, to set upright in the ground (as bamboos for a wall) (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

taɁeadverb of direction, up, inland (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

talapath, road, way; a row, a string of objects (POC: *salan) *zalan

talato miss, to fail (PMP: *salaq₁)

talasweep the house with a bunch of leaves or grasses (POC: *salap)

tälito split down, to tear down the stem of the betel pepper preparatory to eating, to split a vine or a bamboo, to strip the skin of wale cane (POC: *sali)

taŋathe crotch of the legs (POC: *saŋa₁)

ta-ŋa-laucardinal numeral, one hundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

täriland a fish in a landing net; to stick fast in a tree or a noose (POC: *sariŋ) *zariŋ

tataʔeembark, start off; used to denote the capacity of a canoe (PMP: *sakay₁)

tawaan opening in the shore reef; used in names of landing places (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

taʔabad; also used as commiseration (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

Sa'a (500 / 567)

taʔeembark, start off (PMP: *sakay₁)

taʔe ileŋine horseto ride a horse (PMP: *sakay₁)

taʔe-liembark, get into a canoe (PMP: *sakay₁)

tehuluthe black mussel, used in the manufacture of bow bonito hooks (POC: *sapulu)

toloa hill (POC: *solos)

toroto pierce, to prick, to open a sore, to impale (NOISE)

tototo dry up, to soak into, of liquids (POC: *sosop) *sepsep

tounight heron (POC: *sou)

uerattan cane (POC: *que) *quay

uhea strong ground creeper used in tying, with bitter juice; scraped and used to poison fish (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

uhithe yam, sixty-one varieties named at Sa'a (PMP: *qubi)

uhiblow with the mouth upon an object, breathe upon (PCEMP: *upi)

ule-brother, sister, cousins of all sorts (POC: *tuRa-)

ulehua fish, Oligorus gigas; six varieties of ulehu are named; the ulehu is caught with a bait of ‘a‘awa, walking fish; name appears in proverbs describing greediness (‘to eat like the ulehu’) (PMP: *kuRapu)

ule-ulesinew; tendon (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

ulirub, massage (PMP: *quli)

ulia tree, the vi-apple, Spondias dulcis (PCEMP: *quRi)

ulo, ulo-ulowrap up, make a parcel of (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

ulos-iwrap up (trans.) (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

uluto wade (POC: *tuRu₁)

Sa'a (520 / 567)

uluŋ-eto pillow, to serve as a pillow (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

ulu-onethe sandy tract immediately above the beach (POC: *qulu) *quluh

umucooking oven in house, used only on great occasions; a large ring with upright stones (PMP: *qumun)

uneh-aʔascales of fish or snake (PCEMP: *qunep)

uneh-ito scale a fish (POC: *qunap-i) *quSeNap

unufibrous spathe of a coconut frond, used for straining (ROOT)

uracrayfish, prawn (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uru, uru-urugather up in the hand, collect (PMP: *quruŋ)

usupush, shove, launch a boat (POC: *qusur) *qunzur

usurub, daub, wipe, grate (PMP: *usuq)

usupush, shove; launch a boat (POC: *usu)

usuto point, to accuse; the first finger (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

usu, usu-usurub, daub, wipe, grate (NOISE)

usu-ito point at, to accuse (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

usu-usuto point, to accuse (PMP: *tuzu-tuzuq) *tuzuq₁

ute piiheavy rain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

utopith (POC: *uso)

uureal, beginning, source (PMP: *tuqu₂)

u-unu, u-unu-unuburn in the fire, roast flesh on the embers; raise cicatrices on the body by burning (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

u-unu-hito burn (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

Sa'a (540 / 567)

u-unu-unuyoung men's game played on sand, two sides each with its oven (umu); the game is to wrest one of the opposite side and put him into the oven (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

uwelimother’s brother-sisters-son relationship (LOAN)

uwothe inner skin of rattan cane, pith (POC: *quto)

uwoflying-fish float (POC: *uton) *utem

u-wotato appear on the horizon (as hills) (POC: *pwosa)

waifresh water; stream, river (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

waieuthe bonito fish (LOAN)

wälia space of time, long past (POC: *waRi₂)

wælia space of time, long past (POC: *tuaRi)

walocreeper, vine; rope, string, line; fishing-line; ten shell-moneys, a unit (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

watemake an oration at a feast (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

wate-ŋaan oration (POC: *wa(n)se-ŋa) *wa(n)se

wauadverb of place; there (PMP: *wa-tu) *-Cu

wawamouth (NOISE)

waʔabe split, cut into sections; to split, divide fish; shred, cut up yams for planting (PMP: *wakaq)

waʔaa boss on the head of adze handle, on canoe haku (stem or stern) in prow, on back of kiekie clubs, etc. (POC: *waka)

waʔa-waʔawild yam with large fruit; eaten in famine times (NOISE)

wiligive tribute, contribute money to a chief at a feast (NOISE)

ziodown, downward (POC: *sipo)

ʔäitree, wood , more commonly used in Ulawa; to be stiff, numb (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

Sa'a (560 / 567)

ʔa-puloreversed, returned, turned back on a journey (POC: *ta-bulos) *bulos

ʔimethe bear’s paw clam (PMP: *kima)

ʔoʔoto stay, stay about, not go anywhere (NOISE)

ʔuehow? why? of course (PMP: *kua₁) *kua₂

ʔuluʔulua full-grown coconut, a dry nut on the tree or fallen off (POC: *kulu₂)

ʔuʔuto hang down, to depend, to swing (POC: *kukut)

ʔuʔua round object, a lump in pounded (NOISE)

ʔuʔu i diliberries of dracaena; testicle (NOISE)

602. Saaroa (128) Form. (Tsuchida 1976) [sxr] Taiwan

-aobject focus imperative (PAN: *-a₁)

alhanəright (not left) (PAN: *waNan)

alhəŋəpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ)

alhitooth (PAN: *waNiS)

alhicileather (PAN: *qaNiC)

aɬoʔohoneybee (PAN: *waNu)

amaʔafather (PAN: *amax)

cailhiyear (PAN: *CawiN)

caliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa)

caraʔəblood (PAN: *daRaq)

civukabelly (PAN: *biCuka)

culalhəbone (PAN: *CuqelaN)

c<um>a-calhəməto cover with earth (PAN: *CaNem)

c<um>a-cuɬuto roast right on the fire (PAN: *CuNuh)

cumiʔithe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

cuvuʔubamboo shoot (PAN: *Cubuq)

ebeceŋemillet (PAN: *beCeŋ)

ənəməsix (PAN: *enem)

əŋəəŋəstopper, plug (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

e-seleebowstring, fishing line (PAN: *deles)

Saaroa (20 / 128)

ə-vəraəhusked rice (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas

ilh-aku1sg.; I (PAN: *aku)

ilhuʔunecklace (PAN: *SiNuq)

inaʔ-aM (ref.) (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

isa3sg. (PAN: *si ia₁) *ia₁

i-siparəthe opposite side of the river (PAN: *SipaR)

ita ~ ilhatawe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

i-vavuabove, up (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

karilanguage (PAN: *kaRi₁)

ki-gather (as sweet potatoes) (PAN: *ki-)

-ku1sg genitive; marks possessor and agent of an undergoer verb (PAN: *-ku)

kucuʔuhead louse (PAN: *kuCux)

kulícipeelings of fruit and tubers (PAN: *kuliC)

kuliʔiinsect, worm (PAN: *kulay₁)

k<um>a-kalito dig (PAN: *k<um>ali) *kalih

k<um>a-kitato see (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita₂

ɬaand (things, but not people) (PAN: *Na)

ɬaand (NOISE)

laarəflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

laŋicasky (PAN: *laŋiC)

Saaroa (40 / 128)

ləəʔətears (PAN: *luSeq)

lhatəŋəvegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

lhi-u-tiŋa-afood particles caught between the teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

ɬuuŋurice mortar (PAN: *Nusuŋ)

ma:ta-tusoroto sleep (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *tuduR)

maa-is-an-acontent (Tsuchida 1976:251) (PAN: *isiʔ)

ma-caa-caato laugh (PAN: *ma-Cawa) *Cawa

maka-ɬaŋoloto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

m-aku-a-talhaməto taste (PAN: *taNam)

ma-lima-lhefifty (PAN: *ma-lima-N) *lima

ma-ɬipiithin (of materials) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

maŋ-usipialive (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

ma-polhiwhite (PAN: *ma-puNi) *puNi

m-ara-a-taa-tarato ambush (PAN: *taRah)

m-ari-aitiitiwave in a big motion, as a flag (PAN: *witiwit)

ma-salisismooth (PAN: *ma-dalis) *dalis

ma-saremecold (PAN: *dajem)

m-u-alhusuadrift (PAN: *qañud)

m-uru-a-nia-niaato breathe (PAN: *NiSawa)

m-utu-a-valəəto echo (PAN: *bales₁)

Saaroa (60 / 128)

m-utu-tukutukubump the head (PAN: *CugCug₂)

m-u-u-siparəwalk across the river (PAN: *SipaR)

ŋusomouth, lips (PAN: *ŋusuq)

paaŋ-ələvəto close, shut (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

paliibile, gall bladder (PAN: *paliq₁)

palisi-ataboo (PAN: *paliSi)

pa-pa-pacikill (PAN: *pa-p-aCay) *aCay

pari-vaa-vililhito follow (PAN: *biliN)

pəlhəkənavel (PAN: *pujek)

pu-a-ilicome back, return (PAN: *wili)

pucaʔfoam (PAN: *puCaq)

rituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu)

salhumuwater (PAN: *daNum)

sareːearth, soil (PAN: *daReq)

sikaməmat woven with wild ginger leaves (PAN: *Sikam)

suɬatəpaper (LOAN)

s<um>a-silaəto lick (PAN: *d<um>ilaq) *dilaq₁

s<um>a-suɬatəto write (LOAN)

suusukuginger: Zingiber officinale (PAN: *dukduk)

taar-utavomit (PAN: *utaq)

Saaroa (80 / 128)

ta-bəlhəbəlhəbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

ta-i-lhuaŋəfemale pygmy deer (PAN: *qiNuaŋ)

taɬa:village (PAN: *taNaS)

tala-la-laucuto look down (PAN: *lahud)

talhiusumulberry tree and fruit (PAN: *taNiud)

tanaʔea plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq)

tara-a-sariŋito moan (of a man, as when sick) (PAN: *daRiŋ)

taru-a-cuvuŋuto meet (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

taru-arapəto sow (PAN: *Rahap)

taru-cuvuŋu-aconfluence of rivers (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

tar-utato vomit (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *taR-)

ta-ʔuvuŋ-apigpen, pigsty (NOISE)

tənəməsea (PAN: *tenem)

toroko:kəchicken (PAN: *tuRukuk)

t<um>-a-taŋi-ito cry, weep (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

t<um>imaɬato hear (PAN: *t<um>umaNa) *tumaNa

t<um>imaɫato hear (PAN: *t<um>imaNa) *timaNa

u-a-ki-kirimiseek (PAN: *kiRim)

-um-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>) *-um-

um-a-alato take (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

Saaroa (100 / 128)

um-a-aracəto bite (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

um-ali-a-valəəto answer (PAN: *bales₁)

uma-umafarm (PAN: *qumah)

usalhərain (PAN: *quzaN)

u-sianine (PAN: *u-Siwa) *Siwa

u-suma-anəother (PAN: *duma)

u-tuluthree (PAN: *telu)

valharəa plant: Smilax china (PAN: *baNaR)

valhiriboard (NOISE)

val itukumoney (LOAN)

varaʔacharcoal (PAN: *baRah)

vatuʔustone (PAN: *batux)

vatuʔustone (PAN: *batux)

viʔiligoiter (NOISE)

vulalhemoon, month (PAN: *bulaN)

vuŋuʔuhead (NOISE)

ʔabaŋəboat, canoe (PAN: *qabaŋ₁)

ʔacáŋəwalls of pigpen (NOISE)

ʔacəvədeadfall trap to catch rats (PAN: *qaCeb)

ʔaciʔiliver (PAN: *qaCay)

Saaroa (120 / 128)

ʔamis-an-awinter (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

ʔarisaŋpigeon peas (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

ʔaurutype of bamboo (PAN: *qauR₁) *qauR

ʔilhicuevil spirit (PAN: *qaNiCu)

ʔimarəgrease, fat (PAN: *SimaR)

ʔulhulhaŋetree with sticky fruits: Cordia myxa (PAN: *quNuNaŋ)

ʔusáəgray hair (PAN: *qudaS)

ʔu-susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

603. Sa'ban (50) WMP (Blust n.d. (1971), Blust 2001) [snv] Malaysia (Sarawak)

adiəwfar (PMP: *zauq)

alinpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

anak m-enak-ensibling's child (PWMP: *kam-anak-en) *aNak

apalthick (PWMP: *kapal)

atəheye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

atəh siəwsun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

aywho? (PMP: *sai)

ayəwwood; tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

bbəha plant with roots that are pounded and mixed with river water to immobilize fish: Derris elliptica (PAN: *tuba)

beləmdeep (PMP: *dalem)

biriəwwind (PAN: *baRiuS)

bləwbody hair, fur, feathers (PMP: *bulu₁)

blinmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

breətheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

breəwchase away, drive off (as birds from the fields) (PAN: *buRaw)

ddəuʔseven (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

dinrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

eməhfive (PAN: *lima)

hlənto swallow (PMP: *telen)

hloəŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

Sa'ban (20 / 50)

hmahclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

hmitball of the heel (PWMP: *tumid)

hmuəncucumber (PMP: *qatimun)

hruənto descend (PMP: *tuRun₁)

kkəwnode, joint (as in bamboo, sugarcane) (PMP: *buku)

lanaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

lawthree (PAN: *telu)

laʔinbranch (PMP: *daqan₁)

ləkoʔjoint of the body (PWMP: *lekuq)

ləwthree (PAN: *telu)

lluənto roll up, as a mat (PAN: *luluN)

loətmushroom (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

maʔhouse, longhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

muəksandfly (PMP: *ñamuk)

muətfibrous roots (PMP: *Ramut)

n-yopblow, blow on (PWMP: *maŋ-heyup) *Seyup

pəiʔwater (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

pə-lbəwone thousand (PMP: *Ribu)

ɸətnavel (PMP: *pusej)

ppəkpounded fine, as rice grains (PMP: *bekbek₁)

Sa'ban (40 / 50)

rahbig (PAN: *Raya)

roətwound (PWMP: *suRat)

roətvein, tendon (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

siəwday (PMP: *qalejaw)

tahwe (dual incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

təwhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

toəʔvomit (PAN: *utaq)

ttaycalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

winodor, smell (PWMP: *bahu-en) *bahu

yopthing used for blowing (as a bamboo tube used to blow on the fire) (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

Sa'dan (13) WMP. see: Sa'dan Toraja

604. Sa'dan Toraja (13) WMP [aka: Sa'dan]

busuŋget a swollen belly --- punishment for violating a taboo (PWMP: *busuŋ)

kalu-pinikind of swallow (PWMP: *pini)

kanniŋeyebrow (PWMP: *keniŋ)

pa-katuto send (PAN: *kaCu)

paluŋ-anfeeding trough (usually for pigs) (PWMP: *paluŋ-an) *paluŋ₁

pusuksprout; budding leaves (PWMP: *pucuk)

saeto arrive (PWMP: *sabay₂)

sarakto separate, to wean (PWMP: *sarak)

siaŋmid-day (PWMP: *siaŋ)

tambukbelly (PWMP: *tambuk)

tan-an (< *taqan-an)to hold out, endure, defend one’s place (PWMP: *taqan₂)

tikaʔquick, speed (PMP: *ti(ŋ)kas)

tunduklean over, bend (PWMP: *tunduk)

Sadong (59) WMP. see: Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong)

605. Saisiyat (255) Form. (Li 1978) [xsy] Taiwan (dialects: Tungho [xsy] 5, Taai [xsy] 39)

æhœdog (PAN: *asu₁)

a-rumaother (PAN: *duma)

asaŋvillage (PAN: *asaŋ₃) *asaŋ₂

asaŋvillage (LOAN)

azemheart (mind) (PAN: *ajem) Taai

babawabove, overhead (PAN: *babaw₃)

baboydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bakbakstrike with a piece of bamboo (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bakigrandfather (PAN: *baki₂)

bæLælung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

balaʃmale (PAN: *baNaS)

baLasokwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk) Taai

baLiɁwind (PAN: *bali₃) Taai

baLiwbuy (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃ Taai

baLizabatten, reed (of a loom) (PAN: *baRija) Taai

baLoshtyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS)

baLozpigeon (PAN: *baRuj) Taai

balʸiwind (LOAN)

baŋaʃa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

baŋəʃanimal skin (PAN: *baŋeS)

Saisiyat (20 / 255)

basaLsmall variety of millet (PAN: *baCaR) Taai

batostone (PAN: *batux)

bawalump (PAN: *Ribawa)

beLaygive (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

biLilfollow (PAN: *biliN)

bilisto hold (PAN: *biNiC)

binSiseed of grains (PAN: *bineSiq)

bintœʔænstar (PAN: *bituqen)

bœhœLbow (PAN: *busuR₂)

bokeshhair of the head (PAN: *bukeS)

boLayfruit (PAN: *buRay) Taai

boLokind of bamboo (PAN: *buluq₂)

boLokdecay (PAN: *buRuk)

bonazsand (LOAN)

bosœtesticles, scrotum (PAN: *buCuq)

boSokdrunk, dizzy (PAN: *buSek)

əməmfog, mist (PAN: *lemlem) Tungho

hæ-hilaLsun (PAN: *siNaR)

ha-inowhere? (PAN: *i-nu) *-nu

hæLəŋpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ) Taai

Saisiyat (40 / 255)

hapoyfire (PAN: *Sapuy)

ha-ynowhere? (PAN: *inu)

himarker of personal names (PAN: *si₁)

hikoʔelbow (PAN: *sikux)

h-inithis, here (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

hipihsmall cockroach (PAN: *Sipes)

hœhœʔfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

h<œm>aŋihto weep, cry (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

inamother (PAN: *ina)

inino, not (PAN: *ini)

iokorange (PAN: *iuk₂)

itawe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ka¹nominative and accusative case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ka₃)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-Ɂælop-an ‘hunting ground’ (cp. Ɂælop ‘to hunt’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

ka-bhœtsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

kæ-hbourine (PAN: *sebu)

ka-hiLayesterday (PAN: *siRa₁) Taai

kæ-hmatongue (PAN: *Sema)

ka-hœhœʔ-annipple of the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

kæ-hɁœŋhorn (PAN: *sequŋ)

Saisiyat (60 / 255)

kahœsscooping out (PAN: *kahuS)

kæhœytree, wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

ka-kLiwhemp plant (PAN: *keRiw) Taai

kaLaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ) Taai

kæ-Lasəŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp. (PAN: *laCeŋ)

ka-lhibcave under a rock (PAN: *Nihib)

kaLiɁlanguage (PAN: *kaRi₁)

ka-nowhat? (PAN: *ka-nu₁) *-nu

kapn-æʔmiSan-annorth (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

kapranawtowel for bathing (ROOT)

ka-sbolsmoke (PAN: *CebuN)

ka-tboʃsugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

katimtimeyelash (NEAR)

katimtimeyelash (LOAN)

kawaʃsky, heaven (PAN: *kawaS₁)

kawaynet for carrying things on back (PAN: *kaway₃)

ka-wLasvein (PAN: *huRaC)

kæ-ʔLorhousepost (PAN: *qelud) Taai

kicomitative marker (Li 1978:605) (PAN: *ki₂)

ki-obtain, get (gather firewood, pick flowers, etc.), remove a tooth (PAN: *ki-)

Saisiyat (80 / 255)

kikuLtail (PAN: *kikuR) Taai

kiLimseek, search for (PAN: *kiRim) Taai

kokoŋsmall bird (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

kokoŋsmall bird (PAN: *kukuŋ₁)

k<om>a:-kaawto scratch (with fingernails) (PAN: *k<um>aRaw) *kaRaw₁ Tungho

k<om>ahœsscoop out (PAN: *k<um>ahuS) *kahuS

k<om>aLasto bite (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

k<om>aLihto dig something up (PAN: *k<um>ali) *kalih Taai

k<om>iLimseek (PAN: *k<um>iRim) *kiRim Taai

k<om>itato see (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita₂

komolpubic hair (PAN: *gumuN)

kosolouse (head) (PAN: *kuCux)

kwawlarge hawk sp. (PAN: *kuaw) Taai

Labiʃsmall knife (PAN: *RabiS)

Læhœrdownhill (PAN: *lahud)

Lamesroot (PAN: *RameC)

lamoLdew (PAN: *ñamuR)

Laŋawsmall fly (PAN: *laŋaw) Taai

laŋoyswim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

Lapisflying squirrel (PAN: *lapis) Taai

Saisiyat (100 / 255)

lataroutside (PAN: *NataD)

Lay-Layowither (PAN: *layu)

LəmLəmcloud (PAN: *lemlem) Taai

ləmzæsmall miscanthus (PAN: *Rimeja)

libonest (PAN: *Nibu)

Likorback, behind (PAN: *likud)

LituɁloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu) Taai

Liʔʃiʃnit (PAN: *liseqeS) Taai

lœhœŋmortar (PAN: *Nusuŋ)

lokathe inflamed corners of the mouth (PAN: *Nuka)

Loklawclouded leopard (PAN: *lukeNaw) Taai

L<om>amozto mix (PAN: *lamuj) Taai

l<om>aŋoyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

L<om>asəŋto sting, of bees (PAN: *laCeŋ)

L<om>ayapto fly (PAN: *layap)

L<om>əbəŋto bury (PAN: *lebeŋ₁)

l<om>otorjoin, link (PAN: *Nutud)

Loʃiʔtears (PAN: *luSeq)

LosoŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ) Taai

Lotokrabbit (PAN: *lutuk)

Saisiyat (120 / 255)

Lotokrabbit (PAN: *lutuk) Taai

lœʔəʃmarrow (PAN: *NuqeS)

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-boLokrotten (of food) (PMP: *ma-buRuk) *buRuk

ma-Lbawaswelling (PAN: *Ribawa)

maL-ʔaz-ʔazemto think (PAN: *ajem) Taai

ma-moLaʔto plant (PAN: *mula) Taai

ma-mwaʔto plant (PAN: *mula) Tungho

manaki ʃascend (PAN: *dakiS)

man-tetetremble (PAN: *terter)

maraʃbring (PAN: *um-adaS) *adaS

masaydie (PAN: *ma-aCay) *aCay

masaʔeye (PAN: *maCa)

may-naato wait (PAN: *naRa₂) Tungho

maʔawa plant: Litsea cubea (PAN: *maqaw)

mi-riLiʔto stand (PAN: *diRi)

m-om-otæto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

mon-torœʔto drip (PAN: *tuduq)

moyo2pl. nominative, you all (PAN: *kamu-yu) *amu

nagenitive of plural personal nouns (PAN: *na₃)

Saisiyat (140 / 255)

nigenitive of singular personal nouns (marks possession, and agency of an undergoer voice verb) (PAN: *ni)

-om-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>) *-um-

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

palirwing (PAN: *paNid)

panə-ʃəmət-ənsmothered (PAN: *Semut)

paparaŋroast over a fire (ROOT)

pa-pilaʔsilver (LOAN)

pazayrice plant (PAN: *pajay)

pæʔishot (taste) (PAN: *paqiC)

pæʔzoʔgall, gall bladder (PAN: *paqeju)

pizaʔhow many? (PAN: *pijax)

ponaybad omen bird (PAN: *punay)

pozoknavel (PAN: *pujek)

raLaɁFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana (PAN: *daRa₁) Taai

raLanroad (PAN: *zalan)

raLiʔearth, soil (PAN: *daRiq) Taai

ralomwater (PAN: *daNum)

ramoblood (PAN: *damuq)

rayaʔinland (PAN: *daya)

ræʔiʃforehead (PAN: *daqiS)

Saisiyat (160 / 255)

riLæto lick (PAN: *dilaq₁)

rilaŋrust (PAN: *diNaŋ)

roʃatwo (PAN: *duSa)

sabowrap (PAN: *Cabu)

saLemsharp (PAN: *Cazem)

ʃamorsesame: Sesamum indicum (PAN: *Samud)

ʃan-talamto taste (PAN: *taNam)

sapœhsweep (PAN: *Capuh)

Sʌ-SʌʔiSthread for sewing (PAN: *Ca-CaqiS) *CaqiS

sa-seboŋmeet (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

sawalaugh (PAN: *Cawa)

sazek-ento smell (PAN: *Sajek-en) *Sajek

sæʔiexcrement (PAN: *Caqi)

seLaba belch (PAN: *CeRab)

shilœbeads (PAN: *SiNuq)

shiŋashfood particles caught between the teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

shoʔoyou (sg.) (PAN: *Suʔu)

shu-baəhto revenge (PAN: *bales₁)

ʃi-baLiwsell (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃ Taai

SimaLfat, grease (PAN: *SimaR)

Saisiyat (180 / 255)

ʃinaɁa plant: Erechtites spp. (PAN: *Sina) Taai

S-in-aLiSrope, cord (PAN: *C<in>aliS) *CaliS

sin-kLiwhemp fiber (PAN: *keRiw) Taai

ʃi-potœhto wear shorts (PAN: *Si-₃)

ʃiriwild goat, serow (PAN: *Sidi)

ʃiʃilomen bird (gives bad omens) (PAN: *SiSiN)

siwaLarrow (NEAR) Taai

siwalʸarrow (LOAN)

solœhroast over a slow fire (PAN: *CuNuh)

somæhbody louse (PAN: *CumeS)

s-om-aLemsharpen, make sharp (PAN: *Cazem)

s-om-aLemsharpen, make sharp (PAN: *t<um>azem) *Cazem

S-om-aLiSto fasten, tie (PAN: *C<um>aliS) *CaliS

s-om-awato laugh (PAN: *Cawa)

somaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

s-om-azekto smell (PAN: *Sajek)

s-om-aʔidefecate (PAN: *C<um>aki) *Caki

s<om>aʔito defecate (PAN: *C<um>aqi) *Caqi

S-om-ʌʔiSto sew (PAN: *C<um>aqiS) *CaqiS

s-om-Labto belch (as after drinking soda) (PAN: *CeRab)

Saisiyat (200 / 255)

s<om>oLizbrood on eggs (PAN: *Sulij) Taai

s<um>aboto wrap (PAN: *C<um>abu) *Cabu

talamto try (PAN: *taNam)

taLœʔænhouse (PAN: *taRuqan)

t-amæhfather (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax

tanayankind of bamboo (PAN: *tanayan)

ta-tobaʔfish poison (PAN: *tuba)

ta-ʔœlœhhead (PAN: *quluh)

təktəkto chop wood (PAN: *tektek₁)

tialbelly (upper abdomen) (PAN: *tiaN)

timosalt (PAN: *timu)

toloʔthree (PAN: *telu)

t<om>aləkto cook (PAN: *taNek)

t<om>aləkto cook (PAN: *t<um>aNek) *taNek

t<om>nonto weave (cloth, mat) (PAN: *t<um>enun) *tenun

t<om>obaʔto poison fish (a fishing method) (PAN: *t<um>uba) *tuba

t<om>orœʔto point (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

t<om>orœʔto leak (PAN: *tuduq)

toʔtoʔstrike to flatten (PAN: *tuqtuq)

tutœhto hit (a rat), beat (PAN: *tutuh)

Saisiyat (220 / 255)

waLaythread (PAN: *walay) Taai

walis-anwild boar (PAN: *waNiS-an) *waNiS

walohoneybee; sugar (PAN: *waNu)

wasalsea (PAN: *waCaN)

was-wasallake, pond (PAN: *waCa-waCaN) *waCaN Tungho

y-ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *i-ami) *ami

ʔæbaLaɁshoulder (PAN: *qabaRa₁) Taai

ʔaeboashes, powder (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

ʔaelorwash away (PAN: *qañud)

ʔaeoLtype of bamboo (PAN: *qauR₁) *qauR

ʔaesəbdeadfall trap to catch rats (Tsuchida 1976:167) (PAN: *qaCeb)

ʔæhæone (PAN: *asa₁) *asa

ʔæhæone (PAN: *a-esa) *esa

ʔælaenemy (PAN: *qaNa)

ʔæLəmpangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

ʔalikæhfast (NEAR)

ʔaliŋoreflection (in mirror or water) (PAN: *qaNiŋu)

ʔæL-ʔæLiwdry (PAN: *qaRiw)

ʔæL-ʔæLozæhant sp. (PAN: *alujah)

Saisiyat (240 / 255)

ʔæmiSænwinter (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

ʔæriʃsmall hawk (PAN: *qadiS)

ʔasaŋvillage (LOAN)

ʔæʃəLoɁpestle (PAN: *qaSelu) Taai

ʔæ-ʔæpistongs (PAN: *qapiC)

ʔæʔæyleg and foot (human) (PAN: *qaqay)

ʔæ-ʔœralrain (PAN: *quzaN)

ʔəsʔəstight (PAN: *qeCqeC)

ʔi babawhigh above (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

ʔilaʃmoon, month (PAN: *qiNaS)

ʔ-oem-alopto hunt (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup

ʔokaempty (PAN: *uka₁) *uka₂

ʔomæhfarm, dry field (PAN: *qumah)

ʔ-œm-oralto rain (PAN: *q<um>uzaN) *quzaN

ʔœSalapscales (of fish) (PAN: *quSeNap)

ʔœwayrattan (PAN: *quay)

Saisiyat (Taai) (39) Form. [xsy] (Saisiyat) Taiwan

azemheart (mind) (PAN: *ajem)

baLasokwoodpecker (PAN: *balalaCuk)

baLiɁwind (PAN: *bali₃)

baLiwbuy (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

baLizabatten, reed (of a loom) (PAN: *baRija)

baLozpigeon (PAN: *baRuj)

basaLsmall variety of millet (PAN: *baCaR)

boLayfruit (PAN: *buRay)

hæLəŋpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ)

ka-hiLayesterday (PAN: *siRa₁)

ka-kLiwhemp plant (PAN: *keRiw)

kaLaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

kæ-ʔLorhousepost (PAN: *qelud)

kikuLtail (PAN: *kikuR)

kiLimseek, search for (PAN: *kiRim)

k<om>aLihto dig something up (PAN: *k<um>ali) *kalih

k<om>iLimseek (PAN: *k<um>iRim) *kiRim

kwawlarge hawk sp. (PAN: *kuaw)

Laŋawsmall fly (PAN: *laŋaw)

Lapisflying squirrel (PAN: *lapis)

Saisiyat (Taai) (20 / 39)

LəmLəmcloud (PAN: *lemlem)

LituɁloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu)

Liʔʃiʃnit (PAN: *liseqeS)

Loklawclouded leopard (PAN: *lukeNaw)

L<om>amozto mix (PAN: *lamuj)

LosoŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

Lotokrabbit (PAN: *lutuk)

maL-ʔaz-ʔazemto think (PAN: *ajem)

ma-moLaʔto plant (PAN: *mula)

raLaɁFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana (PAN: *daRa₁)

raLiʔearth, soil (PAN: *daRiq)

ʃi-baLiwsell (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

ʃinaɁa plant: Erechtites spp. (PAN: *Sina)

sin-kLiwhemp fiber (PAN: *keRiw)

siwaLarrow (NEAR)

s<om>oLizbrood on eggs (PAN: *Sulij)

waLaythread (PAN: *walay)

ʔæbaLaɁshoulder (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

ʔæʃəLoɁpestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

Saisiyat (Tungho) (5) Form. [xsy] (Saisiyat) Taiwan

əməmfog, mist (PAN: *lemlem)

k<om>a:-kaawto scratch (with fingernails) (PAN: *k<um>aRaw) *kaRaw₁

ma-mwaʔto plant (PAN: *mula)

may-naato wait (PAN: *naRa₂)

was-wasallake, pond (PAN: *waCa-waCaN) *waCaN

Sakalava Malagasy (1) WMP. see: Malagasy (Sakalava)

606. Sakao (8) OC [sku] Vanuatu

aŋaCanarium almond (POC: *kaŋaRi)

atœlœegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

ayawhat? (PMP: *sapa)

ðana-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

luto vomit (POC: *lua-ki) *luaq

nɛðdead (POC: *mate) *aCay

yanto go (POC: *pano) *paNaw

yeðfour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

607. Sakizaya (11) Form. (Lin 2011) [ais] () Taiwan [aka: Sakizaya Amis, Amis (Sakizaya)]

acawaspouse; husband, wife (PAN: *qasawa)

cebubladder (as of a water buffalo) (PAN: *sebu)

cebusto water, sprinkle water on (as plants) (PAN: *sebuS)

mala-acawato marry, get married, become husband and wife (PAN: *qasawa)

mala-acawa-ayto be a married couple (PAN: *qasawa)

mapa-acawato be betrothed (PAN: *qasawa)

mu-cebuto wet the bed (PAN: *sebu)

ŋipentooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

pa-acawato pledge in marriage (PAN: *qasawa)

pa-acawa-aymatchmaker (PAN: *qasawa)

raqusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂)

Sakizaya Amis (11) Form.. see: Sakizaya

608. Salako (5) WMP [knx] (Kendayan) Indonesia (Kalimantan) [aka: Selako]

garaŋfierce, strong (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

inu-ʔmother (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

ka-tahu-an-andiscovered, found out (PWMP: *ka-taqu-an) *Caqu

mepisthin (PMP: *mepis)

tahuto know (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

Salayar (12) WMP. see: Makasarese

Salayar Makasarese (12) WMP. see: Makasarese (Salayar)

609. Saliba (1) OC

manawind (POC: *mana₂)

610. Sama (Central) (7) WMP [ssb] (Sama, Southern) Philippines [aka: Sama-Bajaw, Central Sama]

apampancake (LOAN)

dəllaʔtongue (PAN: *zelaq)

dokotto burn (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

heabig (PAN: *Raya)

-nu2sg possessor and non-subject agent (PWMP: *-nu)

si-akaelder sibling (PWMP: *aka)

suliga fish, Caesionidae, fusiliers (PMP: *sulig)

611. Sama (Pangutaran) (1) WMP

sa-ŋ-puʔten (PMP: *ŋa)

612. Sama Linungan (5) WMP

bunaʔbatfish, also called leaffish: Platax orbicularis (PMP: *buna)

kuhapoʔperch and rock-cod, family Epinephelidae (PWMP: *kuRapuq)

kuhapoʔ dapakgiant perch: Lates calcarifer (PWMP: *kuRapuq)

puyu-puyunetlike Threadfin Bream: Pentapodus caninus (PWMP: *puyu-puyu) *puyu₁

selolongtoms and perhaps one garfish (PMP: *selu)

Sama-Bajaw (7) WMP. see: Sama (Central)

613. Samal (1) WMP (Reid 1971) [aka: Balangingi Samal]

ma-toʔaparent-in-law (WF, WM, HF, HM) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

614. Samal (52) WMP (Reid 1971) [sml] (Sama, Central) Philippines

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

ambitlead by the hand (PMP: *ambit)

anomweave a mat (PMP: *añem)

a-nuwhatchamacallit (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

apugbetel chew (literary) (PAN: *apuR)

asusteam (PMP: *qasu₃)

ataslave (PMP: *qaRta)

babawrat (PWMP: *babaw₁)

baliwwind (PAN: *baRiuS)

baʔuʔuland turtle (NEAR)

bilu-bilubluish, bluefin trevally: Caranx melampygus. Maybe blue-spotted trevally: C. bucculentus; Cale-cale trevally: Ulua mandibularis (PMP: *bilu-bilu)

buliʔbuttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

duduʔbreast (PWMP: *duduq)

gadduŋgreen (LOAN)

hallupestle (PMP: *qahelu) *qaSelu

humbusmoke (NOISE)

iaʔfeeling of shame (PAN: *Seyaq)

ɨmmaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

ɨmma-ʔfather (PMP: *ema-ʔ) *ema₁

ɨntɨlloegg (PMP: *qateluR)

Samal (20 / 52)

isaone (in counting) (PAN: *isa₁)

ituthis (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

ka-nuwhen? (PMP: *ka-nu₂) *-nu

kitawe (dual incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kulambalpearly monocle-bream or gold-lined sea-bream: Scopopsis margaritifer or Gnathodentex aurolineatus (PWMP: *kulambar)

labuto fall (PWMP: *labuq)

lahi-lahito run (PAN: *laRiw)

lalidolphinfish, family Coryphaenidae (PMP: *lajih)

lessomsour (PWMP: *qalesem)

lisuŋ-anmortar (PWMP: *li(ŋ)suŋ)

lujjaʔto spit (PWMP: *luzaq)

mala-puntiblue-spotted sea perch (PWMP: *punti₂)

maminviolet-lined Maori wrasse: Cheilinus diagrammus, C. undulatus (PMP: *mamin)

mamissweet (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

maŋaligolden trevally (PWMP: *maŋali)

maŋaneat (PMP: *maŋan)

nipisthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

pandibathe (PWMP: *pa-andiʔ) *andiʔ

pa-pataykill (PMP: *pa-p-atay) *aCay

Samal (40 / 52)

p-oléʔreturn home (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

saiwho? (PMP: *sai)

sapaʔriver (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sekotnear (PWMP: *sekut)

si-aliyounger sibling (PWMP: *si huaji) *Suaji

taliŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

taŋkawsteal (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

taʔuto know something (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

toʔolaŋbones other than fish bones (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tulayscad-like fish: Selar crumenophthalmus (PMP: *qatulay)

tulito sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

uuŋnose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

615. Samasodu (1) OC [aka: Laghu]

ki-knisuto spit (PEMP: *kanisu)

616. Sambal (175) WMP (dialects: Tina 5, Botolan (Reid 1971) [sbl] 168)

abayashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁ Botolan

áhaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ) Botolan

aháwaspouse (PAN: *qasawa) Botolan

ahóksmoke (PMP: *asuk) Botolan

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku) Botolan

alekto kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek Botolan

aliyounger sibling, younger cousin, younger sibling-in-law (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji Botolan

amakmat (PWMP: *amak) Botolan

amakmat (PWMP: *hamak) Botolan

anem-anemsix by six (PMP: *enem enem) *enem Botolan

aninoshadow (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu Botolan

apoylime (PAN: *qapuR) Botolan

atelescort (PMP: *hateD) *SateD Botolan

áwayto quarrel, argue, fight (PPH: *áway) Botolan

ayranstairway, ladder (PMP: *haRezan) Botolan

bayawbrother-in-law (sometimes used only between males) (PWMP: *bayaw) Botolan

ba-yríhere (PMP: *i-di) *-di Botolan

ba-ytithis (PAN: *-i-ti) *-ti Botolan

bɨhaywaterfall (PPH: *besay) Botolan

bóliʔbuttocks (PMP: *buliq₂) Botolan

Sambal (20 / 175)

boŋoʔskull (PPH: *buŋuq) Tina

botólseed (PPH: *butúl) Tina

dáboʔto fall (PWMP: *dabuq) Botolan

daʔanold (objects) (PPH: *daqan₂) Botolan

əkanto eat (PAN: *kaen) Botolan

-enmarker of a subject derived from an initial direct object; also used in imperatives; e.g. Paty-en nin lalaki nin koyà ya damowag The carabao will be killed with a knife by the man (Antworth 1979:39); Itap-en mo ya demek throw away the trash (Antworth 1979:49) (PAN: *-en) Botolan

gómaʔsheath for bolo (PAN: *Rumaq) Botolan

hi-nowho? (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu Botolan

h-itawe (dual incl.) (PAN: *ita₁) Botolan

h-ita-mowe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁) Botolan

homboto boil (PPH: *subu) Botolan

ika-pitoseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu Botolan

íliglean on (PPh: *hírig) Botolan

ina-náwabreath (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa Tina

inawá-wənbreath (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa Botolan

indóʔmother (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu Botolan

i-táboʔto dip out; a dipper (PMP: *tabuq) Botolan

i-tániŋto set a date (LOAN) Botolan

i-táyakto distribute (PPH: *taRak) Botolan

itlɨnto swallow (PMP: *tilen) Botolan

Sambal (40 / 175)

ɨyɨpto blow (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup Botolan

kawáŋgap, hollow (PWMP: *kawaŋ) Tina

kelaŋdry (not wet) (PWMP: *kelaŋ) Botolan

kílatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC Botolan

kirɨpeyelash (PPH: *pidek₂) Botolan

-ko1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku) Botolan

kókofingernail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁ Botolan

ko-noblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ku) Botolan

kun-n-awən1pl ex oblique (PAN: *amen) Botolan

lakoto go (PMP: *lakaw) Botolan

lánumwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum Botolan

láŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC Botolan

lima-m-poʔfifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima Botolan

lɨpadto fly (PPH: *lempad) Botolan

luatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Botolan

ma-bohoyfull after eating (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR Botolan

ma-dáboʔto fall (PWMP: *ma-dabuq) *dabuq Botolan

mákogo (PWMP: *makaw) Botolan

makoto go (PMP: *l<um>akaw) *lakaw Botolan

ma-nakláʔto make a click with the tongue (PPH: *tak(e)laq) Botolan

Sambal (60 / 175)

man-dolaʔto spit (PMP: *dulaq) Botolan

ma-nipihthin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis Botolan

ma-noyaŋson-in-law, daughter-in-law (PPH: *ma-nuRaŋ) *tuRaŋ Botolan

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk) Botolan

manuk-manukbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk Botolan

maŋ-ahohunt for game with a dog (PWMP: *maŋ-asu) *asu₁ Botolan

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen Botolan

ma-púluʔten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq Botolan

ma-putiʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq Botolan

ma-raninear (PMP: *adani) Botolan

ma-tagtágbe shaken by riding over rough roads in a truck or carabao cart (PPH: *ma-tagtág) *tagtag Botolan

ma-toloyto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR Botolan

ma-tuʔaold, of people (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS Botolan

ma-ʔalsumsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem Botolan

ma-ʔapliʔstinging pain (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq Botolan

mi-banowash the hands (PMP: *bañaw) Botolan

mi-banowash hands, feet (PMP: *ma-bañaw) *bañaw Botolan

mi-talátalto stagger, as a drunk person (PPH: *talátal) Botolan

mi-taŋgóŋto pick up and carry (PWMP: *taŋguŋ) Botolan

-na3sg. agent and possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂ Botolan

Sambal (80 / 175)

nákemseat of the emotions (PPH: *nákem) Botolan

n-atidead (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay Botolan

na-ʔilounripe, raw (PPh: *hiláw) Botolan

noif (PAN: *nu₁) Botolan

nónoʔfemale breast (PAN: *nunuh) Botolan

ŋipɨntooth (PAN: *ŋipen) Botolan

óbakbark of tree (PWMP: *ubak) Botolan

oɨhblanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules Botolan

-om-infix used with intransitive and semitransitive verbs, and to mark inchoatives (PMP: *<um>) *-um- Botolan

ótaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ) Botolan

oyhadeer (PWMP: *u(R)sah) Botolan

pa-amo-onto tame (PPH: *haq(e)muq) Tina

padpádto be carried by the wind (as leaves, paper, feathers), to be carried by current of water (used of people, limbs, rubbish, etc.) (PPH: *padpád) Botolan

pagpag-énto shake dust off clothes, papers, etc.; this can be done by tapping against a hard surface (PPH: *pagpág) Botolan

páloŋthe comb of a chicken (PPH: *páluŋ) Botolan

paŋátto cook fish, shrimp, etc. with salt and small amount of water; onions, tomatoes, ginger, etc. may be added (PWMP: *paŋat)

pátaʔto break bones of something or someone (PMP: *pataq) Botolan

pati-enkill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay Botolan

páʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁) Botolan

páʔenbait (PAN: *paen) Botolan

Sambal (100 / 175)

piatscar (PWMP: *pilat) Botolan

piŋhancousin (PWMP: *pisan) Botolan

pi-pitoonly seven (PAN: *pi-pitu) *pitu Botolan

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Botolan

pito-pitoseven by seven, seven at a time (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu Botolan

pónitto close up, to stick together, to pull something together (PPH: *punit) Botolan

ponítito hit with the fists, to box (LOAN) Botolan

pórito praise someone (LOAN) Botolan

porólto be dull, not sharp (used of knife, shears, pencil); slow to learn (PMP: *pudul) Botolan

pótohto cut in pieces (PWMP: *putus₂) Botolan

potóttail cut off, to cut off tail (as of a pig) (PWMP: *putut₂) Botolan

póyatto keep vigil, to not sleep, to be wakeful (PPH: *púyat) Botolan

pusuʔheart (PMP: *pusuq₁) Botolan

saluyota shrub, Corchorus aestuans (PPH: *saluyut)

siámnine (PPH: *siám) Botolan

siyamnine (PPH: *siám) Botolan

tábahto cut cloth (PWMP: *tabas₂) Botolan

tabásto cut grass (PWMP: *tebas₂) Botolan

tábiʔask to be excused when passing in front of one or more persons; ask someone to get out of the way (LOAN) Botolan

tabóyto drive or chase away (PPH: *tabuR₂) Botolan

Sambal (120 / 175)

taga-from a certain place, resident of (PPH: *taga-) Botolan

taghóycry pitifully, bewail, lament (LOAN) Botolan

tagkéhgirdle, anything tied around the waist (PPH: *tagkes) Botolan

tagyáŋrib (PAN: *tageRaŋ) Botolan

tahóʔginger tea (LOAN) Botolan

takéhto embrace, hug (PAN: *takes) Botolan

takoríʔtea kettle (LOAN) Botolan

talábeffects, influences (LOAN) Botolan

talhíkbe sprayed or splashed by water (PPH: *tal(e)sík) Botolan

talínomplant with thick leaves that are cooked with meat; they are a bit sour (PPH: *talínum) Botolan

tálotallow; beeswax (PWMP: *tadu) Botolan

talontónto follow a path (PPH: *taluntún) Botolan

támaʔto hit squarely; correct, right (PMP: *tamaq₁) Botolan

tambógjump into water, wade through water or mud (PPH: *tambúg) Botolan

tánodto guard (crops), to watch for birds or wild pigs (PPH: *tánud) Botolan

táŋoslong and pointed, of a nose (PPH: *táŋus) Botolan

taŋuyto swim (PWMP: *taŋuy) Botolan

tapátfaithful, honest, sincere (LOAN) Botolan

tápiʔboard, lumber (usually small sizes) (PPH: *tapiq₁) Botolan

tapóncork (LOAN) Botolan

Sambal (140 / 175)

tátauncle (PAN: *tata₁) Botolan

tata-yfather, uncle (PAN: *tata₁) Botolan

táta-yfather (PAN: *tata₁) Botolan

ta-tlothree (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu Botolan

tayiʔto sew (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS Botolan

tebayto answer (PPH: *tebáR) Botolan

tebáʔto cut down banana stalk (PPH: *tebáq) Botolan

təboʔsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS Botolan

tiánbelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN Botolan

tíbaydurable, strong, firm (LOAN) Botolan

tihtihto slit or split lengthwise (used only of humans and animals) (LOAN) Botolan

tíkedback of the knee (PMP: *tiked) Botolan

tikóʔcrooked (PWMP: *tikuq₁) Botolan

tílaʔremainder, remains (PMP: *tidaq) Botolan

tilíŋto have keen hearing; to deafen (PWMP: *tiliŋ) Botolan

timtímto taste anything liquid; to sip (PPH: *timtim) Botolan

tipídthrifty (LOAN) Botolan

ti-pitoseven each (PAN: *ti-pitu) *pitu Botolan

tísaʔa tree and its fruit; the fruit is dry and very yellow (PPH: *tisaq) Botolan

tolóŋa covering for head, as a cloth, banana leaf, etc. (PMP: *tuduŋ) Botolan

Sambal (160 / 175)

t<om>álaʔto go for a walk, roam around (PPH: *talaq₂) Botolan

t<om>opádto fulfill; to come to pass; to obey (PPH: *tupád) Botolan

tompóka pile of vegetables or a certain number grouped together as is done in the market (PWMP: *tumpuk) Botolan

tonóynoise or sound, as playing of radio, truck, sound of rain on roof, etc. (PWMP: *teneR) Botolan

topíʔto fold (PPH: *tupíq) Botolan

tórakto step on (PWMP: *tuzak) Botolan

tótoylittle boy (PPH: *tutuy) Botolan

toyhóksharpened piece of bamboo used as a fork for removing something from a kettle (can also be used for jabbing a person) (PPH: *tuRsúk) Botolan

toyóʔto point something at someone, as a pencil or gun (PPH: *tuyuq) Botolan

toyóʔdried fish (LOAN) Botolan

tóʔolknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS Botolan

toʔól-enlame (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS Botolan

túluyto sleep (PAN: *tuduR) Botolan

walo-waloeight by eight (eight at a time) (PMP: *walu walu) *walu Botolan

yamótroot (PMP: *Ramut) Botolan

Sambal (Botolan) (168) WMP (Reid 1971) [sbl] (Sambal, Botolan) Philippines

abayashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

áhaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

aháwaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

ahóksmoke (PMP: *asuk)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

alekto kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

aliyounger sibling, younger cousin, younger sibling-in-law (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

amakmat (PWMP: *amak)

amakmat (PWMP: *hamak)

anem-anemsix by six (PMP: *enem enem) *enem

aninoshadow (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

apoylime (PAN: *qapuR)

atelescort (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

áwayto quarrel, argue, fight (PPH: *áway)

ayranstairway, ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

bayawbrother-in-law (sometimes used only between males) (PWMP: *bayaw)

ba-yríhere (PMP: *i-di) *-di

ba-ytithis (PAN: *-i-ti) *-ti

bɨhaywaterfall (PPH: *besay)

bóliʔbuttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

Sambal (Botolan) (20 / 168)

dáboʔto fall (PWMP: *dabuq)

daʔanold (objects) (PPH: *daqan₂)

əkanto eat (PAN: *kaen)

-enmarker of a subject derived from an initial direct object; also used in imperatives; e.g. Paty-en nin lalaki nin koyà ya damowag The carabao will be killed with a knife by the man (Antworth 1979:39); Itap-en mo ya demek throw away the trash (Antworth 1979:49) (PAN: *-en)

gómaʔsheath for bolo (PAN: *Rumaq)

hi-nowho? (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu

h-itawe (dual incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

h-ita-mowe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

homboto boil (PPH: *subu)

ika-pitoseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

íliglean on (PPh: *hírig)

inawá-wənbreath (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

indóʔmother (PWMP: *indu-q) *indu

i-táboʔto dip out; a dipper (PMP: *tabuq)

i-tániŋto set a date (LOAN)

i-táyakto distribute (PPH: *taRak)

itlɨnto swallow (PMP: *tilen)

ɨyɨpto blow (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

kelaŋdry (not wet) (PWMP: *kelaŋ)

kílatlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

Sambal (Botolan) (40 / 168)

kirɨpeyelash (PPH: *pidek₂)

-ko1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kókofingernail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

ko-noblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ku)

kun-n-awən1pl ex oblique (PAN: *amen)

lakoto go (PMP: *lakaw)

lánumwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

láŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lima-m-poʔfifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

lɨpadto fly (PPH: *lempad)

luatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ma-bohoyfull after eating (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

ma-dáboʔto fall (PWMP: *ma-dabuq) *dabuq

mákogo (PWMP: *makaw)

makoto go (PMP: *l<um>akaw) *lakaw

ma-nakláʔto make a click with the tongue (PPH: *tak(e)laq)

man-dolaʔto spit (PMP: *dulaq)

ma-nipihthin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-noyaŋson-in-law, daughter-in-law (PPH: *ma-nuRaŋ) *tuRaŋ

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

Sambal (Botolan) (60 / 168)

manuk-manukbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

maŋ-ahohunt for game with a dog (PWMP: *maŋ-asu) *asu₁

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

ma-púluʔten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq

ma-putiʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

ma-raninear (PMP: *adani)

ma-tagtágbe shaken by riding over rough roads in a truck or carabao cart (PPH: *ma-tagtág) *tagtag

ma-toloyto sleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

ma-tuʔaold, of people (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ma-ʔalsumsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

ma-ʔapliʔstinging pain (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

mi-banowash the hands (PMP: *bañaw)

mi-banowash hands, feet (PMP: *ma-bañaw) *bañaw

mi-talátalto stagger, as a drunk person (PPH: *talátal)

mi-taŋgóŋto pick up and carry (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

-na3sg. agent and possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

nákemseat of the emotions (PPH: *nákem)

n-atidead (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

na-ʔilounripe, raw (PPh: *hiláw)

noif (PAN: *nu₁)

Sambal (Botolan) (80 / 168)

nónoʔfemale breast (PAN: *nunuh)

ŋipɨntooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

óbakbark of tree (PWMP: *ubak)

oɨhblanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

-om-infix used with intransitive and semitransitive verbs, and to mark inchoatives (PMP: *<um>) *-um-

ótaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

oyhadeer (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

padpádto be carried by the wind (as leaves, paper, feathers), to be carried by current of water (used of people, limbs, rubbish, etc.) (PPH: *padpád)

pagpag-énto shake dust off clothes, papers, etc.; this can be done by tapping against a hard surface (PPH: *pagpág)

páloŋthe comb of a chicken (PPH: *páluŋ)

pátaʔto break bones of something or someone (PMP: *pataq)

pati-enkill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

páʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

páʔenbait (PAN: *paen)

piatscar (PWMP: *pilat)

piŋhancousin (PWMP: *pisan)

pi-pitoonly seven (PAN: *pi-pitu) *pitu

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pito-pitoseven by seven, seven at a time (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

pónitto close up, to stick together, to pull something together (PPH: *punit)

Sambal (Botolan) (100 / 168)

ponítito hit with the fists, to box (LOAN)

pórito praise someone (LOAN)

porólto be dull, not sharp (used of knife, shears, pencil); slow to learn (PMP: *pudul)

pótohto cut in pieces (PWMP: *putus₂)

potóttail cut off, to cut off tail (as of a pig) (PWMP: *putut₂)

póyatto keep vigil, to not sleep, to be wakeful (PPH: *púyat)

pusuʔheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

siámnine (PPH: *siám)

siyamnine (PPH: *siám)

tábahto cut cloth (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tabásto cut grass (PWMP: *tebas₂)

tábiʔask to be excused when passing in front of one or more persons; ask someone to get out of the way (LOAN)

tabóyto drive or chase away (PPH: *tabuR₂)

taga-from a certain place, resident of (PPH: *taga-)

taghóycry pitifully, bewail, lament (LOAN)

tagkéhgirdle, anything tied around the waist (PPH: *tagkes)

tagyáŋrib (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tahóʔginger tea (LOAN)

takéhto embrace, hug (PAN: *takes)

takoríʔtea kettle (LOAN)

Sambal (Botolan) (120 / 168)

talábeffects, influences (LOAN)

talhíkbe sprayed or splashed by water (PPH: *tal(e)sík)

talínomplant with thick leaves that are cooked with meat; they are a bit sour (PPH: *talínum)

tálotallow; beeswax (PWMP: *tadu)

talontónto follow a path (PPH: *taluntún)

támaʔto hit squarely; correct, right (PMP: *tamaq₁)

tambógjump into water, wade through water or mud (PPH: *tambúg)

tánodto guard (crops), to watch for birds or wild pigs (PPH: *tánud)

táŋoslong and pointed, of a nose (PPH: *táŋus)

taŋuyto swim (PWMP: *taŋuy)

tapátfaithful, honest, sincere (LOAN)

tápiʔboard, lumber (usually small sizes) (PPH: *tapiq₁)

tapóncork (LOAN)

tátauncle (PAN: *tata₁)

tata-yfather, uncle (PAN: *tata₁)

táta-yfather (PAN: *tata₁)

ta-tlothree (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tayiʔto sew (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tebayto answer (PPH: *tebáR)

tebáʔto cut down banana stalk (PPH: *tebáq)

Sambal (Botolan) (140 / 168)

təboʔsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tiánbelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tíbaydurable, strong, firm (LOAN)

tihtihto slit or split lengthwise (used only of humans and animals) (LOAN)

tíkedback of the knee (PMP: *tiked)

tikóʔcrooked (PWMP: *tikuq₁)

tílaʔremainder, remains (PMP: *tidaq)

tilíŋto have keen hearing; to deafen (PWMP: *tiliŋ)

timtímto taste anything liquid; to sip (PPH: *timtim)

tipídthrifty (LOAN)

ti-pitoseven each (PAN: *ti-pitu) *pitu

tísaʔa tree and its fruit; the fruit is dry and very yellow (PPH: *tisaq)

tolóŋa covering for head, as a cloth, banana leaf, etc. (PMP: *tuduŋ)

t<om>álaʔto go for a walk, roam around (PPH: *talaq₂)

t<om>opádto fulfill; to come to pass; to obey (PPH: *tupád)

tompóka pile of vegetables or a certain number grouped together as is done in the market (PWMP: *tumpuk)

tonóynoise or sound, as playing of radio, truck, sound of rain on roof, etc. (PWMP: *teneR)

topíʔto fold (PPH: *tupíq)

tórakto step on (PWMP: *tuzak)

tótoylittle boy (PPH: *tutuy)

Sambal (Botolan) (160 / 168)

toyhóksharpened piece of bamboo used as a fork for removing something from a kettle (can also be used for jabbing a person) (PPH: *tuRsúk)

toyóʔto point something at someone, as a pencil or gun (PPH: *tuyuq)

toyóʔdried fish (LOAN)

tóʔolknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

toʔól-enlame (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

túluyto sleep (PAN: *tuduR)

walo-waloeight by eight (eight at a time) (PMP: *walu walu) *walu

yamótroot (PMP: *Ramut)

Sambal (Pinatubo) (2) WMP (Madulid 2000)

aum-auma plant: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw.) (PPH: *aum)

bunatDerris elliptica (Roxb.) Benth (PMP: *bunat)

Sambal (Tina) (5) WMP

boŋoʔskull (PPH: *buŋuq)

botólseed (PPH: *butúl)

ina-náwabreath (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

kawáŋgap, hollow (PWMP: *kawaŋ)

pa-amo-onto tame (PPH: *haq(e)muq)

617. Samihim (22) WMP [mhy] (Ma’anyan) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

alaugreat-great grandparent, PPPP (NOISE)

arithat (PMP: *a-di) *-di

atuksmoke (PWMP: *atuk)

datugreat grandparent (PaPaPa) (PMP: *datu)

kansi-buyuŋbumblebee (PWMP: *buyuŋ)

kikitto bite (PWMP: *kitkit)

kiputnarrow (PMP: *kiput)

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lakiman (PMP: *laki)

lalanpath, road (PMP: *zalan)

lampauhouse (PMP: *lepaw₂) *lepaw

lawitfar (PWMP: *alawid)

mama-ʔparents’ brother, parents’ sister’s husband (PMP: *mama) *mamah

m-inumto drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

puluʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

rimaʔuŋleopard (PWMP: *qari-maquŋ)

sasiŋworm (PWMP: *caciŋ)

taneʔearth (PMP: *taneq)

taun alahwoods (PMP: *halas) *Salas

Samihim (20 / 22)

telothree (PAN: *telu)

tuʔulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

618. Samoan (827) OC (Milner 1966) [smo] Samoa

a-particle occurring in certain nominal constructions, especially with locatives (PAN: *qa₁)

a-particle occurring in certain nominal constructions, especially with locatives (PMP: *ha₃) *Sa₂

afāstorm, gale, hurricane (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

afifire; light (to light a fire with, i.e. smouldering stick etc.), brand (POC: *api) *Sapuy

afi-afiafternoon, evening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

afofishing line (POC: *apon) *hapen

āfuwaterfall (POC: *sabu)

afu-afulight shower (POC: *sabu)

aianaphoric and relative particle: there, why (e.g. 'that was the reason why he came'), herein, hereby (POC: *ai₁)

āisew; seam (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

aiwho? (PMP: *sai)

aitughost, spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

aitu-abe haunted (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

alapath, road; way; method, way of doing something; cause of, reason for; working section (area of mat woven by one person at a particular time) (POC: *salan) *zalan

aliname given to flat fish, esp. to flounders of genera Platophrys and Zebrasoma (POC: *alali)

alilia mollusc: Turbo sp. (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

alimaŋoa crab: Lupea spp. (Pratt 1984 [1911]) (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

alosmooth, soft side of a thing (the ‘front’ as opposed to tua the ‘back’ or rougher side); stomach, belly (POC: *qarop) *qadep

amaoutrigger; (on the) outrigger (i.e. the weather) side (as opposed to atea) the hull (i.e. the lee) side; (to) port (as opposed to starboard, atea); attach less importance; be of lesser use, of secondary value (POC: *saman) *saRman

anesp. of white ant (a wood pest) (POC: *ane) *aNay

Samoan (20 / 827)

āne-abe damaged by white ants (POC: *ane) *aNay

anea-neaold, ancient, as a fine mat (lit. so old as to be eaten by ants) (POC: *ane) *aNay

anuto spit; spittoon (POC: *qanus₂)

anu-siasmelly (said of dead animals, etc.) (POC: *qanus-i) *qanus₂

aŋiblow (of the wind) (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-aŋiblow (of the wind) (POC: *aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-aŋi-aflutter, wave gently (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-nabe unfurled by the wind, as a flag (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

āoathe banyan-tree (Ficus sp.) (PEMP: *qayawan)

asoday, date (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

asofood (for visitors, carpenters, etc.) supplied according to a daily rota (POC: *qaso)

asuto lade, scoop (as kava in serving); bail out; scoop up and throw off (with hand, shell, etc.) (POC: *qasu) *qasu₁

asusmoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

asu-asucolumn, spiral of smoke (PMP: *qasu qasu) *qasu₃

atafirst person singular inclusive nominal pronoun with plural reference (PAN: *ata₁)

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-atea shrub (Wedelia sp.), the beach sunflower (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

ate-vaecalf (of leg) (POC: *qate qate) *qaCay

atothatch, tie thatch to; repair, mend (a leak in the roof) (POC: *qatop) *qatep

atuaway, out (generally denotes a literal or figurative movement away from a particular position where the speaker is and in the direction of the person addressed) (PMP: *a-tu) *-Cu

Samoan (40 / 827)

atua fish, the bonito: Katsuwonus sp. (POC: *qatun)

aturow (as of chairs); range (as of hills); chain (as of lakes); set, row (as of teeth) (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

atuaway out (generally denotes a literal or figurative movement away from a particular position where the speaker is and in the direction of the person addressed); across; away and above (greater than) (PMP: *atu)

atuaGod; divine, godlike (PMP: *qatuan)

atulea fish, the horse mackerel: Trachurops sp., caught mainly in March and April (PMP: *qatulay)

atu motugroup of islands, archipelago (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

auflow on, roll on; continue; current; stream; carry (in the hand) (PMP: *qaRus)

auliver, (esp. of pig) (POC: *qasu₂)

autattooing comb (PMP: *saRu₁)

auneedle; tattooing comb (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

āuagrey mullet (ʔanae) when about 2-3 inches in length (PMP: *qawas)

au-aucurrent (PMP: *qaRus)

auēalas!, oh!, what a pity!; to wail, lament (PCEMP: *qaué)

au-ŋaflow; succession (PMP: *qaRus)

au-ʔonagall-bladder; bile (POC: *qasu₂)

avaa fish, Chanos sp. (PMP: *qawan)

avalarge fish (Chanos sp.), caught by torch light (PMP: *qawa₁)

avachannel, passage (in the reef), gap (PMP: *sawaq₁)

aʔaroot (PMP: *akaR)

aʔaureef (PMP: *sakaRu)

Samoan (60 / 827)

aʔu1sg. exclusive conjunct verbal pronoun (post-basic) (PAN: *aku)

eparticle used before numerals and certain other words referring to things which can be counted (POC: *e)

e aitua le āoathe (that) banyan-tree is haunted (PEMP: *qayawan)

efuefudust, powder (< *-puk₂?) (ROOT)

hoarse, husky (POC: *paRak) *paRaek

fish (Megalops sp.) found in marshes and river mouths (PMP: *paya)

four (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

stalk, stem of taro, banana, and certain other plants (PMP: *paqa₂)

fastalk, stem of taro, banana, and certain other plants (NOISE)

faɁa-multifunctional prefix indicating, among other things, causation; faɁa-sāmoa ‘do things in the Samoan way’ (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

faɁa-soaprocure, obtain (esp. a woman’s favor) for a friend, act as a go-between (POC: *soRa)

fafacarry (child or other load) on one's back (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

fa-faŋuwake someone up, arouse (POC: *paŋun) *baŋuN

fa-faŋu-inabe brought to mind, be recalled (POC: *paŋun) *baŋuN

fafiefirewood (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

fafinewoman; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

fafooutside, out of doors; overseas (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

faisting-ray, Dasyatis sp. (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

faido, make (POC: *pait) *bait₂

fa-ivafishing trip, fishing party (NOISE)

Samoan (80 / 827)

falaname given to a number of tree-like plants of the genus Pandanus; mat (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

falalalean (as a coconut tree leaning over the water) (POC: *(bp)alalan)

falehouse (POC: *pale) *balay

falīkind of grass (?Scirpodendron sp.) (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

falīkind of grass (?Scirpodendron sp.) (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

fanashoot; gun, rifle (PAN: *panaq)

fānaube born; give birth; offspring; birth (NOISE)

fano(of time) be gone, past; perish (POC: *pano) *paNaw

fanualand, field; afterbirth, placenta (POC: *panua) *banua

faŋabay (POC: *paŋa₂) *baŋa₂

faŋabay (POC: *paŋa₃) *paŋa₂

faŋa-loagulf (POC: *paŋa₃) *paŋa₂

fāŋu-abe awakened, awake (POC: *paŋun) *baŋuN

faosnatch, seize, grab; rob (of belongings, money, spouse) (POC: *paRo₂)

faosmall shore tree (Ochrosia sp.) (POC: *paoq (ʔ)) *pauq

faosnatch, grab; rob (POC: *paqaRok)

fasaPandanus tectorius (POC: *pwasa(rR))

fatashelf, trestle (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

fatashelf, as of bamboo; stretcher, litter (PMP: *pataR₁)

fatumake something up, assemble something with the hands (PMP: *batuR₁)

