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Updated: 11/3/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Loans

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c   

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

cacao, Theobroma cacao L.

WMP
Ilokano madre kakáwkind of tree with edible flowers and durable timber used in construction and hardwood flooring
Ibaloy kakawa small tree from whose seeds cocoa and chocolate are made
Bikol kakáwcocoa bean, cacao: Theobroma cacao
Aklanon kakáwcacao tree and fruit --- used to make chocolate: Theobroma cacao L.
Cebuano kakáwcacao: Theobroma cacao L.
Maranao kakawcacao: Theobroma cacao L.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kakewthe cacao tree and its fruit: Theobroma cacao L.
Tiruray kakawa general term for cacao: Theobroma cacao Linn.

From Spanish cacao, introduced by the colonial Spanish from Mexico, and itself a loan from Nahuatl.

cajole

WMP
Maranao bodiokcajole, induce
Iban bujokflatter, caress, persuade
Malay bujoksoothing with soft words (a crying child, an old nurse calming an excited girl, etc.)
Toba Batak bujukurgently implore someone; cheat, deceive
Lampung bujuʔcoerce
Sundanese bujuk, wujukpersuasion, temptation
Old Javanese a-mujuk-mujuk-itry to persuade, cajole
  wujuktrying to persuade, cajoling

Borrowing from Malay.

cake:   rice cake

WMP
Maranao apaŋpancake
Tiruray ʔafaŋkind of rice cake
Sama (Central) apampancake
Ngaju Dayak apamsmall ball-cake of flour, sugar and sourdough, sprinkled with grated coconut
Malay apamdough-cake; hopper; chupatty (but made of rice-flour, not wheaten flour)
Karo Batak ampamsmall round cookies/pastries
Balinese apemsort of puff-cake
Gorontalo a:paŋirice cake
Mandar apaŋpastry made from rice flour and yeast
Buginese apaŋkind of pastry
Makassarese apaŋkind of rice cake

Borrowing from Tamil. The forms in Maranao and Tiruray suggest borrowing through an intermediate language in which final -m became a velar nasal. The most plausible candidates for a loan source thus appear to be Buginese or Makassarese.

cake:   rice cake

WMP
Itbayaten vi-viŋkakind of cake
Ilokano bi-bíŋkakind of soft, flat cake made of díket rice, either ground or pounded into powder, sugar and gettá
Casiguran Dumagat bi-bíŋkasweet potatoes fried with sugar; to fry sweet potatoes in sugar
Pangasinan bi-bíŋkarice-cake, usually topped with red sugar
Kapampangan bi-'biŋkarice cake delicacy of many different varieties
Tagalog bi-biŋkárice cake with coconut milk cooked with fire above and below
Bikol bi-bíŋkacassava cake, traditionally cooked in an oven with fire on top and bottom
Aklanon bíŋka(h)dessert cake
  bi-bíŋkacake made of rice or cassava, cooked between two fires
Cebuano bíŋka, bi-bíŋkarice cake made from finely ground rice mixed with coconut milk, sugar, and sometimes with other ingredients as flavoring; woman's genitalia (humorous usage); put between the devil and the deep blue sea (from the idea that the bibíŋka is baked in between two fires)
Maranao bi-biŋkaʔrice cake wrapped in banana leaf and baked
Mansaka bi-biŋkakind of native rice cake
Kayan (Busang) bikaŋkind of cake
Malay kuéh biŋkacake made of rice flour coconut milk, egg and plum sugar. These cakes are of hemispherical form and are joined in pairs so as to appear globular, whence the expression menjadi kueh biŋka 'between the devil and the deep sea'
Mandar bikaŋdelicacy made of rice flour or wheat flour moistened with coconut cream and sprinkled with sugar
Wolio bika-bikakind of cake made of the scraps of batter of other cakes
CMP
Bimanese ɓiŋkacake

Borrowing, most likely from Malay. Under this hypothesis the consistent partial reduplication in Philippine forms is unexplained, but no borrowing hypothesis in the other direction appears plausible.

calf

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat búlʔocalf, colt (of carabao, horse, cow)
Tagalog bulóʔcalf (of cattle)
Mansaka booloffspring (deer and carabao)

Borrowing into Casiguran Dumagat from Tagalog.

(Dempwolff: *paŋgil)

call (v.), summon (spirits)

WMP
Kadazan Dusun paŋgisummon, call for something important; convoke
Ngaju Dayak ma-maŋgilinvite
  olo paŋgilthe guests who are invited to a feast
Iban paŋgilask to help or take part; summon, call to attend
Rhade gălcall, summon
Malay lagu p-ĕm-aŋgilthe invocation-song at a shaman's seance
  paŋgilsummon, send for
Acehnese paŋgecall, summon
Karo Batak paŋgilin an invocation: invoke deities or spirits; summon to justice (in native court)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paŋgilinvoke the spirits to bring sickness or misfortune to someone tabas p-em-aŋgil incantation for summoning the spirits
Toba Batak paŋgilcall, summon
Javanese paŋgila request for something

Borrowing. Apparently a Malayo-Chamic innovation which has spread to Kadazan Dusun, Ngaju Dayak, the Batak languages, and Javanese.

Cananga:   tree sp., Cananga odorata

WMP
Cebuano ilaŋ-ílaŋkind of medium- to large-sized tree which produces a multitude of fragrant flowers, esp. in May and June: Cananga odorata
Palauan chiráŋylang-ylang tree: Cananga odorata

Borrowing from some Philippine language into Palauan.

cane cord used for heavy binding

WMP
Malay tutusvery thin strips of cane used as bindings
Karo Batak tustusstring something on a cord; pierce something with a needle
Toba Batak tustuswooden support tied under the house posts
Javanese tutuscord made of bamboo strands

Probably a loanword from Malay, although the unreducted medial clusters in Batak languages are problematic under this interpretation.

canoe:   gunwale, side plank on canoe

WMP
Mansaka ampaʔboard used to increase freeboard of boat
Sangir ampathe plank that is fixed on the baule (unfinished hull of a boat) to give it more freeboard

Borrowing from Sangir.

canvas

WMP
Ilokano lónacanvas; floor of a boxing ring
Tagalog lónacanvas
Bikol lúnacanvas
Agutaynen lonatarp; tarpaulin; awning on house
Cebuano lúnacanvas

Borrowing of Spanish lona ‘canvas’.

cap

WMP
Malay kətupriestly headdress of the Hindu period; usually red and made of vegetable parchment
Sundanese kətucap
Old Javanese kətua cap (worn by religious persons)
Javanese keṭuskull cap, worn optionally with a turban wound around the outside; hat, headgear in general
Balinese ketua pointed cap worn by padandas (Brahmin priests) at special rites

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *tanzuŋ ‘peninsula, cape’)

cape:   peninsula cape

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tanjoŋriverbank
Malay tanjoŋcape; headland; promontory
Toba Batak pulo tanjuŋpeninsula
Javanese tanjuŋcape, promontory, peninsula
Balinese tanjuŋcape, promontory, protruding point

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tanzuŋ ‘peninsula, cape’ (Halbinsel, Kap).

carabao:   water buffalo, carabao

Formosan
Kavalan qabawbuffalo
WMP
Tagalog kalabáwwater buffalo, carabao
Jarai kəbəwcarabao, water buffalo
Malay kərbawbuffalo: Bos bubalus
Toba Batak horbobuffalo
Old Javanese kəbowater buffalo
Javanese kebokerbau, water buffalo
  ŋeboto treat [esp. an unwanted child] like an animal
  kebo-angive rides to children on the back while crawling on hands and knees
OC
Wayan karavauhumpback ox (possbly from Tagalog carabao, water buffalo). Used as beasts of burden in Viti Levu but only once introduced to Waya, without succcess.
Fijian karavauobsolute term for ox, bull or cow

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from a Mon-Khmer source (Thurgood 1999:322). Kavalan has several loanwords from Philippine languages and from Spanish that date to the brief Spanish occupation of the Ilan basin from 1626-1642, during which time they came up from Manila in an attempt to expand their colonial holdings. The source of Fijian karavau remains unclear. Capell (1968:85) entertains two speculations: 1. “the name came from Vuda, where the people, seeing reddish cattle, called them after the cloth karavau”, 2. “probably Eng. caribou”. The second of these appears particularly improbable.

cards:   playing cards

WMP
Ngaju Dayak buyaŋEuropean playing cards
Tae' buyaŋplaying cards
Makassarese buyaŋplaying cards; banknote

Borrowing, probably from Makassarese. van der Veen (1940) considers the Tae' word a borrowing of Buginese ujaŋ, but if so the phonetic discrepancy between these forms and the agreement of the Tae' and Ngaju Dayak forms remains unexplained. Although the referent of this term is a European introduction, the word itself appears to be native, evidently reflecting *buyaŋ 'bark cloth?'.

careful, cautious

WMP
Tagalog hímatovercarefulness
Bikol imátbe alert to, be on the watch for
Kadazan Dusun moŋ-imattake care of
Malay hémat, himatsolicitude; care; attention
Karo Batak me-himatcautious, careful

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

caress, cuddle

WMP
Ilokano ag-lam-lambíŋto cuddle lovingly
Tagalog pa-la-lambíŋcaress; showing fondness, affection or tenderness

Borrowing from Tagalog.

