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Updated: 5/19/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Loans

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g   

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gain:   profit, gain, fortune, luck

xxx
Tontemboan untuŋprofits, gain; victory; prosperity
WMP
Maranao ontoŋluck, fortune, blessing
Tausug untuŋprofit, gain
Kadazan Dusun untuŋgain, profit
Kayan utuŋprofits, gains
Iban untoŋprofit; unexpected gain, windfall
Malay untoŋfate, destiny
Bahasa Indonesia untuŋprofit, gain
Simalur untuŋfate, destiny, lot
Toba Batak untuŋgain, profit, fortune
Javanese untuŋlucky; profit, gain
Sasak untuŋluck, fortune, chance
Sangir untuŋgain, profit, fortune, luck
Mongondow untuŋprofit, gain
CMP
Kambera utuŋuadvantage, profit, gain
SHWNG
Buli untuŋluck, fortune, profit
Numfor untuŋwindfall, piece of good luck
Kowiai/Koiwai untuŋprofit; to win

Widespread borrowing from Malay.

gain:   profit, gain

WMP
Maranao labagain, profit
Malay labamuch gain; good returns
Toba Batak labaprofit, advantage
Old Javanese lābhaacquisition, gain, profit
  a-lābhato be successful
Balinese laba-anwages, gain, interest; what is given by a higher person

Borrowing from Sanskrit through Malay, which shows its own loan status in the sequence aba, since in native words this normally became awa.

gambling:   cut of gambling money

WMP
Ilokano toŋbribe money; grease money
Tagalog toŋpercentage cut taken by a gambling house from the winnings of a gambler
Cebuano tuŋrake-off given by gamblers to the owner of the gambling paraphernalia used

Borrowing from Hokkien tông ‘percentage cut of gambling taken from winners’.

game played by children

WMP
Agutaynen pinpinan old hide-and-seek game played at night, with two groups
Cebuano pinpingame of eeny, meeny, miny, mo

Probably a Bisayan loanword in Agutaynen.

garlic

WMP
Maranao lasonaʔgarlic
Toba Batak lasunagarlic
Bare'e lasunaonion
Tae' lassunaonion
Makasarese lasunaonion
  lasuna -keboʔgarlic: Allium sativum
CMP
Kambera lahonared onion
Hawu (la)hunaonion

Borrowing of Sanskrit laśunam ‘garlic’. This comparison was pointed out by Daniel Kaufman.

garter

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat lígasrubber (especially of the rubber sling used in spear fishing)
Bikol lígastourniquet
Cebuano lígasgarter to hold the stockings up

Borrowing of Spanish liga ‘garter’.

(Dempwolff: *kampuŋ ‘meeting, assembly, gathering’)

gathering:   meeting, assembly, gathering

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kampoŋ(often intensified by kawalafter it), be under the control of a chief
  ma-ŋampoŋto be a chief over someone, rule someone as a chief
Iban kampoŋforest never yet cleared and usually extensive, virgin forest
Malay kampoŋgrouping; gathering together; (living) compound
Gayō kampuŋvillage, settlement
Simalur kampuŋvillage, settlement
Toba Batak hampuŋ(short for kapala kampuŋ ‘village head’)
Sundanese kampuŋneighborhood, district, hamlet, small village
Javanese kampuŋslum area in or near a city; yard around one’s house
Sasak kampuŋcoastal inhabitant of another ethnicity; however, not Banjarese

Almost certainly a product of borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938), who reconstructed *kampuŋ ‘meeting, assembly, gathering’, included Tongan kapu ‘to surround, etc.’, Futunan kāpu-i ‘encircle’, Samoan Ɂapu ‘a cup or dish made of a leaf’ in this comparison, but there seems to be little reason to treat the similarity of the Oceanic forms to those in western Indonesia as anything other than chance resemblances. For the unexpected Iban gloss cf. Blust (1980b).

gauze, wick of a lamp

WMP
Ilokano gásagauze; wick of lamp, armband
Tagalog gásagauze; arm band; mantle (of a lamp)
Bikol gásagauze; the bag-like wick of pressure lanterns
Aklanon gásagauze; wick of lamp
Cebuano gásagauze; incandescent mantle of pressure lanterns
Maranao gasamantle, filament, wick (lamp)
Tausug gasathe mantle (of a pressure lamp or an Aladdin lamp)

From Spanish gasa ‘gauze’.