Samoan (100 / 827)

faua tree (Hibiscus sp.) the bast fibres of which are used in a variety of ways; bast fibre obtained from fau and used widely as a tying and binding material, etc. (POC: *paRu) *baRu

faʔa-afi-afiin the evening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

faʔa-alaexpress an opinion (POC: *salan) *zalan

faʔa-ese-alonely, isolated (PCEMP: *kese)

faʔa-fanarebake, warm up (PMP: *panas₁)

faʔa-fanuamap (POC: *panua) *banua

faʔa-foa(of a boil) come up, form (POC: *posaq) *peceq

faʔa-foesteer (POC: *pose) *beRsay

faʔa-ifocome down, descend (POC: *paka-sipo) *sipo

faʔa-laloto cook, roast (in a stone oven) (POC: *ralom) *dalem

faʔa-laŋiaddress or refer to someone by his ceremonial title (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

faʔa-latadraw near (in order to get something); tame (POC: *lasa)

faʔa-limafive times (POC: *paka-lima₂) *lima

faʔa-loŋoto hear; listen; pay attention; obey; feel (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

faʔa-loŋo-ŋafeeling (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

faʔa-luatwice (POC: *paka-rua) *duSa

faʔa-mā-fuli-fuliwalk with a swaying, rolling or strutting gait (characteristic of some chiefs and affected by people who want to put on airs (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

faʔa-mālamalamalight up; explain, clarify (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

faʔa-maluput a cover on, shield against (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

faʔa-ma-maʔibe madly in love, yearn or pine for someone (POC: *masakit) *sakit

Samoan (120 / 827)

faʔa-manifigrind, sharpen (as an axe); thinly (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

faʔa-matalook like, be likely that; think, have an opinion; sharpen (PMP: *mata) *maCa

faʔa-mata-matabe half-cooked, not cooked properly; be simple, naive (people) (POC: *mataq) *hataq

faʔa-mataʔuto frighten, threaten (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

faʔa-matekill (an animal); (of fire) put out (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

faʔa-mātua-taŋata(be) elderly (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

faʔa-ma-uluput on, get into (garment, etc.) (PMP: *surup₁)

faʔa-maʔiepidemic (POC: *masakit) *sakit

faʔa-maʔi-maʔifeel unwell, be indisposed (POC: *masakit) *sakit

faʔa-nifotooth of cogwheel, thread of a screw, tenon (POC: *nipon) *nipen

faʔa-onosix times (POC: *paka-onom) *enem

faʔa-oŋebe starved, famished (POC: *soŋe)

faʔa-piʔo-piʔowalk with a limp (POC: *biko)

faʔa-putupile up, heap up (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

faʔa-salapunish, fine; condemn, sentence (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

faʔa-sala-ŋapunishment, sentence (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

faʔa-siʔu-siʔuextremity, very end of (POC: *siku)

fāʔ-asuto smoke (fish or meat); fumigate (PMP: *pa(ka)-qasu) *qasu₃

faʔa-susuto suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

faʔa-taliŋa tuliturn a deaf ear (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

Samoan (140 / 827)

faʔa-tama-atreat like a father (PMP: *pa(ka)-amax) *amax

faʔa-tapu-laʔaset a limit to (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

faʔa-taʔaset loose, let loose (POC: *takas) *taŋkas

faʔa-tilo-tilohaving an ulterior motive, not disinterested (POC: *tiro-tiro) *tindaw

faʔa-tinoto make clearer, clarify (POC: *tino) *tin(e)qaw

faʔa-toluthree times (POC: *paka-tolu) *telu

faʔa-tuaidelay, hold up (the progress of something) (POC: *tuaRi)

faʔa-tua-tuaiask for time (to consider a problem or to arrive at a decision, etc.); play for time; delay (POC: *tuaRi)

faʔa-tulu-tulupour in drops (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

faʔa-valueight times (PMP: *paka-walu) *walu

faʔa-ʔite-ʔiteget, have a presentiment, premonition of something (PAN: *kita₂)

fe-prefix to word-bases, used either alone or in combination with a suffix...(a) when fe- is used without a suffix it may denote the plural...(b) when used in combination with a suffix...fe- may denote (i) the plural, (ii) a reciprocal process, (iii) an action or process carried out here and there, up and down, hither and thither, all around, quickly, etc. (PEMP: *paRi-)

fetaularge coastal tree (Calophyllum sp. yielding good timber and nuts used for oil (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

fetūstar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

fe-ʔave-aʔito carry, transport to and fro (POC: *kawe)

fiaparticle preposed to the base, denoting a wish for, liking for or aspiration to (something) specified by the following word (PMP: *pian)

fiabe how many?; be how much?; (obsolete) three (occurs in ceremonial titles) (POC: *pica) *pijax

fiaparticle preposed to the base, denoting a wish for, liking for or aspiration to (something) specified by the following word (PMP: *pia₃)

fili(of sennit, hair, etc.) plait, braid (PMP: *pirit)

filipick out, select (PAN: *piliq)

Samoan (160 / 827)

fili-filichain (POC: *piri-piri) *pirit

fili-filichoose (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

fili-ŋaaction of plaiting, plaited work (PMP: *pirit)

filothread; cotton; reel of thread (POC: *piro)

fisipeel skin with a knife (as in peeling an orange); shave off (POC: *pisik₂) *bisik₁

fisokind of cane-grass (Saccharum sp.?) with edible flower buds, and used for thatch (POC: *piso₁)

fisoa large reed with stems that contain sugar: Erianthus maximus (POC: *pijo)

fitiflick (as in flicking a coconut with the fingernail to see if it is suitable for drinking); bounce; (of a spark) fly off; game of jackstraws which consists in flicking off a number of light rods one after the other (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

fituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fitu sefuluseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

foabreak (rock or shell); hatch, of eggs (POC: *posaq) *peceq

foeoar, paddle (POC: *pose) *beRsay

foloto swallow (as food) (POC: *polon) *belen

fonomeeting; conference, rally, congress; have a conference, hold a meeting; (of a council) to meet; made sacred, prohibited (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

fōno-fonomeet (ceremonially or officially) (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

fotosting (of stingray) (POC: *potok) *beRtek

fotuappear (as a boat coming around a point); (of trees) blossom out, come into blossom (POC: *potu₁) *betu

fōtu-aʔiemerge, heave in sight (as a boat) (POC: *potu₁) *betu

fōunew; fresh; renew; restore, repair (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

fuaclassifying particle used with numerals in reference to coconuts and breadfruit. It is suffixed to units from two to nine and prefixed to tens and hundreds; fruit, flower, bloom; egg; products, fruits (POC: *puaq) *buaq

Samoan (180 / 827)

fuajust, only; without anything; to no purpose; heedlessly, wantonly; by chance; freely, without conditions or restrictions (POC: *pua) *bua₂

fuameasure; size; scales; to weigh; aim at; plan; survey; think out, devise (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

fua fua-ŋaplan; project; proportions, dimensions (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

fua-i-ʔupusentence; remark; verse (POC: *puaq) *buaq

fuat-acrop (from a tree) (POC: *puat-an₁) *buat₁

fuegeneral name given to creepers and lianas (POC: *puRe₂)

fu-fuiput into water, steep (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

fu-fuito put into water, steep (POC: *puqi)

fu-fuluto wash (body or object); to clean (as the teeth); (of enemy) mop up, eliminate (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

fufut-iplay a fish (in reeling it in) (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

fuito water; throw water on (as a fire) (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

fuito water, throw water on (POC: *puqi)

fui-ato water (as a garden) (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

fuiaSamoan starling: Aplonis feadensis (POC: *pusiRa)

fui-fuito dip (as a pen into ink) (POC: *puqi puqi) *buqi₂

fui-fuikeep, stick together; cluster, bunch (as of fruit) (POC: *pui₁) *pui

fui-fui-lua(of two people or things) go together, be paired (POC: *pui₁) *pui

fui-niucluster of coconuts (POC: *pui₁) *pui

fuliturn over, roll over (as a tree trunk) (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

fuliturn (over), roll (over) (POC: *puri)

Samoan (200 / 827)

fuli-aloturn upside down, bottom upwards (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

fulis-iabe turned over, rolled over (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

fuli-siabe turned over, rolled over (POC: *puri)

fulufeather; feather lure (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

fuluto wash, clean (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

fulu-fulufine short hair, down; fur (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

fulu-fuluto wash face and hands (frequentative) (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

fulu-fulu-ahairy (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

fulu-fulu mataeyebrow (POC: *pulu qi mata) *bulu₁

fulu mataeyelash (POC: *pulu qi mata) *bulu₁

fulu-ŋawashing, cleaning (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

fuŋaflower, blossom; be in bloom (of a flowering tree, etc.) (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

fut-i(of weeds, hair, etc.) pull off; pluck (as a hen) (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

futi (< *puput-i)(of weeds, hair, etc.) pull off; pluck (PAN: *putput₁)

fut-i-abe plucked (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

futua tree (Barringtonia sp.), the large four-sided fruit of which are used as floats for fish-nets and for poisoning fish (POC: *putun₁) *butun

fuʔeput the contents of an oven into baskets; fill (POC: *puke) *buka

iparticle denoting position in space or time (PAN: *i₂)

-iatransitive suffix (POC: *-ia)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

Samoan (220 / 827)

iademonstrative pronoun (post-basic): these, those (PMP: *ia₂)

iapost-basic particle in the emphatic effect (PAN: *qia)

ifia tree (Inocarpus sp.), the Tahitian chestnut; the nut of that tree (POC: *ipi₂)

ifi-lelelarge timber tree (Intsia sp.), used for making kava bowls, etc. (PMP: *qipil)

ifobow (down); give in, surrender; worship; make a formal apology; down (POC: *sipo)

ilaspot, mark (on human skin) (PMP: *qila)

ilito blow; fan (PMP: *irid₁)

ilomaggot; carrion-eating worm (PMP: *qulej)

iloperceive, be aware of (NOISE)

ilo-abe maggoty (PMP: *qulej-an) *qulej

ilo-ato see, spot; notice (NOISE)

inudrink (PMP: *inum)

inu-miadrunk (passive verb and adjective) (POC: *inum-ia) *inum

iɁof-itongs (POC: *sikop) *sikep₂

ipoedible sea-worm: Sipunculus spp. (POC: *ibo)

ipu(coconut shell) cup; bowl; dish (POC: *ibu) *ibu₃

isefish of genera Hemirhamphus and Belone (NOISE)

isisplit (PCEMP: *isi₂)

isi(of wood, etc.) split (PMP: *Risi)

isi(of wood, etc.) split (PMP: *Risiq)

Samoan (240 / 827)

isu-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

itaangry; anger; dislike, hate; envy (PMP: *qitaq)

i taion the side towards the sea (as opposed to i uta: on the side towards the land) (PMP: *tasik)

iti-itilittle, small; few; fewer than (PAN: *qitik₁)

ivibone (POC: *suRi₁)

iʔafish (incl. turtles and whales) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

iʔube finished, ended; tail (as of a fish); tail of a shark (as a portion) when it is divided according to custom; result, effect (PAN: *ikuR)

sail (PAN: *layaR)

lafaa fish (Ambassis sp.) (POC: *lapa₁)

lafaringworm (POC: *lapa₂)

lafa-lafābe spotted with ringworm; (of bananas, etc.) be scarred, bruised (POC: *lapa₂)

lafothrow (with forearm), cast (PMP: *lambeg)

laia fish: Scomberoides sp. (PMP: *daRi)

laia fish: Scomberoides sp. (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

lala-ŋiplace leaves (esp. banana or breadfruit leaves) on hot stones to make them more supple, and therefore easier to use as wrapping material; to boil (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

la-laʔastep over; put someone above (in estimation or respect by ‘stepping over’) (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lā-lā-(ʔau)branch (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

lalimiddle-sized wooden gong, drum (POC: *drali)

lalodown; under, below, beneath (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo laŋiearth, world; region, area; human race, mankind (POC: *ralom) *dalem

Samoan (260 / 827)

lamatree (Aleurites sp.), the candle-nut tree; the oil has many uses and the nuts are purgative; dried candle-nut kernel (a number of them may be threaded together on a stick to make a primitive torch); torch; method of fishing by torchlight (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

lanolake (POC: *rano) *danaw

lanuwash salt off in fresh water; liquor amnii, amniotic fluid (POC: *ranum) *daNum

laŋisky, heaven; funeral ceremony (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi-ābe cloudy (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi faʔatafasickness of a high chief (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi-laŋi-ābe stormy (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi lelei(of the weather) be fine (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋo-iabe covered with flies (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lasoscrotum (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

laso mimihydrocele (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

latabe tame; be used to, familiar with; close to, close by (POC: *lasa)

latatame; used to, familiar with (PAN: *lajam)

lata-latabe near; to approach, come close to (POC: *lasa)

lauleaf; blade of a knife; thatch; classifier for flat, thin objects (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lau-loŋoresound, echo (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

laʔastep, march (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

laʔato step, march (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laʔa-laʔago step by step (POC: *lakar-lakar) *lakaj

Samoan (280 / 827)

laʔa loaskip over, pass over (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laʔa-siastep over, go beyond (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

laʔa-siastep over, go beyond (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lā-ʔauplant, tree; wood; apparatus, set, machine; instrument (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan₁

lā-ʔauplant, tree; wood; apparatus, set, machine; instrument (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

laʔiwesterly wind blowing from southwest through west to northwest with varying force; if strong it brings rain and heavy squalls (PCEMP: *raki)

la-ʔu, lo-ʔu1sg exclusive nominal pronoun (definite, with singular reference); my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

leleto fly (as a bird) (POC: *rere₂)

lele-a(of dust, paper, etc.) be blown by the wind (POC: *rere₂)

le-nāthat (PAN: *-na)

leovoice, sound (POC: *leqo)

lianit (esp. in human hair) (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

lilieager, burning with the angry desire to do something (POC: *lilim)

li-liualter, change (POC: *li-liu) *liu₂

li-liʔimade of small units (POC: *rikit) *dikit

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-ŋa-fulufifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

limugeneral name given to mosses, lichens, algae, and seaweeds (PMP: *limut)

limu-limuHalophila sp., an aquatic plant growing on sand in the sea (PMP: *limut)

limu-limu niua mosslike fern on the trunks of coconut trees, Monogramma sp. (PMP: *limut)

Samoan (300 / 827)

liŋito pour (PCEMP: *liŋi)

liŋi-liŋito pour (frequentive) (POC: *liŋi-liŋi) *liŋi

liŋo-liŋo-abe hushed, silent (NOISE)

liualter, change (POC: *liu₂)

liu-liuturn over and over (as a mat in rolling it up); debate (POC: *liu₂)

liʔibe scattered in small fragments (POC: *rikit) *dikit

loabe a long time (since something happened); be old, ancient (without showing signs of age or growth) (POC: *loan)

lōf-iabe flooded over (POC: *lolop) *lebleb₂

loloto overflow; a flood (POC: *lolop) *lebleb₂

loŋoperceive by hearing or some other sense, other than sight; large wooden gong (used for calling people to church); sound (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-loŋoto tell, inform (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lotoheart, feeling (as opposed to mind and soul); will (POC: *loto₂)

loto-a(be) hot-tempered (POC: *loto₂)

loto-malieagree (POC: *loto₂)

loto-maube strict, firm, steadfast (POC: *loto₂)

luatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

luahole, pit (PMP: *luaŋ)

lua-iexpectorate, disgorge (PMP: *luaq)

lua-luaambiguous, equivocal (POC: *rua rua₂) *duSa

lua-lua-ŋiabe coupled, mingled (with) (POC: *rua) *duSa

Samoan (320 / 827)

luluwhite barn owl (Tylo sp.) (POC: *druru)

lumain front of, forward (POC: *luma)

maand (PAN: *maS)

ashamed, embarrassed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

mā-fanabe intimate, in close relationship; be married (PMP: *ma-panas) *panas₁

ma-fana-fanabe warm (as water); (of weather) be mild, clement (POC: *ma-panas-panas) *panas₁

mā-finewoman, girl (term conveying sympathy or endearment) (POC: *pine) *bahi

ma-fitibe released, snap tight (POC: *pintik) *bitik₁

ma-fulifall over; lean towards; tend towards (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

māi(of water) be salty, bitter (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

maipre-basic particle, from; post-basic particle which denotes a literal or figurative movement from a position (in space or time) toward the point where the speaker is (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mai feawhere from? (POC: *pea)

ma-lama(of the dawn, day) break (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

mā-lamadawn; twilight (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

malauname given to red squirrel-fishes belonging to genera Holocentrus and Myripristis (PMP: *taRaqan)

ma-liŋi(of rain or tears, etc.) run, pour (PCEMP: *liŋi)

maloloincloth (PCEMP: *malaw)

malushelter; take shelter (PEMP: *maluRu)

malushelter, take shelter (Also Tongan malu 'shaded or sheltered; safe, secure') (ROOT)

mama(of food for a baby, or, formerly, of kava) masticate; chew; bolus of premasticated food for a baby (PMP: *mamaq)

Samoan (340 / 827)

ma-manabe powerful, compelling; be all-powerful, almighty (POC: *mana₂)

mamuluslip out, as a knife from one's hand (ROOT)

mana(supernatural) power (POC: *mana₂)

manavabelly; waist (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

mānavato breathe; stand still, break off, stop (for a rest); be relieved (from duty); breath (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manifibe thin (as paper) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

mānifi-nifibe thin (as paper) (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

manoŋismell (sweetly), as coconut ointment; have a good flavor; have a bad odor, stench; scent, smell (POC: *manoŋi)

manūgood luck, good fortune (PMP: *ma-nuRuq) *nuRuq

mānucome to the surface, emerge (as a turtle) (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

manubird (in names of various birds); animal, cattle; horse (POC: *manuk)

manuʔawound (PAN: *ma-Nuka) *Nuka

manuʔawound (PMP: *nuka-en) *Nuka

maŋa(of a tree, road, etc.) a fork; to fork, divide into two, branch off (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

maŋā-lafuhearth (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

maŋā-limaspaces between the fingers (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

māŋa-maŋa(having) many forks (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

m-aŋu, m-aŋu(of leaves, etc.) be dry, withered (PCEMP: *ma-Raŋuʔ) *Raŋuʔ

masa(of the tide) neap; (of a canoe, boat, etc.) be empty (after bailing out, etc.) (PMP: *maja)

masikind of food made with breadfruit left to ferment in a special pit (NOISE)

Samoan (360 / 827)

ma-sunuto singe (PMP: *sunuR)

mataraw, unripe (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mataraw, uncooked, as taro (POC: *mataq) *hataq

mataeye; face; point; cutting edge, blade; spring (of water); mesh (in a net); glasses, goggles; name given to certain styles of communal fishing (some of which involve diving with goggles); look (like); look (have the appearance of being) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matāextended family under the headship of a matai (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-afigroove along which the pointed stick (used in the ‘fire-plough’ method of making fire) is run to and fro (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ala(be) watchful, alert; (be) quick, prompt (POC: *mata ni salan) *maCa

mata-fāboils on the face (Pratt 1984) (POC: *paRaq₁) *paRaq

matā fale‘gable’ of a house (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matā faŋabeach, shore (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-talabe open; (of the mind) be sharp, keen (LOAN)

mata-li-liʔi(of a net), be fine, have a small mesh; a large, fine-meshed seine net (POC: *mata riki) *maCa

mata-mataspy, scout (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-muli(be) shy, reserved; (be) embarrassed, ashamed (POC: *mata muri) *maCa

mataŋiwind; windy, stormy (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

matā-selenoose (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata sisi-foa curse word: feigning eyes (NOISE)

matā-susunipple, teat (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

matā-talocrown of taro plant (when cut off for replanting) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matauhull side of a canoe (as opposed to the outrigger) (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

Samoan (380 / 827)

matā-uaraindrop (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matā vaispring, source (POC: *mata ni waiR) *maCa

matā-vanapoint of a pump-drill (formerly made from the spike of a sea-urchin) (POC: *mata ni panaq) *maCa

ma-taʔacome loose, come off; (of mist, etc.) clear, lift (POC: *takas) *taŋkas

mataʔuto fear, hold in awe (POC: *matakut) *takut

matā-ʔupeŋamesh of a net (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mataʔu-tiabe dreadful, awful; be terrible, fearful (POC: *matakut) *takut

matedie (of animals, plants, fire, etc.) (POC: *mate) *aCay

ma-tivabe poor; poverty; lack, want (NOISE)

matua(of fruit, etc.), be mature, but not fully ripe; (of people), (be) adult, grown up; (be) older, elder; (be) old; (of bush, forest) be dense, thick; age; parent (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mātuaparents (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

matuāvery, extremely, absolutely, quite, fully, completely; great, considerable (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

mātua-otiorphan (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

ma-uliseat of the emotions (localized in the region of the solar plexus) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

ma-uludash in (as into the surf) (PMP: *surup₁)

maʔibe sick, fall ill; infection (in general), disease, sickness; patient; pregnancy (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maʔi-aitucondition said to be caused by temporary possession of a person by a ghost or a devil (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mā-ʔilascar (PMP: *kiras)

maʔi-lasi(of a child) be sickly (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maʔi-lilishivering (POC: *masakit) *sakit

Samoan (400 / 827)

maʔi-manatube homesick; be lovesick; homesickness, lovesickness (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maʔi-māsinamenses, monthly period (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maʔi-maʔimaʔi-maʔi (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maʔi-tōbe pregnant (POC: *masakit) *sakit

me-meayellowish-brown (with age) (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *ma-iRaq

misimisismack the lips (PMP: *misik)

mitikind of sucking noise made to draw someone's attention quietly (PMP: *misik)

mitisip, whiff; kind of sucking noise made to draw one’s attention quietly (POC: *miti)

miti-mitisip; suck; smack one’s lips (POC: *miti-miti) *miti

moesleep; have sexual intercourse (NOISE)

momobroken remnants (PMP: *mekmek)

mo-mona(of shell-fish) be meaty (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

motu(-sia)(of long things such as a rope or stick) break, snap (ROOT)

name of certain fishes of the genus Lethrinus when about six inches long (PMP: *muquŋ)

m-ulicome last, be last; young, new (POC: *muri) *udehi

mutua fish: Abedefduf sp. (PMP: *mutu₁)

mutube cut off (as tree branches), truncated (PEMP: *mutu₂)

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nifotooth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niugeneral name for palms, especially the coconut palm, many of the varieties and forms of which are known by name (PMP: *niuR)

Samoan (420 / 827)

niu mataimmature coconut (at the stage at which it can be drunk) (PMP: *niuR)

niu piuthe Samoan fan-palm: Styloma sp. (POC: *piRu) *biRu

nofolive, dwell; stay, remain; sit (down, up, straight, etc.); (of a woman or a couple), be married (POC: *nofo)

nofolive, dwell; stay, remain; sit down (up, straight, etc.); be married (of a couple) (NOISE)

nofutoadfishes of genera Scorpaenopsis and Synanceja, some of which have poisonous spines (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nonushrub or small tree (Morinda spp.), (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

nonu fiʔa-fiʔaa tree (Eugenia sp.), the Malay apple (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋafafathom (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋaluwave, breaker; (of the sea) be rough (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋa-ŋalu(of the sea) be rippled, ruffled (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋæpu(of water) be cloudy, muddy (ROOT)

ŋatasnake (POC: *qumata)

ŋatasnake (rare in Samoa) (POC: *mwata)

ŋauto chew, as sugarcane (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋūgrowl (PMP: *ŋuk)

ŋūto growl, as a dog (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋulumake a hollow sound (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

ŋuŋuname given to a number of complaints, including rheumatism, gout, arthritis, etc. (PMP: *ŋulŋul₁)

ŋutumouth; beak (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋutu-avamouth of a channel or passage in the reef (PAN: *ŋusuq)

Samoan (440 / 827)

ŋutu-valeuse indecent language (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ōplural of alu (go, get); go side by side, go together with (POC: *oRo)

Ɂoe2sg. conjunct and disjunt verbal pronoun (POC: *koe)

ofooffer (as payment for work done) (NOISE)

omomisponge (NOISE)

o-nathird person singular disjunct verbal pronoun (class O): his/hers (POC: *o₂)

onegunpowder (POC: *qone) *qenay

one-onesand (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

oŋescarcity of food, famine; be scarce (POC: *soŋe)

osocustomary gift of food (presented by travellers to their host on arrival at destination); provisions for a journey (POC: *qoso)

ota(of fish) pickle, 'souse' (for eating raw); dish of pickled raw fish (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

oti(of people) die; finish (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

o-usecond person singular disjunct verbal pronoun (class O), yours (POC: *o₂)

fence, wall, hedge (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

palaiLiane (Dioscorea sp.), one of the common yams (POC: *balai₂)

palaŋiname given to certain fishes of the genus Acanthurus (Surgeon fishes) when about one foot long (POC: *balaŋi)

palolokind of sea-annelid (Eunice sp.) ... They are collected for food (LOAN)

palumix (with the hands) (POC: *balun₄) *balun₁

palumix (with the hands) (POC: *balut) *balut₁

Samoan (460 / 827)

palua fish (Aphareus sp.) up to 3 ft. long (NOISE)

panidye the hair with the juice of pani (a tree) (Pratt 1984) (POC: *bani₁)

paŋicoconut bait for flying fish (PMP: *baŋi₁)

papa(children's language) Dad, Daddy (POC: *baba₆) *baba₂

papaa fish (Epinephelus sp.), grouper (POC: *baba₅) *baŋbaŋ₅

papaboard, plank; rock; make level, flatten (POC: *baban) *papan

papa(children’s language) Dad, Daddy (PMP: *papa₂) *papa

paʔuskin, hide, leather (LOAN)

pefudust (<*-puk₂?) (ROOT)

peleshrub (Hibiscus sp.), with edible leaves (POC: *bele)

pelubush-knife (POC: *belu)

penugrated coconut; shreds of grated bark, especially that of the ‘o’a tree (Bischofia sp.) from which a reddish dye is obtained (POC: *benu)

pepebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

pepe-pepeto flutter (POC: *bebe)

pe-peʔasmell offensively, stink (POC: *bweka)

peʔaflying fox (POC: *bweka)

piaAccording to Pratt (1984) this word, which once had the meaning of 'arrowroot', has now acquired an 'obscene' meaning (possibly smegma, or other secretion of the genital organs) (POC: *biRaq₄) *biRaq₂

piaAccording to Pratt this word, which once had the meaning of 'arrowroot', has now acquired an 'obscene' meaning (possibly smegma, or other secretion of the genital organs) (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

pia-piafoam; froth (POC: *biRaq₄) *biRaq₂

pia-piafoam; froth (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

Samoan (480 / 827)

pilistuck fast, caught (as a knife stuck in a coconut tree) (PMP: *pilit₁)

pipiedible mollusk, a kind of cockle, the shell of which is used for scraping bark cloth: Asaphis sp. (POC: *bibi₂) *bibi

pi-pisigush, spout (in a spray); spurt, squirt (especially of water from the mouth); contagious, infectious (POC: *bisik) *bicik

pisisplash (POC: *bisik) *bicik

pisisplash (PMP: *picik)

piʔiwrestle (consists in holding the hands or wrists of one’s opponent and applying pressure on them); stick, adhere to (as an octopus sticking to a stone), cling to, hold on to; (of a boat) be moored (POC: *bikit) *pikit

piʔobent, crooked (as a tree); (of character or actions) be crafty, shifty (POC: *biko)

piʔobent, crooked (PMP: *pikel)

piʔobent, crooked (PMP: *pi(ŋ)keR)

poŋiblurred, dim (vision) (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

poŋi-abe benighted (POC: *boŋi-a) *beRŋi

poŋi-poŋibe dusky, twilight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

po-poŋi(of the night) fall (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

name given to molluscs belonging to genera Tritonium and Cassis, the shells of some of which are used as shell trumpets; conch, shell-trumpet; bugle; tuba (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

puasmall tree with fragrant flowers (Gardenia sp.) (NOISE)

puasmall tree with fragrant flowers: Gardenia sp. (NOISE)

pua fitismall tree, the frangipani: Plumeria sp. (NOISE)

pua-luluforest tree with scented flowers: Fagraea sp. (NOISE)

pulabright, luminous (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pulalook, stare (POC: *bulat₂) *bulat

Samoan (500 / 827)

pulaa fish, Pempheris sp. (NOISE)

pula-pula(of eyes, sun, etc.) shine, glow (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pulemolluscs belonging to the genera Cypraea (cowries) and Ovulum. Cowrie shells are used as sinkers and for making squid lures. Ovulum shells were once widely used for the decoration of bonito canoes (POC: *buliq₁)

pulucoconut husk, coconut husk fiber (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

pulubreadfruit gum (used as putty, especially for caulking canoes); chewing gum; rubber; herb (Euphorbia sp.), a common coastal plant with white latex (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pulut-ito caulk, plug a leak (POC: *bulut) *pulut

pulut-iato be caulked, plugged or glued (POC: *bulut) *pulut

punaspring, source (POC: *puna₁) *punaŋ

punaspring, source (PMP: *puna₂) *puna

puŋakind of coral used for polishing, etc. (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

pūpūrinse the mouth, gargle (PCEMP: *pupuR)

pusabox; chest, trunk (POC: *busa₃) *busa₂

putu(of rows of people, trees, etc.) be serried, overcrowded (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

putu-putudenseness (of forest) (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

sae(of skin) tear off, strip off; skin; a tear in something, as clothing (POC: *saRe)

salamake a mistake; (of tongue) slip; offense, fault; be punished, fined (PMP: *salaq₁)

salatolarge forest tree, the tree nettle, Laportea spp. (POC: *salatoŋ) *zalateŋ

saobe saved, save oneself; be safe from (POC: *saRop) *saRep

sao-saokind of fish, said to be predatory and dangerous (POC: *sao)

sapoto catch (ball, etc.) (POC: *sabot) *sapet

Samoan (520 / 827)

sa-saɁeeast (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

saugift of food (NOISE)

sāvaɁisea urchin (Boletia sp.) (POC: *saRawaki)

saʔa(especially of two-legged creatures like men or chickens) be short-legged (PMP: *sakaŋ)

saʔu, saʔulāname given to sword-fish and saw-fish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

seindefinite article (used mainly in questions and negative statements) (PAN: *esa)

se-fuluten (PAN: *esa)

se-fuluten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

se-lauone hundred (PAN: *esa)

seŋa(vao)Vini australis (POC: *seŋa₂)

si ata tamamy (dear) child (woman speaking) (PAN: *ata₁)

siɁito put up, raise; to rise; to lift; copy, quote; move, remove; promote, raise the status of someone (NOISE)

sipaslant, slope, be at an angle (to vertical or horizontal line) (POC: *siba₂) *simpa

sisiname given to small snails in general (PMP: *sisi₁)

sisihiss (to summon someone without attracting attention) (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

sisihiss (to summon someone without attracting attention) (POC: *sisit) *zitzit

sisifowest (NOISE)

siʔofenced, enclosed; surround, encircle (< *-keb?) (ROOT)

siʔutip, extremity (POC: *siku)

siʔu-siʔutail (of a pig, rat, or other land animal) (POC: *siku)

Samoan (540 / 827)

soɁacollar-beam (POC: *sokar) *seŋkar

soɁato spike, transfix (with spear, etc.) (POC: *soka)

soahave a friend or partner; a friend, partner, second; pair of friends, partners (especially in dancing) (POC: *soRa)

soɁa-soɁamethod of catching fish by spearing and transfixing them (POC: *soka)

solopost-basic particle; around, all about; up and down, back and forth (POC: *solo₁)

soloslide, slip (POC: *solo₃)

somogum (secreted by the eyes, etc.) (LOAN)

somo-abe gummy (LOAN)

soŋo(of urine, etc.) smell, stink (PMP: *seŋet₁)

so-soɁato husk coconuts (POC: *soka)

soʔacollar beam (POC: *sokaŋ) *sekaŋ

be moist; (of taro) be watery (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

sualever up; uproot, dig up; root; thrust, butt; plough (PMP: *sual)

sualever up; uproot, dig up; root; thrust, butt; plough (PMP: *suqan)

sualever up; uproot, dig up (PMP: *suat₂)

sūa-ŋarooting (as of pigs) (PMP: *sual)

suat-ito uproot, dig up (suddenly or violently) (PMP: *suat₂)

suat-iabe uprooted or dug up (PMP: *suat₂)

suɁithrust needle or other sharp object through something, pierce; pin (especially leaves of thatching panels); sew; mend, darn; tack; seam (PMP: *suŋkit)

suɁi-ŋastitch (PMP: *suŋkit)