(Dempwolff: *keTem ‘wood plane’)

carpenter’s plane

WMP
Ilokano katámcarpenter’s plane, jack plane
  katam-énto shave with a plane
Bontok katáma carpenter’s plane (said to be from Ilokano)
Ifugaw katáma carpenter’s plane (said to be from Ilokano)
Casiguran Dumagat katámcarpenter’s plane; to plane wood
Ibaloy katamplane, tool for smoothing wood
  katam-ento smooth lumber with a plane
Tagalog katámplane; a carpenter’s tool with a blade for smoothing wood
  katam-ínto plane; to smooth wood or metal with a plane
Bikol katámplane (tool)
  katam-ánto plane
  katam-ónto plane down a particular spot
Mapun katama hand plane (a carpenter’s tool used for smoothing wood)
Tausug katama plane (the carpenter’s tool used for smoothing wood)
  katam-anto plane (something)
Kadazan Dusun katamto plane; a tool for smoothing a surface
  katam-anto plane for
  katam-onto be planed
Lun Dayeh (Kemaloh) katama wood plane
  ŋatamto plane wood
Melanau (Mukah) kətəmwood plane
Ngaju Dayak katamwood plane; what is planed or smoothed
Iban ketamcarpenter’s plane
Malay kətamcarpenter’s plane (regarded as a chisel nipped into a groove)
Nias katawood plane
  mo-katato plane wood
Balinese katamplane (tool))
Bare'e katawood plane
Buginese mak-kattaŋto plane wood
Makassarese kattaŋwood plane
CMP
Kambera katiwood plane

Also Toba Batak otom ‘wood plane’, maŋ-otom ‘to plane wood’, Tae' gattaŋ ‘to plane wood’, Muna hatamu ‘(carpenter’s) plane’. Borrowing from Malay. In Philippine languages this presumably began with Tagalog, from whence it spread to several other coastal languages, including Ilokano, and from Ilokano it was borrowed into various of the mountain languages of northern Luzon. Dempwolff (1938) posited *keTem ‘wood plane’, and included Javanese keṭem in this meaning, but I am unable to locate such a term either in modern Javanese (Pigeaud 1938, Horne 1974), or in Old Javanese (Zoetmulder 1982).

case:   betel case

WMP
Malay sələpaan oblong metal casket used as a receptacle for tobacco, areca nut, lime, gambier or other stuff carried about in small quantity
Javanese slepicigarette case of woven material
PSS *salɨppasmall case for betel chew ingredients

Borrowing, presumably from Malay.

cashew

WMP
Ilokano kasúycashew nut, whose fruit is used for toothaches
Tagalog kasóycashew tree and nut
Cebuano kasúycashew, Anacardium occidentale

Evidently a loan, since the cashew is native to northeast Brazil, and must have been introduced into the Philippines during Spanish colonial rule.

casket, coffin

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kabáoŋcasket, coffin
Kapampangan kabáuŋcoffin
Tagalog kabáoŋcoffin, casket
Bikol kabáʔoŋcoffin, casket
Aklanon kabáoŋcoffin

Borrowing from Tagalog.

cassava, manioc

WMP
Maranao baŋgelamanioc, cassava
Tiruray baŋgalaʔmanioc variety
Malay beŋgaladescriptive adjective for articles introduced via Calcutta (Indian onion, Gossypium vitifolium, pasture grass, potato, castor oil, etc.)
Old Javanese baŋgalaBengal

Borrowing. The manioc is an Amazonian plant, and presumably was brought to Asia by the Portuguese. The present comparison suggests that it first reached India, then Malaya before Malay merchants introduced it into the southern Philippines.

cassowary

WMP
Malay kəsuaricassowary; ostrich; etymologically the cassowary of Seram: Casuarius galeatus, but the word is now used to describe ostriches and ostrich feathers
Makassarese kasuaricassowary
CMP
PAmb *kasawaricassowary
SHWNG
Wandamen masuarcassowary
OC
Manam kaluaricassowary
Mbula kaiworcassowary
Suau ʔasuaricassowary

A much longer, but geographically more restricted version of this comparison was proposed by Clark (2011:288), who --- following earlier work by Milke (1965) posited PCEMP *kasawari ‘cassowary’, POc *kasuari ‘dwarf cassowary’. However, the history of this term is unclear. Austronesian speakers would not have encountered the cassowary until they reached New Guinea and the Bismarck archipelago, yet reflexes of this form are found far to the west of the Wallace Line, suggesting a later spread of the word through trade. Even the Oceanic forms that Clark has assembled as support for his reconstruction are wildly irregular, suggesting an equally complex history of borrowing.

castrated

WMP
Malay kəbiri ~ kəmbiricastrated; emasculated
Javanese kebirihaving been castrated, spayed
Balinese ŋabirito castrate
Sangir kabirito castrate
Mongondow mo-ŋabirito castrate
Pendau kabirito castrate

Borrowing from Malay.

castrated₂

WMP
Ilokano kapóna sterilized animal or human not able to bear children; castrated male
Tiruray kafuna castrated animal; to castrate

Borrowing of Spanish capón ‘eunuch, gelding’.

(Dempwolff: *eRu 'name of a tree')

Casuarina:   tree sp., Casuarina equisetifolia

WMP
Malay erua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Toba Batak orua shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned these two forms to *eRu 'name of a tree'. However, Malay eru regularly reflects *aRuhu (q.v.), and Toba Batak oru clearly is a borrowing of the Malay form with the normal phonological adjustment made in the assimilation of non-native words with shwa.

cat, Felis domesticus

WMP
Pangasinan pusácat
Tagalog púsaʔcat
Ngaju Dayak pusacat (tame and wild)
Malagasy fósaa small and graceful catlike animal peculiar to Madagascar; formerly classed among the Viverridae, but now considered to form a distinct family between the cats and civets
Iban pusacat
CMP
Tetun busacat

It is unclear when domestic cats first reached insular Southeast Asia, and it is possible that this word originally referred to a native animal. If so, however, the word has been transferred almost everywhere to the domestic cat, and it is clearly a loanword in at least Tagalog and Tetun.

catty (unit of weight for foodstuffs)

WMP
Ilokano kátipound; weighing scale
  katí-ento weigh
Bikol kátiunit of weight, equivalent to 600 grams
Kadazan Dusun katiʔweight measurement (one and one third pounds)
Tombonuwo katia catty (measure of weight)
Malay kati“catty”, a measure of weight of sixteen tahil, or about one and one third pounds avoirdupois
Toba Batak hatithe hundredth part of a pikul, thus about one and one quarter pound

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *pijer ‘paste, solder’)

caulking:   mortar, caulking

WMP
Tagalog piralíʔlime (calcium carbonate)
Ngaju Dayak pijara patch (said to be from Banjarese Malay)
Malay pijarcrude borax imported from China for batik work and for use in working metals
Karo Batak pijarborax (for soldering)
Toba Batak pijorweld together, solder together
Old Javanese pijərmortar
Javanese pijersoldering material (Pigeaud)
Balinese pijerborax, solder

Also Balinese pijar ‘borax, solder’. Borrowing from Malay. Based on the comparison of Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pizer ‘paste, solder’.

cause:   origin, cause, provided that

xxx
Lamaholot asaorigin, lineage
  asaʔonly if, provided that
WMP
Tagalog ásalbehavior, manners; custom, habit
Maranao asal-asalprecedents dating very far back; very old status, of people or things
  asarif, provided
  asalformer; custom; customary
Kenyah asal, asanorigin
Iban asalorigin, race; habit, peculiarity
Malay asalsource, origin; proviso or foundation for a statement; provided that
Acehnese asayorigin, provenance; provided that
Simalur asalorigin, cause; provided that
Karo Batak asalprovided that; origin, village of origin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak asalorigin; provided that
Toba Batak asalprovided that; origin, the substance from which something is made
Sundanese asalorigin, cause; provided that
Javanese kuṭa asal akumy home town; if, provided that
  asal(place of) origin; source.
Balinese asalorigin; customary, usual
Sasak asalorigin; provided that
Sangir asaleʔfamily, lineage, origin; provided that
Mongondow asalorigin, cause, beginning; that from which one stems, ancestor; provided that
Gorontalo asaliplace of origin; provided that
Buginese assaleŋorigin
Makassarese assalaʔorigin; provided that
Wolio asalaorigin, source
CMP
Bimanese asaorigin, cause, reason
Asilulu asaorigin; as long as; however, whereas

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

caustic soda:   lye, caustic soda

WMP
Ilokano lihíalye, caustic soda
Tagalog lihíyacaustic soda, lye
Cebuano lihíyacaustic soda or lye obtained from wood ashes; make lye

Borrowing of Spanish lejia ‘lye’.

careful, cautious

WMP
Tagalog hímatovercarefulness
Bikol imátbe alert to, be on the watch for
Kadazan Dusun moŋ-imattake care of
Malay hémat, himatsolicitude; care; attention
Karo Batak me-himatcautious, careful

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

ce

ceiling of a house

WMP
Ilokano kísameceiling
Tagalog kísameceiling
Cebuano kisamiceiling of a house; put up the ceiling
Chamorro kísamiceiling

Almost certainly a borrowing of Mexican Spanish zaquisamé 'loft, upper floor', which itself may have originated in Arabic saqf fi [as]samā’ ‘roof in the sky’, with the meaning in Spanish of ‘attic’ or ‘a small room, not very clean, and disorderly’. I am much indebted to Lyle Campbell for running this down for me over a period of two days, during which time the source became increasingly clearer as more information was collected.

(Dempwolff: *surak ‘to exult, cheer, celebrate’)

celebrate:   exult, celebrate (as a victory)

WMP
Tagalog suláksimmering; near the boiling point
Ngaju Dayak surakcheering (said to be from Banjarese)
Malagasy úraka ~ húrakaa noise, a clamor
Malay sorakcheering; applause
Toba Batak mar-surakgive out a shout of joy; to cheer, to hail
Sundanese surakto cheer, celebrate
Old Javanese surakshout, cry, roar
  a-nurakto receive with shouts, shout at, urge with shouts; jeer at
  a-surakto shout, cry, roar
Javanese surakto cheer
  ñurakto jeer at, boo
Balinese suraka shout, war-cry
Sasak surakshouting
  ñurakto shout
  te-surakto shout
OC
Samoan sulaspeak sincerely from the very depths of one’s heart (like someone who is deeply moved); make formal acknowledgement, give thanks (for presents, honors, speeches, etc.)

Dempwolff (1938) posited *surak ‘to exult, cheer, celebrate’, but the relationship of the Tagalog and Samoan forms to the others cited here is open to question, the Malagasy form appears to reflect *kurak, and the remaining forms could be products of borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *cemeD ‘impure’)

ceremonially:   defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean

WMP
Ngaju Dayak samara sickness that comes about because one has eaten something that is prohibited or taboo; soiled, defiled, polluted
Malay cemardirt; polution. Of dirty bits of road; a vile disposition; days of uncleanness (hari cemar kain ‘menstrual period’)
Toba Batak somorunwilling, reluctant
  somor-somorghost
  anak somor-somora bad son who causes grief to his parents
  imbulu somor-somorhair on the human body (or horses) which shows that the possessor is unworthy; in general: unworthy
Sundanese cemerlose one’s power, influence or purity; become ordinary or impure
Old Javanese a-cemerunclean, foul, low
  a-nemer-ito defile
  c<um>emer-ito defile
Javanese cemersoggy, messy, muddy
  c/r/emedto tell dirty stories; to talk obscenely or coarsely
Balinese cemerceremonially unclean
  ñemer-into defile, make ritually unclean
Sasak cemerfoul, impure; damp, moist; unsafe (because of sorcery)
OC
Wayan somobe dyed black or brown (using traditional dyes made from black mud or leaves); black or brown dye
  somo-ni ~ somo-tidye something, stain something black or brown; weave a mat with dyed strips
Fijian somostained, of sinnet
  somo-tato stain sinnet black, generally by burying it in black earth or mangrove mud
  somo-somo-a ~ somo-somo-tadirty
  taka-somosomo-takato dirty, blacken with earth
Samoan somogum (secreted by the eyes, etc.)
  somo-abe gummy

Dempwolff reconstructed *cemeD ‘impure’, but there is little evidence for such a proto-form outside of Malay, Javanese and languages that have borrowed from either or both of these. The cognation of the Toba Batak form with the others appears doubtful, and the proposed connection of the Oceanic forms to these is completely unconvincing, making this comparion partly attributable to borrowing and partly to chance. The evidence for *-D was based entirely on the second Javanese form, which contains an unexplained stem-internal /r/.

