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Updated: 5/19/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Loans

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h   

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(Dempwolff: *teba ‘to hack off, fell’)

hack off

WMP
Tagalog tábascut down, lopped off
Ngaju Dayak tewashacked off
Malagasy tevásinato be cut at the roots, as a tree
Iban tebascut grass and bushes
Malay təbascutting down small plants, in contrast to felling timber, of cutting down thorns, rushes, bamboos, or scrub; of clearing roads when overgrown
Old Javanese təbasto cut down, chop down, fell

Apart from Iban these forms are probably borrowed from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) assigned Malagasy tévi ‘to be cut at the roots, as a tree’ to *teba ‘cultivated land’ (Fruchtland), but Malagasy tevásina ‘to be cut at the roots, as a tree’ to *teba ‘to hack off, fell’ (abhauen, fällen), even though the latter is simply the patient voice form of the former, both being assigned to tévi in standard lexicographic sources such as Richardson (1885).

hairy:   tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor

WMP
Ilokano mabúloDiospyros discolor, a tree with edible brown, hairy fruits
Tagalog mabúlotree with hard dark-colored wood and edible fruit
Cebuano mabulumedium-sized tree of the primary forest, cultivated for its fruit; the wood is hard and used for furniture, the heartwood being nearly black: Diospyros discolor

Evidently a commercial name in the Philippines reflecting *ma- ‘stative’ + *bulu ‘hairy’. For what is presumably the original name cf, *kamaguŋ.

hammock

WMP
Bontok ʔamákalitter, device for carrying sick people, usually consisting of a blanket fastened between two parallel carrying poles
Casiguran Dumagat hamákacarry a sick person in a hammock hung from a pole
Tagalog hamákahammock
Chamorro amakahammock, swing, hanging bed or couch
OC
Hawaiian ʔahamakahammock, as of tapa, fastened to the manuea, center support of a house; hammock in general

Borrowing, ultimately from a tropical American source through Spanish.

(Dempwolff: *unjuk 'hand over, present to')

hand over

WMP
Malay unjokholding out, offering with the hand; stretching out hand and arm
Toba Batak unjukpay the brideprice for a woman

Chance or borrowing. On the basis of these two forms Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *unjuk 'hand over, present to'.

(Dempwolff: *saŋkal ‘handle of a tool’)

handle of a tool

WMP
Malay saŋkalhandle of a hammer or adze
Old Javanese saŋkalthe handle of an adze
Javanese saŋkalthe handle of a certain tool
Balinese saŋkalcarpenter’s plane, the wooden part of a plane

Dempwolff (1938) posited *saŋkal ‘handle of a tool’, but this form appears to be confied to Malay and a few languages of western Indonesia that have borrowed from Malay.

handshake

WMP
Ilokano lamánohandshake
  ag-lamánoto shake hands
Agutaynen mamag-lamanothe action in the ring game, idal-idal, where young people clasp hands in a circle with their fingers intertwined; then, as they move their hands back-and forth, to the right and left, a ring is passed unseen from one to another

Borrowing of Spanish la mano ‘the hand’.

(Dempwolff: *bagus)

handsome

WMP
Malay bagusfine; handsome
Old Javanese bagus, wagushandsomeness; handsome (of a man
Balinese bagusbeautiful, handsome (man); title of brahman men
Sasak bagusgood, beautiful, agreeable, pleasant
CMP
Rembong bagusfine; handsome

A late innovation in western Indonesia, borrowed by Rembong from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *laŋsay ‘curtain’)

hanging curtain

WMP
Malay laŋsaycurtain
Javanese laŋseshroud, winding sheet

Borrowing from Malay? Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *laŋsay ‘curtain’ (Vorhang). Wilkinson (1959) lists no such form for Malay.

harbor:   estuary, harbor

WMP
Ilokano kuálaharbor; pier; haven; port; estuary of mud; mouth of river
Malagasy hoálaa great swampy plain
Malay kualariver mouth, estuary; place where a river debouches into anothe river or into the sea

Borrowing from Malay. The much more widely-distributed reflexes of PMP *minaŋa ‘estuary’ render the claims of this term for the same meaning unconvincing.

harden metal

WMP
Iban sepohdip (in liquid), quench (hot iron)
Malay səpuha mixture (of alum, saltpeter, bluestone and other materials) used for darkening gold; the use of such a mixture
Toba Batak ma-noputo dissolve calcium; plunge glowing iron into cold water to temper it
Old Javanese səpuha mixture (of alum, saltpeter, bluestone and other materials) to harden iron, steel or horn, and to give gold a darker color
Javanese səpuhold, mature, ripe
  ñəpuhto darken colors; to have gold burnished
Balinese ñəpuhto purify gold, refine or harden iron, make steel; gild; provide with a metal lining
Sasak səpuɁto harden metal