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ge

gem, jewel

WMP
Tagalog palamatábracelet made of glass beads; fancy jewelry
Malay permatagem, jewel
Makasarese paramatagemstone
CMP
Soboyo parimataeyeglasses

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

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gh

ghoul, vampire

WMP
Kapampangan patianakdwarfish ghost or spirit
Tagalog patianakgoblin
  tianakfolkloric elf or goblin
Cebuano mantiyanaksupernatural being which preys on newborn infants. It drinks the blood from childbirth, and tries to get at the newborn baby's liver. If the baby dies he drinks the mother's milk without her knowledge and kills her thereby. It is pictured the size of a baby, with horns and fangs, with long pointed ears, dirty brown in color and angular in features. It has the ability to walk, change its appearance, and make itself invisible
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) mentiʔanaktype of long-necked deer supposed to be a demon who is actually a beautiful girl
Malay puntianakvampire; evil spirit preying on women in labor and on babies. Etymologically ; pati-anak (child-killer) ... Referrable to the Indonesian belief that an unnatural death creates a malignant spirit. The 'child-killer' is usually either (i) the ghost of a woman dead in childbirth or (ii) the ghost of a child murdered to hide a mother's shame
Malay (Baba) matianakvampire; evil spirit preying on women in labor and on babies
Nias matianaghost of woman who dies in childbirth (cited by Verheijen 1967-70 sub MGG pontiana)
Sundanese kuntianakghost of a woman who dies during pregnancy or in childbirth, and who enters into other parturient women in order to enjoy the experience of childbirth which was denied to her
Javanese puntianakkind of evil spirit (Pigeaud)
  kuntilanaka malevolent female spirit (Horne)
CMP
Manggarai pontianaevil spirit
Rembong puntianakevil spirit

The essential content of this morpheme is a reference to women who have died in childbirth, and to the culturally perceived vindictiveness and malevolence that their ghosts feel, especially toward men. In Java it is said that the puntianak appears as a beautiful young woman in the twilight of the evening and tempts gullible men to follow her from the village. Once they are alone she turns and flees with a hideous shriek, revealing a hole through the middle of her back, her feet not quite touching the earth.

The forms cited here are conspicuous for their multiple phonological irregularities and apparent morphological reanalyses. This strongly suggests that the form has been borrowed, probably from Malay. According to Alton L. Becker (p.c.) a similar folk belief is found in Burma. If true it is tempting to hypothesize that the puntianak belief was ultimately borrowed by speakers of an early form of Malay from a mainland Southeast Asian source and subsequently disseminated through much of island Southeast Asia.

The problem with this hypothesis is that a similar belief is found among speakers of OC languages. For Nggela in the central Solomons Fox, C. (1955) cites vahuhu 'be born, give birth to', mate 'dead, death; kill, etc.', and vahuhumate '1. goblins that sing when the moon goes down. They have holes in their heads and backs, 2. die in childbirth'. What we have then, appears to be a belief that was present in PMP society, perhaps under the name *m-atay anak (cf. *aCay). For reasons that are unclear, the Malay or Javanese name of this belief was widely borrowed during a much more recent period of history, overlaying an older cultural distribution and presumably replacing the older name in most areas.

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gi

gilding, gold-foil

WMP
Iban peradathin plate or leaf of metal, foil, tinsel
Malay peradatinsel; told foil; thin plate of precious metal
Old Javanese paradaquicksilver; gold-leaf
Tae' paradapaint, pigment; also: anything used like paint, as tar
Buginese paradapaint
Makasarese batu paradared or yellow stone the scrapings of which are used ... to make paint rappo parada a fruit the seeds of which yield a red dye: Bixa orellana; to gild; to paint
Wolio paradhatinfoil

Borrowing. Wilkinson (1959) gives Malay perada as a Portuguese loan, and Richards (1981) appears to have followed Wilkinson in assuming a similar source for Iban perada. In view of the Sanskrit provenance of Old Javanese parada, however, a Sanskrit source for all forms appears more likely.

ginger tea

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) tahóʔginger tea
Tagalog tahótea made from ginger
Cebuano táhuʔginger tea; have ginger tea

Borrowing from Tagalog.

girls:   term of address for girls

WMP
Malay endokfriendly form of address used by a woman to a female friend or by a man to his wife
CMP
Manggarai endukMiss, form of address used with a young woman

Borrowing from Malay.