Samoan (560 / 827)

sulaspeak sincerely from the very depths of one’s heart (like someone who is deeply moved); make formal acknowledgement, give thanks (for presents, honors, speeches, etc.) (LOAN)

sulisucker of a banana plant; heir (PMP: *suli₁)

suluilluminate, light up (PMP: *suluq)

sulu(of garment) put on, wrap around oneself (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

sulu(of garment) put on, wrap around (PMP: *sulut)

suluthe true son of a chief (Pratt 1893) (LOAN)

suluput in, insert, sheathe; put on, wear; tuck (clothing) in; slide (NOISE)

sulu-sulushine on, illuminate (PMP: *suluq)

sumuname given to triggerfishes of genera Balistes and Balistapus; Southern Cross (from its resemblance to the shape of the fish) (POC: *sumu)

sunu-sunuto scorch (PMP: *sunuR)

sususuck (at the breast); breast (of woman); milk (PAN: *susu₁)

sususuck (POC: *susup) *supsup

(su)suɁ-ito thrust (needle or other sharp object through something), pierce; to pin (especially leaves of thatching panels) (PAN: *suksuk)

su-sulu(of the sun and moon) shine (PMP: *suluq)

su-sunuto burn up (PMP: *sunuR)

suʔithrust needle or other sharp object through something, pierce; to pin, esp. leaves of thatching panels; to sew; to tack; seam; tailor (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

suʔi-ŋaa stitch (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

suʔi-suʔi-ŋasewing (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

(of blow) strike, hit; (of tree) fell, cut down; (of timber) adze, chip into shape, hew; (of bilge water) bail out; (of tattoo) apply, put on (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taefeces, excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

Samoan (580 / 827)

tae-abe dirty, disgusting, filthy (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-feʔeoctopus ink, sepia (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-laŋofly-speck; freckle (or similar small spot) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-laŋo-afreckled (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-ʔotian herb (Ageratum sp.), the goatweed (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tafa(of boil, abscess, etc.) cut open, incise (POC: *tapa₂) *tapa₁

tafa(of light and shade effect) be visible, discernible (PMP: *tapak₂)

tafa(of boil, abscess, etc.) cut open, incise (POC: *tapar) *tabad

tafaflank, slope (NOISE)

tafa luabe two-sided, made of two pieces (NOISE)

tafeto flow, run; a flow (POC: *tape₁)

tafe-abe carried away (by current, etc.), to drift (POC: *tape-a) *tape₁

tafe-abe carried away (by current, etc.) (POC: *tape₁)

tāfe-aŋaparty of castaways or people cast adrift; party of people in exile or banishment (POC: *tape₁)

tafe-ŋacurrent (POC: *tape₁)

tāfe-ŋaflood (POC: *tape₁)

tafe-tafe-ato drift; current, esp. where offshore waves meet sea waves (POC: *tape₁)

tafe-tototo bleed (POC: *tape₁)

ta-filidecorate, dress something by plaiting coconut or other leaves around it (PMP: *pirit)

ta-fulito roll (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

Samoan (600 / 827)

ta-fulito roll (as a coconut trunk being rolled to sea) (POC: *puri)

taitide; game or fish in season (PMP: *tasik)

tāivafish of genus Lutjanus when about two feet long (POC: *tasiwa)

talaspike, prong; barb (as of a stingray); spine, prickle (as of a fishes fins); spur (of a cock); thorn (POC: *salaŋ)

talito wait (POC: *tari)

talielarge tree growing near the coast, with strong timber used for houses, canoes, and gongs, the tropical almond: Terminalia catappa (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear, (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tali-soato await company, wait for someone to join one (POC: *tari)

t-ālowave, beckon (PAN: *qalep)

talotaro, a cultivated plant (Colocasia sp.), the corm of which is one of the most important sources of food (POC: *talos) *tales

talo-abe plentiful in taro (POC: *talos) *tales

talu-talufresh growth of weeds; growth, development (of feature, phenomenon, etc.); young trees grown up where there had been a plantation (Pratt 1984) (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tama-afather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tā-malauname given to certain fishes of genus Holocentrus when about 1 ft. in length (PMP: *taRaqan)

tamanularge tree (Callophyllum sp.), with timber used for canoes and furniture (POC: *tamanu)

ta-matekill (animal or plant); (of a coco-nut tree, etc.) strip of leaves so as to kill (POC: *mate) *aCay

tanucover over, build up (with soil, stones, etc.); to bury (human being or animal) (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

tanu-miabe covered over, be buried (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋabag, sack; pocket; pillow case; door mat; stomach (of a shark) (POC: *taŋa₂)

Samoan (620 / 827)

ta-ŋafato measure in fathoms (POC: *ŋapa)

taŋafaname give to fishes of genus Cheilinus when three feet long or more (POC: *taŋapa)

taŋatahuman being; native (of a place) (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taŋito cry, weep; to make a noise, utter a cry characteristic of a given animal (birds, crickets, cicadas); ask for, beg for, request (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋīkind of fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taŋi-taŋito jingle, as coins in pocket; be high-pitched, shrill (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋotake, get hold of; touch and feel with the hand (POC: *taŋop)

taŋof-i-abe touched (POC: *taŋop)

ta-ŋuluhit, strike with a thud, thump or other hollow sound (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

tā-ŋulusnore (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

taospear (POC: *jaot) *saet

taocook (in a stone oven) (POC: *taqo)

tapaʔatobacco (LOAN)

tapube forbidden (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tapu-ibe under an interdiction or ‘taboo’ (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tapu-inabe forbidden by someone (POC: *tabu-ni-a) *tambu

tapu-tapustrictly forbidden (POC: *tapu-tapu) *tambu

ta-tafe(of water), race, flow swiftly (POC: *tape₁)

ta-tauright hand (PMP: *taqu₁) *taqu

ta-tautattooing (POC: *sau₃)

Samoan (640 / 827)

tā-toufirst person plural inclusive conjunct verbal pronoun (pre-basic and post-basic); we (you and we, speaking of three or more people); first person plural inclusive disjunct verbal pronoun first person inclusive nominal pronoun (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tauto moor, anchor (PMP: *sauq₂) *sauq

tauseason (warm, cold, etc.); climate; weather (PMP: *taqun)

tauto hang (POC: *saur₁)

tauto hang (POC: *tau₂) *tau

taureach, go (up, down, etc.) to (as a dress reaching down to the ankles); come to (PMP: *taRus)

tau-ŋaanchoring, anchorage (PMP: *sauq₂) *sauq

tāu-poutitle of village maiden (virgin singled out for her charm, looks and manners) (POC: *tau paqoRu) *baqeRuh

tau-tauto hang up (as a bunch of bananas to let it ripen) (POC: *saur₁)

tau-tauto hang up (POC: *tau₂) *tau

tautufish (Diodon sp.) with very sharp spines (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

tavalarge tree (Pometia sp.) (PMP: *tawan)

tavailarge tree (Rhus sp.) useful for fruit its black fruit is eaten by pigeons (POC: *tawasi)

taʔa(of animals, etc.) run freely, be loose, be at large; (of woman) be loose, unchaste, wanton (POC: *takas) *taŋkas

taʔito lead (as in leading the way) (NOISE)

taʔuokind of large bonito caught by trawling from cutters (POC: *takua)

tea-iʔabrown sediment which forms when undiluted coconut cream is boiled (lit. ‘fish shit’) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tela(not in decent use) clitoris (PMP: *tila)

shrub (Cordyline sp.) famous in Samoan legend, the leaves and root of which are used for a number of different purposes (PMP: *siRi)

tilasprit or spar of Samoan sail; mast (POC: *jila)

Samoan (660 / 827)

tila-lalolower sprit (POC: *jila)

tila-tūupper sprit (POC: *jila)

tiloray or beam of light (e.g. coming through a chink in a coconut-leaf venetian blind) (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tiloray or beam of light (e.g. coming through a chink in a coconut-leaf Venetian blind) (PMP: *silaw)

tilo-tiloto look, glance; peep, peer (often with a dishonest or indecent motive) (POC: *tiro-tiro) *tindaw

timu(be) rainy (PMP: *timuR)

tīmu-ŋarain (PMP: *timuR)

tina-aM (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tinaeguts, entrails (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

tinobe openly expressed, revealed (POC: *tino) *tin(e)qaw

tinobody; limbs (LOAN)

tiomollusc (Vermetus sp.), a snail; iridescent (shank), said of a fish-lure made from tio shell (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

tio-abe full of tio shell-fish (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

tiʔaslender rod (dart) used in the game of darts (POC: *tika)

tiʔe-tiʔeto ride, sit astride; be placed upon, lie on; sit (on a chair) (POC: *tike)

tiʔo(not in decent use), ease the bowels, defecate (POC: *tiko)

toatree (Casuarina sp.), the ironwood tree and its timber (POC: *toRas) *teRas

tofisplit, cleave, divide (as section of a breadfruit); a chisel (POC: *topiq) *Cebiq

tofotest, sample, experiment; (of a dish) taste (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

tolaerection of the penis (Pratt 1984) (POC: *tolaq) *telaq

Samoan (680 / 827)

toleclitoris (PMP: *teli)

toloof certain foods, mix, stir with a stick (POC: *solo₂)

toluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tolu-ŋa-fuluthirty (POC: *tolu-ŋa-puluq) *telu

tonube exact, correct; be right, just; be agreed, resolved, decided; rightly, correctly (POC: *tonuq)

toŋogeneral name given to the mangroves, which include a large shrub (Rhizophora sp.) and a tree (Bruguiera sp.) (PMP: *teŋeR)

tosito score, scratch (PEMP: *tosi)

tos-ito score or scratch (NOISE)

tosi-tosiscrawl, scribble (PEMP: *tosi)

totoblood; to bleed (POC: *toto)

totoblood; to bleed (NOISE)

to-toʔabe calm, steady (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

toʔa(of liquid, or solid body in a liquid, etc.) be still, settle down; (of boat), run around, strike; (of people) stop; sea rock, reef; calm, relief (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

toʔa(of liquid or solid body in a liquid, etc.) be still, settle down; (of boat) run aground; (of people) stop; sea rock, reef; calm, relief (POC: *toka₂)

toʔa-toʔacalmly (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

toʔa-toʔacalmly (POC: *toka₂)

toʔelauprevailing easterly winds which blow from northeast through east to east-southeast from May to October, and are commonly known as trade winds (POC: *tokalaur)

toʔopunting pole; wife (jocular); housepost; to punt (POC: *tokon) *teken

toʔo limapress with both hands (POC: *tokon) *teken

toʔo- toʔowalking stick (POC: *tokon-tokon) *teken

Samoan (700 / 827)

to stand, stand up, stand erect; be stationary; (of bird) alight, settle (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

tuarougher, tougher side of a thing, i.e. the back (as opposed to the smoother side); behind, to the back; beyond, outside (POC: *tuqa₁)

tuaibe late; be delayed; take a long time; later; lateness, being late (POC: *tuaRi)

tua-tuaibe slow (POC: *tuaRi)

tuaʔāparent (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

tufashare out, portion out; hand out, distribute; a portion, share (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tufupool or spring of fresh water (situated near the seashore and sometimes brackish) (POC: *tupuR) *tubuR

tuistab, jab; prick, pick (with a fork, etc.); (of insect, etc.) sting; (of horse) spur; given an injection, inject; thread something through (as thread through a needle) (POC: *tuRi₁) *CuSuR

tulu-iput drops into (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tulu-tuludrip; cry; eaves (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tunaname given to freshwater eels of genus Anguilla (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tunubroil; boil; (of hot drink) make; to roast, to toast, to broil, to fry, to boil (Pratt 1984) (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupaswollen (of limbs affected by filarial infection) (POC: *tupa₁)

tupabeach crab (Cardisoma sp.) (POC: *tubaRa)

tupabeach crab, Cardisoma sp. (NOISE)

tupugrow; arise, break out; happen, occur; growth (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tusidraw; write (PCEMP: *tusi)

tusipoint (with finger); draw; write; letter (POC: *dusiq)

tutu(of lamp, fire, etc.) to light (PMP: *tutuŋ)

tutu(of mulberry bar) to beat on a special anvil (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

Samoan (720 / 827)

tu-tulideaf (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

tu-tulu(of a house) let the rain come in, be leaky (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

tutuŋ-athe lighting of something; the process of preparing lamp-black from the smoke of burning candle nuts, used as a pigment for bark cloth (PMP: *tutuŋ)

tuʔ-igive a blow or punch; knock, hit, strike; (of a nail) drive, hammer; (of a drum) beat; mash, beat into a pulp (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tuʔuʔuname given to certain small and queer fishes of genus Abedefduf, Pomacentrus, and Chromis (POC: *tokuku)

ūmake a hollow sound, such as is made by waves, hornets, pigeons, engines, etc. (POC: *uRuŋ) *huRuŋ

ūmake a hollow sound, such as is made by waves, hornets, pigeons, engines, etc. (PMP: *uu)

uarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uaneck (POC: *Ruqa)

ua teasunshower ( = "white rain") (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

ua-uathews and sinews; vein, artery; pulse (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

ufigeneral name for yams, used especially of the common yam (Dioscorea sp.) (PMP: *qubi)

uigo along; tread upon, gain admittance to; go by way of, follow a road to (POC: *suRi₂)

uilalightning (POC: *qusila)

ulaname given to several crustaceans (including lobsters and prawns) (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ule(not in decent use) penis (POC: *ule)

ulisteer; drive a car (PMP: *qulin)

uli-seŋaa fish (Caesio species) (POC: *sulik) *sulig

ulopot, pan (PAN: *kuden)

uluhead; hair (POC: *qulu) *quluh

Samoan (740 / 827)

ulugo into, enter; of a team, contest or competition, to enter (i.e. pay an entrance deposit) (PMP: *surup₁)

uluaname given to two species of fish of genus Caranx when about three feet long, and considered to be a present fit for a chief (POC: *qulua)

uluf-iabe entered, as a house (PMP: *surup₁)

ulu-matuafirst-born, eldest child (POC: *qulu) *quluh

umename given to mature fishes of the genus Naso when about one foot long and over (PMP: *qumay)

umustone oven, consisting of a shallow cavity lined with stones on which a fire is lit and cleared away before the food is laid on the hot stones (PMP: *qumun)

unascale (of fish), scale of hawk's-bill turtle; tortoise-shell (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

uŋaname given to hermit crabs in general (POC: *qumwaŋ) *qumaŋ

usopith (POC: *uso)

usu-i(of spear, etc.) stick, thrust (PMP: *usuk)

utaashore; on the side towards the land (opp. to i tai, on the side towards the sea) (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utaload, cargo (PMP: *ujan)

uta-fanuainland areas of an island (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

utofloat (in a fish-net); bait (tied to a float, esp. in shark-hunting) (POC: *uton) *utem

utu(of containers) fill; (of contents) put into, pour into (POC: *qutub)

utua fish: Aprion virescens (PMP: *qutun)

utuf-iabe filled with (POC: *qutup-ia) *qutub

vaelower limb (including foot), leg; basis, ground; fundamentals (PAN: *waqay)

vaeto divide, separate; cut, sever (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

vāe-abe removed, taken away (POC: *wa(n)se-a) *wa(n)se

Samoan (760 / 827)

vāe-ŋasection, division, part; portion, share (POC: *wa(n)se-ŋa) *wa(n)se

vāe-vaedivide (into several pieces); (of speech) be careful, cautious (POC: *wa(n)se wa(n)se) *wa(n)se

vaiwater (esp. fresh water as opposed to salt water) (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

vaiwater-bottle (Pratt 1984); coco-nut gourd (Milner 1966) (PEMP: *waip)

valipaint; apply a coat of plaster, concrete, whitewash, etc.; paint, dye; make-up, cosmetics; house paint (POC: *wali)

valueight (PAN: *walu)

vaobush, forest; weeds; tall grass (POC: *wao)

vasaopen sea, ocean (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

vaʔaboat, ship, vessel, craft (POC: *waŋka)

vaʔa-leleaircraft, plane (POC: *waŋka)

vili(of thread, top, coin, etc.) spin; drill; revolve, rotate (PMP: *wirit)

ʔaito eat; bite, grip; food; score, goal, point, run (POC: *kani) *kaen

ʔalibamboo pillow, headrest (POC: *kalik)

ʔalibamboo pillow, headrest (NOISE)

ʔa-naif (PAN: *ka₂)

ʔapa(of bird’s wing, turtle flipper, etc.) to beat, lash (POC: *kabak) *kapak

ʔapa-ʔapafin; wing of an aircraft (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

ʔasiedible mollusc (Arca sp.), the shell of which is used as a scraper; shell scraper (POC: *kasi)

ʔasothatch-rafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

ʔatito bite; to get into, attack (said of pests, as termites attacking a tree) (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

Samoan (780 / 827)

ʔatobasket; luggage, baggage (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

ʔatobasket; luggage, baggage (NOISE)

ʔato-paʔusuitcase (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

ʔato-tupepurse, wallet (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

ʔavetentacle of octopus (POC: *kawe₂) *kaway₂

ʔavetentacle of octopus (POC: *kawe₁) *gaway

ʔavegive, hand (something to); carry, take (people or things); send (people or things); drive a car, ride a horse (POC: *kawe)

ʔaʔacoarse fibrous material found at the base of coconut leaves and used for strainers, etc. (POC: *kaka₃)

ʔa-ʔaivillage, town (POC: *kai)

ʔa-ʔanoflesh; kernel, meat; gist, essence, heart (of the matter); fleshy; meaty, substantial (as a sermon); of words, speech, etc., be full of substance (POC: *kanon₂) *kaen

ʔa-ʔano[gloss] (POC: *kanoŋ)

ʔaʔasito scratch deeply (POC: *kakas) *kaskas₃

ʔaʔasi-abe scratched, as one’s arm (POC: *kakas) *kaskas₃

ʔaʔauto swim (POC: *kaRu)

ʔa-ʔaveto spread (of news and rumors) (POC: *kawe)

ʔaʔuf-iaincluded, embraced, covered (ROOT)

ʔemoblink, flash (PMP: *kimet)

ʔeseother, different, foreign, alien; wrong; strange, unusual (PCEMP: *kese)

ʔese-ʔese-ŋadifference (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

ʔīsqueal, yell (PMP: *kik)

Samoan (800 / 827)

ʔi-particle denoting direction or movement in space or time; to, in the direction of; cause or reason why an action or process is carried out: because, on account of; means or instrument by which a process or action is carried out (POC: *ki₁)

ʔiparticle denoting direction or movement in space or time: to, in the direction of; also occurs before the object in second construction bases (used before common bases only; for proper bases (including pronouns) cf. ʔiā and ʔiate (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

ʔiatooutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

ʔie-ʔieliana (Freycinetia sp.) used for making fish-traps (POC: *kiRe-kiRe) *kiRay

ʔi feawhere to? (POC: *pea)

ʔilia saw, a file; sawing, filing (POC: *kikir) *kiDkiD

ʔinipinch, nip (PMP: *kinit)

ʔinoʔinofeel disgust (at), have revulsion (for); disgust; hate, hatred; contempt (NOISE)

ʔio(of a chicken) to cheep (PAN: *kiaw)

ʔisaused to show annoyance, for example when scolding (PMP: *qisaq)

ʔite-abe in sight (PAN: *kita₂)

ʔi-ʔila(of reflected light on water, glass, or polished surface, etc.) shine, glisten, sparkle, twinkle; bright, shiny (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

ʔi-ʔiteforetell, tell beforehand; have a hunch, have a premonition (PAN: *kita₂)

ʔo ata tamamy (dear) children (woman speaking) (PAN: *ata₁)

ʔo feawhere? (POC: *pea)

ʔofugarment, dress; clothes; food done up in small bundle of leaves for cooking in a stone oven or for convenience (NOISE)

ʔolofort; shelter (POC: *koro₂)

ʔopaweak, of body; ignorant in making a speech (Pratt 1984) (NOISE)

ʔosoto dig, dig up; stick used for digging or planting (POC: *kojom)

ʔotito cut (with scissors, clippers, etc.) (PAN: *ketil)

Samoan (820 / 827)

ʔoʔatree from the bark of which a brown dye is extracted which is used in decorating bark cloth: Bischofia sp. (POC: *koka)

ʔuluthe breadfruit (Artocarpus spp.), cultivated almost everywhere, esp. in and near villages (a large number of its varieties and forms are distinguished by name) (PMP: *kuluR)

ʔutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ʔutu-a(of hair), be infested with lice, lousy (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ʔutu-fitiflea (jumping lice) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

ʔuʔacommon mangrove crab (Sesarma sp.) (POC: *kuka)

ʔuʔuto hold, grip, clutch (POC: *kukup) *kupkup₃

ʔuʔumollusc (Modiola sp.), the shell of which is used by women to split pandanus leaves (POC: *kukur) *kuDkuD

619. Sangil (12) WMP [snl] Philippines

a-nu-iwhatchamacallit (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

duribone (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

kasílifreshwater eel (PWMP: *kasuli)

kiteʔ2nd pers. plural, you (PAN: *kita₁)

-ku1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (after consonant-final bases) (PAN: *-ku)

la-watiearthworm (PMP: *wati₁) *wati₁ (X + wati₁)

-ŋku1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (after vowel-final bases) (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

patiukaŋbee (PPH: *patiukan)

rusuʔrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

saywho? (PMP: *sai)

siawnine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

s-inihere (PWMP: *si-ni) *-ni

620. Sangir (847) WMP (Steller and Aebersold 1959) [sxn] Indonesia (Sulawesi) (dialects: Siau [sxn] 2, Tamako [sxn] 2)

agamareligion (LOAN)

ahakind of wild fig tree (PMP: *qaRaʔ)

ahostolen goods, booty, loot (PAN: *qaRaw)

aka-ŋthe older of two brothers or sisters (PWMP: *aka-ŋ) *aka

alaʔfetch, take; bite (of fish) (PAN: *alap)

amaleʔundergo self-chastisement, torment oneself in order to repulse the assaults of demons on body and property (LOAN)

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax Siau

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax Tamako

ampathe plank that is fixed on the baule (unfinished hull of a boat) to give it more freeboard (LOAN)

ampuŋforgiveness, pardon (PMP: *ampun)

anaŋan ornament plaited of leaves (PMP: *añam)

anaʔchild (in contrast with adults; otherwise one uses darioʔ (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaʔ u matapupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

anaʔ u nanasipineapple sprout (PMP: *anak i kahiw) *aNak

ansaʔgoose (LOAN)

ansuaŋgiant (LOAN)

antaŋto suspect, as someone of having committed a theft (NOISE)

anti-antiearring (LOAN)

a-nuindefinite pronoun: whatchamacallit, word used to indicate something for which one will not or cannot use the proper name (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

anu-kumine (PMP: *a-nu-ku) *-nu

Sangir (20 / 847)

anu-myours (PMP: *a-nu-mu) *-nu

anu-nehis/hers (PMP: *a-nu-ni a) *-nu

anuʔthe hunt; spoils of the hunt (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

aŋiŋwind (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋiŋ timuhəʔsouth wind (PMP: *timuR)

apa(interrogative pronoun) what?; (indefinite pronoun) something; also in a contemptuous sense: someone (PMP: *apa₁)

apaŋ ello-elloevery day, daily (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

apuʔlime made from burnt coral limestone (PAN: *qapuR)

arechin (PMP: *qazay)

asawhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asageʔurge someone on to, incite (PWMP: *asag)

asaleʔfamily, lineage, origin; provided that (LOAN)

asaŋgill; membrane around the seed of a mango (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asareʔtime of the afternoon prayer, around 4 P.M. (LOAN)

asiŋsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

asiʔplant rice, more particularly the first step in the process: dibble holes in the ground (PMP: *hasek₁)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asu-n sasiseal (PAN: *asu₁)

asu-ŋ anuʔhunting dog (PAN: *asu₁)

ataŋa separated part of the floor of a Sangirese house; a guest whom one wishes to receive properly is invited to stay there (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

Sangir (40 / 847)

ataseʔraise oneself up (PMP: *atas) *aCas

atedie (PMP: *atay) *aCay

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atiseʔtree sp.: Anona squamosa (LOAN)

atisəʔa tree, Annona squamosa (LOAN)

atuleʔto order, regulate; teach; admonish (LOAN)

atuʔroof; roof thatch, made of half-overlapping sago fronds folded over a bamboo pole and attached to another pole (PMP: *qatep)

awiʔclimb (PWMP: *abit₁) *abit

awuash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

babaʔcrude for kababa? vulva (particularly of young girls) (NOISE)

badaŋbody (LOAN)

bahanibrave, courageous, daring; wild (of animals) (PMP: *baRani)

bahito spoil, ferment (as grated coconut) (PMP: *baRiw)

bahiŋsnore (ROOT)

bahua tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

bahughasmall house built on a grave (PWMP: *baruga)

bahuseʔto scrape (as when a child falls and scrapes his arm) (PWMP: *baRus)

balalaŋa bird: the snipe (PPh: *balalaŋ₂)

balatiʔspring-set spear trap for pigs (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

balaworat, mouse (PMP: *balabaw)

Sangir (60 / 847)

balehiseʔrustling, as of wind (ROOT)

balimbiŋa tree and its edible fruit: Averrhoa carambola (PWMP: *baliŋbiŋ)

baliraweaver's lath (used to beat in the woof) (PMP: *balija) *baRija

balirikind of grass (PMP: *baliji)

balirikind of grass (PMP: *balizi)

baliwevil spirit that sometimes possesses persons (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

balurice pestle (PMP: *balu₂)

balunuʔkind of mango tree and its fruit, which has a strong, pleasant odor (PWMP: *balunuq)

baluŋprovisions for a journey (PWMP: *balun₂)

baluychange something (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

banaeŋthread, yarn (PWMP: *banaeŋ)

bantaləʔstorage chest, trunk (PWMP: *bantal)

bantugəʔgrand, noble (PPH: *bantug)

banualand, district; people; state; sea; weather (PMP: *banua)

baŋuŋstand up from a reclining position (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baraŋstuff, belongings (LOAN)

batachild (PWMP: *bataq)

bataŋ-eŋself, oneself (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

batustone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu-aŋnet weights (formerly stones and shells); anchor (PWMP: *batu-an) *batux

Sangir (80 / 847)

batu-nepit of a fruit (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

bawabeneath (PMP: *babaq₁)

bawacarry (without reference to the manner in which it is done) (PMP: *baba₁)

ba-waehəʔpayment, price (PMP: *bayaD)

ba-walirakind of fish (PWMP: *balida)

ba-walurice pestle (PAN: *bayu)

bawipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

ba-wiaheʔlive bait (PWMP: *bihaR)

bawi ma-susumother pig (PAN: *susu₁)

bawinewoman; female; sister (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

bawoshallow, as where the sea floor is elevated (PWMP: *babaw₂)

ba-wuatassel (PMP: *buaq)

ba-wuḷaŋcurved artificial spur attached to the leg of a fighting cock (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

ba-wuḷur-aŋ, ba-wuḷud-aŋhilly, mountainous, mountainous area (PPh: *bulud-an) *buled₁

béatoll, duty, excise, tax (LOAN)

bĕbasĕʔclear out the tall grass and bushes from a garden (PWMP: *basbas₃)

be-batutesticle (PWMP: *ba-batu) *batux

be-batutesticle (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

bə-batukidney (PMP: *batu₂)

bebideʔwind around with a string or rope (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

Sangir (100 / 847)

be-buŋkuleʔankle bone (listed under buŋkuleʔ) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

behaʔweight (PMP: *beReqat)

behiseʔline, stripe (ROOT)

behiʔline, stripe (ROOT)

bekiseʔtying, manner of tying (PMP: *beRkes)

bekiseʔtying, manner of tying (PWMP: *beRkis)

bekuŋbent; of aged people who walk hunched over, of hunchbacks, or of people who bend under a heavy load (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

bellaʔsplit; in the middle; insert between (PAN: *belaq)

bellibuy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

bem-bihatree which resembles the biha plant (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bennaŋto sneeze (PWMP: *bañen)

bennaŋto sneeze (PMP: *beñan)

beŋaheʔjaw (PAN: *beReqaŋ)

beŋaŋin a state of confusion, dazed (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

beŋaʔbay, gulf, inlet; opening between two capes of land (as distinct from a narrow passage, called sawaŋ) (PMP: *beŋat₁) *beŋat

beŋifragrance; fragrant herbs (PMP: *beŋi)

beŋkaseʔspring up and run away with something (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

beséburst, split open; wound, sore (PMP: *besiq)

betuʔhump; humped, curved (as a shell) (PMP: *bentuk)

biaheʔliving, alive (PWMP: *bihaR)

Sangir (120 / 847)

biasacustomary, usual (LOAN)

bidadariheavenly nymphs that in stories come to help and serve exceptionally favored princesses in their baths, and descend the rainbow to earth (LOAN)

bidaʔdifference, distinction (LOAN)

bihakind of taro plant (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bihaseʔsemen, smegma, vaginal fluid (PMP: *biRas₁) *biRas

bikaʔthe common Sangirese basket, used especially for sago flour (LOAN)

bikishoot up, flourish (plants) (NOISE)

biliturn around, go back (NOISE)

biliŋturn around (in a lying or a standing position) (PMP: *biliŋ₁) *biliŋ

biluʔcrooked, askew, bent (as a plank) (PMP: *biluk)

binataŋ(< Malay) animal; term of abuse, as is often the case with Malay loanwords; the Sangirese themselves have no general term for animal (LOAN)

bineseed, principally seed-rice, but used also of millet and maize (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

b-in-ekiseʔbunch, bundle, package (PMP: *beRkes)

b-in-intaʔkind of exceptionally long, narrow boat which is almost a unique survival of traditional culture; formerly much used on long journeys (LOAN)

binsanatemp, seduce (LOAN)

binsiʔto hate, despise, scorn (LOAN)

bintaŋtree sp., more commonly known as kalu wituiŋ (PWMP: *bintaŋ)

b<in>unia secret (PWMP: *b<in>uni) *buNi

binuŋaa tree useful in house construction, and for fittings for boats (PPh: *binuŋa)

biŋkeframe of paintings and mirrors (PWMP: *biŋkay)

Sangir (140 / 847)

biŋkuŋadze for working wood; kind of shell (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

birahipassionate about (LOAN)

biraleʔmuezzin; caller to prayer (LOAN)

biruluʔtwist up, wind into coils (as a snake) (ROOT)

bisavenom; venomous (LOAN)

bisaraconversation, talk, discussion (LOAN)

bisiʔleg between knee and ankle (PMP: *bities)

bisul-aŋget pimples, pustules (PMP: *bisul)

bisuleʔpimple, pustule (PMP: *bisul)

bitiŋhang up on a rope (PPh: *bítin)

bituiŋstar (PAN: *bituqen)

biwiheʔlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

boboʔmute, dumb (LOAN)

bohintiŋspeckled, flecked (only said of chickens) (NOISE)

bouto smell, as perfume (PMP: *bahu)

buafruit; blossom, infloresence; used in the names of color-varieties of cocks; numeral classifier for objects that are more long than broad (hairs, nails) (PMP: *buaq)

bualacrocodile (in poetry bahani 'fearless, intrepid; hero' is often used for buala and vice-versa); to rob, plunder (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bua-m batukind of shellfish to which a "stone" adheres = pearl oyster (PMP: *buaq na batu) *buaq

bua-n susunipple (PMP: *buaq)

bua-ŋ kalufruit of a tree (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

Sangir (160 / 847)

buaseʔsmall tree or shrub the sap of which causes itching (NOISE)

buaseʔ, mekaka-wuaseʔscratch oneself hard (of someone who itches over the entire body); make angry or irritated movements, scratch oneself behind the ear, etc. (PWMP: *buas)

buaʔstand up from a sitting position, depart (of ship, boat, or large canoe), emerge from (PMP: *buhat₃)

budiintelligence, understanding; disposition (rare) (LOAN)

budi-maŋa common proper name (LOAN)

bue-buea swing (PMP: *buqay)

buhascrub oneself, use a rubbing stone in bathing; rub off; smear in (oil in hair, balsamine in skin after bathing) (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

bui-buia swing (PMP: *bui bui) *bui₃

buis-aŋruler to whom tribute is paid (PPh: *buhis-an) *buhís

buiseʔestimate, valuation, assessment; present; pay tribute (PWMP: *buhís)

bukato open (PMP: *buka)

buk-aŋdrunk (PMP: *buhek₂) *buSek

bukideʔmountain, hill, but specifically 'mountain haven', a place in the mountains to which people flee in time of war to hide from their enemies (PAN: *bukij)

bukir-aŋhaven in the mountains, mountain refuge (PWMP: *bukij-an) *bukij

bukuknee; joint, node of bamboo or sugarcane; knot in wood (PMP: *buku)

buḷageʔdimness of vision, loss of sight (PPh: *bulág)

buḷaḷakomonster that causes the russet eclipse of the moon (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

buḷaŋmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buḷaŋ ni-ellulunar eclipse (the moon is swallowed by a dragon) (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buḷothe general name for bamboo, but used only for bul.o momo and the two slenderest types (PAN: *buluq₂)

