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Updated: 1/12/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Loans

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(Dempwolff: *kuraŋ ‘shortage; too little’)

lacking, less than

WMP
Itbayaten kolaŋlacking, falling short
  kolaŋ-anreduce, to lessen
Ilokano kúraŋdeficient, lacking; insufficient; in short supply
  ag-kúraŋto be short (in supply); to be in need
  kur-kúraŋmental deficiency, stupidity
  ma-kur-kúraŋ-anpoor; destitute
  k<um>úraŋto lessen, diminish
  kuráŋ-anto take away from, cause to diminish in supply
Isneg na-kúraŋdeficient, incomplete, with shortcomings
Bontok kúlaŋinsufficient; inadequate
Casiguran Dumagat kúlaŋlacking; to be lacking something (in number or supply)
  kúlaŋ tu isiplack of common sense
Ibaloy kolaŋinsufficient, not enough
Pangasinan koláŋinsufficient
  ka-kolaŋ-ánstate of lacking, inadequacy
Kapampangan kulaŋlacking
Tagalog kúlaŋinadequate; not so much as required; deficient: insufficient: lacking; short; not having enough of
Bikol kúlaŋlacking, short (as of money, food, time); under (as in ‘undervalued’); deficient, inadequate, insufficient, wanting
  ka-kuláŋ-anlack, shortage, deficit, dearth
  kuláŋ-onto lack; to run out of or run short of
  kúlaŋ-kúlaŋfeebleminded, retarded; an idiot
Maranao koraŋless, incomplete
Kenyah kuraŋless, reduced
Kiput kuraaŋinsufficient
Melanau (Mukah) kuraŋlacking
Ngaju Dayak kuraŋinsufficient, too little; defective, incomplete
Iban kuraŋnot enough, not much, less, short, lacking
Malay kuraŋreduction; falling short; wanting in; less; not quite; not
Gayō kuraŋlacking, short of
Karo Batak kuraŋinsufficient, inadequate; not enough, and therefore ‘to need something’
Toba Batak huraŋtoo little, insufficient, not enough
Old Javanese kuraŋtoo little, not enough; having too little, lacking (deficient) in
Javanese kuraŋless; inadequate, lacking, short
Balinese kuraŋdeficiency, lack, shortcoming
Sasak kuraŋless, reduced
  kuraŋ-anto come up short, not have enough
  kuraŋ-into reduce
Sangir kuraŋwant, shortage, shortcoming
  ma-kuraŋhave a deficiency, shortage
  ma-ŋuraŋto reduce, diminish
Mongondow kuraŋused primarily to mean ‘displeased’ (in one’s feelings about someone)
  po-ŋuraŋ-antime when something becomes less or in short supply
Bare'e kuratoo little; less
Tae' kuraŋslim, slender, not very stout
  ma-kuraŋlittle, too little, less

Although it is tempting to propose a reconstruction for this set of terms, this is one of the most widely distributed Malay loanwords in island Southeast Asia, having spread to many coastal languages of Borneo, and on into the Philippines, presumably in a trading context in which it may have played an especially prominent role. Dempwolff (1938) posited *kuraŋ ‘shortage; too little’.

lake

WMP
Tagalog talágaʔwell, spring
Ngaju Dayak talagaa pond, water puddle, water reservoir
Iban telagasmall lake, pool, shallow well
Malay təlagamere; tarn; (Java) small lake
Karo Batak telagahplace where a spring is found; pool, deep well
Old Javanese talagatank, pool, pond
Javanese təlagavery large lake
Balinese telagapond, pool, fish pond

Dempwolff (1938) marked this as a Sanskrit loan, citing it only to illustrate the regularlity of sound correspondences. However, the final glottal stop in Tagalog talágaɁ is irregular, and shows it to be a loanword. In addition, the range of languages over which this form is found supports the suspicion that many other comparisons which are confined to Malay and a few languages that are known to have borrowed from it are in fact loan distributions through the medium of Malay.