Borrowing, probably by Malay from Javanese, with subsequent spread of the Malay form into other languages.

harrow, plough

WMP
Toba Batak salagawooden piece on the neck of a buffalo to which the plough is attached
Madurese salagaplough
PSS *salagaharrow (tool)
Buginese salagaharrow (for rice field)
Makasarese salagaharrow, of which one with short, thick teeth is used to plough, and one with long, slender teeth is used to rake up grass and stubble

Probably a loan distribution. The Madurese form is very likely borrowed from Buginese or Makasarese, but under this hypothesis the Toba Batak form in unexplained.

harrow

WMP
Ibaloy soyodharrow, the farming implement to loosen and level the soil for planting
Tagalog súyodfine nit comb; comb with very fine teeth; harrow for farm work; a heavy frame with iron teeth or upright disks
Aklanon súyodsteel-spiked harrow; to harrow with this implement

Probably a Tagalog loan, since the use of harrows in Philippine cultures probably does not predate the arrival of the Spanish. It is possible, however, that this word was found in Proto-Philippines with a different meaning (as ‘fine-toothed comb’).

hat

Formosan
Amis kafoŋhat, anything worn on the head
  pa-kafoŋ-ento put a hat on someone
  sa-kafoŋ-ento put on one’s hat
Puyuma kabuŋhat
  mi-kabuŋto wear a hat

Probably a loan, although the direction of transfer is unclear.

hate

WMP
Iban benciʔabhor, shun, hate
Malay bencihate
Sangir binsiʔto hate, despise, scorn
CMP
Rembong bensiʔhate

Borrowing from Malay.

having radical mood swings:   moody, having radical mood swings

WMP
Tagalog sumpuŋ-íncranky; moody; grumpy; disgruntled; ill-humored; capricious; fickle; guided by one’s fancy
Masbatenyo sumpúŋ-ontemperamental, bad mood
Agutaynen sompoŋ-onmoody (person); be overcome bysomething; have an attack of some kind (high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack); become temporarily crazy, insane; be overcome by one’s power to become a witch, causing one to do strange things

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he

(Dempwolff: *suŋkuk ‘head covering’)

head covering

WMP
Malagasy suŋguɁplace on the head with long hair
Iban suŋkuɁMuslim cap, fez, usually in Sarawak a shallow cylindrical cap of black velvet without tassel
Malay soŋkokuntasselled fez-like cap of cloth or velvet
  soŋkok ayamcoop for fowls
Javanese soŋkokornamental wings worn at the back of the headdress and (a larger pair) on the upper back, as part of a warrior costume
  soŋkok-anto put on or wear such wings

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *suŋkuk ‘head covering’, but cited Malagasy as having suŋguɁ, a form that is phonologically impossible, and at odds with súŋu ‘long hair on any part of the head’ in e.g. Richardson (1885). The remaining forms appear to be loans from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *kuluk ‘head covering’)

head covering, kerchief, headcloth

WMP
Tagalog taŋ-kulokraincoat
Mapun kōk ~ ta-kōkhead of person or animal; leader of a group
Ngaju Dayak kolok ~ ta-kolokhead; a knob, button, etc. as decoration on a staff, etc.
Malay təŋ-kolokhead-wrapper; kerchief; headcloth
Toba Batak tahulukcap, kind of head covering (said to be from Malay)
Minangkabau tiŋ-kulukheadcloth worn by women; it is of the nature of a wrapper, and provides the long pendent ends that are seen hanging behind the large payakombo headdress worn on gala occasions
Javanese kulukcrown; fez-like headdress worn by palace retainers on formal occasions

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kuluk ‘head covering’.

head side of a coin

WMP
Ilokano káraheads (in a coin toss)
  kara-krusheads or tails
Tagalog káraface or head side of a coin
Bikol kárahead or face side of a coin

From Spanish cara ‘face; front; head (of coin)’.