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gl

glue

WMP
Ilokano kólaglue, paste; adhesive
  kolá-anto seal with glue; to glue, paste
Bikol kúla ~ kólaglue
Hanunóo kúlaglue, paste, made of tree sap
Cebuano kulá ~ kúlaglue to hold something together

Borrowing of Spanish cola ‘glue’.

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gn

gnat

Formosan
Kavalan samuqa type of small gnat
Paiwan ta-tamekgnat

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go

(Dempwolff: *tepis ‘go around the edge’)

go:   circumambulate, go around the edge

WMP
Toba Batak topisgo around the edge
Javanese tepisedge, border, boundary

Borrowing from Javanese? Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepis ‘go around the edge’.

go ahead!, O.K.!

WMP
Pangasinan sígiexpression equivalent to ‘O.K.’, ‘go ahead!’, ‘all right’
Tagalog síge!go on! go ahead!
  i-sígito go ahead in doing some particular thing
  s<um>ígeto go ahead
  sigíh-anto go ahead and do something; to go on doing something
Tiruray sigito proceed, to continue
Tausug sigi-sigigoing on in rapid succession, happening over and over again, repeated often, continually

From Spanish sigue.

go ahead!:   alright, go ahead!

WMP
Ilokano dálego ahead!
Kapampangan dáleokay
Tagalog dálego ahead!

Apparently a borrowing of Spanish darle/dale ‘go ahead!’.

goat

xxx
Tontemboan mémbéʔgoat
WMP
Iban bimbigoat
Malay békbleat (of goat or sheep)
Minangkabau mem-bébékto bleat
Old Javanese wiwigoat
Mongondow bémbéʔgoat (in general)
Banggai mbefmbefgoat
Bare'e bémbégoat
Tae' bémbéʔgoat
Makasarese bémbégoat; mutton
Wolio bémbégoat
CMP
Rotinese biʔigoat, sheep
  biʔi inaewe
  biʔi maneram
Selaru bib, bibi-regoat
Yamdena mbimbigoat
Fordata bibigoat
Buruese bibi, pipigoat

Borrowing. The phonology of this form (with its mid-front vowel and prenasalized initial consonant in several languages) unmistakably indicates a lexical distribution resulting from diffusion. However, unlike most widespread loan distributions in island Southeast Asia it is difficult to attribute this one to borrowing from either Malay or Javanese. The terms in eastern Indonesia almost certainly were borrowed from some language of Sulawesi, most likely Buginese or Makasarese. The origin of the term in the languages of Sulawesi, however, remains unclear. The forms in Minangkabau and Malay suggest that this word, like the similar term for 'duck', is onomatopoetic. An independent term for 'goat' (*kandiŋ) is found in a number of the languages of Borneo and the Philippines, but the domestication of goats is certainly of secondary origin in island Southeast Asia. Perhaps, like the domestication of ducks, it was introduced during the Indianization of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula by the 7th century A.D.

goat

WMP
Kapampangan kambíŋgoat
Tagalog kambíŋgoat
Hanunóo kambíŋgoat; known, although rare, in southern Mindoro
Ngaju Dayak kambiŋgoat (rarely encountererd)
Iban kambingoat, sheep
Malay kambiŋgoat; generic for sheep, goats, and serow
Toba Batak hambiŋgoat
  hambiŋ-hambiŋbag made of goat hide
Old Javanese kambiŋgoat
Javanese kambiŋgoat, sheep
Balinese kambiŋgoat (also sheep, but these are rare in Bali)

The history of goats in insular Southeast Asia remains to be worked out in detail, but the evidence currently available suggests that they were introduced from South Asia around the beginning of the Christian era (Blust 2002:104-105). What makes this loanword particularly odd is that doublets *kambiŋ and *kandiŋ are both widely distributed in insular Southeast Asia, and only the first of these variants can plausibly be attributed to borrowing from Malay.

