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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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W

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


W.Sumatra Malay
W.Tarangan
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor)
Waay
Wagawaga
Wahai
Waidina Fijian
Wailengi
Wailengi
Waima'a
Waiyewa

Wala
Wampar
Wandamen
Wangka Rembong
Waray-Waray
Waropen
Waru-Kia Rembong
Watubela
Watut
Wawonii
Wayan

Weda
Wedau
West Guadalcanal
West Manggarai
Western Arosi
Western Bukidnon Manobo
Western Fijian
Western Marshallese
Western Paiwan
Wetan
Wewewa

Weweya
Whitesands
Windesi
Wogeo
Woi
Woleaian
Wolio
Wue Rembong
Wusi-Mana
Wusi-Valui
Wuvulu

W.Sumatra Malay (2) WMP. see: Malay (W.Sumatra)

800. W.Tarangan (36) CMP [txn] (Tarangan, West) Indonesia (Maluku) (dialects: Ngaibor 34)

amafather (PAN: *amax) Ngaibor

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak Ngaibor

bélafriend (LOAN)

enenwind (PMP: *haŋin) Ngaibor

mədarbandicoot (PCEMP: *mansər) *mansar Ngaibor

mellaugh (PCEMP: *malip) Ngaibor

n-unto drink (PCEMP: *unum) Ngaibor

ŋarinname (PMP: *ŋajan) Ngaibor

ok1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku) Ngaibor

ϕôrspringy stick which is the engine in a snare trap; springy stick which holds the sieve taut in the sago-processing apparatus (PMP: *baquR)

W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) (34) CMP

amafather (PAN: *amax)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

enenwind (PMP: *haŋin)

mədarbandicoot (PCEMP: *mansər) *mansar

mellaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

n-unto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

ŋarinname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ok1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

801. Waay (1) CMP

tarutumfish with spiny skin (called durian in Ambon) (Ludeking 1868) (PMP: *taRutum)

802. Wagawaga (1) OC [wgw] Papua New Guinea

bahaspeak (POC: *papaq₂) *baqbaq

803. Wahai (1) CMP [sau] (Saleman) Indonesia (Maluku)

atifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

Waidina Fijian (1) OC. see: Fijian (Waidina)

804. Wailengi (9) OC (Tryon 1976)

matu-idry coconut (PCEMP: *matu)

mbanwing (PMP: *panid) *paNid

mbisu-thumb (POC: *bwisi)

mbituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ŋga-ŋgaraninear (POC: *karani)

-ŋgu1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

siwonine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

ta-tuaiold (POC: *tuaRi)

tokato sit (POC: *toka₂)

Wailengi (26) OC. see: Northeast Ambae

805. Waima'a (2) CMP (Melody Ross (p.c.))

deneto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

kai-hituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

806. Waiyewa (7) CMP (Fox n.d.) [aka: Wewewa, Weweya]

laŋitasky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

ma-rofar (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

m-orip-aliving, alive (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

naŋito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

panikiflying fox (PMP: *paniki)

tawuniafterbirth, placenta (PMP: *tabuni₁)

tiabelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

807. Wala (1) OC [lgl] Solomon Islands

ne-tumlouse (PCEMP: *tuma) *CumeS

808. Wampar (1) OC [lbq] Papua New Guinea

rama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

809. Wandamen (9) SHWNG (Anceaux 1961) [wad] Indonesia (Papua)

ayabird (PAN: *qayam₁)

fasrice (in general) (PAN: *pajay)

kanisusaliva (PEMP: *kanus-i) *kanus

kanisusaliva (PEMP: *kanisu)

masuarcassowary (LOAN)

rauleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

tawaa tree: Pometia spp. (PMP: *tawan)

toruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

Wangka Rembong (2) CMP. see: Rembong (Wangka)

810. Waray-Waray (202) WMP (Abuyen 2000) [war] Philippines

ba-báyewoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bahága scanty piece of cloth worn around the waist; G-string (PMP: *bahaR)

báhoʔodor, smell, scent (PMP: *bahuq)

bakaŋto make a wide step over something (PAN: *bakaŋ₁)

bantógwell-known, popular, famous (PPH: *bantug)

bantog-áto spread over a news (PPH: *bantug)

bantog-ánwell-known, popular (PPH: *bantug)

dagámihay, straw (PWMP: *zaRami)

dáhonleaf, foliage (PMP: *dahun)

dakópthe act of catching or capturing (PAN: *dakep)

dálanroad, street; avenue, way; path, highway (PMP: *zalan)

danáwlake; lagoon (PAN: *danaw)

daŋdáŋthe act of drying up or heating something before the fire; a direct exposure to fire; singe (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

dapítin the direction of; towards; near; at the side of; place (PWMP: *dapit)

darágamaiden; an unmarried woman; single, as of civil status (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

darag-itateenage girl (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dugóʔblood (PMP: *zuRuq)

dugoʔ-ónbloody, stained with blood (PMP: *zuRuq)

duhátwo; double (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Waray-Waray (20 / 202)

duháʔ-ato make two or twice (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dukótthe act of pasting with paste (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dukót-dukótsticky, contagious (PWMP: *deket deket) *dekeC

duldólact of poking or pushing something against another (PPH: *duldúl)

dumdómthe act of remembering the past; reminiscence; memory (PAN: *demdem₁)

dupáa unit of measure of full arms length; to stretch out someone’s arms widely (PMP: *depa)

dúyanhammock; couch or bed (PPH: *dúyan)

gabʔíevening (PMP: *Rabiqi)

gatóshundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

giliŋthe act of crushing wet rice so as to extract its juice (done in cooking bibingká [native rice cake]) (PMP: *giliŋ)

gi-nháwato breathe (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

g<in>i-nhawábreath (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

giʔókthe act of threshing, as of palay (PAN: *Riqek)

guntíŋa pair of scissors (LOAN)

guntiŋ-áto cut off with a pair of scissors (LOAN)

gúraŋold; matured; adult; of majority age (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gusokribs (PAN: *Rusuk)

hiwíʔcurved; zigzag; bent; twisted (NEAR)

hugótthe act of stretching or drawing tightly, as of string, cord, rope or the like; drawn tightly, stretched (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

hugot-áto draw tightly (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

Waray-Waray (40 / 202)

ig-dúyanto swing couch or bed (PPH: *dúyan)

i-káwyou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

i-rayáfarm; a tract of land devoted to agriculture; the upper or interior part of a town (PAN: *daya)

i-sukato vomit or eject what is inside the stomach (PPH: *suka₂)

kayou (used in postpositive form) (PMP: *ka₄)

kagátthe act of biting (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

kágawmicrobe, germ (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

ka-gi-nhawa-anthe act of living an easy or comfortable life (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

kalíttreacherous attack (PPH: *kalít)

kamaligbarn, barnhouse, storage (PMP: *kamaliR)

ka-npossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983) (PAN: *ka₃)

kaonthe act of eating (PAN: *kaen)

kaon-ato eat up (PMP: *kaen-a) *kaen

kapótthe act of holding; to hold; handle; grasp; grip (PPH: *kapet)

kasiŋ-kasiŋheart (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

katigbamboo outrigger of a boat or canoe (PMP: *katiR)

katólitch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kawílhook fishing (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawíŋ-kawíŋlinked together, like a chain (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

ki-kilátlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

Waray-Waray (60 / 202)

kilaláknown, recognized (PAN: *kilala)

kilálaan acquaintance (PAN: *kilala)

kugítaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kusg-ánstrong; energetic; powerful (PAN: *keseR)

kusógstrength, energy, power (PAN: *keseR)

kútolouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lakóp-lakópeyelid (PAN: *lakup)

lalákiman, male (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

láŋawa fly (PMP: *laŋaw)

laŋáw-onfly-infested (PAN: *laŋaw-en) *laŋaw

láŋitsky, space, heaven; eternity (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋóyswimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

laŋoy-áto swim across (PWMP: *laŋuy)

larato weave; an interlacement (PWMP: *laja)

láwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lawódmidsea, high seas (PAN: *lahud)

láyagsail (PAN: *layaR)

likóʔthe act of turning either to the left or right, as of street corner or the like (PWMP: *likuq)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

límasthe act of bailing out water, as from a boat into the sea (PMP: *limas)

Waray-Waray (80 / 202)

línogearthquake, temblor (PAN: *linuR)

líʔogneck (PAN: *liqeR)

líʔog-ónlong-necked (PAN: *liqeR)

lúhaʔteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luháʔ-ito shed tears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lúmotmoss, lichen (PMP: *lumut)

lumot-onmossy (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

luwáʔthe act of belching or forcing something out from the mouth (PMP: *luaq)

ma-báhoʔhaving an offensive smell or odor (PWMP: *ma-bahuq) *bahuq

ma-dáhonabundant, of leaves (PWMP: *ma-dahun) *dahun

ma-dálanhaving many streets (PWMP: *ma-zalan) *zalan

ma-dugóʔbloody, stained with blood (PMP: *zuRuq)

mag-bahágwear a G-string (PMP: *bahaR)

ma-gi-nháwacomfortable, satisfied, contented (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ma-kusógstrong; energetic; powerful (PAN: *ma-keseR) *keseR

ma-línogearthquake-prone (PAN: *linuR)

manókchicken (PMP: *manuk)

manok-ónplenty or abundant supply of chickens (PPh: *manuk-en) *manuk

ma-ŋilóhaving intense or giggling sensation felt at the tooth edge (PAN: *ma-ŋilu) *ŋilu

ma-sakítill, sick, not well; painful, hurting; a sick person, a patient (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

Waray-Waray (100 / 202)

matáeye; organ of vision; ocular perception; sight (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tasikfull of broth; filled with broth (PMP: *tasik)

nadenotes completion of development; already (PAN: *na₄)

naka-suksókhaving inserted or put in between (PAN: *suksuk)

nánaʔpus; abscess (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nidenotes possession, and is always followed by the name of the possessor (PAN: *ni)

nígowinnower (PMP: *niRu) *Rinu

nuóssquid (PMP: *nues)

ŋáranname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋilóhaving intense or giggling sensation felt at the tooth edge (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋípontooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

ŋotŋótthe act of feeling or suffering from severe, sharp, smarting pain (PMP: *ŋutŋut₂)

pamore; yet, still (PAN: *pa₁)

pag-dúyanthe act of swinging to and fro the hammock (PPH: *dúyan)

pag-kalítthe act of making or doing something, as of inflicting bodily harm on someone with treachery (PPH: *kalít)

pag-kaonthe act of eating (PAN: *kaen)

pag-kiliŋthe act of inclining or leaning into the other side (PMP: *kiliŋ)

pag-laŋóyswimming (PWMP: *laŋuy)

pag-paspásthe act of wiping off mud and moisture from shoes or feet; the act of shaking off or getting rid of, as dust, etc. (PWMP: *paspas₂)

pag-paspásthe act of hurrying up; haste; a hurry; quickness of movement or action (PPH: *paspás₄)

Waray-Waray (120 / 202)

pag-sanlágthe act of popping, as of corn or rice; the act of making popped corn or popped rice (PMP: *saŋelaR)

pag-sikóthe act of elbowing (PAN: *sikux)

pag-sukathe act of vomiting (PPH: *suka₂)

pag-suksókthe act of inserting or putting in between; ensheathing (PAN: *seksek₁)

pag-súsothe act of sucking (PAN: *susu₁)

pag-tuláythe act of crossing a bridge (PPH: *tuláy)

pakpákwooden club or mallet for pounding laundry (PAN: *pakpak₁)

pa-narokdipper, scooper (PWMP: *sanduk)

pa-numdómthe act of remembering the past; reminiscence; memory (PAN: *demdem₁)

pa-ŋawílhook fishing (PWMP: *pa-ŋawil) *kawil₁

paónbait (PAN: *paen)

papán ŋa batóstone tablet (PMP: *papan)

paspásfast; sudden; swift; prompt; quickly; with haste; rapidly (PPH: *paspás₄)

paspas-andoormat (PPH: *paspas-an₁) *paspas₂

paspas-íto shake or dust off (PWMP: *paspas₂)

paspas-íto hurry up; be hasty; get faster; rush up (PPH: *paspás₄)

pawíkanturtle (PPH: *pawikan)

paypáyfolding fan, electric fan (PPH: *paypáy)

paypay-íto fan, stir the air (PPH: *paypáy)

páʔathigh; lap (PAN: *paqa₁)

Waray-Waray (140 / 202)

pilíta glutinous variety of rice (PMP: *pilit₁)

pilíʔchoice; preference; selection; election; option; alternative (PAN: *piliq)

piráhow much?, how many? (PAN: *pijax)

písopeso (LOAN)

pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

púgaʔthe act of squeezing or pressing with force, as to extract water from wet clothes (PAN: *peReq)

púnaypigeon (PAN: *punay)

puno-áto fill to capacity (PMP: *penuq)

púsodnavel; the rock bottom of the sea (PMP: *pusej)

pútowhite rice cake (LOAN)

sabótfiber; thread; theadlike part (PWMP: *sabut)

sabsábthe eating habit of quadruped animals like dogs, cows, or carabaos (PAN: *sabsab)

sabsab-ánfeeding trough (PAN: *sabsab)

sabʔítthe act of hanging something (as clothes) on a peg or the like; something fixed or attached to the wall for hanging things on; peg (PMP: *saqebit)

sakítdisease; sickness; malady; a stinging or smarting pain; pain; ill, sick, not well; painful, hurting; a sick person, a patient (PMP: *sakit)

salá-ato blame, find fault with (PMP: *salaq₁)

sala-áto commit mistakes (PMP: *salaq₁)

saláʔsin; original sin; fault; mistake (PMP: *salaq₁)

sálogriver; brook; stream (PWMP: *saluR)

salog-íto make or construct a floor (PWMP: *saleR-i) *saleR

Waray-Waray (160 / 202)

sanlágpopped corn; popped rice; fried rice (PMP: *saŋelaR)

saŋábranch; a shoot or secondary stem; an outgrowth (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sapádbunch, cluster (PPH: *sápad)

sapínshoes; protective underlayer or overlayer (PPH: *sapín)

sarokthe act of fetching water (PWMP: *sanduk)

sawáspecies of snake that grows to an enormous size and crushes its prey; python (PMP: *sawa)

sipersonal article (PAN: *si₁)

síkoelbow (PAN: *sikux)

sikóthe act of elbowing (PAN: *sikux)

s<in>anlágpopped corn; popped rice; fried rice (PMP: *s<in>aŋelaR) *saŋelaR

sudsódthe feeling or touching something by the feet underwater (PPH: *sudsud₂)

suksókthe act of inserting or putting in between; ensheathing (PAN: *suksuk)

suksok-íto insert or put something in between; to give, as of inserting something into one’s pocket (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

suksok-íto insert or put something in between (PAN: *seksek₁)

sulóʔtorch, flambeau (PMP: *suluq)

sulsólthe act of goading; instigation; the act of urging someone to do something (LOAN)

sumpítblowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

súsobreast (PAN: *susu₁)

tadtád ~ pag-tadtádthe act of cutting or chopping something into smaller pieces (PWMP: *tadtád)

tag-duhátwofold; double (PWMP: *taR-duha) *duSa

Waray-Waray (180 / 202)

tambákheap; pile; mass; mound (PMP: *tambak₂)

tanómto plant something; raise crops (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanom-íto plant on something (PMP: *tanem-i) *CaNem

tanom-onplants to be planted; something to be planted (PAN: *CaNem-en) *CaNem

taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish (PWMP: *taŋgiRi)

taŋísto cry, weep, shed tears (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tasikbroth of rice porridge (PMP: *tasik)

táwadthe act of haggling or asking for a discount over prices of commodities; a discount (PWMP: *tawaD)

táʔihuman or animal excreta or waste (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tenaʔiʔabdomen; intestine (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

timog-ansouth (PMP: *timuR)

tubósugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tugonthe act of leaving a message or instruction (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

tugotthe act of allowing or permitting someone to do something (PWMP: *tuRut)

tugot-ito allow, permit (PWMP: *tuRut-i)

túhodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tuláya bridge (PPH: *tuláy)

tulóthree (PAN: *telu)

tunáwmelted, liquefied (PPH: *túnaw)

túroʔthe leaking out of liquid, leakage; that which drips or leaks out, a drop of water; leaking, leaky (PAN: *tuduq)