(Dempwolff: *kuluk ‘head covering’)

head covering, kerchief, headcloth

WMP
Tagalog taŋ-kulokraincoat
Mapun kōk ~ ta-kōkhead of person or animal; leader of a group
Ngaju Dayak kolok ~ ta-kolokhead; a knob, button, etc. as decoration on a staff, etc.
Malay təŋ-kolokhead-wrapper; kerchief; headcloth
Toba Batak tahulukcap, kind of head covering (said to be from Malay)
Minangkabau tiŋ-kulukheadcloth worn by women; it is of the nature of a wrapper, and provides the long pendent ends that are seen hanging behind the large payakombo headdress worn on gala occasions
Javanese kulukcrown; fez-like headdress worn by palace retainers on formal occasions

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kuluk ‘head covering’.

heavy:   cane cord used for heavy binding

WMP
Malay tutusvery thin strips of cane used as bindings
Karo Batak tustusstring something on a cord; pierce something with a needle
Toba Batak tustuswooden support tied under the house posts
Javanese tutuscord made of bamboo strands

Probably a loanword from Malay, although the unreducted medial clusters in Batak languages are problematic under this interpretation.

heir, inheritance

WMP
Maranao warisrelatives of the bride who apportion her dowry
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) weris-anif a man marries and the price for his bride is paid by someone who is not his father, mother, or relative, the bride price paid to this man at some future time for a daughter born to him will be shared with the one who helped him marry. This daughter is the werisan of the one who helped her father marry
Iban arisline, family
Malay warisheir; inheritor or potential inheritor
Acehnese warehconsanguineal kin
Simalur warisheir
Toba Batak warisheir; next of kin
Balinese warisheir, joint heirs
  waris-anestate, inheritance
Makasarese warisiʔheir; inheritance (following Islamic law)
CMP
Manggarai warisrelatives, same family

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

hernia

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ba-buruthave a hernia
  buruthernia
Malagasy vorót-inahaving a rupture, having large testicles, used of people as well as cattle
  vorotrathe part around the testicles of oxe;
Iban burutswollen testicles, orchitis; hydrocele
Malay burut pusatumbilical hernia
  buruthernia; rupture; (sometimes) hydrocele and any swelling of the scrotum
Acehnese burōthernia, enlarged scrotum
Dairi-Pakpak Batak burut-enhave a child
Sundanese buruthydrocele
Old Javanese burutkind of disease

Borrowing from Malay, except for Dairi-Pakpak Batak burut-en, which is best attributed to chance.

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hi

(Dempwolff: *tiŋgi ‘be high’)

high

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tiŋgidistinguished, noble; arrogant
Malay tiŋgiheight; tall; lofty
Javanese pra-tiŋgivillage magistrate (Pigeaud 1938)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiŋgi ‘be high’ (hochsein).

(Dempwolff: *puŋguŋ ‘hips’)

hips

WMP
Ngaju Dayak puŋgoŋthe elevation of projecting bones, as on the back of a chicken, at the rear of the back of a buffalo, etc.
Malay puŋgoŋbuttocks; quarters of a horse

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *puŋguŋ ‘hips’ (Hüften).

hit:   collide, hit, strike

xxx
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atognoise of knocking
WMP
Hiligaynon hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) atukkill a bird or chicken by piercing it with a needle or other small sharp instrument
Malay antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding
Toba Batak antuh-antukclub
  maŋ-antukto hit; bump against
  antukclub, heavy piece of wood with which one strikes

The Philippine forms are unrelated to those in western Indonesia. Of the latter only Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) and Malay, or Malay and the Batak languages permit a comparison, and this cannot safely be attributed to PWMP.

(Dempwolff: *lantak ‘to hit, ram into’)

hit, ram into

WMP
Tagalog lantákviolent attack, onset or onslaught
Ngaju Dayak lantakbe nailed firmly together (with iron or wooden nails)
Malay lantakramming down, as large piles in dam-construction; pounded to bits
Javanese lantakramrod for cleaning a gun barrel
OC
Sa'a ladato thrust

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *lantak ‘to hit, ram into’. However, the Tagalog and Sa'a forms cannot convincingly be related to the others cited here, and the others could easily be a product of borrowing from Malay.

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ho

hoe:   pickaxe, mattock, hoe

WMP
Itbayaten pikopickaxe
Ilokano pikopic ax, spout
Isneg pikothe pick mattock
Ibaloy pikomattock, pick ax used to loosen earth
Tagalog pikopickaxe; a heavy tool with a sharp point for breaking up dirt, rocks, etc.
Bikol píkopick, pickaxe
Aklanon píkomattock, hoe
Agutaynen pikopickaxe
  mag-pikoto break things up with a pickaxe
Cebuano píkupickaxe; dig with a pickaxe
Maranao pikomattock

Borrowing of Spanish pico ‘pickaxe’.