(Dempwolff: *te(n)tu ‘certain’)

certain

WMP
Tagalog tútolearning; gaining knowledge or skill
Ngaju Dayak tantucertain, true, known
Malay təntucertain; indubitable; positive
  mə-nəntu-kanto fix (a day for some function)
Toba Batak tontuready; in order
Javanese təmtu ~ təntufirm, fixed, certain
PSS *tɨntucertain

The western Indonesian forms appear to be loanwords from Malay or Javanese, and the resemblance of the Tagalog word to these is best attributed to chance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *te(n)tu ‘certain’ (sicherlich).

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

ch

chair

WMP
Ilokano butákaeasy chair; armchair
Tagalog butákaʔorchestra seat (in a theatre or showhouse)
Bikol butákarocking chair
Cebuano butákachaise lounge

Borrowing from Spanish.

(Dempwolff: *tanDu ‘sedan chair’)

chair:   sedan chair

WMP
Malay tandua hammock-litter made by fastening to a pole the ends of a broad strip of strong cloth; the pole was carried on the shoulder of coolies, and the passenger supported in the folds of the cloth
Toba Batak tandusedan chair
Javanese tanḍustretcher-like conveyance for transporting things or persons

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tanDu ‘sedan chair’ (Tragstuhl).

chalk

WMP
Ilokano tísachalk
Tagalog tísachalk
Bikol tísaʔchalk
Agutaynen tisaorange (or other colored) chalk used by tailors and seamstresses to mark fabric
Cebuano tísaʔ ~ tisaschalk

From Spanish tiza ‘chalk.

change

WMP
Ngaju Dayak obahchange, to change
Malagasy mi-ovachange, alter
Iban ubahalteration, change
Malay (h)ubahalteration; modification; to amend
Simalur maŋ-ubato change
  ubadistinction, difference
Toba Batak ubachange, become different
Rejang ubeaʔchange, alter
Sundanese owahin the process of changing (in an unfavorable sense)
Old Javanese uwahrepetition, change
Sasak owahto change

A relatively late innovation in western Indonesia, with some subsequent dispersal through borrowing from Malay.

character, conduct

WMP
Maranao paraŋaicharacter, behavior, habit
Tiruray faraŋaya personal habit
Iban peraŋaicharacter, conduct, nature, behavior
Malay peraŋainature, disposition
Toba Batak paraŋemanner, behavior, conduct
Sundanese paraŋicharacter, nature
Makassarese paraŋenature, character

The Philippine forms, as well as Toba Batak, Makassarese paraŋe probably are borrowed from Malay. The remaining items are assumed to reflect a lexical innovation in Proto-Malayic or one of its descendants.

charity:   works of piety, charity

WMP
Maranao amalspiritual desire, spiritual goal
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amalundertake a quest for supernatural help or power by means of self-inflicted difficulty
Iban amalpractices for acquiring strength or beauty
  ŋ-amalfast or perform the proper ceremonies to become strong
Malay amalputting into operation, esp. of practical piety, whether in religious observances or in good works
Sundanese amala meritorious work (generally applied to the giving of alms or to lending assistance)
Javanese amalcharity; charitable donation
Sasak amalwork, deed, act (in a theological sense)
Sangir amaleʔundergo self-chastisement, torment oneself in order to repulse the assaults of demons on body and property
Makassarese amalaʔperform good works in the expectation of a reward in the Hereafter
Wolio ʔamalagood work, pious deed, charity, meditation
CMP
Bimanese amagood works, spiritually meritorious deeds
Buruese amalincantation to render someone receptive to amorous advances

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

charm for invulnerability

WMP
Maranao paliasmagic power giving invulnerability
Tiruray feliyosa charm that causes any projectile aimed at the owner to miss him
Iban peliasamulet for deflecting weapons and missles
Malay peliasa form of invulnerability, the body being made (magically) so evasive or slippery that all weapons miss it or slide off it.

charm:   talisman, protective charm

WMP
Maranao adimatamulet, talisman, charm
Kadazan Dusun gimattalisman or charm that gives strength, power
Kayan gimeta pagan protective charm (loanword, Malay)
  jimata protective charm --- occult practice (loanword, Malay)
Iban jimattalisman, amulet
Malay jimatcharm; talisman for self-protection
Toba Batak man-jimatto pacify

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic, but through the medium of Malay. Ironically, Kayan gimet is described as part of a pagan practice, although it was acquired through contact with Malay, which is the source of Islam for all native peoples of Borneo.

chayote, Sechium edule

WMP
Ilokano sayótethe chayote vine and its pear-shaped vegetable
Ifugaw (Batad) hayūtia chayote vine or fruit
Ibaloy sayotithe fruit of a climbing cucurbitaceous vine
Tagalog sayótepear-shaped vegetable
Bikol (Camarines Sur) sayótea species of vegetable, chayote, (Sechium edule)
Cebuano sayuti ~ sayutiskind of vegetable, similar in appearance to a pear, cooked and eaten like squash, growing on a climbing vine with squash-like leaves: Sechium edule
Maranao sayotisucculent vegetable: Sechium edule
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) seyutichayote, Sechium edule

Also Ifugaw (Batad) dayūti ‘a chayote vine: Sechium edule; the young leaves are cooked as vegetable greens, and eaten as a side dish’. This edible plant belonging to the gourd family is native to Mexico, and is one of many New World plants or cultural products that the Spanish introduced to the Philippines during their 350-year colonization of the archipelago.

cheap:   cotton cloth of cheap quality

WMP
Iban belacuʔcalico, any cheap, plain, unbleached cloth
Malay belacuunbleached cotton cloth
Bare'e balasuwhite cotton, of mediocre quality
Buginese balacuŋcheap white cotton cloth

Borrowing from Malay.

cheap, easy

WMP
Tagalog múracheap, inexpensive
  ka-murah-ancheapness; inexpensiveness
Ngaju Dayak murahlight; easy; cheap
Malagasy múrakind, easy, liberal; cheap
Malay mudaheasy; light; trivial
  murahbounteous; plentiful; --- connoting either liberality or cheapness through abundance
Karo Batak muraheasy, easily obtained
Toba Batak mudalight, easy; frivolous
Sundanese murahcheap, inexpensive
Old Javanese a-murahcheap, copious
Javanese murahlow in price; plentiful
Balinese mudah ~ murahcheap; be a bargain
Sasak mudaʔ ~ muraʔeasy; inexpensive

Based on the Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, Toba Batak and Javanese forms given here, and Malay mudah, Dempwolff (1934-1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *mudaq ‘easy; cheap’. However, under this reconstruction the following forms are irregular: Tagalog múra (expected **múraɁ) Malay murah (expected mudah, which also occurs), and Karo Batak, Sundanese murah (expected **mudah). This is an extremely messy comparison that appears to have resulted mostly by borrowing one or the other variants in Malay, although the reasoning for the doubleting in Malay itself remains unclear.

checkered:   cloth with checkered pattern

WMP
Maranao palikatcloth with checkered pattern
Malay pelékatPulikat on the Coromandel Coast. Once the site of a Dutch factory and fort, and a port of shipment for print-fabrics and painted cloths, esp. headcloths and handkerchiefs
Acehnese palikatcheckered cloth imported from the Palikat region of India (north of Madras)

Borrowing from Malay.

checkers

WMP
Ilokano dámacheckers
  ag-dámato play checkers
  ka-dámato play checkers with; checkers partner
Bontok dámathe game of checkers
Tagalog dámagame of checkers; draughts
  mag-dámato play checkers
  damah-áncheckerboard
Bikol dámacheckers
  mag-dámato play checkers
Hanunóo dámaa type of game similar to checkers
Aklanon damá(h)Spanish checkers; king checkers
  damah-áncheckerboard
Agutaynen damaa game similar to checkers
Cebuano dámagame of checkers; king in checkers
  damah-áncheckerboard
Maranao damacheckers
  dama-ʔicheckerboard
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) damathe checker game

From American Spanish dama ‘game of draughts, game of checkers’.

chest:   medicine chest

WMP
Cebuano butíkadrug store
Javanese boṭéka-nmedicine chest with small drawers

Borrowing from Spanish (Cebuano) and Portuguese (Javanese).

(Dempwolff: *peTi ‘box, chest’)

chest:   box chest

WMP
Ngaju Dayak patibox, chest; drum
Malay pətibox; chest; case
Karo Batak petibox that can be closed; clothes chest
Toba Batak potibox, trunk, chest
Javanese peṭibox, trunk, chest
Makassarese pattichest, box

Borrowing from Malay, but ultimately from Tamil. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *peTi ‘box, chest’.

(Dempwolff: *gambir ‘refreshing’)

chewed:   plant chewed with betel that invigorates

WMP
Tagalog gambilvery fresh
Maranao gambirvim, vigor
Ngaju Dayak gambirgambier, plant chewed with betel
Malay gambirgambier, a decoction from the leaves of Uncaria gambir, consumed by Malays with betel
Karo Batak gamberthe gambir plant, Uncaria gambir Roxb.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gamber ~ gambirUncaria gambir Roxb.
Toba Batak gambirUncaria gambir, the leaf of a plant that is chewed with areca leaves and lime
Nias gambea plant with leaves and sap that are chewed with betel to color it red
Old Javanese gambira small, white, fragrant flower, a kind of jasmine
Javanese gambira certain vine; the fragrant white-and-yellow blossom of this vine; a plant whose leaves are used as a betel-chewing ingredient and in tanning hides; the betel-chewing mixture made from this leaf
Balinese gambirthe name of a species of bushy plant
Sasak gambirgambier: Uncaria gambir Roxb.
  bə-gambirto use gambier (in the betel chew)
Wolio gambibox for carrying smoking utensils and papers (in the old days used only by people of the highest nobility)
Muna gambiwooden betel nut container with compartments for betel leaf, areca nut, lime, gambier and tobacco (now obsolete)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *gambir ‘refreshing’, but it is now clear that this is a loan distribution due to borrowing from Malay. The Tagalog form, which he cited from Laktaw (1914) does not appear in modern dictionaries.