gold

WMP
Bikol amása measure of gold, equivalent to one sixteenth of a tahil
Kenyah matgold
Bintulu masgold
Melanau (Mukah) masgold
Ngaju Dayak amasgold
Iban masgold
Maloh amasgold
Jarai mahgold
Rhade mahgold
Malay emasgold
Karo Batak emasgold
Toba Batak omasgold
Sundanese emasgold
Old Javanese emasgold
Javanese masgold
Balinese emasgold
Sasak emasgold
Tae' ammaʔa unit of measure for gold
Buginese emmeʔa unit of measure for gold
Makasarese ámmasaʔgold
CMP
Komodo masgold
Manggarai emaspure gold
Rembong emasgold
Kambera ámahumetal; gold or silver ornament; money
Wetan maagold, golden valuables (esp. ornaments like bracelets and such)
Selaru masgold
Kei māsgold, silver; gold piece
Dobel masagold

A very widespread loanword which Wilkinson (1959) traces to Sanskrit mashaka 'mace', and thence to 'gold', since the latter was measured by the mace. Whatever its origin, it seems clear that the known distribution of this term is largely a product of borrowing from Malay. Lee (1966) reconstructs Proto-Chamic *ʔama-h 'gold', and Mills (1975) reconstructs Proto-South Sulawesi *immas 'gold', but in at least the latter case, and probably in both, the word almost certainly was borrowed from Malay after the proto-language in question had already divided into daughter languages. The glosses of Bikol amás and of such South Sulawesi forms as Tae' ammaʔ and Buginese emmeʔ suggest that the early Malay prototype referred to a unit of measure for gold, probably developed after the initiation of Indian contact in the early centuries of the Christian era. For further discussion cf. Wilkinson (1959:744).

gold

xxx
Kanakanabu vanítukumoney
Formosan
Saaroa val itukumoney
Paiwan valʸitjuqshiny metal object; lead; bullet; money
WMP
Ilokano balitókgold
Isneg balitóʔgold
Kankanaey balitókgold
Ifugaw balitókoften used in the sense of "gold", though it properly means a gold ornament (necklace, earring)
Ifugaw (Batad) balítuʔplate s.t. with gold, esp. to cap or crown a tooth with gold
Pangasinan balitókgold

Borrowing from a southern Formosan source into the northern Philippines.

gold:   copper-gold alloy

WMP
Tagalog tumbágacopper and gold alloy
Bikol tumbágacopper
Cebuano tumbágacopper, or a copper alloy that is still copper-colored
Tausug tumbagabrass, copper, bronze
Malay təmbagabrass; copper; copper-colored
Simalur tambagocopper
Sundanese tambagared copper
Tontemboan tambagacopper
Mongondow tambagacopper
Tae' tambagared copper
Makasarese tambagared copper
Wolio tambagacopper, bronze; copper-colored: brown, yellow, orange, red, blond
Muna tambagacopper, bronze

Borrowing from Sanskrit. For a detailed account of the complex history of this word, which generally refers to copper in island Southeast Asia, but to a copper-gold alloy in the archaeological cultures of the Andes cf. Blust (1992a).

gold-foil:   gilding, gold-foil

WMP
Iban peradathin plate or leaf of metal, foil, tinsel
Malay peradatinsel; told foil; thin plate of precious metal
Old Javanese paradaquicksilver; gold-leaf
Tae' paradapaint, pigment; also: anything used like paint, as tar
Buginese paradapaint
Makasarese batu paradared or yellow stone the scrapings of which are used ... to make paint rappo parada a fruit the seeds of which yield a red dye: Bixa orellana; to gild; to paint
Wolio paradhatinfoil

Borrowing. Wilkinson (1959) gives Malay perada as a Portuguese loan, and Richards (1981) appears to have followed Wilkinson in assuming a similar source for Iban perada. In view of the Sanskrit provenance of Old Javanese parada, however, a Sanskrit source for all forms appears more likely.

(Dempwolff: *lalu ‘to pass by’ )

gone:   past, done, gone

WMP
Tagalog láloʔ ~ lalúʔmore, increasingly
Malagasy lálugone beyond, passed
  man-dáluto pass by
Malay laluput through; done; past; afterwards
  sə-lalualways, continually
Old Javanese laluto pass, go by, elapse, continue, proceed; thereupon, subsequently; passing the limit, going too far, too much
  l<um>aluto go on regardless of the consequences, determinded to face (difficulties, death, etc.); to pass by, ignore
CMP
Kambera laluvery

Probably a Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *lalu ‘to pass by’ (Vorbeigehen).