Sangir (180 / 847)

buḷudeʔmountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

buḷudeʔmountain (PWMP: *bulud₂)

bulu-ŋhair, fiber (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

bumbuŋheap, pile, stack (PMP: *bunbun)

bunaleʔbruise, contusion; wound, injury (PPh: *bunal)

bunihide, conceal (something) (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

bunokill one another, of parties to a fight; engage in serious combat (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

buntubloated (PMP: *buntuʔ)

bunuʔthe tough bast fibers of a coconut which are used in the manufacture of clothing, mats, etc.; sponge on top of a young coconut (PMP: *bunut₁)

buŋamushroom, fungus (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa lawaŋclove (LOAN)

buŋa-n sagheʔsponge (PMP: *buŋa na batu) *buŋa

buŋaŋflower (PMP: *buŋaŋ)

buŋaŋabawl loudly, of a child (PPh: *buŋáŋaq)

bu-ŋaŋato howl (of a child) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

buŋkuʔknob, bump, node, joint (PMP: *buŋkuk)

buraʔblossom (PWMP: *bujak)

buraʔ u atechild (PWMP: *bujak)

buresiclean, pure (LOAN)

busuŋmisfortune resulting from a curse brought about by disrespectful behavior toward one’s superiors or elders (PWMP: *busuŋ)

Sangir (200 / 847)

butablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butipock mark (PPh: *butí)

buti-aŋget smallpox (PPh: *butih-en) *butí

butiheʔbump, outgrowth; protruding, specifically of large stones, but also of small stones which protrude from the ground (PMP: *buteliR)

butitisomething with a bloated belly (PWMP: *butiti)

butumake a hole; castrate; slit the belly of a slaughtered animal to gut it (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

buwufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

buwuheʔkapok (NOISE)

dahablood; milky sap of plants (PAN: *daRaq)

dahamifallow ricefield, land left fallow for not more than a year that is covered with newly-sprouted bushes (PWMP: *zaRami)

dahiŋbreathe loudly, as one suffering from asthma (PAN: *daRiŋ)

dahuŋ ~ da-rahuŋneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

dakuʔseize, grasp, catch (PAN: *za(ŋ)kuC)

dalathere behind, on the back side (PAN: *daya)

dala einland, toward the interior (PAN: *daya)

daḷeŋpath, trail, road (PMP: *zalan)

daligəbuttress root and the groove between buttress roots that project above ground (PPH: *dalig)

da-limasəʔbailer, scoop (PMP: *la-limas) *limas

danolake; puddle, pool (PAN: *danaw)

dapuh-aŋkitchen, hearth (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

Sangir (220 / 847)

d<ar>əkaʔplaster (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

da-ruatwo, of round and long objects (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

datuprince, king (PMP: *datu)

daufar distance (PMP: *zauq)

dauŋleaf of plants (PMP: *dahun)

dauŋ u waŋokind of small green fish (PMP: *dahun)

dedaʔa tree, Erythrina indica (PMP: *dedap)

dedaʔ kaheŋaŋ(true dadap, with leaves that are used as vegetables) (PMP: *dedap)

dedaʔ u tiaŋ(‘dedaʔ of the belly’) have heavy, painful diarrhoea; cholera (PMP: *dedap)

dedaʔ u wawidadap ('dedaʔ of the pigs') (PMP: *dedap)

dehiŋbuzzing, droning in the ear (PWMP: *deRiŋ)

dəpafathom (PMP: *depa)

dihipost, leg (as of a table) (PAN: *SadiRi)

dihi-m balehouse post (PAN: *SadiRi)

dilatongue (also in carpentry) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

diŋaŋcompanion (PWMP: *diŋan)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duhifish bone (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

dukuʔgrass, vegetation (PMP: *dukut₂)

duluŋdugong: Halicore dugong (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

Sangir (240 / 847)

d<um>əkaʔto stick, adhere to something (PWMP: *d<um>eket) *dekeC

ebuŋdust (NOISE)

ebuʔpluck, pull out (plants, hair, etc.) (PMP: *hebut) *SebuC

edaŋborrow from someone, of objects that must themselves be returned, as opposed to objects (e.g. money) that can be returned in kind (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

edostop, cease, end (PMP: *hedaw)

elladeʔshyness, embarrassment (NEAR)

elloday (PMP: *qalejaw)

elluŋshadow (PWMP: *heluŋ)

elluʔto swallow (NOISE)

embéʔto bleat (LOAN)

embowhat is moved on top (PWMP: *embaw)

ĕmmerice in the field, unhusked rice; food (in general) (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

emmuŋsave up, heap together, gather, collect; stay together, keep company (PWMP: *emuŋ)

empiseʔ, episeʔpress down with one's entire weight, sit on something (NOISE)

empofather-in-law, mother-in-law (PMP: *empu-q) *empu

empu-ŋforefather, ancestor (PWMP: *empú-ŋ) *empu

enduŋlearn, study (PWMP: *qendem)

ennathought (PPh: *henaq)

ennesand (PAN: *qenay)

ennuŋsix (PAN: *enem)

Sangir (260 / 847)

ən-saliʔfloor of (bamboo) laths, housefloor (PMP: *saleR)

ən-tanaearth, ground, land (PMP: *taneq)

eŋguŋthe wings with which a hen protects her chicks (PMP: *eŋgem)

eŋguʔmake a grumbling or moaning sound (PMP: *e(ŋ)guk)

éŋkoleʔcurved wooden support used in roof construction (PWMP: *iŋkul)

epaʔfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

esaone (in combinations) (PAN: *esa)

etuʔwind, fart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

galinduŋto protect, screen, shelter (ROOT)

gepiʔfolded over; bamboo lath with which the thatching leaves are pressed in making a roof (PMP: *gepit)

gioto cheer; also to shout out, as in trying to stop an escaping thief (PPH: *giaw)

hakiʔraft (PMP: *Rakit)

hakuʔbind tightly, tie together (as the opening of a basket) (PMP: *Rakut)

hampaseʔrob, plunder (PWMP: *Rampas)

hemmaŋmarine eel (PMP: *haRemaŋ)

heŋkiŋwrinkle, shrink (PMP: *Re(ŋ)keŋ)

heŋkiŋwrinkle, shrink (ROOT)

hesaŋuseful type of moss that grows to a height of over two feet. The light-green young plants resemble small fir trees, with cylindrical stalks filled with hairs or soft spines. The plant later loses its pyramidal form and comes to resemble the flatter mosses. It grows in close association with Imperata cylindrica wherever there is enough moisture. Also called hesaŋ lumuʔ in contradistinction with hesaŋ or hesaŋ eseʔ; the latter belongs with the ginto, and is a climbing fern, much used for wicker chairs, etc. (PMP: *qaRsam)

hin-duasoul (Sasahara speech); twin (PMP: *duha) *duSa

homaslip, cover, sheath; also mask under which an enchanted prince appears (PAN: *Rumaq)

Sangir (280 / 847)

huabə(in the Sangirese tidal calendar) time of the first and last quarter (of the moon); after haresəʔ the huabə begins, which is to say that the reef is no longer visible (PMP: *Ruab)

huaŋsubsidence of the ground, hole, pit (PWMP: *Ruqaŋ)

humbiasago palm (PMP: *Rumbia)

husuʔrib, skinny (so that the ribs are visible) (PAN: *Rusuk)

ipersonal article, marking personal names and kinship terms (PAN: *i₃)

i amaŋfather (PMP: *amá-ŋ) *amax

i anu-kumy friend (male or female) (PMP: *a-nu-ku) *-nu

iaŋto sit down (PWMP: *ian₂)

ia-pa-lakolet something go; be sent (PWMP: *pa-lakaw) *lakaw

i ka-duawe two (inclusive) (PWMP: *ka-duha) *duSa

i kiteʔwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

ikiʔtie, bind (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ilubecome poisonous (PWMP: *hilu)

inahĕʔred glow of evening, with reference both to the color and to the optical effect observed at the setting of the sun (PWMP: *inaR)

ina-ŋM (PMP: *iná-ŋ) *ina

ina-ŋ u limathumb (PMP: *ina ni lima) *ina

ina-ʔM (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

in-dalapeople from the interior (PAN: *daya)

indigeʔstride forward slowly and solemnly, with the legs moving and the upper torso motionless (PWMP: *izig)

inithis, these (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

Sangir (300 / 847)

intaŋgemstone (LOAN)

inuŋto drink (PMP: *inum)

iŋaʔwatch out, be careful (PMP: *iŋat)

ioquickly and willingly do something (PMP: *qio)

ipidream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

ipofeel, taste, have sexual desire (PPh: *hipuq)

iraŋlend, borrow (PWMP: *hinzam)

iroregret, deplore (PWMP: *iruq)

iruscoop up with a ladle or spoon (PMP: *qidu)

i saiwho? (PMP: *i-sai) *sai

i sai-saiwho? (plural) (PMP: *sai sai) *sai

i sai-sai-ŋeach one, everyone, whoever (PMP: *sai sai) *sai

isitooth (PWMP: *isi₁)

isi m-beŋaheʔmolar tooth (PAN: *beReqaŋ)

isumove up, push aside, budge; shoving motion (PMP: *isu₁)

ituŋblack (PMP: *qitem)

i-wilaŋmentioned; esteemed (PWMP: *i-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

ka- -aŋka-hebi—aŋ ‘overcome by darkness, benighted’ (cp. hebi ‘night’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

kabirito castrate (LOAN)

ka-ennuŋ-esixth (PWMP: *ka-enem) *enem

Sangir (320 / 847)

kaəŋfood (PAN: *kaen)

ka-epa-efourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kahakaʔcrab (PMP: *kaRakap)

kahaŋdry sago leaf (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

ka-hasuk-aŋappear in large quantities (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ka-hebiyesterday (cp. hebi ‘night’) (PAN: *ka-₁)

kaihileft (side) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kaka-Ɂolder brother or sister, used to call an older brother or sister, and as a term of respect for older people with whom one does not wish to use a personal name (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

ka-kalabəʔfan for fanning the fire (PWMP: *kayab)

ka-kalu-aŋyoung forest (PMP: *kahi-kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-laudəʔat sea (PWMP: *ka-lahud) *lahud

kaḷisusuwhirlpool, whirlwind; crown of the head where the hair whorls (PAN: *kali-)

kalutree; wood; stalk (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kalu-n dapuh-aŋwood used in cooking (lit. ‘kitchen-wood’) (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kanukufingernail (PMP: *k<an>uhkuh) *kuSkuS₁

kanumea tree belonging to the Anacardiaceae with black outer bark and yellow inner bast; the base is poisonous and so is not used in burning lime: Semecarpus heterophylla (PPH: *kanúmay)

ka-nutuŋa burning brand (PMP: *tutuŋ)

ka-pa-patehour of death (PMP: *pa-p-atay) *aCay

ka-piagoodness, agreeable circumstances, indirect expression for pregnancy (PMP: *pia₂)

Sangir (340 / 847)

ka-pira-nethe which (in number)? (PWMP: *ka-pija) *pijax

ka-ra-ratu-aŋtime or place of ascent to kingship (PMP: *datu)

ka-ratiŋ-aŋarrived at through, arrived at via (PWMP: *ka-dateŋ-an) *dateŋ

ka-rua-nesecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

karuane m-ahiday after tomorrow (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

ka-səllah-eŋethe greatest; God (PWMP: *selaR)

kasiŋspinning top; kind of top shell (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

ka-sio-neninth (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

kasorafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

k-atedie! (imperative) (PAN: *ka-aCay) *aCay

ka-təllu-aŋOrion’s belt (PWMP: *ka-telu-an) *telu

katiupaŋbee (PPH: *patiukan)

ka-walu-nethe eighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

ka-wantugəʔnobility, greatness (PPH: *bantug)

ka-wuhuʔdegree of stench (PAN: *buRuk)

ka-wuḷud-aŋmountainous area, land in the mountains (PPh: *ka-bulud-an) *buled₁

kawusəɁa spot that remains uncovered, where the covering doesn’t extend; hiatus, opening; insufficient, inadequate (PMP: *kabus₁)

kə<in>əbiʔwas tapped in this way (PMP: *kebit)

kəɁkabəɁa pit, a hollowing out (PPH: *kabkáb)

kəɁkadəɁpit, hole in the ground, in which for example one sets a housepost (PPH: *kadkad)

Sangir (360 / 847)

kəɁkasəɁprepare oneself quickly to go somewhere (PPH: *kaskas₂)

kəlluŋshield, used in various dances (PPH: *keluŋ₂)

kemmipurse the lips together (PMP: *kemi)

kəniŋshave off hair around ears and neck (PWMP: *keniŋ)

kəsihəʔviolent, blow its hardest (of the wind) (PAN: *keseR)

kətiŋtaut, to stretch til taut (PMP: *keteŋ)

kilaʔlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kimagiant clam, Tridacna gigas; two types: kima sasapuakeŋ (this one is easy to pry up), kima maŋəlliʔ (hard to pry from the stones it attaches to); the latter are used as pig troughs; also a covert term for vulva (PMP: *kima)

k<in>aəŋprey (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

kinaʔfish (gen.), flesh in general (PMP: *kenas)

kinaʔ t-in-apasmoked meat, smoked fish (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa

kiuʔup-and-down movement of sexual intercourse (PWMP: *kiut)

kokaseʔremove the bandages and wrappings of something (ROOT)

kotafortress; fort (LOAN)

-ku1sg possessive suffix: my, mine (PAN: *-ku)

kudidiŋhang around, loiter (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

kuhapukind of marine fish (PMP: *kuRapu)

kuhuŋpen, cage, animal enclosure (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

kuk-atebe dying (PMP: *atay) *aCay

k<um>aəŋto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

Sangir (380 / 847)

k<um>ahaŋdry, become shrivelled or withered (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

kumimoustache, frayed end of a rope, etc. (PMP: *kumi)

kuniʔa plant: Curcuma longa (PMP: *kunij)

kuniʔ kahəŋaŋthe true kuniɁ, used as a spice (PMP: *kunij)

kuraŋwant, shortage, shortcoming (LOAN)

kuriŋclay cooking pot (PWMP: *kurin)

kuriŋnative earthenware cooking pot (PMP: *kudin)

kuruword by which chickens are called (PMP: *kuru₁)

kusurub between the clenched fists (as in washing clothes) (PMP: *kusu₁)

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

la-asiʔthe thick, pointed dibble stick of heavy wood used to make holes for planting (PMP: *hasek₁)

laguway, manner; melody; manner of speaking, behaving (PWMP: *lagu)

la-huaw-əŋtidal state where there is neither ebb nor flow (PMP: *Ruab)

lamatiʔleech (PMP: *qala-matek) *-matek

lambideʔpart of the fishline made of two or three intertwined wires (ROOT)

lampastride or step over (PMP: *lampaq)

lanaoil (PMP: *laña)

laŋabeʔgaping; wailing (ROOT)

laŋoa fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋu(mentally) dull, far-away (in thought) (PAN: *laŋu)

Sangir (400 / 847)

laudəʔocean (PAN: *lahud)

laur-aŋthe wide sea, the high seas (PWMP: *lahud-an) *lahud

le-haŋapretty shell with horn-like projections and translucent rim (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

leheʔneck, throat (PAN: *liqeR)

lekabeʔpull off, take off (as a piece of paper that has been glued on to something) (PWMP: *lekab)

lelatusmallest kind of ant (PWMP: *lalatu₁)

lə-lawaspiderweb (PWMP: *la-lawaq) *lawaq₂

lennabeʔsound asleep (PWMP: *leñab)

lentuʔexplode, burst open with a bang, as chestnuts in hot ashes (ROOT)

lentuʔexplode, burst open with a bang (as chestnuts in hot ashes) (ROOT)

ləsianit (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

liaginger, used as a spice with food, and as an ingredient in most medicines, charms and spells, where it is chewed with sirih leaves and then sprayed from the mouth onto the afflicted part (PMP: *laqia)

liaŋcave, grotto, cavern, den, or small hole in the rock face of a cliff (PMP: *liaŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limasəʔthe water that enters a canoe through a leak in the hull (PMP: *limas)

limbuŋpiled up (of soil, etc.) (PMP: *limbun)

linduŋsheltered place, refuge (PAN: *liduŋ)

lintiʔspring, spring loose (ROOT)

linuhəʔearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

liŋkasəʔenergetic; a quick and strong man (NEAR)

Sangir (420 / 847)

liŋkaseʔenergetic; a quick and strong man (Also Mongondow likat 'quick, fast') (ROOT)

lipaŋcentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

liruŋa place on Salibabu, so called because of its sheltered location (PAN: *liduŋ)

lisuŋmortar (PWMP: *li(ŋ)suŋ)

luahəʔfree space (PMP: *luqaR)

l<um>ətubəʔform bubbles, as when boiling milk (PWMP: *letub)

lumuʔmoss that grows on tree trunks or stones (PMP: *lumut)

ma-agamareligious (LOAN)

ma-beséburst (PMP: *besiq)

ma-ghilashy, timorous; skittish (PMP: *gila)

ma-ghilatimorous, skittish (PWMP: *ma-gila) *gila

mah-anaʔget a child, receive a child (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

ma-hasuʔhundred (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

m-ahiCome! Come along! (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

m-ahi koCome here! (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

mahu-aŋiŋwindy (PMP: *haŋin)

mahun-sakiʔsickly (PMP: *sakit)

ma-husuʔbecome thinner and thinner, dwindle away (PWMP: *ma-Rusuk) *Rusuk

ma-ituŋblack (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

maka-alaʔable to reach or get (PPh: *maka-alap) *alap

Sangir (440 / 847)

ma-kaəŋeaten by accident; edible (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

maka-husuʔbe the cause of someone growing thinner (PPH: *maka-Rusuk) *Rusuk

maka-piato improve (PMP: *pia₂)

maka-ratiŋto reach (PWMP: *maka-dateŋ) *dateŋ

maka-wa-wutabecome blind (PPh: *maka-buta) *buCa

maka-wuk-aŋable to make drunk, intoxicating (PMP: *buhek₂) *buSek

ma-kəɁkabəɁbecome hollowed out, become a pit (after digging) (PPH: *kabkáb)

ma-kuraŋhave a deficiency, shortage (LOAN)

maḷaha-wuaʔbring compulsory tribute from the adjacent fields (of slaves) (PMP: *buat₁)

ma-lambawide (PMP: *labeR)

ma-laudəʔof the sea, marine (PWMP: *ma-lahud) *lahud

ma-ləbuhəʔturbid, muddy (PWMP: *lebuR)

ma-ləmmisəʔdrowned (PPH: *ma-lemes) *lemes

malum-bihasəʔfull and round, as good rice grains (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

ma-maŋuŋto erect (a house, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-baŋun) *baŋuN

ma-maŋuŋ saḷimbaŋoffer a ritual meal (PWMP: *maŋ-baŋun) *baŋuN

ma-masiʔdrive in a stake, implant (PAN: *pacek)

ma-ma-takuʔto frighten (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

ma-matekill (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

ma-meaashamed, shy (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

Sangir (460 / 847)

ma-mehato wring, press out; to milk (PWMP: *ma-meReq) *peReq

ma-mehaseʔto squeeze out (juice, etc.) (PWMP: *ma-meRes) *peRes

ma-mekiseʔtie into a bundle (PWMP: *maŋ-beRkes) *beRkes

ma-mesésplit open (PMP: *besiq)

ma-miaheʔbring to life (as a watch that has "died") (PPh: *maŋ-bihaR) *bihaR

ma-miasato accustom (LOAN)

ma-milaŋto name, mention the price, to price something (PWMP: *maŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

ma-mileto choose, select (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-miliŋturn over something that lies flat, turn the top side down or the bottom side up, but not of horizontal rotation (for this cf. bihu 'turn around in a left-to-right or right-to-left direction') (PMP: *biliŋ₁) *biliŋ

ma-miŋkuŋwork with an adze, to adze (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

ma-mituiŋthrow directly above (PAN: *bituqen)

ma-muaʔto sacrifice, offer up to the spirits, fulfill one's vow to the gods or spirits (PWMP: *buhat₁)

ma-muaʔpull a boat onto dry land, land a boat (PMP: *buhat₃)

ma-mukato open, open up (as a book, or a room or box that must be unlocked) (PWMP: *maŋ-buka) *buka

ma-munasəʔwipe off crumbs, dust, etc. (as from a table) (PMP: *punas)

ma-munito hide, conceal (something) (PWMP: *maŋ-buni) *buNi

ma-munuʔremove the outer husk from a coconut (PPh: *maŋ-bunut) *bunut₁

ma-muresicleanse, purify (LOAN)

ma-nahashape tree trunks into timbers or planks (by adzing) (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq₁

manahəmmaŋto provide (a canoe) with outriggers (PMP: *saRman)

Sangir (480 / 847)

manahim-buaseʔirritated or angry rejection of a proposal; declare that one wishes to know nothing about a matter (PWMP: *buas)

manakosteal (PWMP: *maŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

ma-nakuto ladle up, as water, or soup from a vat (PAN: *taku₂)

ma-nakubəʔto cover (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kub)

ma-naliwork with a measuring line, make a line by using a string that has been dipped in paint or coated with charcoal and snapping it down against the wood being marked (carpenter's term) (PWMP: *ma-nalih) *CaliS

ma-nampeto hang (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

ma-na-nahaadze (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq₁

ma-nandehəʔto place or put against something else, lean something on another (PMP: *sandiR)

ma-naputo sweep (PWMP: *ma-ñapu) *sapu

ma-naraŋbe accustomed (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

ma-nawuhəɁto strew, sow seeds (PWMP: *ma-nabuR) *saq(e)buR

ma-nawuhəɁto strew, sow seed (PMP: *sabuR)

ma-nəllutwist a third strand into a rope that already has two (PWMP: *ma-nelu) *telu

ma-nəmbahto make an offering (LOAN)

ma-nənsiŋto plug up (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

ma-nəpato chew, also used of premasticating food for small children that do not yet have teeth (PWMP: *ma-ñepaq) *sepaq

ma-nəpuʔshoot with a blowpipe (PWMP: *ma-ñeput) *seput

ma-nikatəʔto brush (PWMP: *sikat)

ma-nipiʔthin, flat, scarce, scanty (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-nipiʔto pinch (PWMP: *ma-ñipit) *sipit

Sangir (500 / 847)

man-iruscoop up with a ladle or spoon (PPh: *maŋ-qidus) *qidus

ma-niuʔto blow, blow out, blow away (PWMP: *maŋ-tiup) *tiup

ma-nuaŋsplit a sago trunk with a stick sharpened flat on one side at a single end (PWMP: *ma-ñuqan) *suqan

ma-nukaɁto measure, as the depth of water (PWMP: *ma-ñukat) *sukat Tamako

manu kaŋseagull (PMP: *kaŋ)

ma-numpaŋcatch a ride in someone else’s boat (PWMP: *tumpaŋ₂)

ma-nunoto melt (PPH: *túnaw)

ma-nunuscorch, singe; burn, pour hot water over a pig to facilitate scraping off the bristles (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

ma-nuŋegore with the horns (PPH: *suŋay)

ma-nuraliplay a flute (PWMP: *ma-nurali) *turali

ma-nuratəɁto write a letter (LOAN)

ma-nusuʔto prick, pierce, penetrate; to embroider, carry out embroidery (PWMP: *ma-ñuksuk) *suksuk

ma-nutuŋto burn (PMP: *tutuŋ)

manuʔbird (generic) (PMP: *manuk)

manuʔ u aluŋchicken (bird that lives under the house) (PMP: *manuk)

maŋa-agamacarry out religious works (LOAN)

maŋ-ahotake away from someone, rob (PWMP: *maŋ-qaRaw) *qaRaw

maŋ-akuadmit, confess; undertake something (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ma-ŋalabəʔto fan the fire (PWMP: *kayab)

maŋ-alaʔfetch, take; bite (of fish) (PWMP: *maŋ-alap) *alap

Sangir (520 / 847)

maŋ-ambiŋconceal something in the folds of the clothing (PWMP: *hambin)

maŋ-ampuŋpardon, forgive (PWMP: *maŋ-ampun) *ampun

maŋ-anaŋplait (baskets, etc., but not hair) (PWMP: *maŋ-añam) *añam

maŋ-anuverb which can be used as an indefinite substitute for any other verb (PWMP: *maŋ-anu) *-nu

maŋ-anuʔto hunt wild pigs with spear and dogs (PWMP: *maŋ-qanup) *qaNup

maŋa-ŋ-asiʔthe people who make the dibble holes for planting (they walk together while singing verses connected with the planting of the rice, followed by the women, who plant the seeds (PWMP: *maŋ-hasek₁) *hasek₁

maŋ-apuʔuse lime in the betel chew; burn lime (PWMP: *maŋ-qapuR) *qapuR

maŋ-asawhet, sharpen (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

maŋ-asiŋto salt (PWMP: *maŋ-qasin) *qasiN

maŋ-asiʔplant rice, more particularly the first step in the process: dibble holes in the ground (PWMP: *maŋ-hasek₁) *hasek₁

ma-ŋasoto lay down rafters (in house construction); extend at an oblique angle into the river (of a fishline) (PMP: *kasaw₁)

maŋ-ataseʔraise oneself up (PWMP: *maŋ-atas) *aCas

maŋ-atuʔcover with thatch, put on a roof (PWMP: *maŋ-qatep) *qatep

ma-ŋəbiʔtap someone to privately get his attention, give a sign to someone in order to say or give something (PMP: *kebit)

maŋ-edaŋborrow from, lend to (of objects that must themselves be returned) (PPh: *maŋ-hedam) *Sezam

ma-ŋəduʔto pinch with the fingertips and nails (PWMP: *ma-ŋezut) *kezut

ma-ŋəhudəʔscrape off, scrape out (PWMP: *kerud)

ma-ŋəɁkabəɁgo into the depths (of a fish that dives, etc. (PPH: *kabkáb)

maŋ-elluŋseek shelter in the shade (PWMP: *heluŋ)

maŋ-embolay on top (PWMP: *embaw)

Sangir (540 / 847)

maŋ-emmuŋsave up, heap together, gather, collect; stay together, keep company (PWMP: *maŋ-emuŋ) *emuŋ

maŋ-ennathink (PPh: *henaq)

maŋ-enneuse sand, put sand in addition to (PWMP: *maŋ-qenay) *qenay

maŋ-etiway of fishing with a line (after letting out the line, it is reeled back in) (PMP: *qeti₂)

maŋ-etuʔto break wind (PWMP: *maŋ-qetut) *qetut

maŋ-ikiʔbind, tie up (PWMP: *maŋ-hiket) *Siket

maŋ-inumto drink (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

maŋ-ulerestore, repair (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁ Siau

maŋ-ulingto steer (PWMP: *maŋ-qulin) *qulin

ma-ŋumicut off the frayed end of a rope (PMP: *kumi)

maŋ-unideʔpack something completely in (to protect or conceal it), so that the object in question becomes, so to speak, the pith of the packet (PPh: *maŋ-qunej) *qunej

ma-ŋuraŋto reduce, diminish (LOAN)

ma-ŋusurub between the clenched fists, as in washing clothes (PMP: *kusu₁)

maŋ-utaŋincur a debt (PWMP: *maŋ-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

ma-paiʔbitter; sour (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

mapa-ka-saḷato condemn, put in the wrong (PPH: *mapa-salaq) *salaq₁

ma-paka-takuʔto frighten, incite fear (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

ma-paka-wantugəʔto glorify (PPH: *bantug)

mapa-sususuck at the breast, give the breast (PPH: *mapa-susu) *susu₁

ma-piagood (PMP: *ma-pia) *pia₂

Sangir (560 / 847)

ma-pipipressed flat (PWMP: *pipiq)

ma-puloten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq

ma-pulo pituseventeen (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ma-raufar, distant, remote (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

ma-sakiʔbe or become sick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-saŋiʔtearful, crying easily (PMP: *ma-taŋis) *Caŋis

ma-sarehəʔset against, leaning on (PMP: *sandiR)

ma-sasaʔripe, become ripe (PWMP: *ma-tasak) *tasak

ma-sawuhəɁstrewn, scattered around (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

ma-sawuhəɁstrewn, scattered about (PMP: *sabuR)

ma-sekudeʔvery narrow (PWMP: *sekud)

ma-səllahəɁbig (mostly figurative) (PWMP: *ma-selaR) *selaR

ma-supiʔnarrow; pressed in (because there are too many things or people crowding against one another); always grumbling (PWMP: *supit)

ma-susuʔprick or pierce oneself (PWMP: *ma-suksuk) *suksuk

mataeye; counting classifier used in counting snares and fishhooks (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-takuʔto fear, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

mata ma-ləbuhəʔdim or cloudy vision (as in old age) (PWMP: *lebuR)

mata mituŋkind of shellfish (‘black eye’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-m puheoperculum of some shells (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-n somamesh of a net (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Sangir (580 / 847)

mata-ŋ-əllosun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata-ŋ ikaŋkind of toxic toadstool (PMP: *mata nu hikan) *maCa

mata-ŋ lutaŋtouch-hole (as of a cannon; ‘eye of a gun’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tiaŋpregnant (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

ma-tunomeltable, able to be melted (PPH: *túnaw)

ma-waehəʔto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

ma-wantugəʔgrand, noble, majestic; proud (PPH: *bantug)

ma-wehaʔheavy (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

ma-weŋifragrant (PMP: *beŋi)

ma-wiasaaccustomed (LOAN)

ma-winasabe lost, corrupted (LOAN)

ma-wuafilled with fruit (PMP: *ma-buaq) *buaq

ma-wuhuʔbecome smelly (PMP: *ma-buRuk) *buRuk

ma-wukaopen (PMP: *buka)

ma-wukuknotty, full of knots (PPh: *ma-buku) *buku

ma-wuluŋhave fibers, fibrous (PWMP: *ma-bulu) *bulu₁

ma-wuntuglutted, bloated from overeating (PMP: *buntuʔ)

ma-wutabecome blind (PMP: *ma-buta) *buCa

meashame (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

me-bintiʔstrike one another with the legs or the fingers (one person sticks the finger upright and the other tries to knock it down); have a calf-kicking contest, a favorite game of the men in Sangir and Minahasa (PMP: *bintiq)

Sangir (600 / 847)

me-buabear fruit (PMP: *buaq)

me-bue-bueto swing (PMP: *buqay)

me-bumbuŋdensely piled up (of clouds in the sky, or on the top of a mountain); lie in a heap (of leaves, etc.) (PMP: *bunbun)

me-buraʔto blossom, to bloom (PWMP: *bujak)

me-butiget smallpox (PPh: *butí)

me-dauŋto get leaves (PMP: *dahun)

mə-d<um>atiŋstrive to reach (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ

mə-hakiʔbind together, attach to one another (PMP: *Rakit)

mə-hámisəʔto knead, massage, press with the fingers; wash sago flour (by squeezing in water) (PAN: *Rames)

meh-anaʔgive birth, bear a child (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mə-hiəʔthresh by trampling (PAN: *Riqek)

me-kahoto scratch an itch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

me-ka-kiuʔhave sexual intercourse (PWMP: *kiut)

meka-kum-buniplay the game of hide-and-seek (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

məka-ruato have two wives (PMP: *maka-duha) *duSa

məki-duabe uncertain (PMP: *duha) *duSa

mekun-bunihide oneself (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

me-lakubeʔoverhang and at the same time overshadow (as vines, forest) (PPH: *lakub)

me-laŋocome to a feast uninvited (PMP: *laŋaw)

mə-ləsiabegin to crack (as gently as the snapping of nits between the fingernails), of a tree that is being felled (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