Waray-Waray (200 / 202)

tuwáyshell, seashell (PMP: *tuay)

usa ka gatósone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

811. Waropen (65) SHWNG (Held 1942) [wrp] Indonesia (Papua)

awood; tree (in combination forms) (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

aede macome here (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

akathatch (PMP: *qatep)

akofour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

ami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

analand, bush, earth (PMP: *taneq)

anashoot an arrow (PAN: *panaq)

anoto eat, consume (PSHWNG: *kanon₁) *kaen

arastorage rack above the hearth; loft (PAN: *paRa₁)

arunause as a headrest (PMP: *qalunan)

asismoke, fumes, steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

ataMilky Way (NOISE)

atirather close to (PMP: *qatip₂)

awarocarry on the shoulder (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

awuhearth, ash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

bagepart, share (PMP: *baqagi)

efoot (PAN: *qaqay)

ena-kosleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

ghaboat, canoe (PEMP: *waŋka)

ghaiwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

Waropen (20 / 65)

ghai, wairoot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

ghananoright (side) (PMP: *wanan) *waNan

ghananoright (side) (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

ghonosix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

iabrown fish (PSHWNG: *iap)

iaithat (of things) (PMP: *iaqi)

ifaswing or wave back and forth (NOISE)

irithen, next; however, but (PMP: *idi)

kawanoa tree: Pometia spp. (PMP: *tawan)

kowusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

kunaeel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

mahither, toward the speaker (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

maand, so that (PAN: *maS)

manibird, chicken (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

mu2pl., you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nasanoname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ninimidge, mosquito (PMP: *ñikñik)

niwarococonut (PMP: *niuR)

nuvillage, community (PMP: *banua)

Waropen (40 / 65)

nusaisland (PMP: *nusa₁)

rago on foot, go into the bush, walk (PMP: *lakaj)

rarablood (PAN: *daRaq)

rararosail (PAN: *layaR)

rau ~ ndausea; outside (PCEMP: *laur₁) *lahud

ripile, post under a house (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

rimofive (PAN: *lima)

ruflood, high water (PMP: *Ruab)

ruisea cow, dugong (PCEMP: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rumahouse; shop; branch of a family (PAN: *Rumaq)

runawooden headrest (PMP: *qalunan)

suracomb (PEMP: *sura)

susifemale breast; suckling (PAN: *susu₁)

susi raunomilk (breast water) (PAN: *susu₁)

ubamedicine; gunpowder (LOAN)

uibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

urared color (PMP: *pulaq)

urared color (PMP: *pula₁)

uranocooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

uwituberous plant, yam (PMP: *qubi)

Waropen (60 / 65)

wawasit on the back, carry on the back (as a child) (PMP: *baba₁)

wawaknock on side of canoe; make a clamor (PAN: *bakbak₂)

wofruit (PMP: *buaq)

wo-rutwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

wurobody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

Waru-Kia Rembong (1) CMP. see: Rembong (Waru-Kia)

812. Watubela (57) CMP (Collins n.d.a.) [wah] Indonesia (Maluku)

afawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

afifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ahaksharpen (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

akalroot (PMP: *akaR)

akalroot (PMP: *wakaR)

alwater (PCEMP: *waiR) *wahiR

an-anakchild (PMP: *an-anak) *aNak

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

ba-toluthick (PCEMP: *təlu)

buakareca, betel nut (PMP: *buaq)

bunukkill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

fa-khato wed, marry (PMP: *pa-qasawa) *qasawa

fana-fanakarrow (PAN: *panaq)

fanik balana bat (PMP: *paniki)

fat-afour (PAN: *pat-a) *Sepat

fukatfishnet (PMP: *puket₁)

haone (PAN: *esa)

halakwrong (PMP: *salaq₁)

hukandibble stick (PMP: *suqan)

huluktorch (PMP: *suluq)

Watubela (20 / 57)

ikanfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ilathey, them (PMP: *ida)

inethat (PMP: *i-na) *-na

kabubelly (PCEMP: *kampuŋ)

kabubelly (PMP: *kambu)

kadolamarsupial (PCEMP: *kandoRa)

kafullime (PAN: *qapuR)

kaharafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kaiwood (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

kalitaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

katafroof (PMP: *qatep)

katluegg (PMP: *qateluR)

kaulhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kena wosand (PAN: *qenay)

kolosun (PMP: *qalejaw)

kulia fruit (PCEMP: *quRi)

kulinrudder of a boat (PMP: *qulin)

kuluhead (PCEMP: *qulu) *quluh

kumagarden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

Watubela (40 / 57)

kuwituber (PMP: *qubi)

lalakblood (PAN: *daRaq)

luakvomit (PMP: *luaq)

lumakhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

ma-ketanblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

manukfowl (PMP: *manuk)

ma-takutto fear, be afraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

mata-matakraw (PCEMP: *ma-qetaq₂) *qetaq

m-futikwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

m-tukaold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

nifotooth (PAN: *nipen)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

te-ino, not (PMP: *taq₃)

telŋa-ear (PMP: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tokonpunting pole (PMP: *teken)

tuwulikconch shell (PMP: *tabuRiq)

wilaka tuber (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

813. Watut (1) OC [una] (Watut, North) Papua New Guinea

penasteal (Milke 1968) (POC: *penako) *Cakaw

814. Wawonii (1) WMP

um-ala-oto take (Mead 1998:425) (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

815. Wayan (329) OC (Pawley and Sayaba 2003) [aka: Western Fijian]

a-tolube three each (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ava ~ yavawhat? Questions the identity of things other than time..., position ..., persons and personal names..., quantity..., manner (PMP: *sapa)

avi-avievening, be evening, especially the period from late afternoon (about 4:00 p.m.) until darkness; afternoon, be afternoon (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

avi-avi boŋithe period soon after dark, early part of the night (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

a-vulafish taxon, probably Megalops cyprinoides (POC: *pu-pulan) *bulan-bulan

bababoard, plank, or other flat, wide piece of wood (POC: *baban) *papan

ba-barinibble, gnaw (POC: *bari)

barinibble, gnaw something, bite small pieces off something (POC: *bari)

batitooth (of person, animal, etc.); tusk (of pig) (POC: *bati)

benurubbish, refuse, debris; garb of a widow in mourning, traditionally consisting of old rags, now of black garb, and a cord around the neck (POC: *benu)

buluwhat is stuck on; adhere, be attached, stick to a surface; be patched, sealed, filled (of a tooth); have something glued on to cover it (POC: *bulut) *pulut

bulu-bulugiven to sticking, adhering; be patched, sealed with a patch; be sticky, gluey, adhesive, cloggy, e.g. of clay or cloggy soil, too wet and lumpy to dig (POC: *bulut) *pulut

bulut-ipatch something, stick a patch onto something (POC: *bulut) *pulut

butoumbilical cord; navel; the inside, center, interior of something, either of a solid object or of the space inside a hollow object or a bounded area (POC: *buto)

buto ni koromiddle, center of a village or town (POC: *buto)

caka-manasomething done by magic or supernatural force; a miracle, magic (POC: *mana₂)

cakeclimb up or on, mount (PMP: *sakay₁)

cakeclimb, ascend, climb up or on, mount; climb up for something, esp. fruit; have intercourse with (vulgar) (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

calabe wrong, incorrect; make a mistake or error; wrongly, mistakenly, in error; miss a target, go astray; do wrong, transgress; wrongdoing, sin, transgression of moral principle (PMP: *salaq₁)

cāwakigeneric for urchins with very short spines and brittle shell, black or white in color; found in sandy bottom under seaweeds; eaten (POC: *saRawaki)

Wayan (20 / 329)

civodown, downwards (POC: *sipo)

ciwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

cokobe caught, netted, trapped by something which envelops the victim, as a fish in a net or a person ambushed or surrounded (POC: *sogo)

colothe high inland country of a mountainous land, mountain country, the interior (POC: *solos)

cucufish of the snapper family, possibly Lethrinus variegatus or Lethrinella sp. (POC: *susul)

cumfish taxon, includes many (Balistidae) and leatherjacket (Aluteridae) species (POC: *sumu)

curugo into seclusion for any ritual purpose; enter an institution for a period, e.g. be admitted to a hospital; (of a spirit, demonic force, mood) get into a person, possess someone (PMP: *surup₁)

-daformative in pronouns; marks first person inclusive of addressee, and occurs only after possessive marker and dual and paucal number-marking prefixes in the possessive pronouns (POC: *-da₂) *-ta

dranoa large body of fresh water lying inland, a lake or pond (POC: *rano) *danaw

dranufresh, pure (not salty) (POC: *ranum) *daNum

dranu-dranube fresh, pure (as water that is not salty); (of food) tasteless, unsalted, unseasoned (POC: *ranum) *daNum

dravu-dravu-abe poor, deficient, impoverished; lack richness or quality (as someone’s command of a foreign language) (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

ducito point, indicate; explain, show how, demonstrate (POC: *dusiq)

duci-ducikeep pointing, showing, etc. (POC: *dusiq)

duruany upright piece of timber or rod which supports a weight; post, stud, pole, etc. (POC: *turus)

eiwho? whom? (questions the identity of unnamed persons or the names of individual persons or animals) (PMP: *sei)

ei aviin the evening, especially the period from late afternoon until darkness; tonight, this evening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

ikā-toluthird (POC: *ika-tolu) *telu

ika-vituseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

i-kosecond person singular marker: you, occurring as the head-word or nucleus of a noun phrase which typically is the topic of a clause (POC: *iko) *kaSu

Wayan (40 / 329)

i-kuvu-kuvuany escape valve for steam or smoke; chimney, funnel of ship (POC: *kupuk)

i-liŋi-liŋimanner of pouring, way something is poured (POC: *liŋi-liŋi) *liŋi

i-nimabaler, bailer, anything used to bail (POC: *nima) *nimas

i-roŋonoise, sound; news (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

i-roŋo-roŋonews, report; hearing, sense of hearing; stethoscope, hearing aid (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

i-salisomething for water to flow through: drain, channel, acqueduct, pipe, etc.; ditch or drain made by water flow (PMP: *saliR)

i-sosomireplacement, substitute, successor (NOISE)

i-sovu-sovuplace for descending,; descent path; landing place, place for disembarking (POC: *sobu) *sombu

i-suluclothes, dress (general); skirt or sarong, sheet of cloth worn wrapped around the waist of a man, and around the waist and upper body of a woman (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

i-tau-tauplace for putting things (PMP: *taRuq)

i-vaka-maluanything that gives shade or shelter, e.g. a temporary shelter, umbrella (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

i-vaka-taŋiinstrument for making a sound, musical instrument (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

i-valuwar (POC: *palu₄)

kacikaemperor fish: Lethrinella miniata (POC: *kasika)

kaiwood; generic for trees and shrubs, and occasionally low bushy plants; used in certain compounds as a generic for all plants; piece of wood, stick; (vulgar, colloq.) penis; in restricted phrases, be hard, strong, tough; wooden, made of wood (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

kaistrong, tough, powerful; firm, rigid, stiff; hard wood (POC: *kayu kayu)

kai-kaibe hard, firm, rigid; strong, tough, powerful (POC: *kayu kayu)

ka-kā(obsolescent) a bird, possibly the Collared Lory, Phygis solitarius, which informants say was present on Waya a generation ago but is no longer there (POC: *kaRa)

ka-kakakind of land crab (PMP: *kaRakap)

kalipillow (formerly made of wood) (POC: *kalik)