(Dempwolff: *eguŋ 'gong')

gong

WMP
Tagalog ágoŋgong
Maranao agoŋgong, beat the gong
Ngaju Dayak geŋgong, sound of the garantoŋ (copper kettledrum)
Malay eguŋ, goŋ(onom., from its sound) gong. Specifically in Java the largest variety of gong.
Toba Batak oguŋgong
Old Javanese agoŋwith gongs
  goŋa gong
Javanese goŋgamelan instrument, coming in various sizes

Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to unite a number of these forms under an etymon *eguŋ 'gong' is unconvincing. Although all of the forms cited except Ngaju Dayak geŋ clearly contain the root *-guŋ 'deep resounding sound', the Philippine forms appear to be loans, and the same probably is true of Toba Batak oguŋ. The most likely source language, directly or indirectly, is Javanese.

goods, belongings, things, possessions

WMP
Kayan bareŋequipment, things
Melanau (Mukah) bareŋthing
Ngaju Dayak baraŋthings, goods
Malay baraŋthing; stuff; wares; goods
  baraŋ-baraŋthings of all sorts; impediments, the usual things
Toba Batak baraŋgoods, moveable property
Javanese baraŋthing, object, stuff, matter, goods
Balinese baraŋthing, property, matter
Sangir baraŋstuff, belongings
Buginese waramparaŋgoods, possessions
Makasarese baraŋ-baraŋgoods, possessions
CMP
Manggarai baraŋ-kanithings, belongings
Rembong baraŋpossessions, property, equipment
Hawu ɓaragoods
SHWNG
Buli baraŋgoods

Borrowing from Malay. The term *baraŋ apparently was found in PMP as a marker of indefiniteness. The meaning 'things, goods, possessions' evidently was a late innovation in western Indonesia, which, together with the reduplicated form of the word, was widely disseminated through borrowing from Malay.

goods, valuables

WMP
Iban bendamovable property of (ritual) value, esp. jars
Malay bendathing; article; esp. a thing of value; property, treasure
Acehnese beundaobject, thing, matter, affair, visible evidence, visible sign
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bendabelongings, property
Toba Batak bondagoods, property
CMP
Manggarai bendabelongings
Kambera bandagoods, property

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit.

goose

WMP
Maranao gansaʔgoose
Iban ansagoose
Malay aŋsa, gaŋsagoose
Acehnese ansagoose
Toba Batak aŋsagoose
Old Javanese haŋsagoose
Balinese aŋsagoose
Sasak aŋsagoose
Sangir ansaʔgoose

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

goose

WMP
Old Javanese bañakgoose
Javanese bañakgoose, swan
Gorontalo bañogoose
Buginese banñakgoose
CMP
Bimanese banagoose

Borrowing from Javanese

gouge:   curved chisel, gouge

WMP
Tagalog lukóbgouge; a chisel with a curved blade
Bikol lukóbcentering chisel or hollow punch
  mag-lukóbto remove something with such a chisel
Agutaynen lokoba curved chisel for making holes in wood or bamboo
Cebuano lukúbkind of chisel with a curved (concave-convex) cutting edge

This is presumably a Tagalog or Cebuano loan in Agutaynen.

gourami (fish)

WMP
Tagalog guramia species of freshwater fish
Cebuano guramigourami, a freshwater food fish: Osphronemus goramy
Maranao goramiOsphronemus goramy or gourami / freshwater anabantid fish
Malay ikan guramifreshwater carp: Osphromenus olfax, reared in ponds for the table
Sasak gəramithe well-known native carp: Osphromenus olfax

Although this fish reportedly is native to insular Southeast Asia, the distribution and phonology of the name strongly suggests that it has been borrowed from Malay, which in turn appears to have acquired it from an unrelated language (prepenultimate vowels normally merge as schwa in Malay, and the r : r : r : r correspondence between Tagalog, Cebuano, Maranao and Malay is not regular).

government

WMP
Malay peréntah / perintahgovernment
CMP
Soboyo parentagovernment, power

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gr

grain:   dry measure for grain etc.