Sangir (620 / 847)

mə-limasəʔbail out a canoe (PMP: *limas)

mə-linduŋto shelter, protect (PAN: *liduŋ)

mə-linuhəʔto shake, of the earth (PAN: *linuR)

mə-liruŋto shelter, protect, hold the hand over one’s head, overlook or cover for someone’s faults; to hide, conceal, keep a secret (PAN: *liduŋ)

mə-luato spit out, expel from the mouth (PMP: *luaq)

mə-luarəʔbuy out of slavery, to free (PMP: *luqar)

mə-mamato chew betel (PMP: *mamaq)

mən-dəkaʔto paste or glue something to a surface (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

mən-dəpato fathom, measure in fathoms (PPH: *man-depa) *depa

mə-ŋaugəʔto mix (as sand with lime in making mortar) (PWMP: *kahug)

met-atebe dying (PMP: *atay) *aCay

me-telluheʔlay an egg (PMP: *qateluR)

meʔ-dahato bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

meʔ-kaluget a stem (of plants) (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

məʔ-kasiŋto spin tops (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

məʔ-kaugəʔto mix together (PWMP: *kahug)

məʔ-kupiʔshut, closed, of the mouth; sit in silence with lips pressed tightly together (PAN: *kupit)

məʔ-tahoput in, stash away, hide (PWMP: *maR-taRuq) *taRuq

miaŋwind between north and north-northwest which brings much rain (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

mi-ipidream (PMP: *h<um>ipi) *Sipi

Sangir (640 / 847)

m-ilupoisonous (PWMP: *ma-hilu) *hilu

mi-ratiŋarrive, reach (PMP: *dateŋ)

m-ulereturn to a former state (as of health); ask back what has been borrowed (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

namuhdew (PAN: *ñamuR)

naraŋcustom, habit (PAN: *najam)

natoa tree with timber highly prized for the construction of boats (PMP: *ñatuq)

nawoto fall (PMP: *nabuq)

nəpofish the color of coral stone (two types); these move very little and slowly, and have dorsal spines that cause violent pain to one who is pricked by them (PMP: *nepuq)

ni-asiŋ-aŋsalted (PAN: *qasiN)

niawasoul; life (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

nipiʔthin, flat, scarce, scanty (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ni-tunube singed by someone (PMP: *t<in>unuh) *CuNuh

ni-wuk-aŋbecome drunk (PMP: *buhek₂) *buSek

nunuʔkind of waringin or banyan (PMP: *nunuk)

nusaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

ŋ<um>aŋaŋato gape, keep the mouth open (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋurayoung forest, low scrub (PMP: *ŋuda)

paharack used in drying copra, or in the kitchen above the hearth on which fish is smoked, etc. (PAN: *paRa₁)

pa-hakiʔbound together into one piece (PWMP: *paR-Rakit) *Rakit

pah-anaʔbear a child! (passive imper.) (PWMP: *paR-anak) *aNak

Sangir (660 / 847)

pahaʔforbidden (NOISE)

pahepaʔa shore tree, the mangrove: Rhizophora conjugata (PWMP: *paRepat)

pahiama, pohiamaa constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades (PWMP: *pariama)

pahighipit, well (PWMP: *paRigi)

palideʔget lost, be driven off course by storm or wind (PWMP: *palij)

palukind of adze used to smooth out the inner surface of a dugout canoe hull (PWMP: *palu₂)

paluan adze with short, curved handle and blade like a gouge; to work with such an instrument (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

paluŋumbrella, parasol (ROOT)

panideʔwing (PAN: *panij)

panidəʔwing (PMP: *panid) *paNid

panikiflying fox (PMP: *paniki)

paŋ-alaʔall sorts of fishing gear: nets, traps, lines, spears, etc. (PWMP: *paŋ-alap) *alap

paŋ-ampuŋ-aŋone who will be granted forgiveness; one who asks for forgiveness (PWMP: *paŋ-ampun-an) *ampun

paŋitree with edible fruits and leaves (PWMP: *paŋi)

papa-(in composition) armpit, esp. of animals (pigs, etc.); side under the armpit (PWMP: *apaqpaq)

pa-pasiʔstake, post (as a fencepost) (PAN: *pacek)

pa-patedeath (PMP: *pa-p-atay) *aCay

pa-pilesomething with which one sorts things out (PWMP: *pa-piliq) *piliq

pa-poroŋ t-in-alitwisted headcloth worn by men (PMP: *t<in>alih) *CaliS

pədisəʔhot sunshine (PMP: *hapejis)

Sangir (680 / 847)

pedugall; anger (PAN: *qapeju)

peduŋdark (of wrath) (ROOT)

pehato wring, squeeze out (PAN: *peReq)

peh-anaʔbear a child! (imper.) (PWMP: *paR-anak) *aNak

pehaseʔto squeeze out, as milk from grated coconut (PAN: *peRes)

peŋaforked branch (PMP: *peŋa)

péŋkoŋcurve (PWMP: *piŋkuŋ)

pə-pusoheart (from its resemblance to the inflorescence of the banana plant) (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pesaʔpress flat, pulverize; hatch from an egg (PMP: *pesak)

pesaʔcrush flat; smash to bits; hatch, of eggs (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

p<in>ile ~ ni-pilewas chosen (PWMP: *p<in>iliq) *piliq

piŋkuʔbend, curve (as in a road) (PMP: *pi(ŋ)kuk)

piŋkuʔbend, curve (as in a road) (ROOT)

pirahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pira-m-buahow many pieces? (PAN: *pijax)

pira-pirasome; several (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-m-buaseven pieces (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-m-puloseventy (PMP: *pitu ŋa puluq) *pitu

pueŋcause; origin (PMP: *puqun)

Sangir (700 / 847)

pueŋ u aŋiŋpoint of the compass (PMP: *haŋin)

pueŋ u kalubase of a tree (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

pueŋ u laŋi/pueŋ u laudehorizon, the place where sky and sea appear to touch, so that one can equally call it ‘beginning of the heavens’ or ‘beginning of the sea’ (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

puidəʔnavel; boss on a gong; center or middle of something (PMP: *pusej)

puikaŋturtle (PPH: *pawikan)

punedove (PAN: *punay)

puŋguʔtailless (as a chicken or brush turkey) (PWMP: *puŋguk)

pusothe inflorescence of the banana plant (PMP: *pusuq₁)

sahəmmaŋthe outriggers of a canoe; in general two outriggers are placed side-by-side (a more slender one on the outside, and a thicker one inside it) (PMP: *saRman)

sakeləɁheel of an animal; cockspur (PMP: *sakil)

sakiʔsickness (PMP: *sakit)

sakiʔ u wawiepilepsy (PWMP: *babuy₂)

sakiʔ wutismallpox (PPh: *butí)

saḷamistake, error, fault; flaw, failing; mistake for which a fine must be paid; punishment that one must undergo; sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

salapidəɁbraid of hair or of lontar leaves used as decoration on hats (PWMP: *salapid)

sambegood acquaintance who lives far off (PAN: *sabay₁)

sampiŋside whiskers (PWMP: *sampiŋ)

sandehəʔleaning on (PMP: *sandiR)

saŋiʔweeping, crying (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

sa-sampea hanger, thing used for hanging (PMP: *sampay₁) *sapay

Sangir (720 / 847)

sa-saŋit-aŋplace where one weeps (PMP: *taŋis-an) *Caŋis

sa-sapubroom (PMP: *sapu)

sa-sauʔa comb (PMP: *saut)

sa-saʔcooked; ripe (PAN: *qesak)

sasaʔripe (PMP: *tasak)

sa-səmbahan offering (LOAN)

sa-sənsiŋstopper, plug (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

sa-sukaɁmeasuring rod (PWMP: *sukat)

sa-susuʔbodkin, prickle, instrument used for piercing or penetrating (PWMP: *ma-ñuksuk) *suksuk

sauʔcomb (PMP: *saut)

se-hasuʔone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

səlaɁspace between two things (PWMP: *selat)

səllahəɁthe coarsest/thickest kind of thread in weaving (PWMP: *selaR)

selliheʔcurrent (ROOT)

sən-s<um>ikumeasurement from the tip of the middle finger to the opposite elbow (PAN: *s<um>iku) *sikux

seŋ-apahow much? (PMP: *apa₁)

seŋiʔhave a sharp odor, reek; touchy, quick-tempered (PMP: *seŋ(e)hit)

səpuʔblowgun, blowpipe (PWMP: *seput)

sesiʔwhat spatters away or sprays out (ROOT)

səʔsiləʔregret (PWMP: *selsel₂)

Sangir (740 / 847)

sie3sg. (PAN: *si ia₁) *ia₁

sikadeʔin cockfighting, to place two cocks together to see whether they have a strong desire to fight or not (PWMP: *sikaD)

sikatəʔa brush (PWMP: *sikat)

sikuelbow, corner (inner or outer) (PAN: *sikux)

silahəʔlontar palm: Corypha umbraculifera, a fan palm; the fronds are used for all kinds of plaiting (PPH: *silaR)

sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sipiʔpincers (of a lobster, crayfish, crab, etc.) (PAN: *sipit)

sipiʔthin (ROOT)

siruŋlarge leaf used as a rain shelter; to shelter (PWMP: *siduŋ)

suaŋa stick sharpened flat on one side at a single end and used as a wedge and lever in splitting open sago trees (PMP: *suqan)

suhudəɁto push (PPH: *suRud)

suluʔtorch (PMP: *suluq)

s<um>aŋiʔto weep, to cry (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

sumbaŋcommit incest (PWMP: *sumbaŋ)

s<um>usuto suck at the breast (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

suŋehorn of an animal (PPH: *suŋay)

suratəɁa letter (LOAN)

susufemale breast; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

tano, not (PMP: *taq₃)

tabakotobacco (LOAN)

Sangir (760 / 847)

tah-anaʔto rear, care for a child (PPH: *taR-anak) *aNak

tahitirain (PPH: *taRihtih)

tahuŋindigo, Indigofera tinctoria, used as a dyestuff (PMP: *taRum)

taidregs, filth; feces; sediment (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai lalarəʔspecks of dirt on the laundry (PMP: *taqi nu lalej) *Caqi

takotheft (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

takut-aŋtimid, frightened (said, for example, of a child, and thus not a scornful term) (PWMP: *takut-an) *takut

takuʔfear, dread (PAN: *takut)

talaŋkind of fish; when smoked it can be kept for a long time (PWMP: *talaŋ-talaŋ)

talen-duhiremove bones from a fish (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

t<al>intisəʔdrip down (of tears, rain, etc.) (PMP: *titis)

tali-talikind of edible sea plant (PWMP: *tali tali)

tampuŋgather, collect, assemble (PMP: *ta(m)pun)

tampuŋgather, collect, assemble ( < *-puŋ₁?) (ROOT)

tanaŋoa small, malodorous grasshopper that damages the young rice plants: Stenocoris varicordia (PWMP: *tanaŋaw)

tanudəʔto guard, protect, keep watch over; look after, take care of (PPH: *tánud)

taŋabeʔwide open (of a large pair of scissors, a wide hole, a gaping wound, etc.) (ROOT)

taŋihikind of fish, the large growth stage of the pangaluang (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tapato smoke, prepare by smoking (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

ta-takuladle, scoop (PAN: *taku₂)

Sangir (780 / 847)

ta-taḷicarpenter's rope used to snap down to make a line (PMP: *ta-talih) *CaliS

tata-ʔuncle (PAN: *tata₁)

ta-təllu bauʔthree pieces (of round things) (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

ta-tunuthe instrument or means (hot water, etc.) by which something is scorched or singed (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

ta-tutubeʔlid, cover (PMP: *tutub)

tau kutudwarf (‘louse person’) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

tau ma-laudəʔnavigator (PWMP: *ma-lahud) *lahud

taumataperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taumata ma-wuk-aŋa drunken man (PMP: *ma-buhek₁) *buSek

taumata wuk-an-eŋdrunkard, drunken person (PMP: *buhek₂) *buSek

tau n-atedead person (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

tehikind of small fish (= Malay ikan lompa) (PMP: *teRi)

təkiŋstaff, pole (PMP: *teken)

təlluthree (PAN: *telu)

telluheʔegg (PMP: *qateluR)

telluheʔegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

tiaŋbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tilandaŋnaked (PWMP: *tilanzaŋ)

tim-bellaŋkind of light bamboo used to make bahundake (a delicacy made of rice, coconut milk, herbs and bits of fish) (PMP: *belaŋ₁)

timbulto appear; rise to the top (PWMP: *timbul)

Sangir (800 / 847)

timuhəʔsouth (PMP: *timuR)

tiuʔblow, blow out, blow away (PMP: *tiup)

t-uaḷiyounger sibling (PMP: *ta-huaji) *Suaji

tueoyster (PMP: *tuay)

tuhaŋolder brother or sister (PMP: *tuRaŋ)

tuheʔstring things together (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

tuhuŋthe consequence of something (as a bad deed), the result of something (as a curse) (PMP: *tuRun₁)

tuileʔa prop; to prop (PWMP: *tuil)

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t-um-iuʔto blow, of the wind (PMP: *h<um>eyup) *Seyup

t<um>uadəʔtake the position of someone who stoops to pick up something lying on the ground without bending the knees (PWMP: *tuad)

t<um>uroto drip, as water from a leaking roof (PPh: *t<um>uduq) *tuduq

t<um>uwoto grow (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

tunethorn, splinter (in flesh) (PPH: *tunay₁)

tuntuŋsound of a type of large drum (PAN: *CuŋCuŋ)

tunuscorch, singe (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

turaliplay a flute (PWMP: *turali)

turoa leak in the roof (PAN: *tuduq)

tuwakind of poisonous plant in two varieties; the ripe fruits, like those of the lawuo (Milettia servicea) are used to stun fish; the red variety is stronger than the white (PAN: *tuba)

tuwoyoung, still unfurled palm leaves; to grow (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

Sangir (820 / 847)

tuwusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

u2sg. possessive pronoun (PMP: *huʔu) *Suʔu

ugenitive particle (PWMP: *u₁) *u

uerattan (PAN: *quay)

ue naŋarattan sp. (PMP: *naŋa₂)

uhaseʔwash off, wash (body parts, dishes, but not clothes) (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

uhaʔblood vein, vessel; muscle (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uhiseʔwhite (PPh: *quRis)

ukureʔmeasure (LOAN)

ulaheʔkind of snake, the egg-thief (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

uḷethat which one receives; that which one earns (PWMP: *uliq₂)

ulideʔworm, maggot, caterpillar (PMP: *qulej)

uliŋrudder (PMP: *qulin)

uliŋrudder (PMP: *quliŋ)

uḷuinterior country; higher, further upstream (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

uluheʔlet down, lower (objects by rope), pay out (fish line); sometimes also: launch a boat (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

unideʔpith, heart, core; the pith of plants (PMP: *qunej)

untuŋgain, profit, fortune, luck (LOAN)

uŋkabtake everything out (in searching for something) (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

upaseʔa sickness causing splitting headaches (PMP: *upas)

Sangir (840 / 847)

uraŋshrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

urocharm, spell (against thieves of fruit in plantations) (PMP: *uduq₂)

utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utudeʔkind of deep-sea fish caught by line (PMP: *qutud)

waimango tree and fruit (PMP: *wai)

walueight (PAN: *walu)

waseiron (PWMP: *wasay)

Sangir (Siau) (2) WMP [sxn] (Sangir) Indonesia (Sulawesi)

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

maŋ-ulerestore, repair (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

Sangir (Tamako) (2) WMP [sxn] (Sangir) Indonesia (Sulawesi)

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

ma-nukaɁto measure, as the depth of water (PWMP: *ma-ñukat) *sukat

621. Santa Ana (6) OC [stn] (Owa) Solomon Islands

fukibanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

γa-γaroto scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

γarato bite (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

kamʷa-kamʷasandpaper cabbage: Ficus wassa (POC: *kamwa-kamwa)

nunu-naspirit (living) (POC: *qanunu)

rafuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

622. Saparua (1) CMP [spr] Indonesia (Maluku)

bulakwanegold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

Sarangani Bilaan (25) WMP. see: Blaan (Sarangani)

Sarangani Manobo (38) WMP. see: Manobo (Sarangani)

Sarawak Malay (10) WMP. see: Malay (Sarawak)

623. Sasak (1182) WMP (Goris 1938) [sas] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) (dialects: Sewela 4)

-apronominal suffix marking the object in imperatives (PAN: *-a₁)

abaŋ-andrain-pipe from roof, aqueduct (PWMP: *abaŋ₂)

abutpull out (as plants from the ground); draw in, as a kite (PMP: *abut)

adeŋcharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

adi-ʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

adiʔ-adiʔafterbirth, placenta (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

aducompete for something, as in cockfights or races (PWMP: *adu)

agamareligion (LOAN)

akah, akarroot (PMP: *wakaR)

akaltrick, ruse, deceit (LOAN)

akarroot (PMP: *akaR)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

alaŋ-anobstacle, hindrance (PWMP: *qalaŋ)

alirdecant, pour out (PMP: *qaliR)

aluŋscreened, shaded (PMP: *aluŋ)

amalwork, deed, act (in a theological sense) (LOAN)

amaŋmarine eel (PMP: *haRemaŋ)

amaʔfather (PMP: *ama-q) *amax

ambararomatic oil; ambergris (LOAN)

ambé-nside-wings of a roof; side-gallery of a house (PWMP: *ambiq)

Sasak (20 / 1182)

amesknead, press (PAN: *Rames)

ampasresidue of sugarcane, bagasse (LOAN)

ampinroll of sirih leaves (PWMP: *ampin)

amplasa plant with leaves used as sandpaper: Tetracera assa (PWMP: *qampelas)

amplasa plant the leaves of which are used as sandpaper: Tetracera assa (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

ampunpardon, forgiveness (PMP: *ampun)

ampun-anpardon, forgiveness (PWMP: *ampun-an) *ampun

ampuŋ ampuŋkind of floating acquatic plant (PMP: *apuŋ apuŋ) *apuŋ

amukattack without warning, murder (PMP: *hamuk)

anakchild (in contrast with adults); young of animals; sometimes child in general; smaller part of something larger, of small for its kind (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak akonadopted child who does not have the right to succession (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak-aŋgive birth; lend money to earn interest (PWMP: *anak-an) *aNak

anak batugravel (PMP: *anak i batu) *aNak

anak imalittle finger (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

anak iwoʔorphan (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak jentikclitoris (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak liruvula (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak lisuŋrice pestle (PMP: *anak i lesuŋ) *aNak

anak ora oraillegitimate child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak perasadopted child who has the right to succession (PMP: *anak) *aNak

Sasak (40 / 1182)

anak (r)indutwin (PMP: *anak apij) *aNak

ancakwalk lamely, of a horse (ROOT)

aniayaevil, anger, injustice (LOAN)

anti(h)wait for, await, expect, anticipate (NOISE)

antiŋ-antiŋearring (LOAN)

antuspirit, ghost (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

a-nuʔindefinite pronoun (something); used to form possessive pronouns; used also for the genitalia; do something with someone (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

anuʔ dayours (PMP: *a-nu-mu) *-nu

anuʔ kumine (PMP: *a-nu-ku) *-nu

anuʔ niahis/hers (PMP: *a-nu-ni a) *-nu

aŋettepid, lukewarm; make warm, warm up (NOISE)

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋin pusutwhirlwind (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋkatlift up, raise; appoint to a position (by those higher up) (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋsagoose (LOAN)

aŋsanaa tree: Terminalia tomentosa, from which a beautiful marbled wood is obtained for kris sheaths; the flowers are golden yellow (LOAN)

aŋsaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

aŋusburned (in cooking) (PMP: *haŋus₂)

aoʔyes (PAN: *auʔ)

apawhat? Used as an answer from one of higher to one of lower status, as from father to son: 'yes' (PMP: *apa₁)

Sasak (60 / 1182)

apa apasomething (PMP: *apa apa) *apa₁

apahanything used to sit on (mat, cushion, etc.) (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

apalmemorize, recite from memory (LOAN)

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

api apiplant with dark red flowers and finger-shaped leaves (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

apitsqueezed in; squeeze in, as the attendants flanking the groom at a wedding (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

apitsqueezed in (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

apitpart of the loom (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

apit baŋkethe middle child, if the eldest and youngest are already deceased (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

apit baŋkethe middle child (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

apurlime, mortar, plaster (PAN: *qapuR)

arakind of fig tree (PMP: *qaRaʔ)

arakarrack. On Lombok four kinds are known: a. beras (from rice), a. duntal (from lontar palm), a. nao (from sugar palm), a n-iur (from coconut palm) (LOAN)

arakdistilled alcoholic beverage. On Lombok four kinds are known: arak beras (of rice), arak duntal (of lontar palm sap), arak nao (of sugar palm sap), and arak n-iur (coconut toddy) (LOAN)

aranname (PMP: *ajan)

araʔbe, exist, be born (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

aremthink, understand (PMP: *handem)

artapossessions, wealth (LOAN)

aruscurrent in the sea (PMP: *qaRus)

asalorigin; provided that (LOAN)

Sasak (80 / 1182)

asarafternoon; afternoon prayer (LOAN)

asaʔwhetstone (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asemtree with sour fruit (not the Javanese asem) (PWMP: *qalesem)

asem-asemkind of three-leafed clover (PWMP: *qalesem qalesem) *qalesem

asinsalty, brackish (PAN: *qasiN)

astalower arm; ell (LOAN)

atashigh; above (PMP: *atas) *aCas

atawaor (LOAN)

ateliver; in many metaphorical expressions the equivalent of 'heart' in Germanic languages; inside, the heart of palms, etc. (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ateplant with pretty leaves but no flowers (Graptophyllum pitum Griff.) used to make hedges (PWMP: *qatay qatay₂)

ate-atepith of bamboo (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ateproof; provide with a roof (PMP: *qatep)

aterbring food to someone who is working outside of the house (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

au-auash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

aurkind of bamboo (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

austhirsty (LOAN)

austhirsty (NOISE)

awakbody (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awaŋ-awaŋatmosphere (PMP: *awaŋ)

awuk-awukash (PMP: *habuk)

Sasak (100 / 1182)

awuk-awukash (PMP: *qabuk)

awun-awunfog, mist (PWMP: *ambun)

ayaŋpretty, beautiful (esp. of women) (NOISE)

ayatthreaten (PWMP: *ayat)

ayugayoke used with plow animals (LOAN)

babakbark of a tree; scraped, flayed (skin) (PMP: *bakbak₁)

badakrhinoceros (LOAN)

badaʔsay, mention, report; advise (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bagipart, portion, share (PMP: *baqagi)

bagi-anshare; inheritance (PMP: *baqagi)

bagua tree the fruits and cooked leaves of which are eaten: Gnetum gnemon (PWMP: *baguh)

bagusgood, beautiful, agreeable, pleasant (LOAN)

bakotree that yields a good timber (PWMP: *bakehaw)

bakoŋCrinum asiaticum, a plant with large white blossoms the petals of which are used as a standard of comparison for beautiful fingers (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

balaŋgrasshopper (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

balarweal (PMP: *balar)

balehouse (PMP: *balay)

baled-anborder, boundary (PWMP: *balej)

balesanswer; avenge (PAN: *bales₁)

balikturn around; resist; capsized (of a boat) (PMP: *balik₂)

Sasak (120 / 1182)

balogreat grandparent, great grandchild (LeBar 1972) (NOISE)

banara tuberous plant related to Dioscorea hirsuta: Smilax zeylanica (PMP: *banaR₁) *baNaR

banirpart of wood, the youngest annual tree ring (NOISE)

baŋerstale smell, stench (of water) (PMP: *baŋ(e)qeR₂) *baŋ(e)qeR

baŋgádisobedient or heedless toward God or parents (LOAN)

baŋke ~ bə-baŋkecorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋunwake up, get up (from bed) (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

baokbeard (PWMP: *bauk)

barapen, stable (PMP: *baRa₂)

barapen, stable (PMP: *bara₁)

baraŋanrat-weed (PWMP: *baraŋan₃)

baratstorm; to storm (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

baraʔswollen (PAN: *baReq)

baretwest (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

bariold food that has begun to stink (PMP: *baRiw)

barisrow, rank; kind of war dance (LOAN)

barunew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

barusscraped (of the skin) (PWMP: *baRus)

baruʔrecently, just past (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

basaʔwet (PMP: *baseq)

Sasak (140 / 1182)

bataŋbody; corpse; bə-bataŋ tree trunk (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batesborder, limit (PMP: *bates)

baṭikbatik cloth (PWMP: *batik₁)

bawipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bayahto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

bayah-aŋpay for someone else (PMP: *bayaD)

béacompensation (LOAN)

bébékduck (LOAN)

bébék jawaManila duck (LOAN)

bebelstupid (PMP: *belbel₁)

be-beli-anwhat one has bought, purchases (PWMP: *beli-an) *beli

be-benesbrushwood, bushes, undergrowth; thick, long, luxurious (of hair) (PWMP: *benes)

bebeŋdumb, mute (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

bebetwaistcloth for men, wrapped around the body between the chest and abdomen (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

be-betukthe bamboo arch from which a noose trap hangs (with a kernel of corn in it) to catch doves (PMP: *bentuk)

be-bisaall poisonous things (LOAN)

be-buaʔbear fruit (PMP: *buaq)

be-buntermoon (PMP: *bunteR)

be-dalemgo inside (PMP: *dalem)

be-daratto land, come ashore (PMP: *daRat)

Sasak (160 / 1182)

be-daunhave leaves (PMP: *dahun)

bedilweapon (LOAN)

be-duawaver, hesitate (PMP: *duha) *duSa

bedukmosque drum (LOAN)

be-durithorny (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

bə-gambirto use gambier (in the betel chew) (LOAN)

bə-gasiŋto spin tops (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

bə-gigitto chatter, of the teeth (PWMP: *gitgit)

bə-giliŋturn (oneself) around (PMP: *giliŋ)

begonoise, din, racket, commotion (PWMP: *begaw)

bə-guntiŋto cut with scissors (LOAN)

bə-jaoʔmake a distant trip (PMP: *zauq)

bə-jaoʔ-anbe distantly related to one another (PMP: *zauq)

bə-julaʔto spit (PWMP: *zulaq)

bə-junjuŋhold something above one’s head (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

bekaʔopen, gaping, of a wound (PMP: *bekaq)

be-ke-duaʔdo something together with someone else (usually refers to eating) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

bekelprovisions (anything which one may need), food for a journey (PWMP: *bekel)

bə-kumpulto gather (PWMP: *kumpul)

belahethat which is offered in sacrifice for another; (of a girl) to marry on account of already being pregnant (LOAN)

Sasak (180 / 1182)

belaŋspotted, having two colors (of any animal) (PMP: *belaŋ₂)

belatfish corral made in the sea (PWMP: *bakelad)

belatfish corral made in the sea (PMP: *belat₂)

belatukwoodpecker (PWMP: *belatuk)

be-layarto sail (PAN: *layaR)

belaʔbroken; to break, cleave (as a coconut that is split in two) (PAN: *belaq)

belibuy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

belidapart of the weaver's loom (PMP: *balija) *baRija

be-lindur-anto shake (PWMP: *lindur)

be-lumutmossy (PMP: *lumut)

be-nanaʔto fester, suppurate (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

benaŋyarn, thread (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benaŋ gunthick thread used in weaving (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benardaylight (PWMP: *benaR)

benesgrow densely (as trees) (PWMP: *benes)

bentaspress through something (as underbrush, or a crowd) (PMP: *bentas)

beŋaʔamazed (PMP: *beŋaq)

beŋesstink badly (NOISE)

beŋkudua tree: Morinda citrifolia; the fruits are used in rujak (kind of fruit salad), and the bark for a red dye (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

bə-payuŋto use a parasol or umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

Sasak (200 / 1182)

bər-akalclever, smart, ingenious (LOAN)

ber-anakgive birth, bear a child (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

berashusked rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

ber-atasgo upward (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ber-empatthe four of them (PWMP: *maR-epat) *Sepat

ber-eŋgemwith clenched fist (PMP: *eŋgem)

berkatblessing, favor, gift (LOAN)

bersipure, clean (LOAN)

ber-undak-undakwith many steps (PWMP: *undak-undak) *qundak

ber-unimake a sound (PMP: *huni) *Suni

bə-salinto change clothes (PWMP: *salin)

be-se-dakepwith arms crossed over the chest (PAN: *dakep)

be-selito sprout anew (tree, large branch) (PWMP: *seli₂)

bə-sə-mamamarried (of a woman) (PMP: *mama) *mamah

besiiron (LOAN)

besi beranimagnetic iron (LOAN)

bə-silasit with the legs crossed (LOAN)

besuhsatisfied from having eaten enough, satiated (PAN: *besuR)

bə-sumpahto swear an oath, lay down an oath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

betahbold, mischievous; able to bear or endure (PWMP: *betaq₁)

Sasak (220 / 1182)

bə-tajifitted with a metal cockspur (LOAN)

bə -taun-anlong preserved (of fruits) (PMP: *taqun)

betekarm (PWMP: *beteken)

bə-tərusthen, afterwards (PWMP: *terus)

bə-tetewalk over a bridge (PMP: *taytay)

be-tianpregnant (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

be-timuʔtravel east (PMP: *timuR)

betiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

biahintestinal worm (PMP: *biaR₁)

bibirlip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibittremble, shake (from fear or impatience) (NOISE)

bidaŋhalf (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

biji matapupil of the eye (LOAN)

bilatree with edible fruit: Feronia elephantum corr. (PMP: *bila₁)

bilalmuezzin, caller to prayer (LOAN)

bilaŋeach, every (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilaŋ-anthe quantity of money that a man pays to the family of his bride (PWMP: *bilaŋ-an) *bilaŋ

bilaʔa half tree trunk; each half of something divided (PWMP: *bilaq)

bilinleave, desert, forsake; specifically, be left in the lurch by one's fiancee (PWMP: *bilin)

bilukmake an about turn (as an animal in plowing a field) (PMP: *biluk)

Sasak (240 / 1182)

binéʔseed, seedling (generally the name of the plant must be added); specifically seed-rice (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bintaŋstar (LOAN)

bintaŋ empeta certain weaving pattern (LOAN)

bintéʔget tangled up (PMP: *bintiq)

biŋaŋharelip (ROOT)

biŋerdeafened by noise (ROOT)

biŋkalclod or lump (of earth, sugar) (PMP: *biŋkal)

biolaharmonica (LOAN)

biraslong, narrow scratch, as from a thorn (PMP: *biras₁)

biraʔtype of taro which grows in dry places and causes itching: Alocasia indica (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bireŋblack (PMP: *biReŋ)

bireŋ maraʔ besipitch-black (PMP: *biReŋ)

birisslice; to slice, cut into strips (PWMP: *biris)

birisslice (ROOT)

birublue (LOAN)

bisapoisonous (LOAN)

b-isi, ber-isicontain (PAN: *isiʔ)

bitulpimple resulting from an insect bite (PWMP: *bitul)

bointerjection used to call dogs (NOISE)

bokorcopper bowl (LOAN)

Sasak (260 / 1182)

bomboŋcoconut frond; young edible leaves (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₃)

botesbroken; piece (of rope) (ROOT)

boyawatch a performance (PWMP: *buya)

boyotancestor (apparently in the sixth or seventh generation) (LOAN)

buaŋthrow away; expel from the family, disinherit; banish from the village (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buassavage, wild, of people and animals (PWMP: *buas)

buattransport, convey (PMP: *buhat₃)

buat-anfreight, cargo (including passengers) (PMP: *buhat-an₁) *buhat₃

buaʔfruit (followed by the name of specific kinds); (specifically) betel-nut (PMP: *buaq)

buaʔsong (NOISE)

buaʔ kelambiknot; button (PMP: *buaq)

buaʔ koldiAdam's apple (PMP: *buaq)

buaʔ lakaʔsong, love song (PMP: *buaq)

buaʔ lakaʔsong, love song (NOISE)

buaʔ lawassong, such as is sung in the paddy fields (PMP: *buaq)

buaʔ lawassong, as is sung in the rice paddies (NOISE)

buaʔ tomboŋhemorrhoids (PMP: *buaq)

bubuksmall beetle in wood or maize; other beetles in dry material; ground coffee (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bubuŋthe covering (sword grass, coconut leaves, tin) of the ridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

buburporridge, especially rice porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

Sasak (280 / 1182)

bubutquail; the usual sort is ash-gray in color (PWMP: *butbut₁) *butbut

budi beriŋinname of a holy place in Sembalun (LOAN)

bugisBuginese; also Makasarese (LOAN)

buiprisoner (LOAN)

bujaŋunmarried (of men and women) (LOAN)

bukabreak the (Ramadan) fast in the evening by eating a meal after sunset (PMP: *buka)

bukaʔto open (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

bukbukhit, beat, strike (PMP: *bukbuk₂)

bukunode, joint (of cane-like grasses); knuckle, joint (e.g. of fingers) (PMP: *buku)

bukusto wrap, bundle (PWMP: *buŋkus)

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaŋbind a metal spur to the foot of a fighting cock (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

buletspherical, cylindrical (PWMP: *buled₂)

buluhair (including head hair), fleece, feathers (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu-anhairy; a hairy fruit, the rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum (PWMP: *bulu-an) *bulu₁

bulu iduŋhair in the nostrils (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu léséʔpubic hair (male) (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

bulu otakhead hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu panasthe hair clippings of a baby (PMP: *bulu₁)

Sasak (300 / 1182)

bulu pépéʔ, bulu telépubic hair (female) (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu tanaʔdirty white (coloration in horses) (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu teluhaving three colors (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu uluhead hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

bumbaŋkind of bamboo (Old Sasak) (NOISE)

bumbuŋbamboo container, 1) for water, 2) to collect the sap when tapping for palm wine (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bunciŋmarry (LOAN)

bunciŋmarry (NOISE)

bunterround, circular (as a wheel or a plate) (PMP: *bunteR)

buntilwrap small objects in one's sarong (PWMP: *buntil)

buntustopped, plugged up, of anything that is tube-shaped (NOISE)

buntultie together in loops (as rice stems that are still uncut by evening) (NOISE)

bunutkind of Ficus sp. related to the waringin, but without aerial roots (PWMP: *bunut₂)

buŋacotton; cotton shrub (Gossypium species) (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋkardig something up, break off, clear away (PMP: *buŋkaR)

buŋkemrope that goes around the head of a horse; completely shut, without an opening (PWMP: *buŋkem)

buŋkulform a whole: classifier for houses, large fruits (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋkusa package; to pack, wrap (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋkutbent, crooked (PMP: *bukut)

buŋulkeep silent (PWMP: *buŋul)