Wayan (60 / 329)

kani(of animals) to eat, consume food; (of the sea, insects) erode, eat away at something, bore holes; use up someone’s resources, cost someone a lot (POC: *kani) *kaen

kani-kani(of land, body) be wasting away, be wasted, eaten away, eroded; keep eating, eat (frequently) (POC: *kani kani) *kaen

kani-kani(of land, body) be wasting away, be wasted, eaten away, eroded; (of skin) be flaky, scaly, as patches of skin in a habitual kava drinker (POC: *kani-kani)

karadisease, possibly a type of ringworm, in which pale spots appear on the skin (attributed by some to bathing in dirty water) (POC: *karak₂)

karabusishrub common in rocky hillside garden areas, with thin oval toothed leaves, and pinkish-green spikes of small flowers: a shrub: Acalypha repandra (POC: *kalaqabusi)

karavauhumpback ox (possbly from Tagalog carabao, water buffalo). Used as beasts of burden in Viti Levu but only once introduced to Waya, without succcess. (LOAN)

karibe scraped, scratched by a scraper (POC: *karis₂) *garis

karibe scraped, scratched with a scraper (POC: *kari) *karis

kari-ato scrape, scratch something (POC: *karis₂) *garis

kavikatree taxon: Syzygium malaccense (Myrtaceae), Malay apple; stout tree common in garden areas, large drooping rounded leaves, red bushy flowers on clusters on branchlets and trunk, fist-sized white to red fruit with crisp insipid flesh; fruit of this tree (POC: *kapika)

kawa-kawaa small striped fish, possibly a rock cod (Serranidae sp.); poisonous, not eaten (POC: *kawa-kawa)

kemam1pl. excl., topic pronoun (PMP: *kam-ami) *ami

kiprenominal particle that marks location, direction, source, instrument or cause (POC: *ki₁)

kiaaxe or adze; formerly used of stone adzes, now of steel axes or adzes (PMP: *kiRam)

kia-kavowar-club (PMP: *kiRam)

kia vatustone axe or adze; considered valuable goods before the introduction of steel (PMP: *kiRam)

ki-kililook for shellfish by lifting up rocks (POC: *kili)

kilawild, not tame; remain at a distance, keep away (POC: *kila) *gila

kilato know, comprehend, realize, understand; be acquainted with something or someone; what is known (PAN: *kilala)

kila-kilaremain wild, untamed; keep at a distance (PMP: *gila-gila) *gila

Wayan (80 / 329)

kila-kila-titry to identify or work something out, guess at something; what is guessed (PAN: *kilala)

kila-kwāknowledge, intelligence (PAN: *kilala)

kila tavamake a wrong identification, mistake one thing for another (PAN: *kilala)

kili(of something which sits on the ground), be turned over; (of a turtle) be turned on its back (POC: *kili)

kili-cito overturn something (POC: *kili)

kitoa reef fish, black with many orange dots, probably Siganus chrysospilos (POC: *kitoŋ) *kiteŋ

kokaa forest tree, apparently not on Waya; timber is used for posts and rafters: Bischofia javanica (Euphorbiaceae) (POC: *koka)

korovillage, hamlet, town, city; any nucleated human settlement (POC: *koro₂)

kucuverat, mouse (POC: *kusupe)

kukacrab, small edible hairy grapsid with black carapace and red claws; found in mangrove swamps (POC: *kuka)

kukunail (of finger or toe), claw (of dog, cat, fowl, etc.), hoof (of pig, cow, etc.) (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kuku qwāqwāhard-worker; hard-working (lit. ‘strong/powerful nails’) (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kuluArtocarpus altilis (Moraceae), breadfruit; common village tree; fruit of this tree (PMP: *kuluR)

kurasmall citrus tree taxon; generic, includes two rather different trees, but both with large soft fleshy fruit (POC: *gurat)

kura ni viticommon small shrubby tree of coastal thickets, with large solitary many-seeded fist-like fruit that become soft, yellow, and taste like acidic cheese: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) (POC: *gurat)

kura ni vitismall shrubby tree of coastal thickets, with large solitary many-seeded fist-like fruit that becomes soft, yellow, and taste like acidic cheese, the Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae) (POC: *kurat)

kutuhead louse, head lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kutu ni tuiflea (louse of dog) (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

kuvusteam, give off steam (POC: *kupuk)

kuvu-ibe smoked (as fish); be fumigated with chemicals or smoke; be given a steam bath, have a steam bath (POC: *kupuk)

Wayan (100 / 329)

kʷavufish taxon: probably Epinephelus hoedti (Serranidae), a rock-cod (PMP: *kuRapu)

lacasail of a boat (PAN: *layaR)

lakago, move along, proceed (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

lakato go, move along, proceed (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laka-lakato go, keep going; route, method, procedure; conduct, behavior; style, characteristics; contributions to a feast or presentation, what one brings (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laka-tigo to or over a place (POC: *lakas) *lakaj

laka-tigo to or over a place (PMP: *laŋkaq)

lalislit-gong, a percussion instrument made by hollowing out a large log leaving a narrow slit; each village has a slit-gong for communal purposes; a signal or pattern beat out on a slit-gong (POC: *drali)

laŋisky, atmosphere (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋohouseflies and other Brachycera flies (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laŋo-laŋobe fly-infested, full of flies (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lei-kila-tibe known, understood, etc. (PAN: *kilala)

lei-mamabe chewed up, eaten up (PMP: *mamaq)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima-limabe in a group of five, in fives, as a fivesome, all five together (PMP: *lima-lima) *lima

liŋibe poured, pour (PCEMP: *liŋi)

liŋi-pour something (PCEMP: *liŋi)

liovoice, of any living thing (POC: *liqo) *liqə

lio-liovoices, sounds made by a person or animal (POC: *liqo) *liqə

livaformative in several words denoting lightning (POC: *bila₂)

Wayan (120 / 329)

liva-i-laŋiflash of lightning seen in the sky (POC: *bila₂)

liva-livalightning (POC: *bila₂)

lomobe under water, submerged (as a reef at high tide); of a container, be filled by dipping under water (POC: *lomos) *lemes

lomo-ciplunge something under water, fill something by dipping it (POC: *lomos) *lemes

lumiseaweed which grows on sandy bottom (PMP: *limut)

maa-malushade, shadow; shelter, protection (PEMP: *maluRu)

maiindicates movement or orientation towards the speaker or the speaker’s point of reference: this way, hither, here (the movement may be actual or figurative); indicates that a change of state is beginning or is in progress: start to, become, grow, get (into a new state) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

malilaugh, smile, grin (PCEMP: *malip)

malube protected or sheltered from the elements; be shaded, in the shade or shadows (PEMP: *maluRu)

malu-malube shady, well-shaded, well sheltered from the elements (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

malu-tiput something in the shade, put something out of the sun (PEMP: *maluRu)

mamato chew, masticate (contrasting with kani, which refers to the consumption of food rather than to the manner of eating it) (PMP: *mamaq)

mama aŋgonato chew kava; in earlier times the green root was chewed before being brewed and strained (PMP: *mamaq)

manabe able to make things happen, be effective, have creative power; come true, happen, be realized, come about, be effected; power to make things happen, creative power, effectiveness (POC: *mana₂)

mana-manabe wishful, desire or wish something to happen that one has worked for, predicted, etc. (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

manu-manuanimal, creature, being; normally excludes humans; birds, insects, fish, etc. may be referred to generically as manumanu, or by manumanu + modifier indicating defining characteristics of the class (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

mataeye, organ of sight; face, front of head; front, facing side, face of object with both front and back side; head for, go towards a place; be awake, wake up; group, team or company of people; ahead, before, in front; opening, space or interstices in a surface, as doorway, window, the interstices or mesh of a net, the spaces between the fibers and weave of a cloth (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata anitua person who often sees spirits in his dreams (anitu = ‘spirit, ghost’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matakube afraid, frightened, fearful; fear, fright (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataku-cifear something, be afraid or frightened of something (POC: *matakut) *takut

Wayan (140 / 329)

mata-matagateway (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata-matakube always afraid, timid, cowardly (POC: *matakut) *takut

mata ni caŋidirection of wind; first gusts of wind (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni caŋidirection of the wind; direction of the compass, i.e. cardinal points (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata ni ciuciuwindow (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni culaeye of needle (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni Na representative, a person or thing representing N, a group or function (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni sāpoint of a spear (PMP: *mata) *maCa

(mata ni) savasacred area of a clan or kin group; people go there in times of misfortune to ask the guardian spirits (ancestors) to help (NOISE)

mata ni silamainsail stay or sheet, rope tying free end of mainsail boom to the stern of a boat (acts as a gear controlling direction of boat sailed into wind or wave) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni siŋasun (‘eye of the day’); sunflower (PAN: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata ni tūtraditionally, a group of vanua (tribes) or avusa (clans) who agree to combine under one chief; a federation of peoples under one rule, a kingdom (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni uvicuttings of yams for planting (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ni waiany freshwater source; spring, source of a river, rain clouds; wet ground, ground with natural water source on which taro may be planted; source, origin, start of something, especially if valuable (POC: *mata ni waiR) *maCa

mata-ravufireplace, place where food has been cooked (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matauthe right, right-hand side; right, right hand; be right-handed (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

matuabe mature, fully developed; thus 1. (of fruit, tubers, etc.) be ripe, mature, fit for eating or harvesting, 2. (of people, animals, plants) be full grown, grown up, mature, adult, 3. honest, honorable, upright (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

moyathe brain; brains as a body part (takes preposed possessive marking, in contrast to brains as food) (POC: *moñan)

mudube cut off, amputated, severed, cut short; end, cease, conclude (PEMP: *mutu₂)

naprenominal particle; marks a nominal as 1. common, as opposed to proper or local, and 2. specific, as opposed to generic; a variant ne occurs directly before nominals beginning with the noun-deriving prefix i- (PMP: *na₁)

Wayan (160 / 329)

niparticle which connects two common nouns in a genitive construction; the first noun may related to the second noun in one of the following partially distinct senses: 1. purpose, use, function; for, of, 2. belonging to, 3. inherent part or attribute of, 4. originating from, belonging to a place, 5. consequence, result: for, of, as a consequence of, 6. connects a nominalized verb denoting an action or process with a noun which, in an equivalent verbal construction, would be the direct object of the verb (PAN: *ni)

nimabe baled out, have water baled out (POC: *nima) *nimas

nima-nimato bale, keep bailing (POC: *nima) *nimas

nima-tibail something out (object the boat or the water) (POC: *nima) *nimas

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

novokeep still, be motionless, stay without moving; keep quiet, be subdued, acquiescent, peaceful (POC: *nofo)

novoc-istay fixed in a place, not move from a place (POC: *nofo)

novo-novostay firmly in place, stick fast, as an anchor which can’t be moved (POC: *nofo)

ŋaŋabe poisonous, toxic; bitter or sour in taste, astringent; pungent, hot in taste; poison, toxic quality; bitterness (POC: *ŋaŋa₁)

ŋgaand (PAN: *ka₁)

-ŋgu1sg possessive pronoun, directly preposed to head noun, marking part-possession (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ŋudru(of a pig or dog) growl; make a deep, throaty sound that continues for some seconds (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

ŋusumouth of an animal; external mouth or lips of a person, fish, etc, beak (of bird or turtle); snout or muzzle of a dog, pig, etc.; entrance or opening to certain objects with cylindrical or long narrow passage behind (bottle, kettle, teapot, river; spout or nozzle of pipe, hose, etc.; spokesman or voice (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋwatasnake (generic) (POC: *qumata)

ŋwatasnake (POC: *mwata)

forehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

rarabe heated, warmed; be baked hot, glowing hot (of pots being fired); be smoke, as fish (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

rarathe coral tree, Erythrina spp. (Leguminosae); deciduous tree found mostly near coast; twigs and branchlets are prickly, flowers red; the juice of the bark is used to dilute bitter-tasting wiriwiri bark juice in medicine to treat infection (thrush) of the tongue (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

rara-ni ~ rara-vito warm or heat something; what is warmed; wither something, dry something up, as vegetation (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

rauleaf; ; hair of the head; page, leaf of paper (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

Wayan (180 / 329)

rau-rauleaves (POC: *raun-raun) *dahun

riribe cooked (of food) (POC: *ririq) *diqdiq

rokobe bent, bowed, have a stoop or bend; bow to someone, go past in a stooping posture; be respectful (in words or action) (POC: *roko)

roko-roko vā-kanace(idiom) be respectful to one’s face but disrespectful behind one’s back (lit. ‘show respect like a mullet’) (POC: *roko-roko) *roko

roko-ti ~ roko-vibend something; what is bent (POC: *roko)

roŋobe heard, perceived with the ears; be understood; (of news, rumors, etc.) be heard abroad, i.e. reported, talked about; (of a person) be known, famous, have a reputation; (of an engine, machine, etc.) resound, be audible, make a noise, work (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-cihear something, hear the sound of something (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋolisten, hear; sound, make a sound (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-roŋo-ipay attention to something, listen attentively to something (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-ruaignore or shun advice, take no heed of what one is told (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

spear, harpoon. Spears, used in fishing and warfare, were formerly made from hardwood poles, reeds or bamboo. Fishing spears were pointed with tood, fishbone or ray stings. (POC: *jaot) *saet

companion, partner, one of a pair, counterpart, opposite number (POC: *soRa)

salatonettle tree: Dendrocnide Harveyi (uncommon tree of mesic mid-altitude forest) (POC: *salatoŋ) *zalateŋ

salito flow (PMP: *saliR)

savuto flow down, fall like a waterfall; waterfall (POC: *sabu)

sē-sēblossom, flower; have many flowers, come into bloom (POC: *see)

silarope (called a stay or sheet) which holds the lower side or corner of a sail to the deck of a boat; in the case of the mainsail, it is attached to the boom; in the case of the spinnaker, it is attached to the corner closest to the mast; it acts as a gear controlling the direction of boat sailed into wind or wave (POC: *jila)

siŋabe day, daylight in contrast to boŋi ‘night’; be fine, sunny, bathed in light or sunshine (PMP: *siŋaR)

sisihiss, make a hissing sound (as a kettle); signal with a hissing sound in order to attract someone’s attention (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

sokaribs of a boat; smaller transverse beams of a house, joining the top plates (POC: *sokar) *seŋkar

Wayan (200 / 329)

somobe dyed black or brown (using traditional dyes made from black mud or leaves); black or brown dye (LOAN)

somo-ni ~ somo-tidye something, stain something black or brown; weave a mat with dyed strips (LOAN)

sosomibe replaced, succeeded, substituted; act of replacing, succeeding (NOISE)

sovudescend, go down; disembark, land, go ashore from a boat (POC: *sobu) *sombu

suabe stabbed, pierced by a sharp instrument held in the hand (POC: *sua₁)

suibone (POC: *suRi₁)

sui-sui-abony, thin (POC: *suRi₁)

suluto dress, put on clothing (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

dung, feces, excrement, shit; unusable parts of shellfish; waste material, useless substance on a surface, scum (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