(Dempwolff: *leŋeR ‘lame, crippled’)

lame, crippled

WMP
Tagalog liŋigfear, anxiety
Malay ləŋardizzy
  tər-ləŋarknocked silly; bumping heavily (of a with its bows on a reef)
Javanese ləŋərmotionless; speechless

I am unable to find Tagalog liŋig in any modern dictionary of the language. The resemblance of the Malay and Javanese forms, as with hundreds of others, is best regarded as a product of borrowing. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *leŋeR ‘lame, crippled’.

lament:   bewail, lament

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) taghóycry pitifully, bewail, lament
Tagalog taghóylament, lamentation; mourning; wailing
  ma-naghóyto lament; to mourn; to wail
  t<um>aghóyto lament; to cry, as one in pain
  taghuy-ánto lament or mourn someone or something
  taghuy-íngiven to wailing, mourning or lamenting

lamp

WMP
Ngaju Dayak palitawick of a lamp
Malay pelitalamp
CMP
Kambera palitalamp

Borrowed, ultimately from Persian.

(Dempwolff: *kuzu(r) ‘name of a lance’)

lance

WMP
Malay kujura fish spear; a heavy pike
Toba Batak hujurlance (said to be from Malay)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kuzu(r) ‘name of a lance’.

(Dempwolff: *ku(r)a ‘milt, spleen, land turtle’)

land turtle:   tortoise, land turtle

WMP
Iban kuraʔtortoise
Malay kura-kuratortoise, esp. Cyclemys spp.
Toba Batak hura-huraland turtle, tortoise
Rejang kuyatortoise: Testudo elongata
Lampung kuyaturtle
Sundanese kuyafreshwater turtle
Old Javanese kuratortoise
Javanese kuraa certain land tortoise

Borrowing from Malay, where it evidently replaced PAn *qaCipa. However, this explanation assumes that borrowing took place in both Lampung and Sundanese before the distinctive sound change *R > y (from *kuRa). Somewhat enigmatically, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(r)a ‘milt, spleen, land turtle’, combining two very distinct senses in a single gloss.

large:   big, large

WMP
Maranao besarbig, large, great, huge
Ngaju Dayak basarbig
Iban besaibig, large, great; be as big as; think highly of, treat as important
Malay besarbig, bulky; important
Old Javanese besarbig
Mandar bassarbig (of objects that are oblong or cylindrical)
Buginese wessa, ma-bessabig, large; magnanimous

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *pasu ‘vessel for drawing water’ )

large pot or basin

WMP
Tagalog pasóʔflowerpot; earthen vessel used as a food container
Ngaju Dayak pasolarge pot or jar
Malay pasudeep bowl or basin (flower pot, bowl for goldfish, washbowl, etc.)
Javanese pasowide earthen cistern (Pigeaud 1938)

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pasu ‘vessel for drawing water’ (Schöpfgefäss).

launch:   motorboat, launch

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat lánsamotorboat, launch
Cebuano lánsalaunch; to go or travel by launch
Maranao lansalaunch, motorboat

Borrowing of Spanish lancha ‘launch; rowing boat’.

lavatory

WMP
Ilokano labábowashbowl; lavatory
Maranao lababolavatory

From Spanish lavabo ‘wash-stand, lavatory’.

law

WMP
  ondaŋprimer -- alphabet
  ondaŋ-ondaŋprimer, cardboard
Kadazan Dusun undaŋ-undaŋrule, law
Malay undaŋ-undaŋstatute-law; ordinance; laws made by a legislature and not based on ancestral custom

Borrowing from Malay.

lazy, idle

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tamádto feel lazy, to not feel like working; lazy
Tagalog tamádlazy; idle; indolent; sluggish; slothful
  ka-támár-anlaziness; idleness; indolence; sloth
Bikol ma-tamádbe reluctant or disinclined to do something
Aklanon tamádto feel lazy, not feel like working; a lazy person
  ka-támadlaziness, indolence
  ma-támadlazy, inactive, indolent

The Casiguran Dumagat form is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog or Bikol.

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le

(Dempwolff: *gawa 'work')

leader

WMP
Kenyah pegawaelder, prophet; committee
Ngaju Dayak paŋgawachief, leader
Malay peŋgawadistrict officer, commissioner

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *bucur)

leak

WMP
Iban bucurflow through a hole, usually of a container leaking out, as opposed to a roof leaking in (tiris)
Malay bocorleaking (in places); not watertight
Sundanese bocortoleak; a leak (stronger than iris)
Javanese bocorto leak out (as from a bucket)
Balinese bocorleak, be leaky; have diuresis
Makasarese boncoroʔleak (as a bucket)

Borrowing from Malay.

learned knowledgeable

WMP
Tagalog paháma very learned person; a genius; very learned; erudite
Malay pahamto understand; to be versed in
  kuraŋ pahamignorance
Javanese pahambody of knowledge or thought; doctrine; -ism; to understand, be knowledgeable
Muna fahamuunderstand, grasp

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Arabic.