(Dempwolff: *paŋku(rR) ‘hoe’)

hoe, mattock

WMP
Malay paŋkurbroad-bladed hoe used for digging up soft earth when a plough is not available
Karo Batak paŋkur-paŋkurtool for beating apart dirt clods
  maŋkur-ito beat dirt clods into fine dirt
Toba Batak paŋkurhoe
  ma-maŋkurwork a field with a hoe
Rejang pakuaa hoe

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *paŋku(rR) ‘hoe’.

(Dempwolff: *pegaŋ ‘hold tightly’)

hold tightly:   grip, hold tightly

WMP
Ngaju Dayak pagaŋwhat one has control of; property, ownership
  pegaŋpossessions
Malay pəgaŋgrasp; hand-hold; control
  p<əm>əgaŋhandrail; balustrade

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pegaŋ ‘hold tightly’ (Festhalten). This comparison has now been replaced by PWMP *pegeŋ ‘hold firmly, concentrate’.

hole in road:   pothole, hole in road

WMP
Tagalog lubáka hollow, depression, or pothole in the ground, in a road, or on the surface of a road, etc.
  lubák-lubákrough (as a bumpy road); potholed
Aklanon eubák-eubákholes in the road
Agutaynen lobakbumps in a road
  lobak-lobakuneven area of road with many bumps and potholes; rough road

Since this word can only apply to situations in which wheeled vehicles are used, it is assumed to be a late innovation that was spread by contact.

honey

WMP
Ngaju Dayak maduhoney
Malay maduhoney
Old Javanese madhuhoney; mead; syrup
Javanese maduhoney, nectar from blossoms
Balinese madu ~ madhuhoney
Sasak maduhoney

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit madhu ‘honey’.

(Dempwolff: *lebaq ‘bee’)

honeybee

WMP
Malay lebahhoneybee, Apis spp.
Toba Batak lobahoneybee

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *lebaq ‘bee’.

hook

WMP
Tagalog ganso ~ gantsohook
Cebuano gansúhook attached to sacks to help one heave them; crochet hook; large safety pin; hook in wrestling; put a hook in something to lift it with
Malay gancucrook; hooked stick (of sticks for drawing down branches to allow of fruit being plucked, of hooks for holding up mosquito nets, etc.)

This is a borrowing of Spanish/Portuguese gancho ‘hook’. Although native words exist for ‘hook’ (PAn *kawit) and ‘fishhook’ (PAn *kawil), this word presumably was borrowed because it applied to boathooks with which the native peoples of island Southeast Asia and the Pacific were unfamiliar at the time of contact. It is assumed that the source language in the Philippines and Marianas was Spanish, while in the Malay world it was Portuguese. I am indebted to Richard Spahr for drawing my attention to the history of this form.

hope

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ásato hope, depend on
  pag-asa-énlet someone down after building up his hopes
Kapampangan asá-anput hope in someone
Tagalog ásahope
Bikol ásahope for or hope that
  asa-hánhope for the success of
  mag-ásahope for the success of
  mayoŋ pag-ásahopeless
  pag-ásahope
Cebuano ásahope
  maka-ásabe able to hope
Iban asaʔdisappointed, deceived
Malay asahope; trust
  putus asadespair
Acehnese asahope; trust; expectation
Simalungun Batak asahope

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

horn

WMP
Bontok busínato hoot, of a car horn
Pangasinan bosínahorn (of automobile)
Tagalog busínasounding horn
Bikol bosína, busínahorn (of cars and other vehicles)
Aklanon bosínahorn (as on motor vehicles)
Cebuano busínaauto horn; sound produced by such a horn

Borrowing from Spanish.

(Dempwolff: *tanduk ‘horn’)

horn

WMP
Bikol tandóka cupping glass made from a horn
  mag-tandókto bleed with such a cupping glass
Maranao tandokstuff a siphon with cotton or other suitable material to draw out pus
Ida'an begak tandukhorn
Kelabit tadukrhinoceros horn (used for medicinal purposes)
Kiput tandukkind of long banana (Malay pisaŋ tanduk)
Ngaju Dayak tandokhorn; power, strength; authority
  ma-nandokto cup with a horn
Malagasy tándrukahorn; horns of cattle; anything branching out as horns; fig. glory
Iban tandukhorn
Malay tandokhorn (of two-horned animals)
Gayō tanukhorn
  mu-tanukhorned, having horns
Karo Batak tandukhorn
Toba Batak tandukhorn, antler
Sundanese tandukhorn, antenna
  cau tandukkind of banana with very large fruit
Balinese tandukhorn, horns of a bull or cow