(of solid object) be cut by chopping or slashing; chopped, hacked, axed, adzed, slashed; be carved, shaped by cutting; be built, made (of boat, keel) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

ta-prefix that derives a stative verb marking an action or process that comes about accidentally or spontaneously, without a wilful agent (PMP: *ta-₂)

tabehold or carry a burden in the extended arms, esp. resting on both palms extended horizontally in front, as a tray (it is polite to hold a gift in this manner when presenting it) (POC: *tabe)

tabube forbidden, prohibited by strong communal sanction, e.g. of traditional custom, modern law; (of a place or thing) be prohibited from use; prohibition, restriction; holiness, sacredness (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tacicoast, seashore, sea, from the perspective of the land; be salty in taste; saltiness, salty taste (PMP: *tasik)

taci-tacibe salty to the taste; have salt added, be salted; be a bit salty (PMP: *tasik)

taisnare or trap to catch land animals, land crabs, crayfish, etc. (PMP: *taRin)

tai-tito trap or snare something; what is caught (PMP: *taRin)

takūthe back or rear side of something; later, afterwards (POC: *takuRu)

taliŋageneric for various kinds of fungi, e.g. mushrooms, bracket fungi (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

ta-liŋispilt (POC: *ta-liŋi) *liŋi

Wayan (220 / 329)

tamataperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

tā ni laŋilight scudding clouds (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tā ni siŋabrown growth, probably algae, appearing on surfaces of ponds or lakes in very dry weather (lit. ‘shit of the sun’) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

taŋito cry, wail, weep (usually refers to audible weeping but may refer to silent flow of tears); of birds and some animals, make the sound, call or cry characteristic of a species (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋi-cicry for something, ask for help in something, plead or cry for assistance; lament something, bewail something (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

taŋi-taŋicry and cry, keep crying, cry a lot (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

tara taito make or set a trap or snare (PMP: *taRin)

tā-sicut, chop, carve, build something; what is cut, etc. (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tata mātua(of a young child) be precocious in speech, advanced for his or her years (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

taube located, situated, positioned, placed, put; be in, at or on a place (PMP: *taRuq)

tau-nito put or place something, lay something down, deposit something (PMP: *taRuq)

tavalecross-cousin: specifically, a person of either sex who is the child of one’s father’s classificatory sister or one’s mother’s classificatory brother (address and referenc term) (LOAN)

tavibrush lightly, sweep something; peel something (PMP: *tapis₂)

tavuigastropod shellfish taxon; Pacific (or Triton’s) trumpet, Charonia tritonis, used as a horn; the shell of these animals (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

tiŋgethrow a reed or dart horizontally controlled by the end of the forefinger, with the aim of making the dart skip up when it hits the ground (POC: *tika)

tiobivalve shellfish taxon: generic for true oysters (Ostreidae) (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

tirolook down, lower the eyes (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tiro-vilook down at something (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

ti-tirolook down, lower the eyes (POC: *ti-tiro) *tindaw

tohave water in it, not be dry (of a container, creek, etc.) (POC: *toRop) *teReb

Wayan (240 / 329)

tokacome to rest, be at rest; (of a boat) run aground, strike bottom in shallow water; (of a whale or dolphin) be stranded, beached (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

toka(of any solid object) come to rest, be at rest; (of a boat) run aground, strike bottom in shallow water; (of e.g. a whale or dolphin) be stranded, beached; (of an animal) be tame, used to being with people; (of a person) be someone who can relied on when needed (POC: *toka₂)

tokalaueast wind; easterly (POC: *tokalaur)

tolube three, three (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tolu-tolugroup of threes, in threes, as a threesome, all three (POC: *tolu-tolu) *telu

tosimake a mark on a surface; mark, draw, etch. (PEMP: *tosi)

tō-tōbe full of water, wet, soaked (POC: *toRop) *teReb

tovusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

tuabone (POC: *tuqa₂)

tubahave cramp (as in leg muscle) (POC: *tupa₁)

tubāthe most common kind of land crab, probably Cardisoma carnifex and C. rotundum (Portunidae); almost completely land-dwelling and generally found close to the beach (POC: *tubaRa)

tuk-iclub (generic, including all types of club) (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tuk-i-tuk-ito pound, knock, punch, hammer (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tukuto hang, dangle while holding onto a support with one’s arms; be postponed, left til later (POC: *tuku₃)

tuku-cihang onto something by the arms; be dependent someone, lean heavily on someone (POC: *tuku₃)

tuleearwax, cerumen (POC: *tule)

tunafish (ika) taxon; eels (Anguilliformes), esp. freshwater eels (Muraena spp.) (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tu-tuvato poison fish, go fish-poisoning (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

tuvabe arranged, organized, set out, set in order, sorted out (POC: *tupak)

tuvavine () taxon: generic: includes species of Derris (Leguminoseae), scrambling or climbing plants with pinnate leaves, which are crushed and used to poison reef fish (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

Wayan (260 / 329)

tuvabe arranged, organized, set out, set in order, sorted out (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tuva-nipoison something with Derris juice (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

tuva-tuvakeep arranging things (POC: *tupa₃) *tupa₂

tū-vonuloggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta; has large head; meat is highly regarded. (POC: *poñu) *peñu

uawave; tide; high tide; to flow, come in (of the tide); wash over or cover something (of waves) (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

ua-uawaves (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

vacueyebrow (POC: *paju)

vaka-avigo in the early evening (POC: *paka-Rapi) *Rabiqi

vaka-avi-avigo in the early evening; have an evening meal (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

vaka-babahave boards on, be boarded or planked (POC: *baban) *papan

vaka-bulut-icause something to stick, seal something up (POC: *bulut) *pulut

vaka-calacause something to go wrong, lead someone astray, put someone off (target, concentration); disagree with someone (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

vaka-civoto say ‘Ā maca’ (Ah! Empty!) and clap as a mark of respect after a person has drained his cup of kava (POC: *paka-sipo) *sipo

vaka-ciwanine times (POC: *paka-siwa) *Siwa

vaka-dranuwash oneself in fresh water after being in the sea (POC: *ranum) *daNum

vaka-i-suluto dress, put on clothing; wear or have clothes (PMP: *suluŋ₂)

vaka-lacahave a sail, with sails (PAN: *layaR)

vaka-limafive times (POC: *paka-lima₂) *lima

vaka-liŋipour something (contents) out; empty something (a container); try to pour or empty something (PCEMP: *liŋi)

vaka-malutake shelter, seek shade or protection (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

Wayan (280 / 329)

vaka-matakube fearsome, frightening, terrifying; be dreadful, terribly bad, wicked; be dangerous; be formidable, powerful, commanding respect (PMP: *paka-takut) *takut

vaka-mātua-nilet something mature or ripen; to mature something; what matures (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

vaka-ŋusuhave a mouth, beak, snout, spout, etc. (PAN: *ŋusuq)

vaka-roko-rokobe respectful, show reverence or respect; be bent, stooping, with a stoop or bow (POC: *roko-roko) *roko

vaka-roŋolisten; obey, take heed of what one is told (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

vaka-taŋito cause tears, be the cause of sorrow (PMP: *paka-taŋis) *Caŋis

vaka-taŋi-taŋipretend to cry, put on a crying act (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

vaka-tokabe brought ashore or beached (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

vaka-tolube three times, thrice (POC: *paka-tolu) *telu

vaka-tovo-tovodo an experiment or test (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

vaka-uahave big waves washing to it, be covered with big waves (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

vaka-vicahow many times? how often? (POC: *paka-pica) *pijax

vaka-vili-try to pick up or gather something (PAN: *piliq)

vā-kutuhave lice, be infested with lice, be lousy (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

valube at war, fight a war (POC: *palu₄)

valu-timake war on something, fight against something (POC: *palu₄)

vatotosticks fastening the outrigger (cama) to the booms which connect it to the hull of a canoe (PEMP: *patoto)

vā-vātree taxon, probably Heliconis sp.; tall banana-like herb (POC: *paqo)

veliawaa vine: Merremia peltata (POC: *paliaRua)

vesi (wai)a tree: Pongamia pinnata (POC: *pesi)

Wayan (300 / 329)

viabe ready to spawn, have roe; fish eggs, roe (POC: *biRa) *piRaS

viā-tolube every third one (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

vicahow many?, how much?; be a small number or amount: a few, a bit (POC: *pica) *pijax

vicikoflesh, meat; muscles; be meaty, full of substance (POC: *pisiko)

vī-kai-kaibush, forest, woods (POC: *kayu-kayu) *kaSiw

vī-kila-tiknow each other, be acquainted (PAN: *kilala)

viliof something on the surface, especially foodstuff, be picked up, gathered, collected; pick up things; what is picked up (PAN: *piliq)

vili-vilikeep gathering, etc. (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

vilua fish taxon, probably Carangoides (PMP: *pilu)

vī-tiŋgegame of throwing reed darts; to play this game (POC: *tika)

vī-tio-tioplace with many oysters, an oyster colony (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

vitu(be) seven; (in card games) a seven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

vitu-vituin sevens, all seven together (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

vocabe run aground by force; be wrecked in this way (POC: *posaq) *peceq

vocaslap or smack something with the open hand or hands together (POC: *pwajaR)

voca-vocabe damaged, etc. (POC: *posaq) *peceq

voivoia small pandanus tree planted for its leaves, which are used for making fine mats, baskets and fans: Pandanus tectoriu sp; possibly also applied to cultivars of P. dubius or P. whitmeeanus (POC: *poipoi)

vono(of, e.g. a preacher or team coach) to give a speech of advice, instruction or encouragement (POC: *ponor) *pened₂

vua ni niucoconut; at least eleven named varieties of fruit (PMP: *niuR)

vudiplantain, Musa cultivar (Musaceae), bananas whose fruits are edible only when cooked; used by some as generic term for bananas (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

Wayan (320 / 329)

vuedrag the anchor, drift after breaking away from moorings (POC: *puRe₁)

vue-tirefloat a boat that has sunk; pull up a net (POC: *puRe₁)

vulasea cucumber: Holothuria sp. (POC: *pula₃)

vulimove position or turn over while lying down (as a baby) (POC: *puri)

vunibe hidden, concealed; to hide, hide oneself; secret, something concealed (POC: *puni₂) *buNi

vū ni niua particular coconut palm (PMP: *niuR)

vurato appear, come into view; to show up, arrive (POC: *pura)

vurenavel (POC: *pure)

wai dranufresh water (contrast wai taci) (POC: *ranum) *daNum

wai tacisea, a body of sea-water; salt water (PMP: *tasik)

816. Weda (1) SHWNG [szw] (Sawai) Indonesia (Maluku)

yenefsleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

817. Wedau (22) OC (Capell 1943) [wed] Papua New Guinea

bia-ŋahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

biɣa-biɣaswamp, mud (PMP: *pitak₁)

binamahornbill (POC: *binam)

iramastone axe (PMP: *kiRam)

kaitito copulate (POC: *qait)

kira-kirakoparrot (POC: *kiRak)

laginawind (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

magamany (PMP: *maŋa)

manubird (not used singly) (POC: *manuk)

manu badafish-hawk (bada = ‘chief’) (POC: *manuk)

mata ano-naeyeball (POC: *kanoŋ qi mata) *kanoŋ

naiaginger (PMP: *laqia)

nalasail (PAN: *layaR)

naraduck, shag (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

nawacobweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

tunaeel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tupuabody, substance, material (POC: *tupuqa)

tuvacreeper whose roots are used in killing fish; dynamite (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

vavadownwards, towards the sea (King 1901) (POC: *papaq₃) *babaq₁

wairawater; water vessel; calabash (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

Wedau (20 / 22)

waira-najuice (POC: *waiR) *wahiR

wavinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

818. West Guadalcanal (2) OC

ka-kaistrong (POC: *kayu kayu)

voivoipandanus (POC: *poipoi)

West Manggarai (5) CMP. see: Manggarai (West)

Western Arosi (2) OC. see: Arosi (Western)

Western Bukidnon Manobo (904) WMP. see: Manobo (Western Bukidnon)

Western Fijian (329) OC. see: Wayan

Western Marshallese (2) OC. see: Marshallese (Western)

Western Paiwan (42) Form.. see: Paiwan (Western)

819. Wetan (142) CMP (Josselin de Jong 1987)

aidog (PAN: *asu₁)

aifire (used in compounds only) (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

alato use, to take; like, love, marry (PAN: *alaq₁)

alalarge forest, wilderness (PMP: *halas) *Salas

an-ato eat (PMP: *kaen-a) *kaen

arkaarrack, and strong liquor in general (LOAN)

arkaarrack and strong liquors in general (from Dutch arak) (LOAN)

ataslave, servant (PMP: *qaRta)

(a)ta…ammanot at all, there is nothing but (PMP: *taq₃)

atiheart, liver, milt, spleen, lungs (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ati wori(lit. 'liver two') lungs, heart and liver, milt and lungs, etc. (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

awnaa fish, the silver bream: Gerres sp. (PMP: *qawan)

enisea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

eria term applied to various internal organs, especially the milt; it may also mean: bile (PAN: *qapeju)

hulu-nbody hair, feather; thatch of palm leaves (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

īayes, amen (PAN: *qia)

iado, make, deal with, become (NOISE)

i-alabelongings, clothing, what one uses (PAN: *alaq₁)

ikielbow; to hook on, to hitch on (PAN: *sikux)

ikratail (PAN: *ikuR)

Wetan (20 / 142)

ilistone, rock, hill, mountain; used in compounds only, e.g. ili-era anchoring-place, harbor; also in many village names, e.g. Il-miawoora, Gold Stone Mountain (PCEMP: *qili) *qilih

imiyou (pl.) (PCEMP: *imi) *Simu

-in-infix, used mainly to form nouns from verb-stems (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

inaM, MZ, FZ, MBW, FBW (PCEMP: *ina)

īnafish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ineexclamation expressing astonishment or dismay (PMP: *qina)

iratear up, rend, tear off (PMP: *hiras)

irathey, them (PMP: *ida)

irna mataface (PCEMP: *ijuŋ mata) *ijuŋ

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

iwrato say; think, presume, wonder (NOISE)

iwtitouch; hold fast, clench, pinch (esp. between thumb and finger) (PMP: *ibit)

ka-matato rise, get up (PMP: *ka-mata) *maCa

(ka)-nanito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

katito call pigs (PCMP: *kati₁)

katlalascivious (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kənaritree with oleiferous seed (PMP: *kanari)

kontiscissors (LOAN)

laato go, to become (PMP: *lakaw)

la-laato roam about aimlessly (PMP: *lakaw)

Wetan (40 / 142)

larasail; to sail (PAN: *layaR)

larirun (PAN: *laRiw)

lerasun, day, daylight, to be light (PMP: *qalejaw)

ler(a)-denathen, at that time (PMP: *qalejaw)

ler(a)-dinanow, today (PMP: *qalejaw)

liaginger (PMP: *laqia)

liantisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lienacave, grotto; mortar to pound rice or maize in (PMP: *liaŋ)

lorasea, used especially in contrast to land; go to the sea (PCEMP: *laur₁) *lahud

maand, but, or (PAN: *maS)

maagold, golden valuables (esp. ornaments like bracelets and such) (LOAN)

maito come, to come to, to become (in this case it is usually followed by pi) (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

maka-tenniweaver (PAN: *tenun)

mak-wunisacrificer, priest (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

maligame, joke; to play (PCEMP: *malip)

mataeye; to rise, get up (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matidead; die (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mati wnoahereafter, abode of the dead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

m-eticoral-reefs and sand-banks along the sea-shore which are dry at ebb-tide (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

m-katlalascivious, to be lascivious (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