WMP
Ilokano kabán75 liter dry measure; cavan
  kaban-ento place in sacks; measure in cavans
Kankanaey kabáncavan; 75 liters (measure for rice, beans, etc.)
Ifugaw kabánIfugaw pronunciation of the term caván, measure for pounded rice, beans, etc., 25 halúb
Casiguran Dumagat kabancavan, a dry measure of 125 liters, or fifty gantas (note: in other areas of the Philippines, a cavan is equivalent to twenty-five gantas)
Ibaloy kabancavan; a unit of dry measure equivalent to 75 liters, or 4 large kerosene cans (used especially for rice, both rough and milled; introduced as a measure by the Spanish in the 19th century)
Pangasinan kabáncavan, a dry measure approximately equivalent to a bushel
Tagalog kabáncavan; a Philippine measure of 75 liters or 25 gantas
Bikol kabána unit of dry measure equal to 25 ganta or 75 liters, commonly used to refer to a sack of rice
Aklanon kabáncavan (unit of measure-- 25 gantas); a sackful of grain weighing approximately 100 pounds
Agutaynen kabana measurement for rice, holds approximately one “pasong” or 25 “ganta” of rice, which is equivalent to 62.5 kilos
Cebuano kabánmeasurement equivalent to twenty-five gantas

(Dempwolff: *tiŋtiŋ ‘loosen by shaking’)

grains:   shake grains on winnowing tray

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tintiŋpurify by shaking
Malay tintiŋto winnow with a swaying motion so as to separate grain from chaff or sand from alluvial gold; (fig.) to refine; to retain only the best
Javanese tintiŋto sort grains according to size by shaking them on a broad shallow tray

Borrowing from Malay. Despite the consistent shapes of the forms cited here Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiŋtiŋ ‘loosen by shaking’ (durch schütteln losemachen). His inclusion of Tongan sisiŋ-i ‘hit oneself on the head’ (sich auf den Kopf klopfen) is puzzling, as I find no such form in Churchward (1959), and even if it could be found, the semantic connection with the above forms is strained beyond credibility.

grandfather

Formosan
Pazeh ʔa:kúŋgrandfather (Tsuchida 1971)
WMP
Tagalog iŋkóŋappellation for grandfather or very old man
Malay eŋkoŋgrandfather (Baba, from Chinese)

Borrowing from Southern Min.

grandfather

WMP
Ilokano lólograndfather
Tagalog lólograndfather
Bikol lólograndfather; great aunt; a title of respect for old men
Agutaynen lolograndfather

Said to be from Spanish abuelo ‘grandfather’.

grandmother

WMP
Ilokano lólagrandmother
Tagalog lólagrandmother
Bikol lólagrandmother; great aunt; a title of respect for old women
Agutaynen lolagrandmother

Said to be from Spanish abuela ‘grandmother’.

great grandparent

WMP
Taboyan moyaŋgreat grandparent
Malay boyot, buyut, moyot, poyot, piutancestors in the fifth or sixth generation
Sundanese buyutthe fourth ascending or descending generation
  ka-buyut-anoriginating from ancient times
Old Javanese b-in-uyutelder
  buyutgreat-grandfather, great-grandchild; elder
  ka-buyut-anobject of worship, place of worship, holy place (because of its coming down from immemorial times? or because of its connection with ancestor worship?)
Javanese buyudthird generation ancestor or descendant; cemetery buyud-en unsteady with old age ka-buyud-an place where a priest lives and works; place considered to be holy in animistic religion
Balinese buyutgreat-great grandfather and great-great grandchild (the sixth stage in genealogy, up and down)
Sasak boyotancestor (apparently in the sixth or seventh generation)

Borrowing from Malay.

grater

WMP
Javanese ŋ-ulegto grind (spices, etc.)
  uleg-anground-up seasonings
  uleg-ulegmortar and pestle used in the kitchen for grinding seasonings
Makasarese ulaʔ-ulaʔgrater made of wood or bamboo root, used to grate Spanish pepper fine

Probably a borrowing from Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *patuŋ ‘portrait, image, likeness’)

graven image, statue

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ham-patuŋwooden or clay images of people, animals, etc.
Malay patoŋpuppet; image (of a deceased person, of stone elephants, of a garden having statues in it)

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *patuŋ ‘portrait, image, likeness’ (Bildnis).

gravy:   broth, gravy

WMP
Iban kuahgravy, soup, any liquid left after cooking
Malay kuahsauce or liquid in which a Malay ‘wet curry’ is stewed
Karo Batak kuahsauce; dessert with liquid
  kuah-kento put sauce on, add sauce to
Toba Batak huasoup, broth

Borrowing from Malay.