(Dempwolff: *buŋsu)

child:   youngest child

WMP
Tagalog bunsóʔyoungest (said of offspring); endearing term
Iban anak bunsuyoungest child in a family; joint (in wood work); final tuck of knot or lashing; last knot in finishing a mat, point or climax of a story
Malay boŋsu, bonsu, buŋsuyoungest-born; minimus (or minima); familiar name for youngest of a family
Acehnese buŋsuyoungest child, last-born
Minangkabau busuyoungest child in family
Sundanese buŋsuthe youngest of two or more children
  buŋsu-nathe youngest
Old Javanese wuŋsuthe youngest (in a family)

Borrowing from Malay.

child-in-law

WMP
Ngaju Dayak manantuson in law
Malagasy vinantoson-in-law, daughter-in-law
Malay benantu, menantuson-in-law, daughter-in-law

Borrowing from Malay.

chili pepper

Formosan
Saisiyat (Tungho) silihpepper
WMP
Ilokano sílihot chili pepper, Capsicum sp.
Tagalog sílegreen pepper, chili
Cebuano sílipepper, Capsicum spp.

From Spanish chile ‘chili pepper’.

chinaware:   porcelain, chinaware

WMP
Ilokano lósachinaware; porcelain; tiled slab
Cebuano lúsaplate made of metal coated with enamel

Borrowing of Spanish loza ‘china, porcelain; crockery’.

Chinese

WMP
Ilokano InsíkChinese; someone cunning in business
Itawis insíkChinese
Ibaloy insikChinese
Pangasinan intsíkChinese
Tagalog InsíkChinese
Bikol intsíkChinese
Hanunóo InsíkChinese, language and-or people
Aklanon in-ínsikChinese (language)
  ínsikChinese, Chinaman
Maranao insikChinese, Chinaman
Tiruray ʔinsikChinese
Malay (en)cékmaster; mistress; titular prefix to the names of persons of good position who are not entitled to any other distinction
Javanese encika full-blooded Chinese (pejorative); Chinese girl, woman (addr.)
Balinese encika call to a male Chinese
Sasak encéʔname for the Banjarese

Borrowing from Malay.

Chinese

WMP
Itbayaten in-cekChinese (person
Bontok ʔinsíkChinese
Casiguran Dumagat ínsika Chinese person or Chinese language
Hanunóo ʔinsíkChinese, language and-or people
Tiruray ʔinsíka Chinese
Malay encék, incékMaster; Mistress; a titular prefix to the names of persons who are not entitled to any other distinction
Javanese encika full-blooded Chinese -- pejorative (Horne)
  enciktitle for a foreign (Moslem) trader, esp. in Sulawesi, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula (Pigeaud)

This is almost certainly a loan distribution, but if so it is puzzling that Malay (the only western Indonesian language which has a form with first-syllable //i//) apparently does not use the term to mean 'Chinese', and Javanese, which uses the term to mean 'Chinese', has only a form with first-syllable shwa.

Chinese born in Indonesia

WMP
Malay babacolonial born, creole; a descriptive honorific formerly given to Portuguese gentlemen, colonial-born European, Eurasian and Chinese males to distinguish them from men born in Europe or China; a descriptive name applied specifically to male Straits-born Chinese
Mandar babaʔChinese
Buginese babakname for Chinese born in Indonesia
Makassarese babaʔname for Chinese born in Indonesia

Borrowing from Malay.

Chinese boat

WMP
Cebuano sampanflat-bottomed, square-ended barge, usually with no engines; to go by, take a barge; make into a barge
Ngaju Dayak sampana boat that accompanies a larger ship
  ma-ñampantravel in a sampan
Malay sampan‘sampan’; shoe-boat; boat for harbor use
Old Javanese sampankind of small boat (for harbor traffic?)
Javanese sampansampan (boat)

Chinese:   cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?)

WMP
Maranao kaŋgangingham
Binukid kaŋganred cloth (of symbolic significance)
Iban kain kaŋganblack cotton cloth; Chinese black calico

Presumably a loan from southern Chinese, although a plausible source word is yet to be identified. Thanks to Yen-ling Chen for tracing the history of this form, and drawing my attention to the suggestion that the name may derive from a reduplicated form of Malay kain ‘cloth’: kain-kain > kankan > kaŋkan > kaŋgan.

chisel

WMP
Ibaloy silsilchisel --- wedge of steel used to cut hard things
Cebuano silsilcold chisel, a chisel for metal, stone; to inscribe, work something with a chisel

Also Ibaloy sinsil ‘chisel’. From Spanish cincel ‘chisel (for stone and metal)’, with assimilation to the pattern of a reduplicated monosyllable.

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

ci

cicada

Formosan
Kavalan raraycicada
Pazeh lalaycicada
Thao lalaycicada

This is a problematic comparison, since the only regular source of Pazeh l is *N, Thao l is found only in Bunun loanwords, where it can reflect *l or *R, and the only regular sources of Kavalan r are *l, and less commonly, *R (Li and Tsuchida 2006). If we were to attempt a reconstruction the most likely shape would be *lalay, which shows a regular development in Kavalan raray, but irregularities in the other two languages, where we would also expect forms with r rather than l. There seems to be little alternative except to assume borrowing. However, this is also problematic, since 1. the cicada is ubiquitous in Taiwan, its whining sound being omnipresent during the summer months wherever there is vegetation, and 2. Kavalan is not presently in contact with either of the other languages, and probably never has been.

(Dempwolff: *tepis ‘go around the edge’)

circumambulate, go around the edge

WMP
Toba Batak topisgo around the edge
Javanese tepisedge, border, boundary

Borrowing from Javanese? Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepis ‘go around the edge’.

(Dempwolff: *limaw ‘citrus’)

citrus fruit

WMP
Ngaju Dayak limawcitrus fruit
Malay limawcitrus fruit; lime or orange

Almost certainly a borrowing of Portuguese limão ‘citrus fruit’. Dempwolff (1938) compared these with Sa'a moli ‘a wild orange’, Fijian moli ‘general name for spp. of citrus fruits’, and similar forms Polynesian languages which he assumed to show metathesis, and posited Uraustronesisch *limaw ‘citrus’ in what would appear now to be a spectacularly misguided etymology.

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

cl

(Dempwolff: *kenTuŋ ‘bird clapper’)

clapper:   bird clapper (to frighten them from fields)

WMP
Malay kəntoŋwooden sounding block for calling the faitful to prayer at a chapel; at a mosque they are summoned with a drum
Javanese kelentuŋbird clapper

Dempwolff reconstructed *kenTuŋ ‘bird clapper’, but the highly restricted distribution of this form is best explained as a product of borrowing from Malay. I have, moreover, been unable to find the Javanese form he gives in either Pigeaud (1938) or Horne (1974). With root *-tuŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.

clarify, shed light on

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat liwánagto explain, to clarify, to reveal; to make clearr
Tagalog liwánaglucidity; clearness, especially of thought, expression, perception, etc.
Bikol liwánaglight, daylight
  ma-liwánagclear, distinct, vivid, coherent, graphic, lucid, plain, understandable
  mag-liwánagto become light
Maranao liwanagenlighten, light up, clarify, return to reason
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) liwanagto enlighten someone’s mind, to explain the true situation to someone

Presumably a Greater Central Philippine loanword in Casiguran Dumagat.

(Dempwolff: *teraŋ ‘bright’)

clear:   bright, clear

WMP
Tagalog tálaŋred sky or red clouds at dawn or at sunset
Ngaju Dayak taraŋbright; clear; determined, defined
Iban teraŋclear; bright
Malay təraŋclear; bright; obvious
Toba Batak toraŋbright, clear
Javanese təraŋclear, cleared up; by way of clarification

The western Indonesian forms appear to be borrowed from Malay the Tagalog form probably has no connection with these. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teraŋ ‘bright’ (hellsein).

(Dempwolff: *pinte(rR) ‘clever’)

clever, intelligent

WMP
Ida'an begak pintorsmart
Ngaju Dayak pintarclever, intelligent; judicious; sly, crafty
Malay pintarknowing; sharp (mind)
Toba Batak pintorright; upright, honest
Sundanese pintərintelligent, sensible; wise; knowledgeable
Javanese pintersmart; educated; skilled
  ka-pinter-ancapability, skill
Makassarese pintaraʔclever, knowledgeable

Borrowing from Malay. Based on data from Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese, Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pinte(rR) ‘clever’.

(Dempwolff: *sanDiŋ ‘at hand; in addition to’)

close by, next to

WMP
Malay bər-sandiŋto sit side by side, but limited in use to the ceremonial ‘enthronement’ of the bride and bridegroom at the wedding reception after the actual religious marriage
Toba Batak sandiŋadjustable wall planks
Old Javanese sanḍiŋside
  (m)a-sanḍiŋ(m)a-sanḍiŋ at the side, having at the side, side by side
  s<um>anḍiŋto be at the side of, be close to, come close, approach
  sanḍiŋ-anside
Javanese sanḍiŋclose by, next to

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed this as *sanDiŋ ‘at hand; in addition to’, but given its limited distribution it is most plausibly treated as a borrowing from Malay.

cloth used for shawl

WMP
Ngaju Dayak palaŋisilk material much used for shawls
Malay kain pelaŋibandanna-cloth, colored rather gaudily by the tie-and-dye process
  pelaŋistriped in gay colors; variegated
Makassarese palaŋeflowery cloth (worn over the shoulder by women at festivals)

Borrowing from Malay.

cloth with checkered pattern

WMP
Maranao palikatcloth with checkered pattern
Malay pelékatPulikat on the Coromandel Coast. Once the site of a Dutch factory and fort, and a port of shipment for print-fabrics and painted cloths, esp. headcloths and handkerchiefs
Acehnese palikatcheckered cloth imported from the Palikat region of India (north of Madras)

Borrowing from Malay.

cloth:   cotton cloth

WMP
Malay belachuunbleached cotton cloth
Mongondow bolasuŋunbleached cotton cloth

Borrowing from Malay.

cloth:   cotton cloth of cheap quality

WMP
Iban belacuʔcalico, any cheap, plain, unbleached cloth
Malay belacuunbleached cotton cloth
Bare'e balasuwhite cotton, of mediocre quality
Buginese balacuŋcheap white cotton cloth

Borrowing from Malay.

cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?)