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Urasustronesisch’ *tanduk ‘horn’, but given its known distribution it is better regarded as a Greater North Borneo innovation, and hence came into being after the Austronesian settlement of Borneo. The forms in Philippine languages, Sumatra, Java and Bali are best treated as Malay loans, and Lobel (2016) similarly considers all forms of tanduk in Sabah as borrowings from Malay.

horse

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ha-jaranhorse (found only Southeast of Banjarmasin)
Old Javanese ajaranhorse ('trained animal')
Javanese jaranhorse
Banggai ajalanhorse
Tae' daraŋhorse
Makasarese jaraŋhorse
CMP
Bimanese jarahorse
Komodo jaraŋhorse
Manggarai jaraŋhorse
Ngadha dzarahorse
Kambera njarahorse

Borrowing, ultimately from Javanese. As noted by Dempwolff (1934-38), this item evidently = ajar 'teach, learn' + -an.

house:   ceiling of a house

WMP
Ilokano kísameceiling
Tagalog kísameceiling
Cebuano kisamiceiling of a house; put up the ceiling
Chamorro kísamiceiling

Almost certainly a borrowing of Mexican Spanish zaquisamé 'loft, upper floor', which itself may have originated in Arabic saqf fi [as]samā’ ‘roof in the sky’, with the meaning in Spanish of ‘attic’ or ‘a small room, not very clean, and disorderly’. I am much indebted to Lyle Campbell for running this down for me over a period of two days, during which time the source became increasingly clearer as more information was collected.

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hu

(Dempwolff: *tunduk ‘submit, humble oneself’)

humble oneself:   submit, humble oneself

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tundoksubjugate, subdue, conquer
Malay tundokbowing the head; bowing to the inevitable; submission or surrender
Toba Batak tunduksubjugated, subdued, conquered

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tunduk ‘submit, humble oneself’ (sich beugen).

hunched over

WMP
Kapampangan balúktutbent, curled up
Tagalog baluktótcurved, bent
Cebuano baluktuthunchbacked

Borrowed into Kapampangan from Tagalog. This form probably reflects earlier **balutkut, with root *-kut 'hunched over, bent'.

hunt

WMP
Bintulu mərəwto hunt, go hunting
Ngaju Dayak ka-burowhat is driven off or away
  ma-ŋa-buroto drive off or away
Malay buruhunting; driving game; driving before one; (colloquial) hurrying up
  məm-buruto hunt
Karo Batak er-buruto hunt, go hunting
  per-burua hunter
Toba Batak mar-buruto hunt, go hunting
  ma-muruto hunt something
  par-burua hunter
Sundanese buruto hurry up
  ŋa-buruto hurry to a destination
  buru-buruto be in a big hurry
Old Javanese buruhunter; hunting
  a-buruto hunt, go hunting
Javanese buruact of hunting; to chase each other; that which is hunted
  ke-buru-buruin a hurry
Balinese buruto hunt, to chase

Also Sa'a huru-huru, Arosi huru, huru-huru ‘to run’, which appears to be a chance resemblance. PAn *qaNup, PMP *qanup meant ‘to hunt for game’, and the forms cited here either are products of borrowing from Malay, or reflect an innovation in Greater North Borneo with subsequent extension of the distribution as a result of borrowing from Malay.

hut, shack

WMP
Ngaju Dayak podoksmall house or hut used only for short periods (as when in the forest collecting rattan, hunting, etc.)
Malay pondoknight shelter, in two senses: 1. in Malay and Minangkabau, hut; shanty; lean-to; a depreciatory description of one’s own house, 2. in Java and Singapore a sort of hotel or residential clubhouse
Toba Batak pondokhut, in particular a sales booth that one erects by the roadside
Old Javanese a-monḍokto erect a temporary shelter, to camp
Javanese ponḍoka small crude hut; (fig.) my humble home
  monḍokto live in a rented room away from home
  monḍok-akéto board someone
  monḍok-ito rent a room in someone’s house
  ponḍok-ana place to stay when away from home; lodgings, rented rooms
Balinese ponḍoktent, hut, temporary or poor dwelling; this is the word one uses for one’s own house in polite speech
Sasak pondoktemporary dwelling

The presence of mid-back vowels in all these forms points to borrowing from Malay.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 5/19/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Loans-Index-h