(Dempwolff: *tiŋgal ‘be left over’)

left over

WMP
Malay tiŋgalleft over; left behind; remaining in a place; residing
Toba Batak tiŋgalbe left over
  ha-tiŋgal-anbe left behind
  pa-niŋgal-anwidow
Javanese tiŋgalto leave behind, abandon, neglect
  tiŋgal-ansomething left behind; an inheritance

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiŋgal ‘be left over’ (übrigbleiben).

(Dempwolff: *ku(dD)uŋ ‘leprosy’)

leprosy:   maimed (as by leprosy)

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kudoŋleprosy, causing loss of hands and feet
Malay kudoŋleft with only a stump; maimed; short and stumpy, as tailless cockroaches and transom- sterned boats

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(dD)uŋ ‘leprosy’.

(Dempwolff: *kuraŋ ‘shortage; too little’)

less than:   lacking, less than

WMP
Itbayaten kolaŋlacking, falling short
  kolaŋ-anreduce, to lessen
Ilokano kúraŋdeficient, lacking; insufficient; in short supply
  ag-kúraŋto be short (in supply); to be in need
  kur-kúraŋmental deficiency, stupidity
  ma-kur-kúraŋ-anpoor; destitute
  k<um>úraŋto lessen, diminish
  kuráŋ-anto take away from, cause to diminish in supply
Isneg na-kúraŋdeficient, incomplete, with shortcomings
Bontok kúlaŋinsufficient; inadequate
Casiguran Dumagat kúlaŋlacking; to be lacking something (in number or supply)
  kúlaŋ tu isiplack of common sense
Ibaloy kolaŋinsufficient, not enough
Pangasinan koláŋinsufficient
  ka-kolaŋ-ánstate of lacking, inadequacy
Kapampangan kulaŋlacking
Tagalog kúlaŋinadequate; not so much as required; deficient: insufficient: lacking; short; not having enough of
Bikol kúlaŋlacking, short (as of money, food, time); under (as in ‘undervalued’); deficient, inadequate, insufficient, wanting
  ka-kuláŋ-anlack, shortage, deficit, dearth
  kuláŋ-onto lack; to run out of or run short of
  kúlaŋ-kúlaŋfeebleminded, retarded; an idiot
Maranao koraŋless, incomplete
Kenyah kuraŋless, reduced
Kiput kuraaŋinsufficient
Melanau (Mukah) kuraŋlacking
Ngaju Dayak kuraŋinsufficient, too little; defective, incomplete
Iban kuraŋnot enough, not much, less, short, lacking
Malay kuraŋreduction; falling short; wanting in; less; not quite; not
Gayō kuraŋlacking, short of
Karo Batak kuraŋinsufficient, inadequate; not enough, and therefore ‘to need something’
Toba Batak huraŋtoo little, insufficient, not enough
Old Javanese kuraŋtoo little, not enough; having too little, lacking (deficient) in
Javanese kuraŋless; inadequate, lacking, short
Balinese kuraŋdeficiency, lack, shortcoming
Sasak kuraŋless, reduced
  kuraŋ-anto come up short, not have enough
  kuraŋ-into reduce
Sangir kuraŋwant, shortage, shortcoming
  ma-kuraŋhave a deficiency, shortage
  ma-ŋuraŋto reduce, diminish
Mongondow kuraŋused primarily to mean ‘displeased’ (in one’s feelings about someone)
  po-ŋuraŋ-antime when something becomes less or in short supply
Bare'e kuratoo little; less
Tae' kuraŋslim, slender, not very stout
  ma-kuraŋlittle, too little, less

Although it is tempting to propose a reconstruction for this set of terms, this is one of the most widely distributed Malay loanwords in island Southeast Asia, having spread to many coastal languages of Borneo, and on into the Philippines, presumably in a trading context in which it may have played an especially prominent role. Dempwolff (1938) posited *kuraŋ ‘shortage; too little’.

(Dempwolff: *ayu)

lets go!:   come on!, lets go!

WMP
Tagalog háyogo! go ahead!
Ngaju Dayak ayocome on! lets go!
Banjarese hayucome on! lets go!
Malay ayo(h)lets go! Exclamation to incite someone to action
Sundanese hayuexclamation: lets go!
  hayohhurry! lets go!
Madurese ayuʔcome on! lets go!
Gorontalo ayolets go!
CMP
Bimanese ajoexclamation to incite someone to action
Manggarai ajocome on! lets go!