WMP
Maranao kaŋgangingham
Binukid kaŋganred cloth (of symbolic significance)
Iban kain kaŋganblack cotton cloth; Chinese black calico

Presumably a loan from southern Chinese, although a plausible source word is yet to be identified. Thanks to Yen-ling Chen for tracing the history of this form, and drawing my attention to the suggestion that the name may derive from a reduplicated form of Malay kain ‘cloth’: kain-kain > kankan > kaŋkan > kaŋgan.

cloth:   trade cloth (bright red)

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kundímansolid red cloth (a favorite cloth for G-strings)
Tagalog kundímanmuslin (textile) with blood-red color
Hanunóo kundímanred trade cloth
Cebuano kundímankind of red cotton cloth of a cheap variety, commonly used for pillows

Presumably borrowing from Tagalog.

cloth:   piece (of cloth...)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-pidaasopiece, portion, part
Ibaloy pidasopiece, one unit of multiple things (as coins, lumber, etc.)
Pangasinan pidáso‘piece’, unit for selling certain commodities, including dried guláman (extract from agar-agar seaweed from which a jelly-like dessert is prepared)
Tagalog pirasoa bit, a piece; fragment; a piece of something broken; portion
Agutaynen pidasoa single, whole piece of something
Maranao pidasobolt of cloth

From Spanish pedazo ‘piece, fragment, bit’.

(Dempwolff: *lampin ‘covering, envelope’)

cloth covering

WMP
Malay lampinswathing band; wrapper wound round avery young child to prevent it injuring itself by rolling about
Toba Batak lampinrag; diaper, swadling cloth

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff also included Fijian labi ‘a small bundle of fish tied up in leaves, ready for cooking’, a word that shows no obvious relationship to those cited here. Based on these three languages he posited Uraustronesisch *lampin ‘covering, envelope’ (Hülle).

clothing

Formosan
Kavalan qulusclothing; upper clothes
  si-qulusto wear clothes; wear an upper garment
Atayal lukusclothes, put on clothes
Seediq lukusclothing
  m-lukusbe dressed, wear clothing, get dressed
Pazeh rukuspants, trousers, shorts
  masi-rukuswear or put on trousers or pants
Thao hulusclothing
  min-hulusmake clothes, as in weaving
Bunun hulusclothes

This word shows phonological irregularities that make a reconstruction impossible. It is clearly a loan distribution, although the pattern of diffusion is yet to be determined.

(Dempwolff: *pakay ‘to use; to dress up, put on clothing’)

clothing

WMP
Tausug pakay-ancostume, formal dress, good clothes
Ngaju Dayak pakay-anclothing (including ornamentation)
Malay pakay-ananything worn, whether clothes, weapons, harness or jewelry
Karo Batak pakē-nclothing, adornment
Toba Batak pahe-anclothing; adornment
Javanese pake-anEuropean clothing (jacket and trousers)
Mongondow pake-aŋclothing

This is a clear Malay loanword in both of its common senses: ‘to use’ and ‘to wear/clothiing, adornment’. Dempwolff compared the Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese words given here with Tagalog pákay ‘mission; purpose; intention; aim’, and posited Urindonesisch *pakay ‘to use; to dress up, put on clothing’. However, the Tagalog word does not appear to be related to the others, and the remaining forms do not justify a reconstruction. (seeuse, wear, dress up in finery’)

clotted, coagulated

WMP
Bintulu bəkuʔfrozen
Ngaju Dayak bakocurdled
Malay bekucoagulation. Of liquid becoming viscous or even solid
  ayer bekuice
Karo Batak bekucoagulated, of blood; blood blister
OC
Tongan pakucrust (of bread); to have a crust
Samoan paʔuskin, hide, leather

Bintulu, Ngaju Dayak and Karo Batak are assumed to be loans from Malay. The similarity of these WMP forms to those in CMP and OC languages is attributed to chance.

clove, mace

WMP
Maranao boŋa lawanexceptionally good fruit
Malay buŋa lawaŋclove-spice; mace
Acehnese buŋóŋ lawaŋclove
Toba Batak buŋa laoaŋclove
Sangir buŋa lawaŋclove

Borrowing. The distribution of this item is consistent with the hypothesis, first suggested to me by James T. Collins, that the pre-European spice trade of Indonesia was mediated by Brunei Malays in a commercial arc that linked Brunei (and peninsular Malay ports) with the southern Philippines and northern Moluccas. The maintenance of such contacts on a regular basis would have required sailing along the western and northern coasts of Sabah, through the Sulu Archipelago to southern Mindanao, and from there to Sangir-Talaud and northern Sulawesi before reaching the northern Moluccas. Given this interpretation the otherwise puzzling occurrence of apparent Philippine loanwords in Buli of southern Halmahera can be placed within a coherent historical context. There can be little doubt that the same network served the propagation of Islam.

Although some form of spice trade between eastern and western Indonesia (and points beyond) probably predated the arrival of Islam in island Southeast Asia by many centuries, there is little evidence for large-scale trade contacts with eastern Indonesia during the Indianization of western Indonesia (e.g. the Sriwijaya period). On present evidence, then, it appears most likely that a regular and systematic linkage of Moluccan clove and nutmeg suppliers with Bruneian or other Malay distributors developed in concert with the diffusion of Islam into Borneo, the southern Philippines and the northern Moluccas during the 14th and 15th centuries. If so, the Brunei of Pigafetta, with its lavish displays of wealth and rank, must have been a relatively nouveau-riche Islamic elaboration upon an older Indianized state in which the supporting trade base had only recently undergone a fundamental shift from a western Indonesian to an eastern Indonesian emphasis.

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

co

coagulated:   clotted, coagulated

WMP
Bintulu bəkuʔfrozen
Ngaju Dayak bakocurdled
Malay bekucoagulation. Of liquid becoming viscous or even solid
  ayer bekuice
Karo Batak bekucoagulated, of blood; blood blister
OC
Tongan pakucrust (of bread); to have a crust
Samoan paʔuskin, hide, leather

Bintulu, Ngaju Dayak and Karo Batak are assumed to be loans from Malay. The similarity of these WMP forms to those in CMP and OC languages is attributed to chance.

cockroach

Formosan
Bunun (Isbukun) xatabaŋcockroach
Rukai (Mantauran) atavaŋecockroach

Two considerations make it likely that this is a loan distribution. First, PAn *Sipes can be reconstructed in the same meaning. Second, the Bunun form comes from the southern dialect, which is directly in contact with Rukai territory.

(Dempwolff: *tazi ‘artificial cockspur’)

cockspur:   artificial cockspur

WMP
Itbayaten tarimetal spur for cockfighting
Casiguran Dumagat tárispur (of a rooster); to fit a steel spur onto a fighting cock
Pangasinan tárispur of rooster, blades added to spur for cockfight
Tagalog táriʔbladed spur attached to the leg of a fighting rooster; gaff
Maranao tariʔplace gaff on fighting cock
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tadiʔartificial spur of a fighting cock; to place such a spur on a cock
Mansaka táriʔmetal spurs put on fighting cocks’ legs for fighting
Ida'an begak taddiʔspur
Ngaju Dayak tajimetal cockspur
Iban tajisteel blade spur for fighting cock
Malay tajiartificial spur for fighting cock
Toba Batak tajimetal cockspur
Old Javanese tajia sharp, pointed instrument; a metal cockspur, a spike on a fish
Javanese tajisharp blade attached to the attacking part of a fighting animal for contests, e.g. a game cock’s spurs
Balinese tajithe steel spur fastened to a game cock’s foot
  taji-ninbe fitted with steel spurs
Sasak tajimetal cockspur for fighting cock
  bə-tajifitted with a metal cockspur
Tae' tadiartificial spur for a fighting cock
  tadi-iattach an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock
Makassarese tajiartificial spur for a fighting cock
Muna tadhicockspur (artificial); hit someone with a cockspur

Borrowing from Malay. The direction of borrowing for this term strongly suggests that cockfighting was introduced into the Austronesian world in western Indonesia, and from there spread northward into the Philippines and eastward to Sulawesi. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tazi ‘artificial cockspur’ (Kunstsporn).

coconut residue

OC
Gilbertese otacoconut after oil has been extracted, residue
Tongan ʔotaʔotarubbish, refuse, what is rejected or thrown away as worthless
Tuvaluan otawaste after coconut cream has been squeezed from grated nut
Rennellese ʔotadregs of expressed grated coconut; residue of turmeric
Hawaiian okadregs, crumbs, sediment, filings, hulls, grounds, small bits

Borrowing into Gilbertese from a Polynesian source.

(Dempwolff: *sant(ae)n ‘coconut oil’)

coconut cream

WMP
Tagalog santáncoconut milk and molasses mixed and cooked together
Bikol santána cooked mixture of coconut milk and brown sugar
Ngaju Dayak santanmilk pressed from shredded coconut (from which coconut oil is cooked out)
  ma-ñantanto press the milk from coconut
Malay santansoft milky pulp of the coconut, much used in cooking and a type of richness
  ayər santancoconut milk
  kəpala santanthe ‘cream’ of the coconut; the very best of its pulp; (fig.) virginity, first embraces
Gayō santansoft milky pulp of the coconut
  be-santanto make santan (by pressing out the rich substance from a coconut)
Karo Batak santanmilk pressed from a coconut
  santan batufigure of speech for ‘beautiful words but a sinister meaning’
Toba Batak santancoconut milk (said to be from Malay)
  na s<in>antanwhat is cooked with coconut milk
Rejang sateuncoconut sauce made of grated and crushed coconut soaked in water and sieved (a basic ingredient for the cooking of most side dishes)
Old Javanese santanessence, quintessence; pollen, flower; coconut milk (pressed from coconut meat)

Also Old Javanese santən ‘essence, quintessence; pollen, flower’; coconut milk (pressed from coconut meat); coconut, coconut palm (especially the ivory coconut); female breasts’, santən ’like (the color of) santən; milky white, pale’, Javanese santen ‘coconut milk pressed from shredded coconut meat’, ñanten ‘to extract coconut milk by pressing’, santen-an ‘having coconut milk mixed into it’, Balinese santen ‘coconut cream, the juice squeezed out of the flesh of coconuts’. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sant(ae)n ‘coconut oil’, but this appears to have been a Javanese innovation *santən that was borrowed into Malay and then spread over other parts of western Indonesia and northward into the Philippines.

coconut beetle, coconut blight

WMP
Ilokano kadaŋ-kadaŋcoconut beetle
Tagalog kadáŋ-kadáŋa fatal disease of coconut trees
Cebuano kadaŋ-kadaŋblight affecting coconut trees; have coconut blight

Apparently a loanword from Tagalog into Ilokano, although the word is phonologically irregular in both Tagalog (where *-d- > r), and Cebuano (where *-d- > l).

coffin

WMP
Makassarese alluŋcoffin
CMP
Manggarai e1uŋcoffin

Borrowing from Makassarese.

coffin:   casket, coffin

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kabáoŋcasket, coffin
Kapampangan kabáuŋcoffin
Tagalog kabáoŋcoffin, casket
Bikol kabáʔoŋcoffin, casket
Aklanon kabáoŋcoffin

Borrowing from Tagalog.

coffin

WMP
Tagalog kalandábier, stretcher
Maranao karandaʔrectangular or round metal box for betel, pumpkin; suitcase; enclose
Malay kərandabottomless coffin (to comply with the Moslem rule that a body shall rest directly on the ground), used at the funerals of important people

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *tagiq ‘dun someone for collection of a debt’)

collect:   dunning to collect a debt

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tagihdunning, making demands for repayment of a debt
Malagasy tákireclamation, dunning, pursuit (used primarily of debts)
Iban tagihimportune, press for, dun for debt
Malay tagehto importune; to press (of dunning a man for debt); also of a craving that gives a man no peace until he satisfies it
Sundanese tagihto dun, demand repayment of a debt
Old Javanese tagihto claim, demand
  t<um>agih-akənto demand repayment on something; inflict the punishment for; to demand the payment of
Javanese ka-tagih-anaddicted to
  pa-tagih-anwritten acknowledgement of indebtedness
  tagih-anpayment on/of a debt
Balinese tagihask for, demand; admonish, exhort; threated; be addicted to (drugs, drink)
Sasak tagi(h)to dun for repayment of a debt

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tagiq ‘dun someone for collection of a debt’.

collide, hit, strike

xxx
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atognoise of knocking
WMP
Hiligaynon hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) atukkill a bird or chicken by piercing it with a needle or other small sharp instrument
Malay antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding
Toba Batak antuh-antukclub
  maŋ-antukto hit; bump against
  antukclub, heavy piece of wood with which one strikes

The Philippine forms are unrelated to those in western Indonesia. Of the latter only Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) and Malay, or Malay and the Batak languages permit a comparison, and this cannot safely be attributed to PWMP.