gray

WMP
Tagalog kulabóʔfaded in color; hazy, cloudy, blurred (as water, glass, atmosphere, etc.).
Malay kəlabuashen grey
  kəlabu matafilm over the eye causing greyish discoloration
Balinese kelawuash-gray; fallow
CMP
Tetun kulabudark grey
  matan kulabufaulty vision

Borrowing from Malay.

great grandparent

WMP
Taboyan moyaŋgreat grandparent
Malay boyot, buyut, moyot, poyot, piutancestors in the fifth or sixth generation
Sundanese buyutthe fourth ascending or descending generation
  ka-buyut-anoriginating from ancient times
Old Javanese b-in-uyutelder
  buyutgreat-grandfather, great-grandchild; elder
  ka-buyut-anobject of worship, place of worship, holy place (because of its coming down from immemorial times? or because of its connection with ancestor worship?)
Javanese buyudthird generation ancestor or descendant; cemetery buyud-en unsteady with old age ka-buyud-an place where a priest lives and works; place considered to be holy in animistic religion
Balinese buyutgreat-great grandfather and great-great grandchild (the sixth stage in genealogy, up and down)
Sasak boyotancestor (apparently in the sixth or seventh generation)

Borrowing from Malay.

green

WMP
Maranao gadoŋ-angreenish
Mansaka gadoŋblue-green
Tiruray gaduŋblue
Mapun garuŋgreen
  ŋaruŋto dye or make something green
  ka-garuŋ-anhaving lots of green in something
Yakan gadduŋgreen
Molbog gadduŋgreen
Samal gadduŋgreen
Ida'an begak gadduŋgreen
Kiput gaduəgreen
Bintulu gaɗuŋgreen
Melanau (Mukah) gaduŋgreen
  g<əm>aduŋto become green; to make something green
Balinese gaḍaŋgreen (with assimilation of the last vowel?)
Dampelas gaduŋblue-green

Probably a loan distribution that may have been spread by the Sama-Bajaw, although its ultimate source and chronology remain unclear.

greeting:   excuse oneself; greeting

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tábi kaexcuse me (a respectful expression of request to be excused for passing between or in front of people)
Sambal (Botolan) tábiʔask to be excused when passing in front of one or more persons; ask someone to get out of the way
Tagalog bátiʔ M greeting, greetings
Bikol tábiʔplease
  maki-tábiʔto excuse oneself (as when moving through a crowd of people)
Cebuano tábiparticle of courtesty used to ask permission to leave for a second, ask a question, pass in front of someone; excuse me
Mansaka tábiʔplease excuse me
Kelabit tabiʔto greet, shake hands
Iban tabiʔgreeting; to greet, salute
Malay tabekgreeting; etymologically the utterances of the word tabek, which means ‘excuse me’ or ‘with your permission’, and is a courteous preliminary to opening a conversation
Toba Batak tabiword used to excuse oneself, and also employed as a greeting
Old Javanese tabeforgive me
Javanese tabikOccidental-style greeting (e.g. a wave of the hand, a ‘hello’)
  tabik-anto shake hands
Balinese tabénexcuse, leave, greeting
Tae' tabeʔword used to excuse oneself, as in leave-taking, etc.

Borrowing, apparently through Malay, but ultimately from Sanskrit kṣantabya ‘to be pardoned; may I be pardoned; pardon me’. Fijian tavi ‘to salute in welcome, give hospitality to’ is assumed to be a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *taŋkap ‘seize, grip’)

grip:   seize, grip

WMP
Ngaju Dayak taŋkapwhat is grasped or gripped
Iban taŋkapgrip, seize, catch, arrest; captive
Malay taŋkapgripping; clasping; capture, esp. capture in the hand
Toba Batak taŋkapseize, graph (said to be from Malay)
Rejang takeupcatch, seize, hold

Probably identical to PMP *taŋkep ‘to catch, as by covering’, but with the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms borrowed from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taŋkap ‘seize, grip’.

(Dempwolff: *pegaŋ ‘hold tightly’)

grip, hold tightly

WMP
Ngaju Dayak pagaŋwhat one has control of; property, ownership
  pegaŋpossessions
Malay pəgaŋgrasp; hand-hold; control
  p<əm>əgaŋhandrail; balustrade

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pegaŋ ‘hold tightly’ (Festhalten). This comparison has now been replaced by PWMP *pegeŋ ‘hold firmly, concentrate’.

gruel

WMP
Ilokano atólestarch; paste made from flour
  atuli-ento starch clothes
Agutaynen atoliground rice, cooked like porridge (sometimes it is used as a substitute for baby’s milk)

From Mexican Spanish atole ‘corn flour gruel’.