Most of the forms cited here, including those in Tagalog, Ngaju Dayak, Gorontalo, Bimanese, and Manggarai, appear to be loans from Malay.

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li

lie, deceive

WMP
Tagalog buhóŋsly, cunning, deceitful; villain
Malay bohoŋlying; untruth; intentional misstatement
Sundanese bohoŋto lie, tell lies

Borrowing from Malay.

lie, deceive

WMP
Tagalog búlaʔfib, untruth
  buláʔ-anfibbing, untruthful
Iban bulaʔlying, false, tell a lie
Malay bolakgoing back on one's word; prevarication

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *tinDiq ‘lie on top of, be superimposed’)

lie above

WMP
Tagalog tílicontinued stay; staying on in a place
Ngaju Dayak ma-nindihboast to someone
Malay tindehlying on one another; superincumbent
Toba Batak tindipiled high
  ma-nindito surpass
  mar-tindi-tindipiled on top of one another
Javanese tinḍihheavy object used to weight something down; to be disturbed in one’s sleep by having cut off the circulation somewhere, e.g. the arm, by lying on it

The western Indonesian forms appear to be loanwords from Malay, and the resemblance of the Tagalog word to these is best attributed to chance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tinDiq ‘lie on top of, be superimposed’ (obenliegen).

lie prone

WMP
Tagalog dapáʔlying face down; lying on one’s stomach
Hanunóo dapáʔlying in a prone position
Cebuano dápaʔlie on the stomach
OC
Kapingamarangi dapáʔlie flat, with face down
  ma-dapáʔlying flat

Borrowing from Central Philippine languages (probably Tagalog) into Kapampangan.

light reddish brown (of horses):   sorrel, light reddish brown (of horses)

WMP
Ibaloy alasanbrown --- as a color of cows and horses
Cebuano alasanchestnut-colored horse with small white speckles

Borrowing of Spanish alazán ‘sorrel (of horses)’.

line:   row, line

WMP
Iban barisrow, line, military array
Malay barisstraight line (as in drawing up troups in line, writing, etc.)
Toba Batak barisrow; path that an animal is accustomed to follow; trace, track, rut
Old Javanese barisline, rank; various sorts of martial dances
Sasak barisrow, rank; kind of war dance
Makasarese barrisiʔline (of soldiers, books)
CMP
Rembong barisrow, line
Kei barisrow, column, series

A late innovation in western Indonesia, borrowed from Malay into Makasarese, Rembong, Kei and many other languages. "rule, law 1. Maranao ondaŋ primer, alphabet 2. Malay undaŋ-undaŋ statute-law; ordinance; laws made by a legislature and not based on ancestral custom (adat) or on religion (hukum) 3. Toba Batak undaŋ jesting riddle used to test one's quickness at repartee 4. Javanese unḍaŋ regulation, law.

linen, flax

WMP
Ilokano línoflax; linen
Agutaynen línolinen cloth; flax (from which linen is made)

From Spanish lino ‘flax, linen’.

lion

WMP
Ilokano liónlion
Masbatenyo liyónlion

Borrowing of Spanish leon ‘lion’.

(Dempwolff: *arak)

liquor:   alcohol, distilled liquor

xxx
NGA arabrandy, whisky
WMP
Ilokano árakwhisky, gin, whisky, etc. The fermented juice of grapes and any alcoholic beverage obtained by distillation
Bontok ʔálakstore bought hard liquor, as gin
Kankanaey álakwine, gin, whisky; alcohol
Casiguran Dumagat alákwine
Pangasinan álakliquor
Kapampangan álakliquor
Tagalog álakwine, liquor; distillate, alcohol
Bikol árakwhiskey, liquor, booze; wine
Hanunóo ʔálakwine, refering to bottled wine of various commercial brands; known from contact with lowland people; the term does not apply specifically to such native fermented beverages as intús
Aklanon áeakto distil (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage)
Hiligaynon álakhard drink, liquor
Cebuano álakliquor, strong alcoholic beverage
Tiruray ʔarakgeneral term for a distilled alcoholic beverage
Kadazan Dusun t-alakarrack
Kelabit arakthe spirit distilled from rice wine
Ngaju Dayak arakdistilled liquor
Malagasy árakarum (Provincial)
Iban arakarrack, rice spirit, distilled from a fermented mash
Moken ælapalcohol
Malay arakarrack, distilled alcoholic liquor
Sundanese arak-arak-anhold a drinking party
  paŋ-arak-andistillery
Old Javanese arakarrack, a distilled alcoholic liquor
Javanese arakalcoholic beverage made by allowing liquid to ferment
Balinese arakspirit (drink)
Sasak arakarrack. On Lombok four kinds are known: a. beras (from rice), a. duntal (from lontar palm), a. nao (from sugar palm), a n-iur (from coconut palm)
Chamorro arakdistilled liquor made from fermented coconut sap
CMP
Bimanese aradistilled liquor, rice wine
Manggarai aragin, rice wine
Rembong arakgin
Kambera arakuhard liquor
Leti arkaarrack
Wetan arkaarrack, and strong liquor in general
Kei arakgin distilled from sago pith
Ujir arekMalay-introduced rice wine