(Dempwolff: *ayu)

come on!, lets go!

WMP
Tagalog háyogo! go ahead!
Ngaju Dayak ayocome on! lets go!
Banjarese hayucome on! lets go!
Malay ayo(h)lets go! Exclamation to incite someone to action
Sundanese hayuexclamation: lets go!
  hayohhurry! lets go!
Madurese ayuʔcome on! lets go!
Gorontalo ayolets go!
CMP
Bimanese ajoexclamation to incite someone to action
Manggarai ajocome on! lets go!

Most of the forms cited here, including those in Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Gorontalo, Bimanese, and Manggarai, appear to be loans from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *siliq ‘obligation, duty’)

commitment:   obligation, duty, commitment

WMP
Ngaju Dayak silihdebt
Malay silehto replace; to make good
Old Javanese silihone another, each other, mutually; in turn, alternating
  a-nililto take over, borrow, use for a time
  s<um>ilihto succeed, take over; in turn
Javanese silihborrowed; to do vicariously
  baraŋ silih-ana borrowed item

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *siliq ‘obligation, duty’, but the limited distribution of this form among languages that have long been in contact is better explained as a product of borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *taruŋ ‘communication, conversation’)

communication, conversation

WMP
Ngaju Dayak taroŋnews, information, communication
Malagasy tárunaconversation
  mi-tárunato converse

This is best treated as either a loanword or a low-level innovation. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taruŋ ‘communication, conversation’.

complete

WMP
Maranao saŋkapcomplete in equipment
Old Javanese saŋkəpcomplete; fully equipped, armed

The Maranao form may be a loan from Javanese.

complexion

WMP
Ilokano kútisskin complexion
Tagalog kútiscomplexion; general appearance of the skin
Bikol kútiscomplexion
Cebuano kútisskin texture, fineness of complexion; get a certain kind of complexion

Borrowing of Spanish cutis ‘skin, complexion’.

compose

WMP
Ngaju Dayak karaŋwhat is manufactured or composed (puzzles, poetry)
Malay karaŋarranging; composing; putting in order
  karaŋ-ancomposition, e.g. as a subject taught in school
Old Javanese karaŋ-karaŋgarland of flowers
Javanese ŋaraŋto write, compose, invent stories

Borrowing from Malay.

condiment:   spicy condiment side dish with rice

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sambalcondiment with rice, various fruits, vegetables, etc., raw or cooked, thoroughly mixed with salt and Spanish pepper
  ma-ñambalmake something into this condiment
Malay sambalcondiment eaten with curry (generic for peppers, pickles, grated coconut or pineapple, salt fish, fish roe, very salted eggs, very acid sliced fruits and other condiments eaten cold to give additional flavor to the curry and rice)
Acehnese sambayvarious finely chopped leaves mixed with Spanish pepper, roasted coconut, salt, etc. (a kind of condiment)
Toba Batak sambalpungent side-dish with rice
Sundanese sambalcondiment eaten with rice (as Spanish pepper)
Old Javanese sambəla hot condiment
  s<in>ambəl-anto supply with a hot condiment
Javanese sambelhot spicy sauce or paste
  ñambelto make ingredients into a hot spicy sauce or paste
Balinese sambala very frequently used sauce (green pepper, fish-paste, and lemon juice)
Sasak sambəlspices eaten with rice

Apparently an innovation in Old Javanese that was borrowed by Malay and subsequently disseminated among languages in western Indonesia that were in frequent contact with Malay traders.

conduct:   character, conduct

WMP
Maranao paraŋaicharacter, behavior, habit
Tiruray faraŋaya personal habit
Iban peraŋaicharacter, conduct, nature, behavior
Malay peraŋainature, disposition
Toba Batak paraŋemanner, behavior, conduct
Sundanese paraŋicharacter, nature
Makassarese paraŋenature, character

The Philippine forms, as well as Toba Batak, Makassarese paraŋe probably are borrowed from Malay. The remaining items are assumed to reflect a lexical innovation in Proto-Malayic or one of its descendants.

confidence (in lending money):   trust, confidence (in lending money)

WMP
Ilokano piártrust, confidence
  ag-piárto have confidence in
  piar-énto trust, have confidence in
Agutaynen mag-piarto lend money or other things with trust, believing it will be handled carefully or will be repaid

From Spanish confiar ‘trust’.

confiscate

WMP
Pangasinan ilítto confiscate
Kapampangan ílitconfiscate property from a debtor
Tagalog ílitusurpation of someone else's property, either by force or trickery; confiscation of property for debt or obligation

Borrowing from Tagalog.

confused

xxx
NGA biŋuintoxicated; dozing; distorted; stunned; mad, insane, crazy
WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) biŋoŋdizzy, stupid, confused
Malay biŋoŋmuddle-headed
Acehnese biŋóŋstupid, silly, confused, stupefied, dazed; to doze
Simalur biŋoŋ, fiŋoŋstupid, silly
Sundanese biŋuŋbeaten, cowardly, be embarrassed, not know what to do, irresolute, desperate
Old Javanese biŋuŋconfused
Javanese biŋuŋbewildered, confused
Balinese biŋuŋenraged, distracted, perplexed, confused, mad
SHWNG
Buli biŋulconfused
OC
Pohnpeian piŋconfused, disordered, messy

Most of the items both in western and eastern Indonesia are assumed to be loans from Malay. The similarity of Pohnpeian piŋ to these forms is attributed to chance.

conscience, mind, insight

WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) budi, budiʔdeceit; deceive, entrap; kindness, generosity, gratitude
Hiligaynon mag-búdhiʔbetray, be faithless, be disloyal
  búhhiʔconscience, inner self
Maranao bodhiʔjealousy; jealous
Kayan bayen budirepay a kindness
Malay budiqualities of mind and heart; kindly acts and ways; character; graciousness and charm. Budi Implies prudence and discretion ... but it is more closely identified with the doing of kindly acts, e.g. balas budi 'to repay kindness; to show gratitude'; kenaŋ-kan budi 'remember gratefully'; budi often means 'character': busok budi 'of a hateful character' budi-man possessed of budi, i.e. self-respecting, wise, prudent, sensible
Acehnese budi, budi-manexhibit good behavior, sensible, wise
Lampung budiʔtrick someone
Sundanese budimind, heart, nature, disposition, character, humor; reason, understanding; view haseum budi sour outlook, unfriendly, surly
Old Javanese buddhi-mānwise, perspicacious
  buddhithe power of forming and retaining general notions, intelligence, reason, mind, discernment; opinion, notion, idea; character, nature, disposition; intention, purpose
Javanese budicharacter, temperament; exert power; a certain tree under which Buddha sits and meditates
Balinese budidesire, wish, hope
Sasak budi beriŋinname of a holy place in Sembalun
Sangir budiintelligence, understanding; disposition (rare)
  budi-maŋa common proper name
Wolio budimind, insight, intelligence, reason, wisdom
  budi manaŋkatasmartness in debate
  hina budibad in character
CMP
Asilulu budiproper behavior

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit. Iban budi, budiʔ shows secondary final glottal stop, and two polarized clusters of meaning, evidently connected with the existence of a former system of speech disguise based on antonymy (Blust 1981).

(Dempwolff: *tilik ‘consider, regard’)

consider, regard

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tilikconsideration, regard
Malagasy a-tsidikato be put in a position to be seen
  tafa-tsidikapeeped at, looked at through the door
Iban tilitgaze at, peer into, hence predict
Malay tileklooking hard and fixedly at anything, usually in the sense of casting a spell or second sight
Toba Batak ma-nilikexamine or inspect something; observe something with concern
Old Javanese a-tilikto visit, go and see how someone is getting on
Javanese nilikto pay a visit to; to approach and scrutinize

Also Iban tilik ‘gaze at, peer, take a sight, e.g. in surveying’. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tilik ‘consider, regard’ (betrachten).

(Dempwolff: *tinzaw ‘scrutinize, consider closely’)

consider closely:   scrutinize consider closely

WMP
Malagasy tsinjugazed at from a distance, perceived
Malay tinjawcraning the neck
  ma-ninjawbe on the watch; to look hard at a distant object
Javanese tinjoto visit

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tinzaw ‘scrutinize, consider closely’ (genau betrachten). Cf. PMP *tindaw ‘see in the distance’.

