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Updated: 3/17/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Loans

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j   

jai    jar    jas    jav    jel    jew    joi    jud    

(Dempwolff: *bazu)

jacket₁:   shirt, jacket

WMP
Tagalog bároʔdress for upper part of body
Ngaju Dayak bajushirt, jacket
Malay bajushirt, jacket
Toba Batak bajushirt, jacket
Old Javanese baju, wajujacket
Javanese bajushirt, jacket
Makasarese bajushirt, blouse, bodice
CMP
Erai harujacket with long sleeves

Borrowing, ultimately from Persian.

jacket

WMP
Makasarese babuʔkind of jacket
CMP
Rembong bambujacket

Borrowing from a South Sulawesi source. Makasarese can reflect any of a number of original final consonants.

jackfruit, Artocarpus spp.

WMP
Ilokano anaŋkájackfruit
Isneg laŋkáthe jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, L.; its burned wood yields a black dye
Hanunóo laŋkáʔjackfruit (Artocarpus heterophylla Lam.), the tree and its fruit
Agutaynen láŋkajackfruit
Mansaka láŋkaʔjackfruit
Kelabit buaʔ nakan M small jackfruit variety
Kayan nakan M the wild jackfruit
Kayan (Uma Juman) bua nakan M small jackfruit
Iban naŋkaʔlarge jackfruit, Artocarpus spp.
Malay naŋkaa fruit, specifically the jack, Artocarpus integrifolia, but covering also the soursop, durian, another jack, A. lanceaefolia, and two other plants, Mallotus macrostachyus and Nauclea purpurascens
Old Javanese naŋkaa particular kind of tree and its fruits, Artocarpus integrifolia
Balinese naŋkabreadfruit tree, breadfruit
Sasak naŋkaArtocarpus integrifolia
Wolio naŋkekind of tree (its fruit used to be an important article of trade)
Muna naŋkajackfruit
Chamorro lanka, nankajackfruit

The history of this word remains somewhat unclear. Merrill (1954:153) notes that the jackfruit “although now widely distributed in the archipelago and frequently planted, was an early introduction from tropical Asia.” By ‘tropical Asia’ he presumably means India, although no further information is given. Since the word occurs in Old Javanese and has spread into a number of Philippine languages, it is likely that its introduction into the Austronesian family goes back at least a millennium. Its appearance in Chamorro presumably is due to contact with Philippine languages such as Tagalog during the centuries of Spanish occupation of the Marianas.

jackfruit

WMP
Old Javanese panasajackfruit
Buginese panasajackfruit

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

jail

WMP
Sundanese buiprisoner, captive
Javanese buijail, prison
Balinese buiprison
Sasak buiprisoner
Makasarese buijail
CMP
Bimanese buijail
Rembong buijail
Asilulu buijail
Buruese buijail

Borrowing from Dutch.

jar:   earthen jar

WMP
Itbayaten aŋaŋearthen jar (for containing water, wine, liquid, sugar, salt, rice, etc.), jug. This is the second largest among the earthenwares
Isneg aŋáŋgeneral name for jar
Itawis aŋáŋwater jar
Ifugaw aŋáŋa great earthen cooking pot in which the Ifugaw boil the food for pigs (e.g. sweet potato peels)

Borrowing from a Cordilleran language into Itbayaten.

jasmine

WMP
Ilokano sampagítasmall jasmine flower, national flower of the Philippines
Cebuano sampagítaspreading and ornamental bush grown for its fragrant flowers, jasmine: Jasminum spp.
Maranao sampagitaJasminum multiflorum /Burm.F./ Andr.
Chamorro sampagitatype of flowering plant: Jasminum sambac

Also Ilokano sampága ‘Jasminium sambac, Arabian jasmine’. Although the base form may be native to some Philippine languages, the longer word with diminutive suffix appears to be a Spanish loan in both the Philippines and the Marianas.

javelin:   dart, javelin

WMP
Tagalog sulígiɁdart, small spear or lance
Iban seligiwooden javelin, spear of hardened bamboo or palm; crocodile ‘hook’
  ñeligiraging, in turmoil
Malay səligiwooden dart or javelin
Toba Batak suligibamboo lance
Sundanese suligikind of spear or javelin
Old Javanese suligia kind of spear, javelin
  a-nuligito throw the suligi
Balinese suligia mace or club of wood or iron, having a sharp point

Also Malagasy, Minangkabau suligi ‘dart, small spear or lance’. The final glottal stop in Tagalog shows that it is most likely a borrowing from Malay, an interpretation that may well apply to most of the other forms cited here as well.