Sasak (320 / 1182)

burikspeckled (of any animal) (PWMP: *burik)

burnea tree with exceptionally delicious fruits: Antidesma bunius (PWMP: *buRnay)

butablind in both eyes (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butaa monster that, in spite of its name "dark green" is entirely red, and has flaming red hair (LOAN)

butakbald, of a person's head (LOAN)

butesbroken, piece (of rope) (PWMP: *butes)

butihsmall pimple (PMP: *buteliR)

butih lepaŋwart (PMP: *buteliR)

buwufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

cakaŋwith fingers spread open (ROOT)

cemerfoul, impure; damp, moist; unsafe (because of sorcery) (LOAN)

ceŋaklook up (from one's work) (ROOT)

ciŋaŋharelip (PMP: *ciŋaŋ)

cupitnarrow (PWMP: *cupit)

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

dadapa species of shade tree (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dakidirty (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

dalemdepth, innermost part; deep, within (PMP: *dalem)

dampapalm, sole (PAN: *dapa)

dantukkick against with the foot (ROOT)

Sasak (340 / 1182)

dantukkick against with the foot (ROOT)

daŋdaŋpot for steaming rice (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

darayoung girl, unmarried woman (PMP: *daRa₂)

daratland, solid land, terra firma (PMP: *daRat)

dateŋcome, arrive; up to, until (PMP: *dateŋ)

datuprince (PMP: *datu)

daunleaf (PMP: *dahun)

də-darayoung girl, unmarried woman (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dedetclose together (PWMP: *detdet)

depafathom (PMP: *depa)

dilaʔto light up, illuminate (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dindiŋwall of woven bamboo (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

dindiŋ andoplanks covered with mats placed in a grave so that the earth will not fall on the corpse (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

diriʔself (LOAN)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dukepcatch, grasp with fingers or claws (ROOT)

durithorn (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

duyuŋdugong (or dolphin) (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

édahperiod during which a widow may not remarry (LOAN)

éjaspelling (LOAN)

Sasak (360 / 1182)

élapflame, light (PMP: *ilap₁)

emasgold (LOAN)

embelcool (NOISE)

embetblack cord around the middle of a newborn or a sick person (PWMP: *embej)

embetblack cord around the middle of a newborn or a sick person (PWMP: *embet)

embut-embutfontanel (PWMP: *embut-embut) *embut

empakcracks in the lips (from fever) (PWMP: *hepak)

empak-empakchannels or cracks in the ground (PWMP: *hepak)

empaŋnotched, chipped (of any cutting implement) (PMP: *epaŋ)

empasbroken off, crumbling (of a wall) (PWMP: *empas)

empatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

empat-empat-naall four (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

empeŋfor someone to obstruct the way (PMP: *empeŋ)

empeŋblock someone's way; obstruct (PMP: *qempeŋ)

empitburnt rice which adheres to the pot (PMP: *epit₁)

empiʔburnt rice which adheres to the pot (PMP: *epiq)

empokbang, detonation; pop, burst out, explode (PMP: *epuk)

empokburst, pop; burst out, explode (ROOT)

empok-empokpopped rice, used as an offering (PMP: *epuk)

emposto blow (NOISE)

Sasak (380 / 1182)

empugrandchild (PMP: *empu)

encéʔname for the Banjarese (LOAN)

endaŋto stop (of the rain) (PWMP: *endaŋ)

endaʔdon't! (vetative) (PMP: *edaʔ)

endetlie heavily on something, press down on something (PAN: *qedet)

enjekpress under, submerge (NOISE)

enjenpress or squeeze out (in defecation or childbirth) (PMP: *qezen)

enjepclose eyes; sleep (PWMP: *qezep)

entaschop through (forest, hedge) (PWMP: *etas)

entekknock, pound, beat (PWMP: *etek)

entekknock, pound (PMP: *qentek)

entekknock, pound (ROOT)

entelmake something full, stamp down (PMP: *etel)

entipburnt rice stuck to cooking pot (PWMP: *etip)

entutwind, flatus (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

entut-entuta certain plant with very stinky leaves (PWMP: *qetut qetut) *qetut

eŋgaʔmerely, only, just (PWMP: *eŋgaʔ)

eŋgemcarry in the closed hand (PMP: *eŋgem)

əŋ-gigitto bite (PWMP: *gitgit)

əŋ-giliŋturn (something) around (PWMP: *maŋ-giliŋ) *giliŋ

Sasak (400 / 1182)

eŋkak-eŋkakgasp for breath (PWMP: *eŋkak-eŋkak) *e(ŋ)kak

éŋkaŋsit or stand with legs wide apart (PWMP: *iŋkaŋ)

eŋkitsqueak, chirp; hiss (snake) (PMP: *ekit)

eŋkokretch, heave (PMP: *ekuk)

eŋkoŋcurved, wavy (of a kris) (ROOT)

eŋ-kurahow? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

eŋkussniff in or up (PWMP: *eŋkus)

gaduŋa tuber: Dioscorea hirsuta; the root is a narcotic (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

gambirgambier: Uncaria gambir Roxb. (LOAN)

gampuŋhang something up (PWMP: *ga(m)puŋ)

garaŋto fight (of dogs, crudely of people) (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

garitstriped (of animals) (PMP: *garit)

garokfiddle around with a stick in a hole (PMP: *gaRuk)

gasiŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gegershiver, tremble (PAN: *gerger₁)

gə-giliŋwheel (PMP: *giliŋ)

gələmdark; evening, night (PWMP: *gelem)

geliŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn. (PWMP: *galiŋgaŋ)

gelutwrestle (ROOT)

gemescruel (PWMP: *gemes₁)

Sasak (420 / 1182)

gemes(vulgar) want (PWMP: *gemes₂)

gənəpeven, of numbers; in order, “tallying” (in calculations) (PWMP: *genep)

gen pe-kurawhat would you like to do? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

gəramithe well-known native carp: Osphromenus olfax (LOAN)

gərəŋhave a deep or heavy voice (NEAR)

geretincision (PWMP: *geret₂)

gerusslip through somewhere (ROOT)

getaʔsap, gum, resin (PWMP: *geteq)

getokhit someone on the head (PWMP: *getuk)

gilacrazy, insane, specifically afflicted with homicidal delusions (PMP: *gila)

gilainsane, specifically obsessed with murderous inpulses (PMP: *gila)

giliŋturn something; ride over something (PMP: *giliŋ)

guamsprue (PMP: *guham) *guSam

gubekbeat rapidly on a drum (ROOT)

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

(h)asilyield, result (LOAN)

iparticle of past time (NOISE)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

iaexactly because; that's it precisely! (PAN: *qia)

iaŋ, saŋ-iaŋGod; divinity (PWMP: *qiaŋ)

Sasak (440 / 1182)

iaseggs of flies (PWMP: *ias₂)

iaʔthis (PMP: *ieq)

ibumother (LOAN)

ibusa tree from which the wood for making drums is obtained. The tree dies as soon as it bears fruit: Corypha gebanga (PWMP: *ibus)

idahe (PMP: *ida)

idam, iramfood cravings of pregnant women (PWMP: *qidam)

iduŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

idussnot (PMP: *idus)

ijukfibrous substance from the sugar palm (PWMP: *izuk)

ikelcurly (of the hair) (PWMP: *ikel)

iketbind with a rope (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ilaʔbashful, shy (PMP: *ilah)

ilaʔ-anfeel ashamed (PWMP: *ilah-an) *ilah

ilaʔ-ilaʔ-anshy by nature (PMP: *ilah)

imahand (cp. lima 'five') (PMP: *ima₁)

imbuʔincrease (PWMP: *imbuq)

impanfood, fodder; to feed (NOISE)

impanfood, fodder; to feed (NOISE)

impetlock, shut, close (PWMP: *hiqepet)

impetclose, shut (ROOT)

Sasak (460 / 1182)

impi, ipia dream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

imput-imputtail-bone (of animals) (PWMP: *imput)

inamother animal; brooding hen (PMP: *ina)

ina-ʔmother (of commoners) (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

inemto drink (PWMP: *inem)

inithis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

intespy on, stalk (PWMP: *hintay)

intipspy on, stalk (LOAN)

iŋetremember (PWMP: *iŋet)

iŋet-iŋetthink of it! (PWMP: *iŋat-iŋat) *iŋat

iŋgurrumble, roar (ROOT)

iŋkesfirm, well-bound, well-packed (of things) (PMP: *i(ŋ)kes)

ioŋcradle; to rock (PWMP: *iuŋ)

iparbrother-in-law, sister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipila tree, Intsia spp. The black wood is used for furniture (PMP: *qipil)

iputthe thick part of the tail (by the back) (PWMP: *imput)

ireŋblack (PWMP: *qiReŋ)

iriŋfollow (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

iriscut into strips or slices (PMP: *qiris)

iritpull, drag (PWMP: *irid₂)

Sasak (480 / 1182)

iroʔ, éroʔsad, saddening (PWMP: *iruq)

irupdrink noisily, slurp, sip (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

isepsuck (PMP: *qisep)

isicontents; flesh (of animals, fruits) (PAN: *isiʔ)

isi gigigums (PAN: *isiʔ)

isi-n balemembers of the household (PAN: *isiʔ)

isiʔto fill; to place food on a wooden dish in order to serve a meal (PAN: *isiʔ)

isokidneys (PWMP: *isaw)

ita1st person pronoun, now used for the singular as an impolite gesture, but still normally used for the plural (PAN: *ita₁)

i terbinyesterday (NOISE)

itikdrip (PWMP: *itik₁)

ituŋto count (PWMP: *qituŋ)

iwahold something in the lap (PMP: *iwa)

iwaʔlap (PMP: *iwaq)

jaitto sew (PMP: *zaqit)

jaoʔfar (PMP: *zauq)

jariŋnet (PMP: *zariŋ)

jarumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

je-jariŋkind of spider (PMP: *zariŋ)

jualto sell (LOAN)

Sasak (500 / 1182)

jual-angoods for sale (LOAN)

jual-insell something to someone (LOAN)

jukuŋoutrigger canoe (LOAN)

julaʔsaliva, spittle (PWMP: *zulaq)

julaʔ-into be spat upon (PWMP: *zulaq)

julaʔ ladaʔthe first betel spittle, first expectoration after chewing areca nut (PWMP: *zulaq)

julu-anearlier, former (PAN: *zulu)

j-uluʔpassed by; do something before another (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

juluʔdo something before another (PAN: *zulu)

kaehscratch up the ground (as a chicken) (PWMP: *kahiR)

kakakboisterous laughter (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak

kaliotoŋmale flying ant (PAN: *kali-)

kaliʔdig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kampuŋcoastal inhabitant of another ethnicity; however, not Banjarese (LOAN)

kamu2nd person (sg. and pl.) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

k-anakchild, young person (PMP: *ka-anak) *aNak

kantiroutrigger on a canoe (PMP: *katiR)

kantoŋpocket (NOISE)

kaŋkaŋkind of sparrow-hawk (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₄)

Sasak (520 / 1182)

kapakbeat the wings (PMP: *kapak)

kapukkapok (PWMP: *kapuk)

karemto sink (PWMP: *kaRem)

kayuʔtree, wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kə-formative for abstract nouns: kə-bəleɁ ‘size, magnitude’ (cp. bəleɁ ‘big, large’); kə-kodeɁ ‘smallness’ (cp. kodeɁ ‘small’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

kebe-baraʔlungs (PAN: *baRaq₁) Sewela

kədəŋstretched taut, of a rope (PMP: *kedeŋ)

ke-duasecond (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

ke-empatfourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kəjəŋstiff, erect (of penis in vagina) (PMP: *kezeŋ)

kəjəpblink the eyes (PWMP: *kezep)

ke-kayo-nfruit trees (PWMP: *ka-kahiw-an) *kaSiw

kə-kəmbuŋa balloon (PMP: *kembuŋ)

kəkəptake under the wings (PWMP: *kepkép₁)

kekesroll up (PWMP: *keskes₂)

kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy (LOAN)

kələmdarkness (of the evening); evening, night (PAN: *kelem)

keléntaŋpercussion instrument with keys of copper or bamboo on which one strikes with round wooden disks (PWMP: *kulintaŋ)

kəliliŋgo around, walk around (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

kemaliʔholy place, holy object (PMP: *kamaliR)

Sasak (540 / 1182)

kemaŋiplant used as a vegetable: Ocimum sanctum L. (PWMP: *kamaŋi)

ke-mate-anparalyzed, numb; affected by a death (PWMP: *ka-m-atay-an) *aCay

kəmbuŋto blow up, inflate (PMP: *kembuŋ)

kemposyoungest child (PMP: *ke(m)pus)

kemuniŋtree with yellow wood used for kris handles (PMP: *kamuniŋ)

kənabe hit, struck, affected by (PMP: *kena₁)

kənaʔright, exact, correct, true (of things and actions) (PMP: *kena₁)

kəndurslack, not taut, of a rope (PWMP: *kenduR)

kəntəlcoagulated (LOAN)

(ken)-terapa belch, to belch (PMP: *teRab) *CeRab

kə-pa-ŋaneclipse (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

kepekstruggle, of chickens when they are slaughtered (PWMP: *kepek)

kəpəlhold something in the fist (PWMP: *kepel)

kəpesflat, empty, without air (PWMP: *ke(m)pis)

kəpitpress something between the thighs (PMP: *kepit)

kepuhenclose, encircle, surround (PWMP: *kepuq)

kepukpound dough (preparatory to cooking) (PMP: *kepuk)

kərətto cut (PAN: *keRet)

kəriskris, ceremonial dagger (LOAN)

kə-sakit-ansuffer intense pain (PWMP: *ka-sakit-an) *sakit

Sasak (560 / 1182)

kesambiʔa tree, Schleichera trijuga, much prized for timber; the bast is used as a substitute for betel nut (PMP: *kasambiʔ)

kə-sukər-anfall into difficulty, get into trouble (PWMP: *suker)

kəsumbaplant with red fruits that are used as a coloring agent (safflower): Carthamus tinctorius (LOAN)

kətaŋana tree used for hedges: Jatropha curcas L. (PWMP: *kataŋan) Sewela

kətapaŋname of a tree (PMP: *katapaŋ)

kə-təluthe third (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

ke-tian-anhave a swollen belly (from sickness) (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

kətimun-antree with fragrant wood (PMP: *katimun)

kətutanus (PWMP: *ketut) Sewela

kiduŋa longer, generally old-fashioned poem that is sung (PWMP: *kiduŋ)

kikirfile; to file, as the teeth (PMP: *kiDkiD)

kilaŋkind of intoxicating drink made from sugarcane (PWMP: *kilaŋ)

kimalarge oyster (PMP: *kima)

kindatfurrow the eyebrows, frown (PWMP: *kindat)

kinjepblink, wink (PWMP: *ki(n)zep)

kiñamto heal, be healthy again (PWMP: *kiñam)

kira-kiraapproximately (< Malay) (LOAN)

kirileft (side) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kisaplightning (PWMP: *ki(n)sap)

kiskisa hoe; to hoe (PAN: *kiskis)

Sasak (580 / 1182)

-ku1sg possessive suffix with nouns and marker of agent with verbs (PAN: *-ku)

kuak kaokbird whose cry can be heard before dawn (PMP: *kuak)

kubufield hut (PMP: *kubu)

kudisa skin disease (ichthyosis) (PAN: *kudis)

kuduŋcover (in general); also cork, etc.; to close, cover something (PWMP: *kuduŋ)

kukuhstrong, sturdy, of body build (LOAN)

kukussteam; steamed (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kukus-anthe basket in which rice is steamed (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

kulatbracket fungus that grows on trees (many varieties, both poisonous and edible) (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kuluhbreadfruit tree and fruit, Artocarpus communis (PMP: *kuluR)

kulupcook in water without salt, as tubers (PWMP: *kulub₂)

kumanchicken louse (can also be used as an expression for bacteria) (PMP: *kuman)

kumisbig moustache (PMP: *kumis)

kumpulgathered together (PWMP: *kumpul)

kumputtailless (as quails and some chickens) (PMP: *kumput)

kupiŋforward-turned ears, ears that stick out (PWMP: *kupiŋ)

kurahow? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

kuraŋless, reduced (LOAN)

kuraŋ-anto come up short, not have enough (LOAN)

kuraŋ-into reduce (LOAN)

Sasak (600 / 1182)

kurapskin rash (PAN: *kurap)

kuruŋto put in a cage, to cage (PWMP: *kuruŋ)

kuruŋ-ancage, enclosure (PWMP: *kuruŋ-an) *kuruŋ

kusuttangled (of thread) (PWMP: *kusut)

kutafortress, stronghold; fortified town; gate, gateway (LOAN)

kuyuksound used to call puppies (PWMP: *kuyuk)

labakspacious, wide (PMP: *labak)

ladekfine (of meal, flour) (ROOT)

lagivery, extremely (generally with a denial) (PMP: *lagi)

lainother than, different (PMP: *lian)

laindifferent (PWMP: *lain)

lakiman; male, masculine (PMP: *laki)

lamakunderlayer, mat (PMP: *lamak)

lambuŋbreast and side of the body; sleeveless garment for women (LOAN) Sewela

lampaʔwalk, go (PMP: *lampaq)

lamunduckweed (on the water) (PMP: *lamun)

landakporcupine (PWMP: *landak)

lanterattan sitting mat (probably from Javanese) (PWMP: *lantay)

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋit-laŋitcanopy, as over a bed (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

Sasak (620 / 1182)

laŋkaŋcrotch, space between the legs (PWMP: *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ)

laŋkaŋcrotch, space between thighs (PWMP: *lakaŋ)

laŋkeplie on the belly; lie front side down (of things) (PWMP: *la(ŋ)keb)

lapahhungry (PMP: *lapaR)

lapitinsert between two other things (ROOT)

lawanagainst, opposed to (in a fight); put up resistance (PMP: *laban₂)

layarsail (PAN: *layaR)

layuwilted; worn out (of clothing) (PAN: *layu)

lebahvalley (PWMP: *le(m)baq)

ləbihmore (PWMP: *lebiq)

ləbih-aŋto increase (PWMP: *lebiq)

ledekfine (of meal, flour) (ROOT)

legeka gulp (of water); to swallow (ROOT)

legukgulp, swallow (PWMP: *leq(e)guk)

ləlahtired, listless (LOAN)

lə-layaŋkite (PWMP: *layaŋ)

ləmahplump, chubby; friendly (in talking to people) (PWMP: *lemeq)

ləmaʔvery flexible in the elbow joint so that one can bend his elbow backward (PWMP: *lemeq)

ləmbutsoft, fine (PWMP: *lembut)

ləŋathe oil-yielding sesame plant (PWMP: *leŋa)

Sasak (640 / 1182)

ləŋkuŋbent, curved (PMP: *leŋkuŋ)

ləpasto get loose, come loose (also used of penned-up animals); exempted, as from a duty or burden (PWMP: *lepas)

lepoʔspiny sea fish (PMP: *lepu)

ləsuweak, feeble, faint (PWMP: *lesu₃)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limasbail out water; catch fish by bailing water out of an enclosed area (PMP: *limas)

limoCitrus maximus (PWMP: *limaw)

linduŋsmall ricefield eel (NEAR)

lindurearthquake (PWMP: *lindur)

lintekpounded fine (ROOT)

liŋgetbite hard on something; gnash the teeth (in impatience or anger) (PWMP: *li(ŋ)get)

liŋoshadow (PAN: *liŋaw)

lirneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lisaʔnit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

lisuŋwooden rice mortar (as opposed to mortars of skin) (PWMP: *li(ŋ)suŋ)

litaʔtree the wood of which is used for sirih boxes, the sap of which is used for bird lime and the bast fiber of which is used as medicine (PMP: *liteq)

liwatpast; cross over (a river) (PWMP: *qaliwat)

luarbe finished with something (PMP: *luqar)

luaʔspit out food (PMP: *luaq)

lukbend, curve (of a fishhook); grain (of a kris); curved (PWMP: *qeluk)

Sasak (660 / 1182)

lulutshin, shin bone (PMP: *luluj)

lumahweak (people), flexible (metals) (PWMP: *lumaq)

lumutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

luŋkepcover, cover up (PWMP: *lu(ŋ)keb)

luŋkepto cover, cover up (ROOT)

lutuŋblack, of skin color; a black monkey: Semnopithecus maurus (PAN: *luCuŋ)

maketstick fast (ROOT)

malitkind of clay used to make blowpipe pellets (ROOT)

mamamale, male animal (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mama toaʔold man (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mandiʔbathe oneself, wash (intr.) (PWMP: *um-andiʔ) *andiʔ

maŋaneat (PMP: *maŋan)

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋanto eat (PMP: *paŋan)

maŋiwaŋshark (said to be from Buginese) (NEAR)

masakcooked, ripe (PMP: *ma-esak) *esak

masakripe; cooked (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata aiʔspring, well (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

mata-n naeankle bone (< *mata-n ae?) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Sasak (680 / 1182)

mataʔraw, unripe, uncooked (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

matedie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate-aŋkill (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate ŋ-anakdie in childbirth (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate sesetsuicide (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate-ʔkill (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

medilshoot with a weapon (LOAN)

(me)-manaʔshoot with bow and arrow (PWMP: *ma-manaq) *panaq

mə-marutto rasp, grate (PMP: *parud)

(mə-)məpəkto beat or pound (PWMP: *ma-mekpek) *pekpek₁

menaŋamouth of a river; small bay (PMP: *minaŋa)

men-jalanto walk (PMP: *zalan)

mentaspress through something (as underbrush, or a crowd) (PWMP: *maŋ-bentas) *bentas

məntoaʔparent-in-law (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

me-ñaksi-aŋappear as a witness against someone, or in a particular matter (LOAN)

mepek, pepekswarm together (PWMP: *pekpek₂)

mer-aŋkatto marry (PWMP: *maR-aŋkat) *aŋkat

mərəmto sleep (PWMP: *pezem)

mésaʔself, alone (PMP: *ma-isa) *isa₁

miñakoil; coconut oil; oily (PMP: *miñak)

Sasak (700 / 1182)

mirahruby (PMP: *ma-iRaq)

mupurto powder (PWMP: *purpur)

nanaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

naŋisto cry, to weep (PMP: *ma-naŋis) *Caŋis

naŋkaArtocarpus integrifolia (LOAN)

naŋkəpto catch with a dropnet (PMP: *taŋkep)

nasiʔcooked rice (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

n-atstretch; spring up (ROOT)

nebekcutting deeply (of an instrument) (PWMP: *maŋ-tebek) *tebek

nemsix (PAN: *enem)

nipisthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

n-isepporous, absorbent (as blotting paper, etc.) (PMP: *qisep)

nunaŋtree sp. (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ)

nurunto descend; to finish (PMP: *tuRun₁)

ñaŋketsticky, adhesive (PMP: *ña(ŋ)ket)

ñaruŋto sheath (of a kris) (PWMP: *saruŋ)

ñatstretch, spring up (PWMP: *eñat)

ñatstretch, spring up (PWMP: *heñat)

ñawasoul that departs from the body in the afterlife and journeys to Heaven or Hell (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ñəmbahto revere, pay homage to (LOAN)

Sasak (720 / 1182)

ñe-ñisikdelouse oneself (PWMP: *siksik₁)

ñəŋətto sting, of insects (PAN: *seŋet₂)

ñikatto brush (PWMP: *sikat)

ñikəpbe armed (NOISE)

ñiñiktobacco louse (PMP: *ñikñik)

ñuksukto pierce through something (PWMP: *ma-ñuksuk) *suksuk

ñulamto embroider (PMP: *sulam)

ñuliŋto play the flute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

ñuluhlight up, illuminate (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

ñurakto shout (LOAN)

ñuratto write (LOAN)

ñusuto nurse, suckle, suck at the breast (PWMP: *ma-ñusu) *susu₁

ŋ-aducompete with others (PWMP: *maŋ-adu) *adu

ŋ-akuadmit, confess (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ŋaliʔto dig (PMP: *ma-ŋali) *kalih

ŋ-ampuŋsuspended from something (PMP: *apuŋ)

ŋ-anakgive birth, bear a child (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

ŋaŋaʔopen the mouth, gape (in astonishment) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋ-apitsqueeze in (PWMP: *maŋ-hapit) *Sapit

ŋaraʔwild duck (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

Sasak (740 / 1182)

ŋ-asaʔwhet, sharpen (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

ŋ-awaŋ-awaŋfloat or flutter in the air (of things) (PMP: *awaŋ)

ŋ-ayatto threaten (PWMP: *ayat)

ŋə-ləpasto loosen (PWMP: *lepas)

ŋəliliŋto go around, walk around (PMP: *kuliliŋ) *kuliliŋ₁

ŋə-limasbail out water; catch fish by bailing water out of an enclosed area (PWMP: *maŋa-limas) *limas

ŋe-liwatconvey or transport something across (PWMP: *qaliwat)

ŋ-enjenpress or squeeze out (in defecation or childbirth) (PMP: *maŋ-qezen) *qezen

ŋ-entekknock, pound, beat (PWMP: *ŋ-etek) *etek

ŋ-entutto break wind (PWMP: *maŋ-qetut) *qetut

ŋe-patto chisel (PMP: *paqet)

ŋe-ragemhold something tightly in the fist (PWMP: *maŋ-Ragem) *Ragem

ŋiduŋto sing (PWMP: *kiduŋ)

ŋ-iketbind with a rope (PWMP: *maŋ-hiket) *Siket

ŋ-ipito dream (PWMP: *maŋ-hipi) *Sipi

ŋ-iriŋto follow (PWMP: *maŋ-iriŋ) *iriŋ₁

ŋ-iriscut into strips or slices (PWMP: *maŋ-qiris) *qiris

ŋ-iritto pull, drag (PWMP: *ŋ-irid) *irid₂

ŋ-isepporous, absorbent (as blotting paper) (PWMP: *maŋ-qisep) *qisep

ŋ-itikto drip, dribble (PWMP: *itik₁)

Sasak (760 / 1182)

ŋ-orasto clean, to wash (of objects, not of clothes) (PWMP: *maŋ-huRas) *SuRas

ŋ-udutto smoke (cigarettes) (PWMP: *qudud)

ŋ-ukircarve wood (PWMP: *maŋ-ukir) *ukir

ŋukusto steam (PWMP: *kuskus₁)

ŋ-umpanto feed (PWMP: *maŋ-umpan) *qumpan

ŋ-umpunform masses (as clouds of smoke, ants) (PMP: *upun₁) *upun

ŋ-unusto draw something from a sheath (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

ŋ-urutto massage (PWMP: *maŋ-quRut) *quRut

ŋ-utaŋbe indebted to someone (PWMP: *maŋ-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

ŋ-utaʔto vomit (PWMP: *maŋ-utaq) *utaq

obekhit with the open hand (ROOT)

odaʔunripe (of fruits), not yet fully developed (bones) (PWMP: *maŋ-utaq) *utaq

oloholor/ brook, stream, waterway (ROOT)

oloh, olorbrook, stream, waterway (PWMP: *uluR)

oloh-olohgutter (PWMP: *uluR)

omaŋ-omaŋhermit crab (PMP: *qumaŋ qumaŋ)

ombakto peel, shell, hull (PWMP: *ubak)

ombonheap up earth (PMP: *hubun₂)

opaspoison, poisonous (PMP: *upas)

orasto clean, wash (of objects, not of clothes) (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

Sasak (780 / 1182)

oras-inbe cleaned, washed (of objects, not of clothes) (PWMP: *huRas-en) *SuRas

orostrain (of garments); drag its rear end along the ground (of a dog) (PWMP: *hurus)

otakhead (PMP: *hutek)

owahto change (LOAN)

oyotdilapidated, rickety (PWMP: *uyut₂)

pathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

padaequal, equal to (PWMP: *pada)

pada-padaequal; even (PWMP: *pada pada) *pada

pade ~ parerice in the field, unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay)

padekbeat with a stick (ROOT)

pagapalanquin for bridal pair (NOISE)

pagerwall of wicker-work, fence, enclosure (PMP: *pager)

pahamunderstanding, to understand (LOAN)

pai, paristingray (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

paitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pait ~ pepaitsmall, silvery river fish (PWMP: *paqit₁) *paqit

pakanthe weft in weaving (PMP: *pakan)

pakpakbamboo clatterer put in the fields to frighten birds (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pakufern (various types) (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pakupeg, spike (LOAN)

Sasak (800 / 1182)

palaŋlie across the path; born feet first (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

paluhammer (said to be from Malay) (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

paluŋwooden vessel into which coconut meat is grated; wooden feeding trough for horses and dogs (PWMP: *paluŋ₁)

panaswarm (of things); hot, sharp tasting (spices) (PMP: *panas₁)

panaʔarrow; bow (PAN: *panaq)

pancorwaterfall; bathing place (LOAN)

pandanname of various types of pandanus: Pandanaceae (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

pandaŋto view, contemplate (LOAN)

pandaŋ-ancontemplation (LOAN)

pandeblacksmith, goldsmith; to forge metals (LOAN)

pandiʔbathe, wash; specifically, wash the body (trans.) (PWMP: *pa-andiʔ) *andiʔ

paneearthen vessel (PMP: *panay)

pantəsproper, becoming, fit; appropriate (of an article of clothing) (LOAN)

pantokwoodpecker spp.; hit, strike; play a percussion instrument (PAN: *pa(n)tuk₂)

pantok bedukbeat the drum to call the faithful to prayer (LOAN)

pa-ŋancookies made of sticky rice flour; to eat (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

paŋansticky rice cakes (PMP: *paŋan)

paŋgaŋto roast (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgeltired; bored (PWMP: *pagel)

paŋgooŋlay something on top of something else (PWMP: *paŋguŋ)

Sasak (820 / 1182)

paŋguŋan elevated structure with a ladder, used as a look-out (PWMP: *paŋguŋ)

p-ao-nkitchen (PWMP: *paR-qabu-an) *qabu

paoʔmango: Mangifera indica (PMP: *pahuq₁)

papakeven at the ends, as someone whose fingers are all the same length (NOISE)

papanplank; slate; school board (PMP: *papan)

papaʔpremasticate rice for newborn child (PMP: *paqpaq₁)

parashelf over the hearth (PAN: *paRa₁)

paraflat or level roof (NOISE)

p-arangive someone a name (PMP: *pa(ka)-ajan) *ajan

parasshave off the eyebrows (PWMP: *paras₁)

paruta rasp, file (PMP: *parud)

par-utaŋ-aŋto have lent to someone, be a creditor (PWMP: *paR-qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

pasaŋpair, team (of animals and objects) (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasaŋ-anone of a pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasarmarket (LOAN)

pata chisel (PMP: *paqet)

pataʔcut rice stalks, harvest the rice (PMP: *pataq)

payuŋparasol, umbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

payuŋ-into shade with a parasol (as a corpse enroute to the grave) (PWMP: *payuŋ)

pe-dalemto deepen, make something deeper (PMP: *dalem)