Wetan (60 / 142)

motato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

mtaatato be afraid of (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

na-loraat sea, to the sea, from the sea; seaside (PCEMP: *laur₁) *lahud

nenikind of tree (probably Morinda citrifolia); the fruits and decoction of the roots are used as a remedy against swollen tonsils; from the roots is also made paint (yellow, or when the wood has been mixed with lime, red) (PCEMP: *ñəñu)

noaland, island, territory, region (PMP: *nusa₁)

noracoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

onatree-trunk (esp. the lower part); piece, lump in general; origin; chief, leader (PMP: *unah)

ortatendon; sinew; fibre; muscle; vein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

otnadebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

otnarain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

papnaboard, plank (PMP: *papan)

penifull, to fill (as a village with graves, a garden with plants) (PMP: *penuq)

raihundred; several; many (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rai idaone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ralam-(with various qualifying words) to like, love, be in love, long for, pity; worry, be worried, depressed; angry, embittered; sick (PMP: *dalem)

ralmainside (a house, etc.) interior; heart, feelings (PMP: *dalem)

rarawoman (PMP: *daRa₂)

rere wuwin-nitop of mast (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

retan watistairs of stone (PMP: *haRezan na batu) *haRezan

retnaclimbing-pole, ladder, stairs (PMP: *haRezan)

Wetan (80 / 142)

rewaa unit of measure (fathom, about six feet) (PMP: *depa)

riripost, mast (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

roatwo (in compounds) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

romahouse; also clan, lineage, e.g. Roma Lona, the house (clan lineage) of Lona (PAN: *Rumaq)

roma wuwin-niridge purlin (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

ruinisea cow, dugong (PCEMP: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rurithorn, bone, leaf-rib (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

semnaoutrigger float (PMP: *saRman)

ta(a)not (PMP: *taq₃)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tamnato bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tarito put away, pack up, lay down, leave (PMP: *taRuq)

teeexcreta (of all kinds) (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tekigecko, called after the sound it makes (PAN: *tekiq)

tennito weave (PAN: *tenun)

tewisugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tirmashellfish (PMP: *tiRem)

tiwlasmall drum (PCMP: *tibal)

tuniburn, roast, often combined with naja, to cook: ra-tuni ra-naja they roasted and cooked, they prepared food (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

tutito knock, bump (PAN: *tutuh)

Wetan (100 / 142)

udibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

uimilk; female breast; to suckle (PAN: *susu₁)

ukrito measure, to fathom (LOAN)

ulitorch; to practice reef-fishing by torchlight (PMP: *suluq)

ulia tuberous plant: Colocasia esculenta (PMP: *suli₁)

ullirudder (PMP: *qulin)

waito pound (PAN: *bayu)

w(a)-lariflee (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

watistone; become stone; dry up, of land; whetstone (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

weliprice; to buy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

weran-niits breadth (PMP: *beraŋ)

wernabroad; to spread out (e.g. a mat) (PMP: *beraŋ)

wertaheavy, be heavy (also in a figurative sense, e.g. of a disease); to weigh, consider (PMP: *beReqat)

wetmamillet (PMP: *betem)

we-wertaheaviness, difficulties (PMP: *beReqat)

winiseed (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

witionastar (PAN: *bituqen)

witiora woitia constellation, Ursa minor (PMP: *bituqen pitu) *bituqen

witoraa tree whose fruits are burned for lightening (PMP: *bitaquR)

woafruit; milt; bear fruit (PMP: *buaq)

Wetan (120 / 142)

wo-irahow many? how much? (PAN: *pijax)

wo-ira wo-irasome, several (PAN: *pija pija) *pijax

wo-itiseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

wolan-n-matidark moon, lunar eclipse (PMP: *bulan matay) *bulaN

wolan tiprieast monsoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wolan wartawest monsoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wo-limafive (PAN: *lima)

wollamoon, month, monsoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wonemsix (PAN: *enem)

wo-telithree (PAN: *telu)

wo-woabe very fruitful (PMP: *buaq buaq) *buaq

wuibeads, necklace (PCMP: *bui₂)

wuiangle, corner (PCEMP: *buu₃)

wulihair (PCEMP: *bulu₁)

wunithe Seven Sisters, Pleiades (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

wunikill, sacrifice (always, or usually combined with wenna) (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

wuni-wennakill, sacrifice (ritually); quarrel (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

wun-kieaUrsa minor (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

wun-liawnaUrsa Major (PCEMP: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

wuwarice-beetle, weevil (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

Wetan (140 / 142)

wuwifish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

wuwniupper part, skull (PMP: *bubun₂) *buNbuN

Wewewa (7) CMP. see: Waiyewa

Weweya (7) CMP. see: Waiyewa

Whitesands (1) OC. see: Iarkei

820. Windesi (17) SHWNG

aefoot (PAN: *qaqay)

babinwoman; female (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

ba-borunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

bopaddle (PEMP: *boRse) *beRsay

boribuy (PEMP: *poli) *beli

enasleep (PCEMP: *qenəp)

ena-miadream (PCEMP: *qenəp)

patarbed, sleeping place (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

sawahusband (or 'man'?; cf. Anceaux 1961:29) (PAN: *qasawa)

tamafather (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

t-apugrandparent; grandchild (PEMP: *t-ampu) *apu

tobusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

unumto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

varahand (PMP: *baRa₁)

warroot (PMP: *wakaR)

yarua tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *aRuhu)

yarua tree: Casuarina equisetifolia (PMP: *qaRuhu)

821. Wogeo (66) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [woc] Papua New Guinea

boropig (POC: *boRok) *beRek

buto-navel (POC: *buto)

damwaforehead (POC: *damwa)

danfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

darablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

fitilightning (POC: *pitik₂) *bitik₂

foñsea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

-g1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ikutail (PAN: *ikuR)

jalapath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

katree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

kassmoke (POC: *kasu)

ka-visahow much?, how many? (POC: *ga-pica) *pijax

kətitaputty nut: Parinari laurinum (POC: *katita)

kojto husk coconuts (POC: *kojom)

kojococonut husking stick (POC: *kojom)

kuragiant grouper, Epinephelus spp. (PMP: *kuRapu)

kuritaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

lakoto go (POC: *lako) *lakaw

Wogeo (20 / 66)

lalapearl shell (PMP: *lalak)

laŋsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lawaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

lootoboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

loso-losobathe (POC: *loso-loso)

lumseaweed (generic) (PMP: *lumut)

lum-lummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

manbird (POC: *manuk)

mañawato rest (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

moñasweet, tasty, fragrant (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

mʷajabandicoot (POC: *mwajar) *mansar

mwawayawn (POC: *mawap) *Suab

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

natu-child (PCEMP: *natu)

ñammosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ñoñtree with non-edible fruit and roots used as medicine: Morinda citrifolia (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ñoñofemale breast (POC: *ñoñop) *ñepñep

o-yenosleep, lie down (POC: *qenop) *qenəp

Wogeo (40 / 66)

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

rumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

sak baremasailfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

sak baremasailfish (PMP: *saku₂)

selitea shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

ta-bulturn around (POC: *ta-bulos) *bulos

taefeces, excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

talŋa-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

taŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋira sea fish, Spanish mackerel (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taurconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

tina-M (ref.) (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

tolthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tousugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

toxaelder sibling (POC: *toka) *teka₂

tunuroast, burn; cook it! (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

vaiawabanyan (PEMP: *qayawan)

vanigive (POC: *pani₁)

vanunushadow; reflection (POC: *qanunu)

Wogeo (60 / 66)

vatoroof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

veinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

waefoot, leg (PAN: *waqay)

wanaright (side) (PMP: *wanan) *waNan

wanaright (side) (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN

warorope, string (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

822. Woi (1) SHWNG [wbw] Indonesia (Papua)

wariroot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

823. Woleaian (175) OC (Sohn and Tawerilmang 1976) [woe] Micronesia

bbulato burn, light up (POC: *bula₁)

bbuwabetel nut (originally brought from Yap) (POC: *buaq)

buga-aboil it (POC: *bukal₂) *bukal

buubuSouthern Cross (POC: *bubu₁)

buubutrigger fish; diamond shape (as in playing cards) (POC: *bubu₇)

chablood; red; bloody (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

faa-four (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

fafiy(a)firewood (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

faifil(e)woman; sister (POC: *pai-p<in>ai) *bahi

fai-yafile (a tool); rayfish (general term) (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

falmen's house, clubhouse (POC: *pale) *balay

falibe restricted, stay away from impure things, keep away from eating certain foods (POC: *pali₂) *paliSi

faliuwland, island (POC: *panua) *banua

faŋiul-i-iwake him up, awake him, arouse him (POC: *paŋun-ia) *baŋuN

faracopra sponge, copra meat (PMP: *para)

far-i-yawalungs (/yawa/ = 'mouth') (POC: *paRaq₂) *baRaq₁

fash(a)pandanus, pineapple (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

fata plant (POC: *pasok) *pasek

fato-giplant it, put it in place (POC: *pasok) *pasek

fato-goplant set aside for a particular purpose, usually for planting at a new taro patch or new garden (POC: *pasok) *pasek

Woleaian (20 / 175)

fe-reciprocal prefix, attached to ŋal 'to' and taŋ 'away from' (PEMP: *paRi-)

fela (felaa)kind of needlefish (POC: *panapa)

feonew; cleaned (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

f-filito choose, pick up, decide, select (PAN: *piliq)

fili-ichoose it, pick it up, select it (PAN: *piliq-i) *piliq

fis(i)seven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fita-[indefinite] how many?; a few, some (POC: *pica) *pijax

fitig(o)meat, flesh (POC: *pijiko)

fitig(o)meat, flesh (POC: *pisiko)

fiti-itie it, bind it, tangle it, spiral it, wrap it (POC: *pisi₁)

fius(iu)star (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

gaipenis, male genital (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

gale-possessive classifier for food (POC: *kana-)

ga-metagimake it hurt (POC: *masakit) *sakit

gatothatch rafter of a house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

geli-ŋidig it, delve it, core it, excavate it (PCEMP: *keli)

giish(a)we (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

gius(a)octopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

giusiulouse, vermin (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

giya-giyaWhite or Fairy tern (POC: *kiRa)

Woleaian (40 / 175)

giyegiypandanus leaves used for mats; mat (POC: *kiRe-kiRe) *kiRay

go2nd person singular, you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

ig(a), igal(a)fish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

imwhouse, dwelling, room, shelter (PAN: *Rumaq)

imwa-possessive classifier for dwellings or sleeping places (PAN: *Rumaq)

ira maiurgreen wood (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

it(a)name, personal name (POC: *isa₂)

iulbody hair, feather (of a bird), scale (of a fish) (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

iulto drink, smoke a cigarette (PCEMP: *unum)

iul(a)maggot, larva (of a dipterous insect) (PMP: *qulej)

iulef-i (iulafii)remove or pull off its scales or feathers (POC: *qunap-ia) *quSeNap

iul-iulbe drinking (progressive) (POC: *unum-unum) *unum

iuliul (iuliulu)pull, draw, pull something from a group (POC: *unus) *SuNus

iulium-idrink it, smoke it (a cigarette) (PCEMP: *unum)

iur (iura)lobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

iutal(a)load, burden, pack, cargo, freight (PMP: *ujan)

kemal (ka-mala)miracle, power; be powerful (as a ghost) (POC: *mana₂)

kiufingernail, toenail, claw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kut(u)spit, spittle; to spit (POC: *kusu₂)

laal (laala)demonstrative (close to hearer); that, those (POC: *nana)

Woleaian (60 / 175)

-lagodirectional suffix, away from the speaker; thither (POC: *lako) *lakaw

laldeep; deep place; inside, mind, heart (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lalo i laŋiworried, frightened, insecure (POC: *ralom) *dalem

lamwmosquito; to have plenty of mosquitoes (PMP: *ñamuk)

laŋ(i)sky; typhoon, rain-storm, wind; be struck by a typhoon; compass (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋ(o)canoe roller, fulcrum; to be rolled, raised with supporters (as a canoe) (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

-litransitive verb suffix; to own, have, possess (permanently) (PAN: *ni)

lima-five (PAN: *lima)

liucoconut tree (PMP: *niuR)

lumwmoss, seaweed; be covered with moss, having moss (as a canoe) (PMP: *lumut)

maa, maashamed; disgraceful; feel shameful (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

maal(iu)drift, be adrift (as a canoe) (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

ma-iurbe fresh, green, alive (as of plants) (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

malanimal, bird, animate object (POC: *manuk)

malif(i)(to be) thin, lack thickness (as cloth) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

malifi-lif(to be) thin, lack thickness (as cloth) (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

maliugachicken, hen, rooster (POC: *manuk)

mam(i)sweet, sugary (POC: *mamis) *hemis

masdeath; dead person; (be) dead, die; disease, ailment, sickness (POC: *mate) *aCay

masiuriuto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

Woleaian (80 / 175)

mateye, face; pointed end prow of a canoe; point, cutting edge, projection; representative; numeral classifier for kinds of things, usually inorganic things (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mate-fascourageous, bold, have courage to confront people (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mate-matto use as eyes; kind, variety (as different kinds of people) (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mat(iu)to be full after eating, satiated (POC: *masuR)

mefrom, at, to than (as in ‘Where did you come from?’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

meconjunction: and, with (PMP: *mai)

melawto be alive; give birth to a baby (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

me-ram(a)moon, month (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

metagipain; be painful, sick, hurt (POC: *masakit) *sakit

metag(iu)to be afraid, scared of (POC: *matakut) *takut

mmal(i)laugh, smile, grin (PCEMP: *malip)

mmʷut(a)to vomit, throw up, disgorge contents of the stomach (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

mwat(a)underground worm (POC: *mwata)

mwulcaterpillar, silkworm (POC: *muno)

ŋaf(a)fathom, the distance from one fingertip to another when the arms are outstretched (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋat(a)hole, hollow, concavity (POC: *ŋata)

ŋiitooth (POC: *ŋipon) *ŋipen

pabait, anything used as a lure (POC: *bayan)

pabait, anything used as a lure (POC: *bayan₃) *payan

paa-niucoconut leaf, coconut frond (PMP: *niuR)