TOP      jai    jar    jas    jav    jel    jew    joi    jud    

je

jelly:   seaweed jelly

WMP
Iban agar-agarjelly made from edible sea-weeds (Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Sphaerococcus, and other spp.) often colored and flavored with pandan (kerupok)
Malay agar-agar(specifically) the so-called 'seaweed' from which seaweed-jelly is made; (generally) agar-agar jelly and things suggesting it such as 'Turkish delight' and gelatine
Toba Batak agar-agargelatine
Sundanese agerwell-known seaweed from which a jelly is made, gelatine
Old Javanese ager-agerkind of seaweed, Sphaerococcus lichenoides
Javanese ager-agerseaweed (jelly)
Buginese agaraʔseaweed jelly
Makasarese agaʔ-agaraʔkind of edible seaweed which is sold in blocks in stores

Borrowing, ultimately from Javanese.

jellyfish

WMP
Malay ubur-uburjellyfish
CMP
Bimanese ubu-ubujellyfish

jewel:   gem, jewel

WMP
Tagalog palamatábracelet made of glass beads; fancy jewelry
Malay permatagem, jewel
Makasarese paramatagemstone
CMP
Soboyo parimataeyeglasses

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *hias)

jewelry:   decoration, jewelry

WMP
Tagalog hiásgem, precious stone; jewelry; ornament, decoration
Aklanon hiásjewels, treasures
Hiligaynon hiásprecious stone, gem
Cebuano híasgood qualities, virtues not inherent in something pa-hias something used to make a woman beautiful; use jewelry or make-up
Malay hiasembellishment
  mandi ber-hiasceremonial bathing and decking out of a bride for her wedding
  men-hias-ito beautify
Acehnese hiehdecorate; ornament
Lampung hiasdecorated

Borrowing. The Philippine reflexes point to *h-, but the western Indonesian reflexes to *q-. Panganiban (1966) suggests that Tagalog hiás derives from Spanish joyas. If so, this form has spread from the Philippines into western Indonesia, like Malay biawas 'guava', and a few other words.

TOP      jai    jar    jas    jav    jel    jew    joi    jud    

jo

join together

WMP
Malay huboŋlinking; joining together
Karo Batak ubuŋlength; extend
Toba Batak ubuŋtie, bind together

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *kukut ‘joint’)

joint

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kukutjoint of the hand (= wrist?)
Javanese kokothinge, joint

Either a chance resemblance or a Javanese loan in Ngaju Dayak. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kukut ‘joint’, but I am unable to find a Javanese form with this meaning in either Pigeaud (1938) or Horne (1974).

TOP      jai    jar    jas    jav    jel    jew    joi    jud    

ju

judge, punish

WMP
Ilokano okóm-ento judge, to try
  okómjudge, justice
Isneg uxómjudge
Bontok ʔukúma government official; to rule; to have authority
Tagalog hukómjudge
  húkum-ancourt of justice
Bikol hukómjudge
Cebuano hukúmpass judgement, give a verdict
Maranao okomcontrol
Kadazan Dusun ukumpunishment, penalty, sentence
  ukum-enbe punished
Kayan ukumto judge, to punish; punishment
Iban ukumofficial decision or order, esp. judicial; sentence, penalty
Malay hukumdecree; doom; that which is ordained. Moslem law in contrast to customary law (adat)
CMP
Leti ukmupunishment, penalty
SHWNG
Buli ukumpass judgement, punish

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 3/17/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Loans-Index-j