Sasak (840 / 1182)

pədaŋsword (LOAN)

pedesexperience bad luck; feel pain (at the extraction of a hair, the last of a whip, etc.) (PMP: *hapejes)

pedihsad, mournful; stingy (PMP: *hapejiq) *Sapejiq

pedissour (PMP: *hapejis)

pe-duaʔsplit something into two; take a second wife (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pə-garaŋto fight one another (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

pegeŋstick to, be tenacious (PWMP: *pegeŋ)

pə-kənaʔto find something good or right (PWMP: *pa-kena) *kena₁

pe-lairun, flee (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

pelaŋkarectangle of bamboo lathes for climbing plants (LOAN)

pelapaʔleaf nerve (of palm and banana leaves); leafstalk (of papayas) (PMP: *palaqpaq)

pe-luar-inkeep something outside (PMP: *luqar)

p<em>epekwhat one hits with (PWMP: *pegpeg)

p<əm>əpəkthat with which one hits or beats (PWMP: *p<um>ekpek) *pekpek₁

pe-nakutprecipitating fear (PWMP: *pa-nakut) *takut

penoʔfull (PMP: *penuq)

pə-ñakitsickness (PWMP: *pa-ñakit) *sakit

peñusea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

pe-ŋaliʔdigging stick (PWMP: *pa-ŋali) *kalih

peŋ-apo-nlime pot in the betel kit (PWMP: *paŋ-qapuR-an) *qapuR

Sasak (860 / 1182)

peŋ-empo-nthe first nine riceplants that are planted in three rows of three, and which later become the "rice mother" (inan pare) (PWMP: *paŋ-empu-an) *empu

peŋ-entut(-an)a person who suffers from extreme flatulence (PWMP: *paŋ-qetut-an) *qetut

peŋ-iriŋfollower, adherent (PWMP: *paŋ-iriŋ) *iriŋ₁

peŋ-ulureligious leader (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

pepekto hit, strike (PWMP: *pegpeg)

pəpəkto hit, beat (PAN: *pekpek₁)

pe-rariʔflight (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

per-atasraise, elevate (of terrain) (PMP: *atas) *aCas

per-awak-anbody shape, body build (PWMP: *paR-hawak-an) *Sawak

per-empat-ancross-roads (PWMP: *paR-epat-an) *Sepat

peresexpress, squeeze out; to abort a fetus (by applying pressure to the abdomen) (PAN: *peRes)

perigistone rim (edge, wall); rim of road, pond or well (PWMP: *paRigi)

per-iŋetremind; guess (PWMP: *paR-iŋat) *iŋat

pertakknock against or with something to drive ants out; hit on the head (PWMP: *pe(R)tak)

pə-salaʔto condemn, sentence (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

pə-siram-anbathing place (LOAN)

pe-takutcausing fear, arousing fear (PWMP: *pa-takut) *takut

pet-aŋfour (in 40, 4,000) (PWMP: *pat-aŋ) *Sepat

pətəŋdark (PWMP: *peteŋ)

pe-tian-aŋto impregnate a woman (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Sasak (880 / 1182)

piakto parcel out, distribute (PWMP: *pihak)

pidəmclose the eyes; fall asleep (PWMP: *pidem)

pijetpinch; squeeze out feces (PWMP: *pizet)

pilakto open (PWMP: *pilak₁) *pilak

piŋgənimported plate (LOAN)

pipithe cheeks (PAN: *pipi₁)

pirahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pira-pirasome; several (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

pisinterjection to frighten cats (PWMP: *pis)

pisaŋ rəndaŋbananas baked in flour (said to be from Malay) (LOAN)

p-ituŋ-anconsideration, thinking about (PWMP: *qituŋ)

pondoktemporary dwelling (LOAN)

potoktip of the nose; nipple of the breast (PWMP: *puntuk)

potoktip of the nose; nipple of the breast (ROOT)

puasafasting time; to fast (LOAN)

pujipraise (to God); charm, spell (LOAN)

pujiʔto praise, extol (LOAN)

pukaŋthigh (PWMP: *pukaŋ)

puluŋto pick up (PAN: *puluŋ)

puneʔgreen bush dove: Osmotreron vernans L. (PAN: *punay)

Sasak (900 / 1182)

p-uniʔmake a sound or noise, play something (music) (PWMP: *pa-huni) *Suni

puntiʔbanana (PAN: *punti₁)

puŋgalcut off the head (PWMP: *puŋgal)

puŋgelbreak off the tip of young plants so the leaves will grow thicker (PWMP: *puŋgel)

pupucollect money for pious purposes (PMP: *pupu₁)

pupurpowder (used as a cosmetic) (PWMP: *purpur)

pusərmidpoint, center (PWMP: *puseD)

pusətnavel (PMP: *pusej)

pusuktop, point (PAN: *qapucuk)

pusuktop, peak (PWMP: *pucuk)

putesbreak (of a rope) (ROOT)

puteʔwhite (PMP: *putiq)

putusbroken (of family ties) (PWMP: *putus₂)

rabekhit, strike (PMP: *ra(m)bek)

ragemheld tightly in the fist (PWMP: *Ragem)

ragemhold in the clenched fist (ROOT)

rakitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

rakit-anraft (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

rariʔ (with secondary final glottal stop)take something and flee (PAN: *laRiw)

rebekto hit, strike (ROOT)

Sasak (920 / 1182)

rekenwhat women place on the head in order to carry a load (PAN: *reken)

réken ~ rikenwhat women place on the head in order to carry a load (PWMP: *riken)

réken ~ rikenwhat women place on the head in order to carry a load (PWMP: *Riken)

rembaŋbroad shouldered (ROOT)

rempetblock, obstruct (as a path) (ROOT)

rémpokstrike together (of objects) (PMP: *rimpuk)

reŋatcracked, burst (PWMP: *reŋat)

reŋetangry, fanatical (PAN: *reŋeC)

rətbind firmly (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

ricakmarshy, swampy, muddy (ROOT)

rikətshort (of bamboo, the neck) (NEAR)

rimbunto assemble, gather (PWMP: *Ri(m)bun)

rinisdrizzle, drizzling rain (PWMP: *rinis)

riŋkusbind, tie (ROOT)

ripetclose; tight, "hermetically sealed" (ROOT)

rubukto bubble (of water), snort (as of people in the water) (ROOT)

rumpakhit, beat, pound (PMP: *rumpak)

sabukgirdle (LOAN)

sabuk dewarainbow (girdle of the gods) (LOAN)

sagaplant that has a fruit with bright red pits: Abrus precatorius L. (PWMP: *saga)

Sasak (940 / 1182)

saguɁsago, starch from various palms that is prepared and eaten (PMP: *sagu₁)

sakapillar, column (LOAN)

sakitbe sick, have pain (including by a blow); sickness, suffering; be annoyed; hate someone (PMP: *sakit)

sakit aŋənjealous (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-into mistreat; force someone to do something that is too difficult (PWMP: *sakit-en) *sakit

saksiwitness, especially before a judge (LOAN)

salaʔwrong, erroneous (of an act) (PMP: *salaq₁)

salaʔ-aŋto blame (PWMP: *salaq-an) *salaq₁

salinto replace, change (PWMP: *salin)

sambəlspices eaten with rice (LOAN)

sambutseize, catch, grasp (PWMP: *sambut₂)

sampiŋbeside, at the side of (PWMP: *sampiŋ)

saŋətvery, extreme; seriously ill (PWMP: *saŋet)

saputo sweep (PMP: *sapu)

saraŋ buruŋrock swallow (with edible bird’s nest) (LOAN)

saruŋa sheath (PWMP: *saruŋ)

sarupsing in chorus (PMP: *saRup₂)

sawaʔpython (PMP: *sawa)

sawaʔ kəreakorange-colored python (PMP: *sawa)

sə-clitic form of ‘one’ (PAN: *sa₃)

Sasak (960 / 1182)

sə-astaan ell (measure from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger) (LOAN)

sə-bataŋa piece (of a tree) (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

se-betekan arm (as a unit of measuring length) (PWMP: *beteken)

se-bidaŋa half (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

se-bilaŋ-bilaŋevery time (PAN: *bilaŋ)

se-birisa slice (PWMP: *biris)

səbuɁdouse a fire with water (PMP: *sebuh) *sebuS

se-bukuone joint; a single word (PWMP: *sa-ŋa-buku) *buku

sədəŋmoderate, middling; sufficient; exact (enough) (LOAN)

sekepto cover (PMP: *sekep)

sə-kəpəla fistful (PWMP: *kepel)

səlainterval (PWMP: *sela)

se-lakiʔhusband of (PMP: *laki)

sələmblack (only of fighting cocks) (PWMP: *selem₂)

sələmdiving, submerging (PAN: *selem₁)

sələtslip something between, insert (PMP: *selet)

seliyoung, new branchlet (PWMP: *seli₂)

səligilance made of areca wood (LOAN)

sə-mamahusband, spouse (PMP: *mama) *mamah

səmaŋətfontanel; life breath, soul (PMP: *sumaŋed)

Sasak (980 / 1182)

semayaɁto deceive, victimize (LOAN)

səmbahreverential homage or greeting (LOAN)

sémpetclose, shut off (PMP: *si(m)pet)

sənəŋagreeable, pleasant; feel good (LOAN)

sən-təluʔwind in the third strand (in making rope) (PAN: *telu)

səntultree with sour edible fruit and good timber: Sandoricum indicum (LOAN)

səŋətstinger of an insect; burning (of lips and tongue) because of the lime chewed with betel (PAN: *seŋet₂)

seŋitstale, musty (PMP: *seŋ(e)hij)

seŋitstale, musty (PMP: *seŋ(e)hit)

sepaŋa low, thorny tree with yellow flowers; a tea is made from the boiled wood: Caesalpinia sappan (PMP: *sepaŋ)

sə-pasaŋone pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

səpətpuckering up, of taste; tart, sour (PWMP: *sapelet)

səpət-inspeak to someone in anger (PWMP: *sapelet)

sepittongs, pincers (PWMP: *sempit)

səpuɁto harden metal (LOAN)

sərəpsetting (of sun, moon) (PMP: *sedep₁)

serutsip noisily, slurp, suck; inhale while smoking (PWMP: *sedut)

serutto plane, shave off with a plane (ROOT)

səsəkpressed close together (PAN: *seksek₁)

səsəlregret, to feel remorse for something done (PWMP: *selsel₂)

Sasak (1000 / 1182)

səsəl-aŋto feel regret (PWMP: *selsel₂)

sə-sumpiŋanything that one sticks behind the ear (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

sidemant, particularly the black ant (PWMP: *sijem)

sikata brush (PWMP: *sikat)

sikəpweapon (NOISE)

sikuelbow (PAN: *sikux)

siku-sikucarpenter’s square (PWMP: *siku-siku) *sikux

silibsecret, clandestine (PWMP: *silib)

siluon edge (of the teeth after eating something sour, acid or tart) (NEAR)

simpaŋ(of a person) turn around; drop in on someone (PMP: *simpaŋ)

simpənto store, put away (LOAN)

sindirallude to something, hint at (LOAN)

siŋroot of baksiŋ 'to sneeze' (NOISE)

siŋkaplift up the sarong of someone who is sleeping; open a mosquito net (PMP: *siŋkab)

sipatmeasuring line of a carpenter (used to make straight lines) (PWMP: *sipat)

siramto pour, spray (LOAN)

sisikclean the teeth (PWMP: *sisig)

sisikto scale (fish) (PMP: *siksik₂)

sisipmake a mistake (NOISE)

sisoʔsnail (PWMP: *sisuq)

Sasak (1020 / 1182)

sokoŋto help, support (LOAN)

suje-nsate stick (for skewering meat and vegetables) (LOAN)

sukərbusy, preoccupied (PWMP: *suker)

suksukpierce through something (bushes, a crowd) (PAN: *suksuk)

sukunthe breadfruit tree and its fruit: Artocarpus laevis (PMP: *sukun)

sulamembroidery, needlework (PMP: *sulam)

sulam-anembroidery, needlework (PMP: *sulam)

sulenplug up, cork (PMP: *sulen) *suleN

suliŋbamboo flute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

suliŋ-aŋto play the flute for someone (PWMP: *suliŋ)

suluhfish for eels with a torch (PMP: *suluq)

sumpahoath (PWMP: *sumpaq)

sumpəlto plug with a cork; a cork (PWMP: *sumpel)

sumpiŋstuck behind the ear; to stick behind the ear (PWMP: *sumpiŋ₂)

sunduŋleaf covering wrapped around fruits to protect them from bats (ROOT)

suŋsuŋdo something against the grain, as in shaving upward (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

surakshouting (LOAN)

surata letter (LOAN)

surutdecrease, drop off (LOAN)

susufemale breast, udder (PAN: *susu₁)

Sasak (1040 / 1182)

tabanbooty; to loot, take as booty (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

taban-ancattle confiscated from another person as compensation for damage caused by them wandering into one’s fields (PWMP: *taban-an) *tabaN

taban sesatothe confiscation of another person’s cattle that have strayed into one’s fields and caused damage (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tabascut, level or smooth, cut off the top (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

tabəŋto dam off (PWMP: *ta(m)beŋ)

tabəŋto dam up (PWMP: *tambeŋ)

tabuankind of wasp with yellow thorax (PMP: *tabuqan)

taburto strew, scatter (seed) (PMP: *tabuR₁)

tagi(h)to dun for repayment of a debt (LOAN)

taifeces; filth (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai-n aŋinkind of lichen, Lichen capillaris (PMP: *taqi nu haŋin) *Caqi

tajemsharp, pointed (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tajerstiffly erect (ROOT)

tajimetal cockspur for fighting cock (LOAN)

takutbe afraid (PAN: *takut)

takut-into frighten someone (PWMP: *takut-en) *takut

talamlarge wooden serving tray (LOAN)

talaŋname of a sea fish (PWMP: *talaŋ-talaŋ)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tali-n ambetslender cord around the abdomen (worn as an amulet) (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

Sasak (1060 / 1182)

taluncultivated land (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tamato enter (as a ship into a harbor) (PMP: *tama₂)

tambakfishpond (PMP: *tambak₂)

tambana sea fish, apparently the sardine (PWMP: *tamban)

tambuna heap, pile (of sand, stones, etc.); to heap up, pile up (PMP: *tabun₂)

tamburdrum (LOAN)

tampeŋdam up (PWMP: *tampeŋ)

tampiʔto winnow (PMP: *tahep-i₁) *tahep-i

tanaʔearth, soil, ground; land (PMP: *taneq)

tanjekto erect, place upright in the ground (PWMP: *ta(n)zeg)

taŋguŋvouch for, be responsible for (PWMP: *taŋguŋ)

taŋisweeping, crying (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋis-aŋto cry over something, mourn something or someone (PMP: *taŋis-an) *Caŋis

taŋkəpa dropnet used to catch birds; to catch people (PMP: *taŋkep)

taŋkəpa drop net for catching birds; to catch or seize people (PMP: *ta(ŋ)kep₂)

taŋketcompanion (PWMP: *ta(ŋ)ket)

taŋketcompanion (ROOT)

taŋkisto ward off, parry (PWMP: *taŋkis)

tapapractice asceticism through seclusion or renouncing material things (LOAN)

taroʔa wager, a bet on something; to insert; place a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

Sasak (1080 / 1182)

tarumindigo, indigo plant; to dye blue (PMP: *taRum)

tataʔtap latex for birdlime (ROOT)

taunwet season (PMP: *taqun)

tawah ~ tawarinsipid, neutral (of taste); brackish (of river water) (PWMP: *tawaR₁)

tebekcut deeply, pierce deeply (PAN: *tebek)

təbəlthick, of objects and substances; dense, of crowds (PMP: *tebel₂)

te-boya, be-boya-anperformance (PWMP: *buya)

tebukfinely ground coffee (ROOT)

tedoŋprotect oneself agains sun or rain (by placing something on or over the head (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

tegelhold tight, cling to (PMP: *tegel)

tə-junjuŋto boast, exalt oneself (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

təkənpost, pillar (of a house or granary); mast of a boat (PMP: *teken)

təlevulva, vagina (PMP: *teli)

telepsubmerge, sink (PMP: *teleb)

təluthree (PAN: *telu)

tem-pulutkind of fruit (PAN: *puluC)

təmuspicy root plant such as ginger, turmeric, etc. (PWMP: *temu₃)

tənuŋtell fortunes (LOAN)

təŋiria seafish that lacks scales, the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus Cybium (PMP: *taŋiRi)

təpakstrike with the flat of the hand (as a table top) (PMP: *tepak₁)

Sasak (1100 / 1182)

təreŋbamboo (PMP: *teriŋ)

terivery small sea sprat, eaten dried (PMP: *teRi)

terima(ʔ)to receive, accept (LOAN)

təruscontinue with something (PWMP: *terus)

tə-salinto change (of colors or thinking) (PWMP: *salin)

tə-sambutto take the place of (PWMP: *sambut₂)

te-surakto shout (LOAN)

teteplank bridge, native bridge; bridge of the souls in the Afterworld (PMP: *taytay)

tətəkcut off with chopper, chop off (PAN: *tektek₁)

tianbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tidemwith the eyes closed (PMP: *tidem)

timahlead, tin (PWMP: *timeRaq)

timbaŋbalanced; to weigh; to consider (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

timbunto heap, stack up (PWMP: *timbun)

timuʔeast (PMP: *timuR)

tipah, tipermat (PMP: *tepiR)

tipisthin (PMP: *tipis)

tipisthin (LOAN)

tirustapering to a point (PWMP: *tirus)

toŋeldeaf (ROOT)

Sasak (1120 / 1182)

toŋkaʔto open (door) (ROOT)

tuaname of various poisonous plants (some of the Derris type) the roots of which are used to stun fish and so catch them (PAN: *tuba)

tuduhpointing out, deciding (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tujutendency; direction (PMP: *tuzu)

tukepseize, grasp, catch (as people catch insects) (ROOT)

tukuŋtailless (of birds) (PWMP: *tukuŋ)

tuliʔear-wax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

tumakind of red clothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumanbe accustomed to doing something (PWMP: *tuman)

tumbaklance, spear (PWMP: *tumbak)

tumbukcollide with something (PMP: *tumbuk)

tumpukstack, heap; to stack up (PWMP: *tumpuk)

tuntunto lead by the hand (PWMP: *tuntun)

tuŋgalisolated, on one’s own (LOAN)

turunto descend, go westward (PMP: *tuRun₁)

turun-andescendant (PWMP: *tuRun-an) *tuRun₁

turun-turun-andescendant after descendant (PWMP: *tuRun-an) *tuRun₁

turutto follow; do together; obey an order (PWMP: *tuRut)

turut bentotfollow someone blindly (PWMP: *tuRut)

uapyawn, gape (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

Sasak (1140 / 1182)

uarkind of creeper; when it is young it is used to make food hangers, and when it is old it is used to make walking sticks (PMP: *huaR)

uat limalines in the palm of the hand (PMP: *uRat i lima) *huRaC

uaʔFeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ (PMP: *uaʔ)

ubal-ubalfloat of a fishing-line (PWMP: *ubal)

ubangray hair, have gray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ubikind of edible tuber (PMP: *qubi)

udaŋ, uraŋshrimp, crayfish, lobster (PAN: *qudaŋ)

udutsmoking (PWMP: *qudud)

uitmove something (PWMP: *uit₁)

ujanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ujuŋcape of land (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ukircarve wood (PMP: *ukir)

ukir-anwood carving (PWMP: *ukir-an) *ukir

ulah, ularsnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ulak-anpart of the loom (PWMP: *ulak-an) *ulak

ulamdelicacy made of young sticky rice, roasted in a pan with sugar, coconut, etc. (PWMP: *qulam)

ulam aguŋa certain fish? (PWMP: *qulam)

ulé-aŋbring home, take home; return (a borrowed object) (PWMP: *uliq-an) *uliq₁

uletcaterpillar, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

ulet-anhaving maggots (rotten) (PMP: *qulej-an) *qulej

Sasak (1160 / 1182)

uléʔgo home, return home (PMP: *uliq₁)

uluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

umarice field (PMP: *quma) *qumah

umbakwave, billow (PWMP: *humbak)

umpanfood, fodder (PMP: *qumpan)

umpan-umpanbait (PMP: *qumpan)

umpunsmoke (PMP: *upun₁) *upun

undak-undakrunged ladder (PWMP: *undak-undak) *qundak

unisound, noise (PMP: *huni) *Suni

untutooth (PMP: *quntu)

untuŋluck, fortune, chance (LOAN)

unusdrawing something from a sheath (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

uŋkilpry something up with a crowbar (PWMP: *quŋkil)

upaʔsalary, wages; to rent (PMP: *upaq)

upéʔleathery sheath at the base of the leaf-stalk of the areca palm (PMP: *hupiq) *Supiq

uratnerve; sinew; tendon; vein, artery; grain (of wood, marble) (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

uripliving, alive (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

urutmassage (PMP: *quRut)

usirchase away, banish (PAN: *qusiR)

utaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

Sasak (1180 / 1182)

utaŋ-inborrow from someone (PWMP: *qutaŋ-en) *qutaŋ

utaʔvomit (PAN: *utaq)

wah benarday has broken (PWMP: *benaR)

Sasak (Sewela) (4) WMP

kebe-baraʔlungs (PAN: *baRaq₁)

kətaŋana tree used for hedges: Jatropha curcas L. (PWMP: *kataŋan)

kətutanus (PWMP: *ketut)

lambuŋbreast and side of the body; sleeveless garment for women (LOAN)

624. Satawal (4) OC

manamantyphoon (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

roŋhear, listen (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

toldisappear from sight (POC: *solo₃)

yaniyrock cod (generic): Epinephelidae (POC: *kalika)

Savu (223) CMP. see: Hawu

625. Sawai (5) SHWNG [szw] Indonesia (Maluku)

ɓagubench (LOAN)

detuknock, beat (ROOT)

hikamorning bird, named from its cry (ROOT)

lutenfire (PMP: *luten)

lutenfire (PMP: *aluten)

626. Sebop (19) WMP [sib] (Kenyah, Sebob) Malaysia (Sarawak) [aka: Long Luyang, Sebop (Long Luyang)]

agemhand (PWMP: *agem₁)

alutboat, canoe (PWMP: *alud)

atə-neye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

atə-n laŋitsun (‘eye of the day’) (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

baʔusmell, odor (PMP: *bahu)

daniʔnear (PMP: *adani)

diangood (NOISE)

iβuthousand (PMP: *Ribu)

ita-mwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

jah iβuone thousand (PMP: *Ribu)

kami luɁwe, three or more, excl. (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kapanthick (PWMP: *kapal)

kaʔuʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kutuhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lakatroot (PWMP: *lakat)

m-arekto sniff, smell (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

ŋaranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

təlitstraight (PWMP: *tul(e)qid)

tumitheel (PWMP: *tumid)

Sebop (Long Luyang) (19) WMP. see: Sebop

627. Seediq (117) Form. (Pecoraro 1977) [trv] (Taroko) Taiwan (dialects: Toŋan 1, Tkdaya 3, Truku [trv] 42)

adinegation expressing the rejection of a preceding implicit affirmation (PAN: *adi) Truku

alaŋplace of habitation (LOAN) Tkdaya

apaload; act of carrying (PAN: *apa₂)

babuydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bakigrandfather (PAN: *baki₂)

balaqlung (PAN: *baRaq₁) Truku

balasmale, masculine (PAN: *baNaS)

begaygive (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

bələbulbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

buabubble, foam (Tsuchida 1976:257) (PAN: *bua₁)

dalablood (PAN: *daRaq)

daraFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana (PAN: *daRa₁) Tkdaya

dayaabove, upland, upriver (PAN: *daya)

dən-domasometimes; one or the other; a certain one (PAN: *duma)

d-niithe group here (PAN: *di-ni) *-ni Truku

domasomebody, someone; sometimes; several (PAN: *duma)

eluroad, path (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *qeNuR)

gəxapseeds for sowing (PAN: *Rahap) Truku

gituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu)

gmeyasword grass: Imperata cylindrica (PAN: *Rimeja) Tkdaya

Seediq (20 / 117)

hematongue (PAN: *Sema)

imawho? (for persons, the most common interrogative) (PAN: *ima) Truku

imaxto drink (NOISE) Truku

ininegator of dynamic and stative verbs (PAN: *ini)

i-nowhere? (especially interrogative) (PAN: *i-nu) *-nu

inowhere? in what place? (PAN: *inu) Truku

iso2sg. (PAN: *iSu)

itawe (incl.), emphatic form (PAN: *ita₁)

iup, yupto blow (as on a fire) (PAN: *Seyup)

kariword, speech, language, voice (PAN: *kaRi₁) Truku

kawasyear (PAN: *kawaS₁)

kelutslice, cut, incise (used especially for harvesting crops and in cutting the human body (PAN: *keRet)

kəm-pituseven days (in the future?) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Truku

kilato know (PAN: *kilala) Truku

k<m>arito dig (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *k<um>ali) *kalih

k<m>itato see (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita₂

limafive (PAN: *lima)

loqebrains; bone marrow (PAN: *NuqeS) Truku

lukusclothing (LOAN)

-m-prefix or infix in verbs of state or action (PAN: *<um>) *-um- Truku

Seediq (40 / 117)

ma-frequent prefix carrying the idea of an indeterminate future (PAN: *ma-₂) Truku

ma-hoyeshto sing (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *quyaS)

malibuy, sell (PAN: *b<um>aliw) *baliw₃

ma-nuwhat, which? (much used relative or interrogative pronoun) (PAN: *-nu)

manuʔwhat? (PAN: *manu)

m-apato carry (PAN: *apa₂)

ma-spateight (PAN: *ma-Sepat) *Sepat Truku

ma-tanahred (PAN: *taNah) Toŋan

matasto write, paint, tattoo (PAN: *p<um>ataS) *pataS

m-balibuyer, seller (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

meke-piafor how many (days)? (PAN: *maka-pija) *pijax

məkə-pitufor seven days (PAN: *maka-pitu) *pitu

mis-anwinter (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

m-lima-lfifty (PAN: *ma-lima-N) *lima Truku

m-lukusbe dressed, wear clothing, get dressed (LOAN)

m-nalaqbe purulent, infected (PAN: *naNaq) Truku

mn-piahow many times? (PAN: *pijax)

mn-swaibrothers and sisters (without distinction of relative age) -- all near relatives, esp. cousins (PAN: *Suaji) Truku

m-piawhich time? (PAN: *pijax)

m-pituseven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Truku

Seediq (60 / 117)

m-usato go (PAN: *um-uSa) *uSa

m-utaqto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq Truku

nalaqpus (PAN: *naNaq) Truku

ni-ahis, hers (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂ Truku

niihere, now, this (PAN: *-ni) Truku

n-itaour (PAN: *n-ita) *ita₁

nunuhfemale breast (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *nunuh)

ŋusulnasal mucus (PAN: *ŋuSuR)

paisenemy, adversary (PAN: *pajiS)

palasarborescent plant with rather large leaves that cause painful itching (NOISE) Truku

patastattooing (original); book, writing (modern) (PAN: *pataS)

payayrice plant (PAN: *pajay)

pən-pituseven each (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Truku

pətas-anplace or instrument for writing or studying (PAN: *pataS-an) *pataS

piahow much? how many? (PAN: *pijax)

pipivulva (PAN: *pipi₂) Truku

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Truku

p-usato send, dispatch; dismiss (PAN: *pa-uSa) *uSa

qaqaifoot (especially of humans) (PAN: *qaqay) Truku

qəlul-iʔbe adrift (Tsuchida 1976:168) (PAN: *qañud)

Seediq (80 / 117)

qoloxskull (PAN: *quluh) Truku

salitaro (edible) (PAN: *Cali)

se-lukusto dress up (PAN: *Si-₃)

səm-balibuy and sell; conduct commerce (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

sərupestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

sinaoto wash (vessels, surfaces, solid objects) (PAN: *Siñaw) Truku

sisilpetite bird relied on by the Taroko people to foretell luck or misfortune by its flight or its call in all activities that require travel (Pecoraro 1977); it is an omen of bad luck if it flies horizontally in front of people who are on the way to work or hunt, and they will consequently return home. However, if it flies vertically ---especially on the right hand side, they can proceed on their way (Apay Tang, p.c.) (PAN: *SiSiN) Truku

s-m-apawspread a mat (Li 1982a:176) (PAN: *SapaR)

s-m-apawspread a mat (Li 1982a:176) (PAN: *S<um>apaR) *SapaR

snag-anplace where one washes (PAN: *Siñaw-an) *Siñaw Truku

spag-ispread the mat! (PAN: *SapaR)

spatfour (PAN: *Sepat) Truku

s-timucrave salt, crave salty things (PAN: *timu) Truku

sumaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

swaiyounger, junior (PAN: *Suaji) Truku

ta1pl. incl. enclitic pronoun (PAN: *ta-₁)

tabeplough; a very simple tool made of a stake (now iron-shod), inserted at a 60 degree angle into a long wooden frame pulled by a buffalo or a man (PAN: *tabi)

tamafather (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax Truku

tbi-anarable (PAN: *tabi)

t<əm>agato wait (PAN: *t<um>aRah) *taRah Truku

Seediq (100 / 117)

təruʔthree (PAN: *telu)

timusalt (PAN: *timu) Truku

ti-pituthe seventh (in a series) (PAN: *ti-pitu) *pitu Truku

ukanot exist (PAN: *uka₁) *uka₂

ulaŋto repeat; periodic, habitual (PAN: *ulaŋ) Truku

ulatmuscle, nerve, vein, artery (PAN: *huRaC)

umulsuck and hold in the mouth (PAN: *umuR) Truku

uruŋhorn (Ferrell 1969:136) (PAN: *uReŋ)

usago (PAN: *uSa)

utaqvomit (PAN: *utaq)

wafinal particle of exclamation (PAN: *ua)

wafinal particle of exclamation (NOISE)

walaythread; thin noodles (PAN: *walay) Truku

wasauleaf (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *waSaw)

y-akuemphatic form of the 1sg. personal pronoun; always requires a particle (ka or o) in order to be united with the predicate of which it is the subject (PAN: *aku) Truku

yup-anplace of blowing (as where a fire is being started) (PAN: *Seyup-an) *Seyup

ʔaruŋpangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

Seediq (Tkdaya) (3) Form.

alaŋplace of habitation (LOAN)

daraFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana (PAN: *daRa₁)

gmeyasword grass: Imperata cylindrica (PAN: *Rimeja)

Seediq (Toŋan) (1) Form.

ma-tanahred (PAN: *taNah)

Seediq (Truku) (42) Form. [trv] (Taroko) Taiwan

adinegation expressing the rejection of a preceding implicit affirmation (PAN: *adi)

balaqlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

d-niithe group here (PAN: *di-ni) *-ni

gəxapseeds for sowing (PAN: *Rahap)

imawho? (for persons, the most common interrogative) (PAN: *ima)

imaxto drink (NOISE)

inowhere? in what place? (PAN: *inu)

kariword, speech, language, voice (PAN: *kaRi₁)

kəm-pituseven days (in the future?) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

kilato know (PAN: *kilala)

loqebrains; bone marrow (PAN: *NuqeS)

-m-prefix or infix in verbs of state or action (PAN: *<um>) *-um-

ma-frequent prefix carrying the idea of an indeterminate future (PAN: *ma-₂)

ma-spateight (PAN: *ma-Sepat) *Sepat

m-lima-lfifty (PAN: *ma-lima-N) *lima

m-nalaqbe purulent, infected (PAN: *naNaq)

mn-swaibrothers and sisters (without distinction of relative age) -- all near relatives, esp. cousins (PAN: *Suaji)

m-pituseven times (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

m-utaqto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

nalaqpus (PAN: *naNaq)

Seediq (Truku) (20 / 42)

ni-ahis, hers (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

niihere, now, this (PAN: *-ni)

palasarborescent plant with rather large leaves that cause painful itching (NOISE)

pən-pituseven each (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pipivulva (PAN: *pipi₂)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

qaqaifoot (especially of humans) (PAN: *qaqay)

qoloxskull (PAN: *quluh)

sinaoto wash (vessels, surfaces, solid objects) (PAN: *Siñaw)

sisilpetite bird relied on by the Taroko people to foretell luck or misfortune by its flight or its call in all activities that require travel (Pecoraro 1977); it is an omen of bad luck if it flies horizontally in front of people who are on the way to work or hunt, and they will consequently return home. However, if it flies vertically ---especially on the right hand side, they can proceed on their way (Apay Tang, p.c.) (PAN: *SiSiN)

snag-anplace where one washes (PAN: *Siñaw-an) *Siñaw

spatfour (PAN: *Sepat)

s-timucrave salt, crave salty things (PAN: *timu)

swaiyounger, junior (PAN: *Suaji)

tamafather (PAN: *ta-amax) *amax

t<əm>agato wait (PAN: *t<um>aRah) *taRah

timusalt (PAN: *timu)

ti-pituthe seventh (in a series) (PAN: *ti-pitu) *pitu

ulaŋto repeat; periodic, habitual (PAN: *ulaŋ)

umulsuck and hold in the mouth (PAN: *umuR)

Seediq (Truku) (40 / 42)

walaythread; thin noodles (PAN: *walay)

y-akuemphatic form of the 1sg. personal pronoun; always requires a particle (ka or o) in order to be united with the predicate of which it is the subject (PAN: *aku)

Seguliud (5) WMP. see: Sungai Seguliud

628. Seimat (143) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [ssg] Papua New Guinea

aeleg, foot (POC: *qaqe) *qaqay

ahfire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

ahilong type of Malay apple, red on the outside and white inside (POC: *kapika)

althick-bodied barracuda sp. (PMP: *qalu)

alsun (POC: *qalo₁)

alalflat bottom-dwelling fish: halibut, flounder (POC: *alali)

alilarge grouper, up to six feet in length (POC: *kalia)

alilarge grouper (about 6 feet long) (POC: *kalika)

alimaŋmangrove crab (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

amatua large reef fish, probably double-headed (POC: *amatu)

amatua large reef fish, probably double-headed parrotfish (POC: *kamatu)

ami-1pl. excl. subject pronoun (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

anfood (POC: *kana) *kana₁

anfood (POC: *kani) *kaen

an-marker of edible possession (POC: *kana-)

anfood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

aŋo-aŋo-nyellow (POC: *aŋo-aŋo-ana) *aŋo

apisago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

api-tito pinch (PMP: *kapit)

aso-ito sniff, smell (POC: *acok) *Sajek

Seimat (20 / 143)

ata fish, the skipjack tuna, or bonito (POC: *qatun)

ate-liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atolegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

aularge mullet (3-4 feet in length) (PMP: *qaRuas)

awkind of mullet about one meter in length (PMP: *qawas)

awa-mouth (POC: *qawa₂)

awa-i-salpath, way, road (lit. ‘mouth of path’) (POC: *salan) *zalan

axa-name (PMP: *ajan)

axa-