Woleaian (100 / 175)

paap(a)plank, strake, the planking (of a canoe); to be provided with plank (POC: *baban) *papan

pachthunder, lightning (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

pal(a)be dry, dried (as a cloth) (POC: *(bp)ala₁)

paliyside, flank (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

paliyside, flank (PCEMP: *pali₁) *pali

paliy-etamoutrigger side, windward side of a canoe (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

pash, pashathat part of a utensil or tool which is to be held with the hand (POC: *paRara) *paRada

pash(a)tail of a fish (NOISE)

pig(a)small island, islet (POC: *pika)

pili-piltie, twist, fold, lash (as in twisting ropes) (PMP: *pirit)

ppiyasand, beach (POC: *bia-bia) *bia

riuwatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

roŋoroŋhear, listen (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roshnight, darkness; be dark, black, obscure (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

sat(i)sea, ocean (archaic) (PMP: *tasik)

seli- ~ yelithree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

se-ŋa-ul shoten groups of copra (PMP: *ŋa)

sera (seraa)kind of fish (PMP: *taRaqan)

shal(iu)liquid, fresh water, water-well, lake (POC: *ranum) *daNum

sifi-sifgrass skirt; to wear a grass skirt (POC: *tipi)

Woleaian (120 / 175)

sila-M (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

sium(a)giant clam (PMP: *kima)

tab(u)taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign); be prohibited by taboo, restricted by taboo (POC: *tabu) *tambu

tag(e)directional --- upward, eastward (POC: *sake) *sakay₄

tageey (tagee-a)ride it, sail in it (PMP: *sakay₁)

tagiuriuback (anatomical) (POC: *takuRu)

taguw(a)yellowfin tuna (POC: *takua)

tal(i)rope, line, be tangled up with ropes (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

taliŋear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

taliŋe-li-pachmushroom (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

tal(o)earth, soil, ground; west, downward (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

tam(a)father; father's side, patrilineality (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

tam(a)outrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

taŋ(i)to weep, cry, sob (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋir(i)king-size tuna fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taŋi-teŋto cry a lot, weep frequently (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

tap(a)cheek, face (POC: *tabal)

tapiyabowl, dish; the Delphinus star (POC: *tabiRa)

taulomw(u)sheet, mosquito net (POC: *tau ñamuk)

tawiiconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

Woleaian (140 / 175)

te-ram(a)light; to be lighted, brightened (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

-tiwedirectional suffix: downward, down, westward (POC: *sipo)

toga-togto stick something into (a young coconut), pierce, stab (POC: *soka)

tol(o)to disappear, submerge, go out of (POC: *solo₃)

túlú-torch, torch-light; to do torch fishing (PMP: *suluq)

tútúbreast; to suck milk, drink milk from ones mothers breasts (PAN: *susu₁)

ufish trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

u-biliwhite shell, cowry (POC: *buliq₁)

ug(o)fish net; to go net-fishing (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

umwunderground oven, earth oven; to cook in an earth oven (PMP: *qumun)

uwafruit; bear fruit or flowers (POC: *puaq) *buaq

-uw(a)numeral classifier for general objects including those which are not covered by other classifiers. Big animals (e.g. whales, horses, pigs, crocodiles, bonitos) and shell-carrying animals (e.g. clams, turtles, crabs, snails) are counted with -uw (POC: *puaq) *buaq

uwataload, belonging (POC: *puat-an₂) *buhat₃

wele-wel(e)straight, steady, still (POC: *wane wane)

wish(i)banana (Musa). Four varieties are found on Falalus which are named after their supposed islands of origin, Truk, Saipan, Yap and Ponape (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

wol(o)six (POC: *onom) *enem

wousugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

yaffire, flame, blaze (POC: *api) *Sapuy

yaiuw(a)kind of fish: Neomyxus chaptalii, etc. (PMP: *qaRuas)

yaiuw(a)fish sp.: Neomyxus chaptalii (PMP: *qawas)

Woleaian (160 / 175)

yala-liroad of, way of, path of (POC: *salan) *zalan

yalius(iu)ghost, spirit, god; chant directed to a god or spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ya-liut(a)small uninhabited island (POC: *a-nusa) *nusa₁

yaŋ(i)wind, blast, air in motion (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

yasliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

-yas(a)up, upside (PMP: *atas) *aCas

yase-shyour liver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

yas(o)roof, thatch, coconut-frond thatch; be roofed, have a roof (POC: *qatop) *qatep

yat(e)chin, jaw (POC: *qase) *qazay

yaw(a)mouth (POC: *qawa₂)

yefar (yafara)shoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

yemat(a)raw, not cooked; new (PAN: *qamataq)

yeriule-yassouth-southeast (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ye-taone (enumerative counter) (PAN: *esa)

yoafishing line, string used for carrying baskets; band (as of a watch) (POC: *apon) *hapen

824. Wolio (509) WMP (Anceaux 1987) [wlo] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

-a3p. object suffix (PMP: *-a₂)

-averbal suffix: subjunctive (PAN: *-a₃)

aaiI don't know! (PWMP: *away₃)

abhafather (term of address), daddy (PAN: *aba₁)

adaborrow (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

aeleg, foot, paw, lower course (of a river), river-mouth (PAN: *qaqay)

agamareligion (LOAN)

Ɂakalaguile, trick, ruse, device, artifice, way out, resource, means, reason, intellect, spirit (LOAN)

-akusuffix with transitive verbs indicating 1sg. object (PAN: *aku)

alatake, fetch, include, take along, take away, accept (PAN: *alaq₁)

amafather (PAN: *amax)

ampeafloat, set adrift, drift with the current (NOISE)

anachild, offspring', young (of animals), small and separate part of a whole (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anaplait (PMP: *añam)

ana awostepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana lalakiperson of noble birth (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

ana maeluorphan (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana-na baluwu o peropacrown prince (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana-na kasopublowpipe dart (PMP: *anak i sumpit) *aNak

anana nosupestle (PMP: *anak i lesuŋ) *aNak

Wolio (20 / 509)

ana-na odastep of a staircase of ladder (PWMP: *anak i haRezan) *aNak

ana-na panaarrow (PMP: *anak i panaq) *aNak

ana-na panaarrow (lit. ‘child of bow’) (PAN: *panaq)

ancagill (of fish) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

ancaŋ-iremove gills from (fish) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

andiyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

anelarva of termite, white ant (PAN: *aNay)

ane kumbabeetle larva (PAN: *aNay)

anti-antiear trinket, earring (LOAN)

antona biticalf of leg (PMP: *bities)

a-nuproperty (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

anu anuderide, mock, ridicule (PWMP: *anu-anu) *-nu

aŋkalift up; fly up (many birds), run away (many people) (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋka-aŋkalift and keep up, hold up, keep aloft (PWMP: *aŋkat aŋkat) *aŋkat

aŋkat-akahold in high esteem, have a high regard for (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋkubring, take somebody somewhere, accompany, conduct, render the last sad office to a dying person (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

aŋonose (NOISE)

aŋonose (NOISE)

apawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

apafour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

Wolio (40 / 509)

áraarrack, brandy (made from sago juice or nectar of nipah-palm blossom) (LOAN)

ariipost, stake, pile (standing) (PAN: *SadiRi)

asak-ipress, suppress (desires) (PWMP: *hasek-i) *hasek₂

asak-ipress, suppress (desires) (PWMP: *qasak)

asalaorigin, source (LOAN)

asanasandalwood: Santalum album (LOAN)

atawaor (LOAN)

ateliver, heart, seat of the emotions, mind (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atiland, sandbank, shoal, shallow water; ebb, low tide (PMP: *qati) *qaCi

atiland, sandbank, shoal, shallow water; ebb, low tide (PMP: *qeti₁)

awaashoulder (esp. the fore part) (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

babedangle, hang loosely (NOISE)

babufemale servant, maid (in colonial times) (LOAN)

balakikind of edible fish, the tunny: Thynnus tunnina (PWMP: *balaki)

balaŋaearthen cooking pot (PMP: *balaŋa)

baliside, direction, opponent, enemy; counting-word for things occurring in pairs (e.g. parts of the body); face, be opposite to (PMP: *baliw₁)

balichange, lose color, discolor, fade (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

baliaspirit medium (PWMP: *balian)

balidasword-shaped stick for tightening weaving (part of loom) (PMP: *balija) *baRija

baliliturn around, turn over, roll over (PWMP: *baliliŋ)

Wolio (60 / 509)

balushroud (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

balu-baluwidow(er) (PWMP: *balu balu) *balu₄

balulahorny skin, leather, tendon (PWMP: *balulaŋ)

baluŋ-ienvelop in a shroud (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

banua mate-aa bereaved house (PMP: *m-atay-an) *aCay

banuiwash, wash up (dishes) (NOISE)

baŋkedead body (especially of animal, carcass, carrion (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋkomangrove tree: Rhizophora conjugata (PWMP: *bakehaw)

barat-abinding for outrigger float (PAN: *barat₁)

barugameeting-hall, assembly-hall, council-room (PWMP: *baruga)

barumbucock with green and yellow feathers (PWMP: *baRunbun)

batafallen tree trunk; sp. of big banana (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batustone, kernel, pip (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu lantopumice (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu-na tawutesticle (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu papaslate (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

batu papawriting slate (PMP: *papan)

batu waaflint (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

bawacarry (esp. on the shoulder), bring; bring along; burden, load (PMP: *baba₁)

bawa-bawapregnant (PMP: *baba₁)

Wolio (80 / 509)

bawabawa matepregnant (because an unborn child is not yet alive) (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

bawinewoman; female (of people, animals, and plants) (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

bawine-na dalaprostitute (‘woman of the street’) (PMP: *zalan)

bawotop, upper side (PAN: *babaw₃)

bawupig, hog (PAN: *babuy₃)

βeβeduck (LOAN)

βeβe manilaManila duck (LOAN)

bekabreak open, force open, jerk open (PWMP: *bekaj)

bémbégoat (LOAN)

bencitear, tear up (PMP: *besiq)

benteburst open (like popcorn) (PWMP: *beRtiq)

benufibrous husk of the coconut (PMP: *benut₁) *benut

benut-iremove fibrous husk from (coconut) (PMP: *benut₁) *benut

bewebelt, strap, band, coil; wind round, tie round, bind round (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bewe-iwind around (as a snake) (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bewet-akaroll up, roll over, wrap oneself in, wind round oneself (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bhoku buri-awriting book (PMP: *burit₂)

biasabe used to (something), get accustomed (LOAN)

bibitremble, quake, shiver, shudder, quiver (PAN: *birbir₂)

bidaButonese fabric, formerly made of local cotton (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

Wolio (100 / 509)

bika-bikakind of cake made of the scraps of batter of other cakes (LOAN)

bikusnail (ROOT)

biku-bikuankle (PMP: *bikuq)

bila-bilaŋ-icount up, total up, enumerate (PAN: *bilaŋ)

ɓinasedestroyed, smashed, ruined, cancelled, nullified (LOAN)

binitake between thumb and finger (as in taking a small bit of fish, tearing off a small piece of paper); pinch (PMP: *binit₁) *biNiC

bintamedal, decoration, mark of honor (LOAN)

bintiŋ-icarry in one's hand; offer, dispense (PMP: *bintiŋ)

bintonua plant occurring in two varieties (red and white): Melichia umbellata? (PWMP: *bintenu)

biŋkuhoe, pick, pickaxe, adze (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

biŋkun-ito hoe (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

biŋkurua tree, the Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia\note Also Malay meŋkudu 'plant of which the roots bark gives a red dye, Morinda spp. (PWMP: *biŋkudu)

biobig fish roe (PWMP: *bihed)

bisasorcerer, magician, healer, medicine man or woman; be efficacious, effective ɓisa poison; poisonous (LOAN)

bisik-isprinkle (PMP: *bicik)

bitaraadministration of justice, judiciary, legal case, lawsuit (LOAN)

biteattack, assail (NOISE)

bitilower part of leg (from the knee down) (PMP: *bities)

biwilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

biwiside, edge, border, bank, shore, brim (PMP: *birbir₁)

Wolio (120 / 509)

bokuruturtledove (PWMP: *bekur)

bolidon't (negation of order, request, or wish) (PMP: *beliq₂)

boli-akain order that not, lest (PMP: *beliq₂)

bolopitch-black (as the feathers of a cock) (PWMP: *beleŋ)

boŋkabreak, break open (PMP: *bekaq)

boŋkabreak; break open (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

boŋka-na taoannual harvest festival (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

boochase off animals (PAN: *buRaw)

boriline, borderline (PWMP: *berit₁)

boriline, borderline (ROOT)

borosecurity, guarantee, pledge; undertake, contract (for work) (LOAN)

bosepaddle; to paddle, travel by boat (PMP: *beRsay)

botucut off, decide; piece, bit (PMP: *betus)

buatake up, carry up, raise, pull up (PMP: *buhat₃)

bua-buagossip, slander (PWMP: *buat buat)

buat-akabring forward (to a ruler), submit, present, offer (to a ruler) (PMP: *buat₁)

bubucover, cover up (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

bubusprinkle, strew (PMP: *budbud)

bubupour, sprinkle, strew (PWMP: *bujbuj)

bubucover, cover up (PMP: *bunbun)

Wolio (140 / 509)

bubupour, pour out (PMP: *buqbuq)

bubu-akacover with (PMP: *bunbun)

bubu-ake-a pogaushower words upon a person to prevent him from speaking (PMP: *bunbun)

bubur-istrew on (PMP: *budbud)

bubur-istrew on (PWMP: *bujbuj)

bubur-i-akastrew with (PMP: *budbud)

bubus-ispray, sprinkle (PMP: *busbus)

budimind, insight, intelligence, reason, wisdom (LOAN)

budi manaŋkatasmartness in debate (LOAN)

buerock (a baby) (PMP: *buqay)

bueacrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bue-buerock to sleep (PMP: *buqay)

bukubone; leaf vein, leaf rib; effort, exertion (PMP: *buku)

buku-n towuspinal column (esp. the upper part) (PMP: *buku)

bukutiiproof, evidence (LOAN)

bulamoon; sky; month (as numeral coefficient mbula) (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaalbino, white (of something which usually is not white) (PMP: *bulan₂)

bulakind of fruit tree: Phyllanthus emblica (NOISE)

bula baanifull moon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bula-bulawagold articles, gold ornaments (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