TOP      gam    gar    gat    gau    gem    gho    gil    gin    gir    glu    gna    go    go    goa    gol    gon    goo    gou    gov    gra    gre    gri    gru    gua    gue    gun    gur    

gu

guard, watchman

WMP
Tagalog káwalsoldier; warrior; follower; disciple; troops; soldiers
Malay kawalwatchman; patrol; guard; of keeping guard over a palace, policing a strait, etc.

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Tamil.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋgu ‘be attentive’)

guard:   be attentive, stand guard

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tuŋgowatchman, lookout
Malay tuŋguwatching; guarding
  bər-tuŋguto be on the lookout
  tuŋgu-ito watch over
Toba Batak tuŋguto admonish, call attention to a fault
Old Javanese (m)a-tuŋguto stay and wait on, keep watch over, guard, be a guardian
Javanese tuŋguto wait for; to keep watch over, look after

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋgu ‘be attentive’ (aufpassen).

guava

WMP
Kavalan biabasguava
Ifugaw bayábatguava
Tagalog bayabasguava
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) beyabasguava, guava tree, Psidium guayava
Tboli beyabasguava
Malay jambu biawasguava

Borrowing from Spanish into Kavalan and Philippine languages, followed by the southward spread of the introduced plant and name from the Philippines into Indonesia.

guess, approximate

WMP
  agakguesswork; conjecture; more or less; about; at a venture
Simalur agaʔopinion, presumption
Karo Batak agakopinion, guess
Dairi-Pakpak Batak agakapproximately; more-or-less
Toba Batak agakapproximately; to estimate
Rejang agaʔabout, approximately
Javanese agakthought, opinion, guess
Balinese agakattitude, manner

Borrowing from Malay.

gunpowder, medicine

xxx
NGA obamedicine; charm, spell
WMP
Ilokano ubátkind of coarse gunpowder (obsolete)
Kapampangan ubátsulphur
Bikol úbatgunpowder
Maranao obatgunpowder
Tboli ubatbullet
Kadazan Dusun t-ubatdrug, medicine, remedy
  t-ubat do kupigunpowder
  t-ubat do pinuluammunition
Kayan ubatmedicine; charms
Bintulu uɓatmedicine
Iban ubatmedicine, drug; gunpowder; poison; spell, charm
Moken ubathealing
Malay hobat, ubatdrug; philtre; gunpowder
Simalur ufadgunpowder
Karo Batak ubatgunpowder
Toba Batak ubatmedicine; gunpowder
Rejang ubeutmedicine, drugs
Sundanese ubarmedicine
Old Javanese uwatmedicine, remedy
Balinese ubadmedicine, remedy
Bare'e ubagunpowder
Tae' ubaʔgunpowder
Mandar ubaʔtip of a match; bullet
Buginese ubaʔgunpowder
Makasarese ubaʔgunpowder
CMP
Manggarai ubatammunition
Soboyo ubagunpowder
SHWNG
Buli ubagunpowder
Numfor ubagunpowder
Waropen ubamedicine; gunpowder

This form appears to be native only in Malay, Sundanese, Balinese and probably Iban. Through borrowing from Malay it has been widely disseminated both in the meaning 'gunpowder' and in the meaning 'medicine'. It is best to regard it as a relatively late innovation in western Indonesia, and more importantly, as evidence that lexical borrowing from Malay affected languages extending from the northwestern Philippines> to the region of the SHWNG-OC language boundary in western New Guinea.

gunwale, side plank on canoe

WMP
Mansaka ampaʔboard used to increase freeboard of boat
Sangir ampathe plank that is fixed on the baule (unfinished hull of a boat) to give it more freeboard

Borrowing from Sangir.

(Dempwolff: *kucak ‘gurgle, sob’)

gurgle, sob

WMP
Malay kocakgurgle, sob
Javanese kocakgurgle, sob

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kucak ‘gurgle, sob’, but I cannot find a form with the shape and meaning that he cited in any modern dictionary of either of these languages.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 5/19/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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