(Dempwolff: *sen(ae)ŋ ‘content, satisfied’)

content, satisfied

WMP
Kayan sənəŋeasy; rich; lucky (said to be from Malay)
Ngaju Dayak sanaŋquiet, still, calm, secure, at ease
Iban senaipause, stop, rest
Malay sənaŋease; restfulness; of resting one’s weary limbs; of being left in peace; also of a thing requiring little effort
Karo Batak senaŋfind something good; comfortable, at rest, peaceful
Toba Batak sonaŋquiet, composed, calm; satisfied; happy
Rejang sənaŋpleased, happy, glad
Sundanese sənaŋeasy, quiet, well-contented, calm
Old Javanese sənəŋloved one, beloved
  a-sənəŋto have a loved one; toward the loved one
Javanese sənəŋhappy, glad, pleased; to like; to do habitually or characteristically
Balinese sənəŋto like, love, prefer
  sənəŋ-inbe loved, be preferred
Sasak sənəŋagreeable, pleasant; feel good

Also Ngaju Dayak sanai ‘quiet, still, calm, secure, at ease’, Iban sənaŋ ‘comfortable, at ease, well-to-do’, the latter a clear loanword from Malay. Dempwolff (9138) posited *sen(ae)ŋ ‘content, satisfied’, with a vowel that is not so much ambiguous as contradictory, since the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms point to *a, Malay is ambiguous, and Javanese, along with other languages, points to *e. A more plausible interpretation is that Ngaju Dayak sanaŋ is a loanword from Banjarese, and Toba Batak sonaŋ a loan from peninsula or Sumatran Malay. Malay itself presumably borrowed this word from Javanese, and then spread it to other languages after the merger of last-syllable *a and *e.

continue

WMP
Ilokano sigéexpression indicating departure by either speaker or hearer; go ahead, carry on
  i-sigéto go ahead with; do in spite of impediments
Ayta Abellan higi-higito continue (as working); to insist
Tagalog Sige!Go on! Go ahead!
  s<um>igeto go ahead
  sigih-anto go ahead and do something; to go on doing something
  sigi-sigecontinuously; unhesitatingly
  i-sigito go ahead in doing some particular thing
Binukid sigicontinually, always
Tausug sigi-sigigoing on in rapid succession, happening over and over again, repeated often, continually
Chamorro sigigo on, advance, continue, forward

Borrowing of Spanish Sigue ‘Go on, continue!’.

(Dempwolff: *taruŋ ‘communication, conversation’)

communication, conversation

WMP
Ngaju Dayak taroŋnews, information, communication
Malagasy tárunaconversation
  mi-tárunato converse

This is best treated as either a loanword or a low-level innovation. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taruŋ ‘communication, conversation’.

(Dempwolff: *ucap 'speak, converse with')

converse:   speak, converse

WMP
Tagalog úsapconversation; conference, meeting; case in court, litigation; request for a favor; counsel, admonition, gossip, scandal
Iban ucapmutter
  ucap-ucapincessant talk (of a group)
Malay ucaputterance. In Malaya, esp. of prayer or other emotional speech
Old Javanese ucaptalk, speech, words
Javanese ucapwhat someone says; to say; utterance
Balinese ucapsay, speak, tell, report, announce

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian vosa 'speak, talk' under a reconstruction *ucap 'speak, converse with' appears unjustified.

convolvulus

WMP
Itbayaten kaŋkoŋa species of plant, potato-vine: Ipomoea reptans (Linn.); a kind of vegetable, young shoots edible
Kapampangan akaŋkoŋa plant: Ipomoea aquatic Forssk. Convolvulaceae
Iban kaŋkoŋwater convolvulus, Ipomoea spp., I. aquatica, I. reptans and others; quick-growing layering plant grown as a green vegetable
Malay kaŋkoŋa flowering convolvulus: Ipomoea aquatica, I. reptans; eaten as a spinach; also proverbial as the ill weed that grows apace
Makassarese kaŋkoŋa plant: Ipomoea aquatica

Makasarese kaŋkoŋ may be a loanword from Malay, but this appears unlikely in the case of Kapampangan, where the initial vowel cannot be accounted for in this way. Merrill (1954:228) attributes this to borrowing from an unidentified Chinese source. Although a precise donor language is difficult to identify, a Chinese source appears likely from information that I have received courtesy of Yen-ling Chen, who notes that “Convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica)... in written Chinese can be 空心菜, 蕹菜 or 通菜 (Mandarin: khong ɕin tshai (空心菜), ioŋ tshai (蕹菜), thoŋ tshai (通菜).” To this she adds that “‘a hole’ in (Taiwanese) Southern Min is khang (孔), and the same character in contemporary Mandarin is pronounced as khong. And 空心菜 means literally ‘hollow-heart-vegetable.’”

cooked:   packet of cooked rice

xxx
Kamarian atuatcontainer woven of coconut leaves in which one cooks rice to a firm mass
WMP
Malay ketupatsquare or polygonal packet of cooked glutinous rice (taken, like our sandwiches, for food on a journey)
Chamorro atupat, katupatwoven container used for cooking rice, a box-like container woven from coconut leaves, into which rice is placed, then submerged into boiling water for cooking

Probably borrowing from Malay. Chamorro atupat, Kamarian atuat suggest an etymon *qatubat, but the Chamorro variant in k- and the unexplained loss of *b (expected //h//) in Kamarian leave borrowing as the best alternative.

copper-gold alloy

WMP
Tagalog tumbágacopper and gold alloy
Bikol tumbágacopper
Cebuano tumbágacopper, or a copper alloy that is still copper-colored
Tausug tumbagabrass, copper, bronze
Malay təmbagabrass; copper; copper-colored
Simalur tambagocopper
Sundanese tambagared copper
Tontemboan tambagacopper
Mongondow tambagacopper
Tae' tambagared copper
Makassarese tambagared copper
Wolio tambagacopper, bronze; copper-colored: brown, yellow, orange, red, blond
Muna tambagacopper, bronze

Borrowing from Sanskrit. For a detailed account of the complex history of this word, which generally refers to copper in island Southeast Asia, but to a copper-gold alloy in the archaeological cultures of the Andes cf. Blust (1992a).

(Dempwolff: *tiru ‘to imitate, copy’)

copy:   imitate, copy

WMP
Malay tirufollowing in the lines of; imitating; copying
  mə-niruto copy; after; on the lines of; taken from
  tiru-animitation; model or design for copying
Toba Batak tiruto copy, imitate; counterfeit
Sundanese tiruimitate, copy
Old Javanese (m)a-tiruto follow, imitate, take for a model
  maka-tiruto serve for a model
  t<um>iruto follow, imitate, take after, copy
Javanese tiruto resemble; to imitate, copy
  tiru-tiruto copy, mimic
Balinese tiruto mimic, imitate, copy; a model, copy (for imitation)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiru ‘to imitate, copy’ (nachnahmen).

cord:   cane cord used for heavy binding

WMP
Malay tutusvery thin strips of cane used as bindings
Karo Batak tustusstring something on a cord; pierce something with a needle
Toba Batak tustuswooden support tied under the house posts
Javanese tutuscord made of bamboo strands

Probably a loanword from Malay, although the unreducted medial clusters in Batak languages are problematic under this interpretation.

coriander seed

WMP
Maranao katombarpepper: Capsicum frutescens Linn.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ketumbalchili pepper, any plant of the genus Capsicum
Malay kətumbarcoriander: Coriandrum sativum
  biji kətumbarcoriander seed (for spicing curry); also used medicinally
Sundanese katuncarcorinander seed
Makassarese katumbaraʔcorinander seed, used in preparing spices

Borrowing from Tami through the medium of Malay.

cork, stopper

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) tapóncork
Ayta Abellan taponcork
Tagalog tapóncork; plug; stopper
  i-tapónto use something as a cork or stopper
  mag-tapónto cork; put a cork or stopper in
Bikol tapóna cork, stopper
  mag-tapónto place a cork or stopper in

Borrowing, ultimately from Spanish tapón ‘stopper, cork’.

(Dempwolff: *teŋen ‘be right’)

correct:   right correct

WMP
Tagalog tiŋínlook; sight; view; glance; view; viewpoint; opinion; respect; esteem; appreciation
Toba Batak toŋoncorrect, true, accurate
Old Javanese təŋənthe right hand side
Javanese teŋenright (as opposed to left)
Balinese teŋenright hand, right side

The western Indonesian forms are likely loans from Malay, and the Tagalog form a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teŋen ‘be right’ (rechtsein).

cot, bed

WMP
Ilokano kátrebed, cot
Ibaloy katiribed
Bikol kátrebed
Hanunóo kátriraised bed; known to the Hanunóo only through visits to Christian villages
Aklanon kátribed

Borrowing of Spanish catre ‘small bed’.

cotton cloth

WMP
Malay belachuunbleached cotton cloth
Mongondow bolasuŋunbleached cotton cloth

Borrowing from Malay.

cotton cloth of cheap quality

WMP
Iban belacuʔcalico, any cheap, plain, unbleached cloth
Malay belacuunbleached cotton cloth
Bare'e balasuwhite cotton, of mediocre quality
Buginese balacuŋcheap white cotton cloth

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *antih)

cotton:   spin cotton thread

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ganti-ancolored thread
Ngaju Dayak kantihwhat is spun or twined (yarn)
  maŋ-antihto spin, twine
Malay antéh, meŋ-antéhto spin. The meaning covers the whole process of spinning. Possibly from a root kantéh
Toba Batak gantispin, make cotton thread
Sundanese antéhcotton thread; also: to spin
Old Javanese antih-antih-anspider-web
  aŋ-antihto spin
Javanese di-antihbe spun, be woven
  k-antihthread spun on a spinning wheel
  ŋ-antihto spin (thread); to weave
Madurese antetwisting, twining, making thread or string

A relatively late innovation in western Indonesia, with probable borrowing from Malay into some of the other languages cited here.

cotton

WMP
Ilokano kápascotton, cotton ball
  kapas-kapaskind of fish with bony meat
Isneg kápata forest tree that resembles the silk-cotton tree and yields a similar fiber used for stuffing pillows
Bontok kápəssewing thread
Kankanaey kápescotton: Gossypium herbaceum L.
Ifugaw kápohcotton, mostly cultivated on mud heaps in rice field terraces: Gossypium paniculatum
Ifugaw (Batad) āpoha cotton plant: Gossypium barbadense [Malv.]; a kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra; cotton fibers
Ibaloy kapesfiber useful for tying---abaca, alinew tree, cotton, commercial fibers
Pangasinan kapéscotton
Ngaju Dayak kapascotton (especially the fine wooly kind; the coarser type is kapok)
Iban kapascotton before spinning, cotton wool
Malay kapascotton, cotton-wood, e.g. as a symbol of whiteness
Toba Batak hapascotton
Old Javanese kapascotton-tree, cotton
Javanese kapascotton, cotton plant
  ŋapasto grow cotton
Mongondow kapotcotton shrub: Gossypium herbaceum

Presumably a borrowing of Sanskrit karpāsa into Malay, from whence it spread to other languages of western Indonesia and the Philippines. What is surprising about this distribution is that there are widespread forms that point to an apparent *kapas, and others that point to an apparent *kapes, and in some cases this refers to the native silk-cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra. These discrepancies suggest that the full borrowing history of this form remains to be worked out.

cough

xxx
Binukid buhaʔcough; to cough; induce coughing
WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) buhaʔinduce coughing
Tiruray buhaʔa cough; to cough
  buhaʔ-ensick with a cough
CMP
Rotinese boʔoto cough
OC
Motu huacough

The Tiruray form is assumed to be a MANO loan; the similar of the Rotinese and Motu forms to these is attributed to chance.

covering

WMP
Ngaju Dayak salumboŋa thimble
Malagasy salúbunaa veil, a canopy
Malay səluboŋcovering with a veil; hiding under a veil; veil
  buka səluboŋto unveil
Toba Batak salumbuŋa cape or cloak that has been sewed together

Probably a Malay loan distribution.

cow

WMP
Malay ləmbuox, etymologically of white highly-prized oxen such as that ridden by Sang Səpərba (the founder of the Malay dynasty)
Toba Batak lombuthe small Bengal cow
Sundanese ləmbuwild cow, the female of the banteng
Old Javanese ləmbucow, bull (when distinct from sapi, probably a white cow or bull’
Javanese lembucow
Balinese lembua bovine, a white bull or cow

Probably a Malay loan distribution.