Wolio (160 / 509)

bula maŋuranew moon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulawagold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bulikind of mangrove tree (NOISE)

buli-bulianus, rectum (PMP: *buliq₂)

buluhair (of head or body), feather (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu-a(head of) hair; kind of fruit tree, rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum (PWMP: *bulu-an) *bulu₁

bulu-bulufine hair, fiber, threadiness (PMP: *bulu bulu) *bulu₁

bulu-na mataeyelash (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

bumbuŋ-aroof-ridge (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

bunito hide (oneself); to hide (something) (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

buni-akato conceal, hide, keep secret (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

buntakind of plant with poisonous sap (PMP: *butaq₂)

buŋaflower (PMP: *buŋa)

buŋa-na batukind of black-speckled fish (PMP: *buŋa na batu) *buŋa

buŋisandy point of land remaining dry over a great distance at low tide (PWMP: *buhaŋin)

buŋkubent, crooked (PMP: *bukut)

buŋkubent, crooked, hooked (PMP: *buŋkuk)

burato foam, to froth; foam, froth, ointment, salve, face-powder (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

burikind of cock with yellow and white feathers (PWMP: *burik)

burito write; writing, line; kind of fabric with fine stripes, usually black and white (PMP: *burit₂)

Wolio (180 / 509)

buriwrite (ROOT)

buri-akato write for (PMP: *burit₂)

buri-na limaline on the hand (PMP: *burit₂)

busedrive away (animals) (PMP: *busay)

butablind; be out or finished (in a game) (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butikind of taro with very big leaves: Colocasia esculentum (NOISE)

bututree sp.: Barringtonia asiatica (PMP: *butun)

buukind of bird so called after its call (often heard in the woods before sunrise) (PAN: *buuŋ)

dalaroad, street, path; item, possibility (PMP: *zalan)

dalikahearth-stone, trivet (PMP: *dalikan)

daluathin paper, tissue paper (PWMP: *zaluaŋ)

dariaŋocalamus: kind of plant whose soft rootstocks are used as liniment against pains and worms, and for rubbing pregnant women and children for protection when they go out after dark (PWMP: *zariaŋaw)

doŋkaget loose, slip, break away, coming off (e.g. a button) (ROOT)

dudufemale breast, udder (PWMP: *duduq)

gambibox for carrying smoking utensils and papers (in the old days used only by people of the highest nobility) (LOAN)

gasiwooden top (toy) (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

giliturn, twist, grind, jack up (a house by twisting ropes) (PMP: *giliŋ)

gomikind of fish; suck, sip (PMP: *gemi)

gunti(pair of) scissors; to snip, cut with scissors (LOAN)

gunti kakatuahair clipper (LOAN)

Wolio (200 / 509)

hina budibad in character (LOAN)

hiwoedible freshwater mussel (PMP: *qibaw₁)

hobut-ipull out (hair, feathers) (ROOT)

-iverbal suffix. "Stems with suffix -i are all transitive. The suffix denotes a relation to the object. This relation is best described as local" (Anceaux 1952:21) (PMP: *-i₂)

iayes! (PAN: *qia)

i-aku1sg.: I, me (PAN: *aku)

iladisappear; decease (sultan or saint) (PMP: *qilaŋ)

ila-iladark mole, freckle (PMP: *qila-qila) *qila

-in-marker of deverbal nouns (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

inaM (PMP: *ina)

inda(a)no, not (PWMP: *inda₃)

inisweat (PWMP: *qinit)

intadiamond (LOAN)

iñawa ~ inawasoul (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

(iŋ)-kami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

iŋ-kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

i-tanufabric, textile (PAN: *tenun)

ka-formative for deverbal nouns: ka-bari ‘number, quantity’ (cp. bari ‘be many, much); ka-pii ‘illness’ (cp ma-pii ‘ill’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

ka-ama-amaadopted father (an older person of one's own choice with whom one has a friendly relationship) (PWMP: *ama ama) *amax

ka-anaright, right-handed; right hand, right side (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

Wolio (220 / 509)

ka-atishallowness, low tide (PWMP: *ka-qati) *qaCi

kabibarb on fishhook (PAN: *kabit₁)

ka-gilia mill; milled corn (PMP: *giliŋ)

ka-ina-inaadopted mother (PWMP: *ina ina) *ina

kalagroin, inner part of the thighs (PCMP: *kelen)

ka-lalakinobility, greatness (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

kali-kalimpopofirefly (PWMP: *kalim-petpet)

ka-liʔuforget (PWMP: *liqu)

kalumpaa tree: Sterculia foetida (PMP: *kalumpaŋ)

kamalipalace (esp. single-storey) (PMP: *kamaliR)

kamaŋikind of plant used for making fragrant face powder: Ocimum basilicum (PWMP: *kamaŋi)

kanato hit, fall upon, befall; come to, arrive at, reach; be hit; prove correct; work out well, be real, be right, be correct, be valid; succeed, win (PMP: *kena₁)

kanarikind of tree and its fruit, Java almond: Canarium commune (PMP: *kanari)

ka-pilithe elect; council of the lower class (in the old days) (PWMP: *ka-píliq) *piliq

karuscratching or scraping sound (PWMP: *karus)

karu-sito scratch, scrape, scratch out, rake out, scrape clean (PWMP: *karus)

ka-sopublowpipe (PWMP: *seput)

ka-susupin, hairpin (PWMP: *ka-suksuk) *suksuk

ka-turu-turuobsequious, servile (PWMP: *tuRut)

ka-tuʔahardness, ripeness (PWMP: *ka-tuqah) *tuqaS

Wolio (240 / 509)

kauwood, timber, stick, plant, roll (of textile) (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kawea bula-nashe has her monthly period (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

kawu-kawuthe kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

kilalightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

ko-kilaflash (also of lightning), shine, gleam, glisten, glitter (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

ko-matasit in state, as bride and groom do during feast, held on the fourth day of the wedding ceremonies (PMP: *ka-mata) *maCa

kompobelly, stomach (PWMP: *kempuŋ) *kempeŋ

ko-raato bleed, bloody (PAN: *daRaq)

kota(fortified) town, fortress (LOAN)

-kunominal suffix, possessive first person singular: my (PAN: *-ku)

kuliskin; crust; rind, peel; leather; outside (PMP: *kulit) *kuliC

kumagerm, bacteria (< Malay?) (PMP: *kuman)

kumbi sakismallpox (PMP: *sakit)

kuritaa large octopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

labiremnant; more (PAN: *labiq)

lalakilord, nobleman, king (chess) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

lalaki-akabe lord of, rule over (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

lantofloat (PWMP: *la(n)taw)

laŋaplant with edible fruit: Sesamum orientale (PWMP: *leŋa)

laŋi-laŋicanopy; palate (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

Wolio (260 / 509)

lapaescape, get away, get loose, be acquitted (ROOT)

lawa-lawakind of small spider (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

liahole, cave, tunnel, subterranean passage (PMP: *liaŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

loka batuk.o. banana (PMP: *batu₁) *batux

loŋkaget loose, come off, become detached, peel off (PWMP: *lekab)

luaboil over, overflow (PMP: *luab)

luavomit, vomited matter; to vomit (PMP: *luaq)

lukubow, submit (PWMP: *lukuq)

lukubow, submit, give in, be meek (< *-kug?) (ROOT)

luluŋ-iroll up (mat, one’s sleeves), pull out (weed by rolling it) (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lumumoss, algae (PMP: *lumut)

lupifold, fold back (PWMP: *lu(m)pi)

lupifold, fold back (PWMP: *lupiq)

ma-alain demand, in favor, popular (PWMP: *ma-alaq) *alaq₁

ma-atishallow (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maeashy, bashful, embarrassed, ashamed, modest (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

maicome; hither; Come on! (= ‘Let’s go!’) (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

makolona nipilime (fruit; with thin skin) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

ma-liŋuforget (PWMP: *liŋu)

Wolio (280 / 509)

ma-liŋu-aka dalato lose one’s way (PMP: *zalan)

ma-liʔuforget (PWMP: *ma-liqu) *liqu

mamato chew on, masticate (PMP: *mamaq)

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

manu-manubird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

maŋaplural marker (PMP: *maŋa)

ma-paʔibitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

mataeye, center, nucleus, source (of a river), mesh (of a net); blade (used for counting all sorts of sharp or pointed objects like knives, creeses, spears and pencils (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-na ndamuaxe-head (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-na pisoblade (of knife) (PWMP: *mata nu pisaw) *maCa

mata-na sorumbapoint of a needle (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-na uwespring, source (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

matedead; paralyzed; out (of light or fire); asleep (of hand or foot); death (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

mate-a(case of) death, decease (PMP: *m-atay-an) *aCay

mate-anakind of fish eaten only by older people, because it is supposed to kill children (in accordance with its name) (PWMP: *m-atay anak) *aCay

ma-tuube dry, ebb (PMP: *tuquR)

ma-tuʔahard, ripe, dark (of color) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

mem-pilifastidious (PAN: *piliq)

minaoil (coconut, kerosene, etc.) (PMP: *miñak)

mo-mate-nadeceased person (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

Wolio (300 / 509)

muncu(outside of the) mouth, beak, snout (PWMP: *mu(n)cuŋ)

m-uri m-urifuture, later, coming afterwards; finally, eventually, ultimately (PMP: *ma-udehi) *udehi

namitaste, feeling, mind, heart (PMP: *ñamit)

namu-namukind of tree and its edible fruit: Cynometra cauliflora (PWMP: *namut-namut)

naŋkekind of tree (its fruit used to be an important article of trade) (LOAN)

nopufish with poisonous spines (PMP: *nepuq)

ntaamatetomato (LOAN)

nuakind of small, wild buffalo: Anoa depressicornis (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

ŋarapalate (PWMP: *ŋadas)

o anu-kumine (PMP: *a-nu-ku) *-nu

o anu-muyours (PMP: *a-nu-mu) *-nu

o anu-nahis/hers/theirs (PMP: *a-nu-ni a) *-nu

odaladder, stairway (PMP: *haRezan)

ombusmoke, steam, mist (ROOT)

oŋkostoop, bend down (PMP: *eŋkel)

opihold tightly, push to, clutch (ROOT)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

paaattic, bay at the side of a house, on higher level than the floor (PAN: *paRa₁)

paathigh; quarter (of a carcass) (PAN: *paqa₁)

pa-adalend to (a person) (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

Wolio (320 / 509)

paa-na ŋkaborograsshopper’s thighs (said of a very thin person) (PAN: *paqa₁)

paa ombusmoking rack over kitchen fire (PAN: *paRa₁)

paa ombubrown stains on fingers or throat, caused by heavy smoking (NOISE)

paa-paasmall bay at the side of a house, used for storage (PMP: *paRa paRa) *paRa₁

padatall grass-like weed, Imperata sp.; citronella grass: Andropogon nardus (PWMP: *padaŋ)

paiwhere? (PMP: *pai₁)

pakufern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pa-laiflee, run away (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

palaŋgalarge basin, wash-basin (LOAN)

palukind of large mallet; to hammer, batter, rap (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

palu-palua hammer (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

pampaŋ-asteep; rather deep part of the sea where the bottom is still visible (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ-an) *paŋpaŋ

panabow (weapon) (PAN: *panaq)

pande bulawagoldsmith (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

papaboard, plank (PMP: *papan)

paracoconut embryo (PMP: *para)

para-bosebe abroad, wander about (PMP: *beRsay)

paradhatinfoil (LOAN)

par-apafourth part, quarter (PWMP: *paR-epat) *Sepat

parapafourth part (LOAN)

Wolio (340 / 509)

parigiditch, moat (PWMP: *paRigi)

pasapair (e.g. of shoes), team (of horses); set; make a pair, match well, be well suited, be alike, be equal (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasapair (e.g. of shoes), team (of horses), set; make a pair, match well, be well suited, be alike, be equal (LOAN)

pasonail, pin, spike, spur (PAN: *pacek)

pa-susuto suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

pat-afour (junction form of apa in 40, etc.) (PWMP: *pat-aŋ) *Sepat

patomake a sound, tok! (PWMP: *patek)

pauumbrella (PWMP: *payuŋ)

pe-pukafish with a trawl (PWMP: *pa-puket) *puket₁

pikastick, adhere, cling (PWMP: *piReket)

pilichoose (PAN: *piliq)

pili-tachoice (PAN: *piliq)

piŋkabecome dislodged, become detached, get out of position (ROOT)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu puluseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

po-alachange with each other, marry one another (PAN: *alaq₁)

po-burapowder one's face (PWMP: *pa-bujeq) *bujeq

po-guntiget a haircut (LOAN)

po-matabe awake (PWMP: *paR-mata) *maCa

ponukind of large sea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

Wolio (360 / 509)

poŋ-ipito dream; a dream (PWMP: *paŋ-hipi) *Sipi

poo benukind of mango (PMP: *benut₁) *benut

po-raŋoable to hear (opposite of being deaf); hearing (PMP: *deŋeR)

pukaseine, dragnet (PMP: *puket₁)

punepigeon (PAN: *punay)

punti-olokind of banana (PAN: *punti₁)

pupurest, remnant; to finish off (PWMP: *puŋpuŋ₁)

pusenavel; origin (PMP: *pusej)

puustem, trunk (of plant or tree, in upright position); handle, hilt; opening capital (financial); point, subject, problem (PMP: *puqun)

puuna kautree (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

raablood (PAN: *daRaq)

rakiraft (PMP: *Rakit)

rakocatch, arrest, take prisoner (PAN: *dakep)

rako-aprisoner of war (PAN: *dakep)

rancasplash (ROOT)

ranolake, large swamp (PAN: *danaw)

raŋoto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

raŋo-niobey (PMP: *deŋeR)

rapuashes; kitchen; oven; wife, housewife; become ashes (PMP: *dapuR)

rato-ratokind of bird whose call announces people coming (PMP: *dateŋ)

Wolio (380 / 509)

raua tree: Dracontomelum mangiferum. (PAN: *daqu₁)

rindiwall; be like a wall: protect the country against infiltration by foreigners (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

rindiŋ-ito wall in (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

ropufinish off, take all for oneself (ROOT)

ruatwo (dependent form) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rua-rua-mbaliboth sides (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rumbiasago palm, Metroxylon sagu (PMP: *Rumbia)

sabujump down, drop; jump (into water) (PWMP: *sabuq)

sabujump down, drop (ROOT)

salafault, error, sin, condemnation; wrong, at fault, guilty, mistaken; miss (e.g. the right way), fail to find (PMP: *salaq₁)

sa-m-bulaone month long (PWMP: *sa-ŋa-bulan) *bulaN

sampalutamarind tree and fruit (LOAN)

sampeup to; so that, consequently (PMP: *sampay₂) *sampay

sanduspoon, ladle (PWMP: *sanduk)

saŋameasure, measure off, measure out (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sapopenena iñawarespiration, breathing (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

sa-puluten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

sa-pulu pituseventeen (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

sa-raa-raaof the same blood (PAN: *daRaq)

sasahouse lizard, gecko (PWMP: *saksak₂)