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

cr

craft:   intelligence, craft, scheme

WMP
Maranao akaltrick, fool, plan
  akal-akaltrick a person without mercy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akalbetray
Mansaka akaltrick; crafty procedure or practice
Berawan (Long Terawan) akanknowledge, intelligence
Ngaju Dayak akaladvice, redemption; cunning deceit
  m-akalcheat, deceive, outwit
Iban akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence; deceive, delude
Maloh akalintelligence, cunning
Malay akalwit; intelligence. Properly 'mind as the organ of thought' (in contrast to hati or 'mind as the subject of consciousness'); reasoning. In common speech: trick, dodge, stratagem
Javanese akalidea, scheme
  ŋ-akalseek, find a solution; take advantage of someone
Balinese akalintend, be intended for; mind, intention
Mandar akalwits, thoughts; intelligence
CMP
Asilulu akalmind, attitude; deceptiveness, chicanery
Buruese akalscheme, trick, ruse, stratagem

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

(Dempwolff: *tukaŋ ‘craftsman’)

craftsman

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tukaŋmaster (of a practical art); carpenter, smith, etc.
Malay tukaŋcraftsman (as a smith, a wheelwright, a tailor, a cobbler, a carpenter, a mason, etc.)
Toba Batak tuŋkaŋcraftsman: carpenter, smith, etc.
Javanese tukaŋworker; one who operates or works at (equipment, materials)
Balinese tukaŋcraftsman, expert, practitioner; one who is commissioned to work in some way

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tukaŋ ‘craftsman’.

(Dempwolff: *sant(ae)n ‘coconut oil’)

cream:   coconut cream

WMP
Tagalog santáncoconut milk and molasses mixed and cooked together
Bikol santána cooked mixture of coconut milk and brown sugar
Ngaju Dayak santanmilk pressed from shredded coconut (from which coconut oil is cooked out)
  ma-ñantanto press the milk from coconut
Malay santansoft milky pulp of the coconut, much used in cooking and a type of richness
  ayər santancoconut milk
  kəpala santanthe ‘cream’ of the coconut; the very best of its pulp; (fig.) virginity, first embraces
Gayō santansoft milky pulp of the coconut
  be-santanto make santan (by pressing out the rich substance from a coconut)
Karo Batak santanmilk pressed from a coconut
  santan batufigure of speech for ‘beautiful words but a sinister meaning’
Toba Batak santancoconut milk (said to be from Malay)
  na s<in>antanwhat is cooked with coconut milk
Rejang sateuncoconut sauce made of grated and crushed coconut soaked in water and sieved (a basic ingredient for the cooking of most side dishes)
Old Javanese santanessence, quintessence; pollen, flower; coconut milk (pressed from coconut meat)

Also Old Javanese santən ‘essence, quintessence; pollen, flower’; coconut milk (pressed from coconut meat); coconut, coconut palm (especially the ivory coconut); female breasts’, santən ’like (the color of) santən; milky white, pale’, Javanese santen ‘coconut milk pressed from shredded coconut meat’, ñanten ‘to extract coconut milk by pressing’, santen-an ‘having coconut milk mixed into it’, Balinese santen ‘coconut cream, the juice squeezed out of the flesh of coconuts’. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sant(ae)n ‘coconut oil’, but this appears to have been a Javanese innovation *santən that was borrowed into Malay and then spread over other parts of western Indonesia and northward into the Philippines.

(Dempwolff: *leŋeR ‘lame, crippled’)

crippled:   lame, crippled

WMP
Tagalog liŋigfear, anxiety
Malay ləŋardizzy
  tər-ləŋarknocked silly; bumping heavily (of a with its bows on a reef)
Javanese ləŋərmotionless; speechless

I am unable to find Tagalog liŋig in any modern dictionary of the language. The resemblance of the Malay and Javanese forms, as with hundreds of others, is best regarded as a product of borrowing. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *leŋeR ‘lame, crippled’.

crippled, lame

WMP
Agutaynen piaŋa person with a crippled or deformed leg (the person can still walk, but with a limp)
Cebuano píaŋdislocate, sprain, fracture someone; make something crippled, be at a disadvantage because of a loss or absence of something indispensable
Maranao piʔaŋlame; cripple
Binukid ka-piaŋto dislocate (a joint); to sprain, fracture (a body part); to be lame, crippled

Probably a Bisayan loan in Agutaynen.

cross-legged:   sit cross-legged

WMP
Tagalog mag-sílaɁto sit on the floor with legs crossed at front
Bikol mag-sílaɁto sit with the legs crossed at the thighs; to cross the legs in this way
Iban duduk be-silasit kneeling (on knees and feet together); sit deferentially, or cross-legged (?)
Malay dudok bər-silato sit in the proper deferential way
  tikar silamat to sit on
Sundanese silasit cross-legged

Said to be from Sanskrit in western Indonesia, and then borrowed through Malay into Philippine languages such as Tagalog.

cross-stick for outrigger

CMP
Yamdena barecross-stick of the outrigger
Fordata varacross-stick for outrigger
Kei warcross-sticks for the outrigger
SHWNG
Buli baraoutriggers of a boat

Buli is assumed to be a loan from some CMP source.

caj    cak    cal    can    cap    car    cas    cat    cau    cei    cel    cer    cha    che    chi    cic    cir    cit    cla    cle    clo    coa    coc    cof    col    com    con    coo    cop    cor    cot    cou    cov    cow    cra    cre    cri    cro    cuc    cud    cup    cur    cus    cut    

cu

cucumber

WMP
Agutaynen pipinocucumber
Maranao pipinocucumber

From Spanish pepino ‘cucumber’.

cuddle:   caress, cuddle

WMP
Ilokano ag-lam-lambíŋto cuddle lovingly
Tagalog pa-la-lambíŋcaress; showing fondness, affection or tenderness

Borrowing from Tagalog.

cup

WMP
Tagalog maŋkókbig bowl or saucer
Bikol maŋkók ~ maŋkóʔbowl
Ngaju Dayak maŋkokcup, bowl
Iban maŋkokcup, bowl, esp. Chinese serving bowl
Malay maŋkoksmall bowl
Toba Batak maŋkukcup, beaker, goblet
Javanese maŋkoka small bowl used for eating; basin used for carrying liquid foods sold by street peddlers
Banggai maŋkoʔcup

Borrowing, apparently from Minnan Chinese.

cup for dinking

WMP
Ilokano tásacup
  sa-ŋa-tásaone cupful
Tagalog tásaa drinking cup
Bikol tásacup, teacup; mug; small bowl
Cebuano tása ~ tásaʔcup; use a cup
Tausug tasaa drinking cup (with a handle, made of metal)

From Spanish taza ‘cup; cupful’.

curtain

WMP
Cebuano tábilput up a curtain in order to conceal something
Maranao tabircurtain
Malay tabirwall drapery; arras; hangings in contrast to partition curtains and mosquito curtains

Borrowing from Malay.

curve

WMP
Tagalog lantíkgraceful curve of eyelashes, hips, etc.
Bikol lantíkcurving outward, as the mouth of a jug
Maranao lantíkbend, curve, crooked; curved roof
Mapun lantíkbent, bowed, curved backwards
Tausug ma-lantikdouble-jointed
  l<um>antikfor a person or animal’s torso or limb to bend in the opposite direction from usual; (for an object) to bend, curl
Iban lentikbent backwards (as someone walking)
Malay lənteka very gentle curve at the tip (admired); of a pretty eyebrow; a curving roof like that of a Chinese temple or Minangkabau house; curving rafters, etc.

Probably a loan from Brunei Malay in Philippine languages.

curved chisel, gouge

WMP
Tagalog lukóbgouge; a chisel with a curved blade
Bikol lukóbcentering chisel or hollow punch
  mag-lukóbto remove something with such a chisel
Agutaynen lokoba curved chisel for making holes in wood or bamboo
Cebuano lukúbkind of chisel with a curved (concave-convex) cutting edge

This is presumably a Tagalog or Cebuano loan in Agutaynen.

customer

WMP
Itbayaten sokicustomer
Ilokano súkifrequent, faithful customer
Pangasinan súkiregular and favored customer; vendor or merchant whom one patronizes regularly
Tagalog súkiɁan old or regular customer or client
Cebuano súkisteady customer or seller; be in the súki relation, i.e. that of a seller and buyer
Mansaka sokiɁto be a customer; to be in one’s debt
Tausug sukiɁa regular customer or purchaser
  mag-sukiɁto take someone as a regular customer

Borrowed from Hokkien.

cut of gambling money

WMP
Ilokano toŋbribe money; grease money
Tagalog toŋpercentage cut taken by a gambling house from the winnings of a gambler
Cebuano tuŋrake-off given by gamblers to the owner of the gambling paraphernalia used

Borrowing from Hokkien tông ‘percentage cut of gambling taken from winners’.

cutlass, sword

WMP
Ilokano kampílansword, saber
Tagalog kampilanlong, straight sabre broadening toward the point; a cutlass
Maranao kampilansword used for fighting --- has straight edge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kempilana two-handed sword which has a long handle and a straight blade which, on the end, is split similar to a swallow’s tail
Tausug kampilana long, two-handed, bladed weapon (rarely seen or used in recent times)
Malay kampilanlong and heavy sword used by the Mindanao pirates (Orang Lanun)

Unlike most loan distributions that involve Malay, this one appears to have come about through borrowing by Malays of a term current in the southern Philippines at the time of contact. Native Malay words have neutralized the opposition of /a/ and schwa in prepenultimate syllables, and the absense of neutralization here points to borrowing.

cutter:   areca nut cutter

WMP
Tagalog kalakatia tool like small shears for cutting betel nuts
Malay kələkatiareca nut cutter

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Tamil.

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    y   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/3/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Loans-Index-c