Wolio (400 / 509)

sawapython (PMP: *sawa)

sii wiluhave one's mouth water, slaver (ROOT)

sikuelbow, angle, triangle, ruler (folding) (PAN: *sikux)

silogive a sideways glance, look from the corner of the eye (PMP: *sileŋ)

simpaslanting, sloping (PMP: *simpa)

simpiedge, frame (PWMP: *simpir)

sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sirirustle, murmur (ROOT)

siruspoon, ladle (PMP: *si(n)duk)

sisifish scale (PMP: *siksik₂)

sisip-islip between, insert (PWMP: *sisip)

sokaunfasten, undo, untie, break off (ROOT)

solocurrent (PWMP: *seleg)

soncostopper, plug (PAN: *seŋseŋ)

soŋkocap, hat, funnel (on bottle) (PMP: *sekep)

suadig out, pull up (PMP: *sual)

sulato prick in (PMP: *sulam)

suliŋflute (PWMP: *suliŋ)

suluresin; torch (PMP: *suluq)

sulu beauresin of the candlenut tree (PMP: *suluq)

Wolio (420 / 509)

sumaŋaspirit (of a deceased person); reincarnation (PMP: *sumaŋed)

supitongs (PWMP: *supit)

suraletter, epistle (LOAN)

susufemale breasts, udder; milk; to suck at the breast, of a baby (PAN: *susu₁)

susuto sting, give an injection (PAN: *suksuk)

susu-awet nurse; royal babies used to have susua Wolio and susua Papara (different sultanates in Buton) (PWMP: *susu-an) *susu₁

taatamother (PAN: *tata₁)

tabafat (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabas-ito clear for cultivation, reclaim land (PWMP: *tabas) *tabas₁

tahusoybean cake (LOAN)

takoto catch (falling drops) (PMP: *taŋkep)

talistring (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

taluthree (PAN: *telu)

tambamedicine against poisoning or haemoptysis; to treat with medicine, cure (PMP: *tambar)

tambagacopper, bronze; copper-colored: brown, yellow, orange, red, blond (LOAN)

tanaearth, ground, land, territory, country (PMP: *taneq)

tana ikandeedible earth (PMP: *taneq)

tanuto weave (PAN: *tenun)

taŋamiddle, center; waist; space in between; room in the middle of a house (PWMP: *taŋaq₄)

taŋa-taŋabetween (PWMP: *taŋaq₄)

Wolio (440 / 509)

tapa-ito smoke (fish, etc.) (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapilayer, row, order (in a series); put one on top of the other (PMP: *taq(e)pil)

tararemainder, surplus (PAN: *teda)

tarik.o. bamboo (PWMP: *tariŋ)

tarikind of bamboo (PMP: *teriŋ)

tarimato take, receive (also visitors) (LOAN)

tarubeeswax; candle (PWMP: *tadu)

tasiwater which has been used for cooking rice, left to stand for a few days, and then used for stiffening weaving yarn (PMP: *tasik)

tatacut up finely, chop; cut off (PAN: *taktak₂)

tatar-ichop up finely (PWMP: *tadtád)

tatas-iunpick, unstitch (with a knife) (PWMP: *tastas)

taʔiexcrement, filth, residue; rust (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tepito winnow (PMP: *tapi)

tibato hit, strike (PWMP: *ti(m)bak)

tidak-istamp one’s feet, thump (PWMP: *ti(n)zak)

tilalight, radiation, glare, mirror; shine upon, irradiate, illuminate (ROOT)

timbaŋ -ito weigh, balance (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

tiraoyster (PMP: *tiRem)

tiridrip, trickle, fall (of rain), trickle through (of rain through a roof) (PMP: *tiRis)

titito drip, trickle, leak, be porous; drop, stalactite; point, period (PMP: *tiktik)

Wolio (460 / 509)

titito drip, trickle, leak; be porous (PMP: *titis)

tobok-istab with kris (dagger) (PAN: *tebek)

tokabe already present, be there beforehand (PMP: *teka₁)

toloto swallow (PMP: *telen)

tondofence (PWMP: *tendek₂)

tontoto look, watch (PWMP: *teŋteŋ₂)

torularge sun hat (PMP: *teduŋ₁)

totuucertain, true, right (PMP: *tatuqu)

towusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

towuawasp, sp. (PMP: *tabuqan)

tua apahow? (PMP: *apa₁)

tuboobstacle, hindrance; to obstruct, stop (PWMP: *tubeŋ)

tudathrow (PMP: *tudaq)

tukoprop, support; to prop up, support, pole a boat (PAN: *tuked)

tumalouse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumbuwell up, spout up (PMP: *tubuR)

tumbuto punch, hit with fist (PMP: *tumbuk)

tunashoot (of plant); sprout, put forth buds (PWMP: *tunas)

tunas-idescendant (PWMP: *tunas)

tunuto light (lamp, fire), set afire, burn, heat up, roast, bake (also pottery) (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

Wolio (480 / 509)

turuto follow, be absorbed in; docile, tractable, obedient, virtuous, good (of a child), tame (PWMP: *tuRut)

turuna bitishin (PMP: *bities)

tututo crush, pound (PAN: *tutuh)

tutub-ito close, shut off; enclose, cover, envelop, stop (a leak or hole) (PMP: *tutub)

tutuk-ito pound, knock on; declare wrong, blame, condemn, damn (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

u2sg. and 2pl. actor prefix to verbs (PMP: *huʔu) *Suʔu

uagray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

uavein; tendon; muscle; nerve (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ujutongue of land (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ulirudder (PMP: *qulin)

uli-gisteer (a boat), drive (a car) (PMP: *qulin)

ulosnake (PMP: *qulej)

ulo-ulocaterpillar, maggot, grub (PMP: *qulej qulej) *qulej

ulucape of land; bring someone, lead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

umbaswell (of sea) (PWMP: *humbak)

untemake rope by twisting together fibers; skein (of yarn) (PWMP: *quntay₂)

uwu-uwufontanel (PWMP: *hubun hubun)

walirasulphur (LOAN)

walueight (PAN: *walu)

weolive coal, ember (PMP: *baRah)

Wolio (500 / 509)

wetahalf, part, side; to split, cleave (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

weta-wetacut to pieces, chop finely (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

wilusaliva, spittle (ROOT)

wineseed, seed-rice (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

wontikind of sea fish, mullet: Mugil sp. (PWMP: *benti)

wulilie, falsehood (PWMP: *buqeli)

ʔamalagood work, pious deed, charity, meditation (LOAN)

ʔambaraambergris, term for certain sea products which in pursuance of the sara Jawa belonged to the ruler (LOAN)

ʔasara(time for) the afternoon prayer (LOAN)

Wue Rembong (1) CMP. see: Rembong (Wue)

825. Wusi-Mana (2) OC (Tryon 1976)

čanufresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

wanuahouse (POC: *panua) *banua

826. Wusi-Valui (2) OC (Tryon 1976)

taunyear (PMP: *taqun)

tranufresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

827. Wuvulu (162) OC (Blust n.d. (1975))

afaanorthwest wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

afifire (POC: *api) *Sapuy

afulime in lime gourd (cp. kakaweʔi 'lime not in lime gourd') (PAN: *qapuR)

agusmoke (POC: *kasu)

ai1pl. excl. subject pronoun (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

aigawhen? (POC: *ka-ica) *kaija

aiwabanyan (PEMP: *qayawan)

alaliflounder (POC: *alali)

alialarge sea fish, grouper (POC: *kalia)

aliaear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

aliarock cod, grouper (POC: *kalika)

alialifacentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

aliea shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

alimaomangrove crab (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

alosun (POC: *qalo₁)

aluthick-bodied barracuda sp. (PMP: *qalu)

ama-father (PMP: *t-amax) *amax

a-maʔaraw, unripe (POC: *mataq) *hataq

ana-iaeat it! (POC: *kana) *kana₁

an-anato eat (POC: *kana) *kana₁

Wuvulu (20 / 162)

ana-nafood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

aniʔuspirit of the dead (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

anunushadow; reflection (POC: *qanunu)

apunadon’t! (POC: *tabuna)

atito whet, sharpen (POC: *tasim) *tazim

atito whet, sharpen (PMP: *tasim)

ati-miaWhet it! Sharpen it! (POC: *tasim) *tazim

ati-miawhet it! sharpen it! (PMP: *tasim)

atiosneeze (POC: *asio)

atoto sniff, smell (POC: *acok) *Sajek

atooutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

atubailer (POC: *asu₃)

atubailer (POC: *qasu) *qasu₁

atum-iabail out water (POC: *asu₃)

atum-iabail out water (POC: *qasu) *qasu₁

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

avuiconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

awashore tree with fruit that flying foxes eat (PMP: *tawan)

awifishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

axagills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

Wuvulu (40 / 162)

axa-nahis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

axi-sibling (POC: *taci) *Suaji

axo-spouse (PAN: *qasawa)

axu-gall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

axusmoke of a fire (PMP: *qasu₃)

axuxucoconut crab (PMP: *qayuyu)

aʔoluegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

aʔua fish, the skipjack tuna, or bonito (POC: *qatun)

beafruit bat, flying fox (POC: *bweka)

cucu-female breast (PAN: *susu₁)

cuxa-cuxacomb (PEMP: *sura)

fafour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

fafacarry a person on one's shoulders (legs astraddle the neck) (POC: *papa₁) *baba₁

f-afiafternoon, evening (from about 4:00 p.m. til sunset) (POC: *paka-Rapi) *Rabiqi

falu-falukeep hammering, hammer on and on (James Hafford, p.c.) (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

falu-iato hammer something, as a nail; a hammer (James Hafford, p.c.) (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

fanigive fani-a 'give it!' (POC: *pani₁)

faxacoconut pith; brain (PMP: *para)

fe-nathat (PAN: *-na)

fixahow many? (POC: *pica) *pijax

Wuvulu (60 / 162)

fo-uʔulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCux

fuaxacrocodile (only in stories) (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

-iaimperative suffix: inu 'drink', inum-ia 'drink it!'; maʔa 'see, look', maʔa-ia 'look at it!'; uʔu 'submerge a container to fill it', uʔuf-ia 'fill it!' (POC: *-ia)

ilamole on the skin (PMP: *qila)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

inu-skin (LOAN)

inu-miadrink it! (imper.) (POC: *inum-ia) *inum

kamaʔaperson, human being (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

laiaginger (PMP: *laqia)

lalaʔostinging nettle: Laportea spp. (POC: *la-latoŋ) *laCeŋ

laohousefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lifo-tooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

loʔoboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

luʔuknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₂) *quluh

luʔuknee (POC: *lutur) *tuduS

maand (PAN: *maS)

mafoto heal, as a wound (POC: *mapo)

maito come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mali-malifish poison and the vine from which it is obtained (PMP: *mali-mali) *mali

ma-ma-wayawn (POC: *ma-mawap) *Suab

Wuvulu (80 / 162)

ma-maxaevaporate, dry up (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

manawa-nawafontanelle (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

mawileft (side) (POC: *mawiRi) *wiRi

maxusatiated (POC: *masuR)

maʔauafraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

maʔauright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

maʔedie, dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

maʔilow tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maʔixuto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mefidream (ROOT)

mimiurine; urinate (PMP: *miqmiq)

mu-muʔato vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

m-uxistern of a canoe (POC: *muri) *udehi

-na3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

nanapus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

naʔutall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

naʔu-child (PCEMP: *natu)

nofustonefish (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

no maiCome here! (= ‘you come’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

nonosandfly (PMP: *neknek)

Wuvulu (100 / 162)

oalanorth wind (POC: *tokalaur)

oluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ono-miaswallow it! (POC: *toñom)

otodigging stick; coconut husking stick (POC: *kojom)

paistingray (POC: *paRi) *paRiS

paludove sp. (POC: *baluc) *baRuj

paxakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

paxaxathunderclap (POC: *parara)

penucoconut husk (POC: *benu)

pia-piasago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

pici-ʔonoto swallow (POC: *toñom)

piesand (POC: *pika)

pieearth, soil (POC: *bia)

pifinewoman (POC: *papine) *bahi

ponukind of large sea turtle, probably Chelonia mydas (POC: *poñu) *peñu

pulamoon, month (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

pulaeye (POC: *bulat₂) *bulat

punesmall dove with green, purple, etc. on breast (POC: *bune) *punay

pupuaridgepole of a house (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

puxenavel (POC: *pure)

Wuvulu (120 / 162)

puʔushore tree with large leaves and inedible fruit (POC: *putun₁) *butun

sia shrub: Cordyline, Dracaena (PMP: *siRi)

talapath, way, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

tamaoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saRman

tawachannel, passage between islands (PMP: *sawaq₁)

tawachannel, passage between islands (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

tiDracaena (PMP: *siRi)

tofuwild cane: Saccharum edule (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

-u1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

ua-naneck (POC: *Ruqa)

uguguthunder (POC: *kururu₁)

uiʔaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

uli-natree bark (POC: *kulit) *kuliC

ulubreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

unafish scale (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

unucook, roast (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

unu-m-iacook it!, roast it! (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

unum-iacook it! roast it! (imper.) (PMP: *qumun)

upmature coconut with meat (NOISE)

upumature coconut with meat (POC: *ubu) *upu

Wuvulu (140 / 162)

uxashrimp, lobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uxidolphin (POC: *kuriap)

uʔotree, the wood of which is used to make fishnet floats and headrests (POC: *uton) *utem

uʔusubmerge a container to fill it (POC: *qutub)

uʔuf-iasubmerge a container to fill it (POC: *qutup-ia) *qutub

wacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

wane-wanestraight (POC: *wane wane)

waorope; vein; tendon (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

waʔasnake (POC: *qumata)

waʔasnake (POC: *mwata)

xanufresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

xau-leaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

xawaforehead (POC: *damwa)

xa-xablood (POC: *draRaq) *daRaq

xa-xa-nabranch of a tree (POC: *raqan) *daqan₁

xaʔowhale (POC: *rato)

xoxodark (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

xui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

ʔaito weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

ʔapu-nacommand of prohibition; taboo (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

Wuvulu (160 / 162)

ʔauto put (PMP: *taRuq)

ʔaxisaltwater, salt (PMP: *tasik)

ʔiapregnant (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-l_w.htm