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic. Dempwolff treated this form as native, but Jones (1978) regards it as a borrowing of Arabic ʔaraq 'strong drink'. This interpretation is supported by the initial consonant of Wolio ʔara 'arrack, brandy (made from sago juice, or the nectar of nipah-palm blossom)', and by numerous irregularities in the sound correspondences, although the appearance of forms of the word in Old Javanese and Malagasy is in need of further study. Such Philippine languages as Casiguran Dumagat, Kapampangan, Hanunóo, and Aklanon appear to have acquired the word through TAGA, but Ilokano and Bikol evidently acquired it directly from speakers of Malay. Throughout much of eastern Indonesia the word appears to have been borrowed through the mediation of Malay, and the same may be true of Chamorro arak, although Ilokano árak is another plausible source.

liquor:   distilled liquor

xxx
NGA aradistilled palm wine, schnapps
WMP
Ilokano árakwine, gin, whisky, etc. The fermented juice of grapes and any alcoholic beverage obtained by distillation
Bontok ʔálakstore bought hard liquor, as gin
Kankanaey álakwine; gin; whisky; alcohol
Casiguran Dumagat alakwine
Pangasinan álakliquor
Kapampangan álakliquor
Tagalog álakwine, liquor; distillate; alcohol
  álak-anwine shop, deposit, or factory; distillery; distilling apparatus
Bikol árakwhiskey, liquor, booze; wine
  mag-árakto make árak
Hanunóo ʔálakwine, referring to bottled wine of various commercial brands; known from contact with lowland peoples
Aklanon áeakto distill (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage)
Hiligaynon álakhard drink, liquor
Cebuano álakliquor, strong alcoholic beverage
Maranao arakwine
Tiruray ʔarakgeneral term for a distilled alcoholic beverage
Kadazan Dusun maŋ-alakto distill arrack, to make arrack
Kelabit arakthe spirit distilled from rice wine
Kayan arekdistilled rice spirit, strongly alcoholic
Ngaju Dayak arakrice wine
  m-arakmake rice wine
Iban arakarrack, rice spirit distilled from a fermented mash
Malay arakarrack; distilled alcoholic liquor
Sundanese arak-arak-anhold a drinking party
Old Javanese arakarrack, a distilled alcoholic liquor
Javanese arakalcoholic beverage made by allowing liquid to ferment
Balinese arakspirit (drink)
Sasak arakdistilled alcoholic beverage. On Lombok four kinds are known: arak beras (of rice), arak duntal (of lontar palm sap), arak nao (of sugar palm sap), and arak n-iur (coconut toddy)
Wolio áraarrack, brandy (made from sago juice or nectar of nipah-palm blossom)
Chamorro arakdistilled liquor made from fermented coconut sap
CMP
Rembong araksip, dram, liqueur
Kambera arakustrong drink
Leti arkaarrack, strong liquor
Wetan arkaarrack and strong liquors in general (from Dutch arak)
Kei arakgin distilled from sago
Ujir arekintroduced rice wine (brought by Malays)

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic. This term is defined more by the process of distillation, which marks it off from native forms of brewing liquors by simple fermentation, than by any distinctive ingredient. Its wide distribution and integration into the morphological system of some languages shows how easily loanwords can take on the characteristics of native forms. Somewhat ironically, Old Javanese arak must have been borrowed during the earliest period of Islamization, as it is one of the few Arabic loans in the Old Javanese material.

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lo

(Dempwolff: *kunci ‘closed, locked’)

lock:   bolt lock

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kuncilock, clasp
Malay kuncilock or bolt
  kunci-kanto lock
Toba Batak hunsiclosed, locked (said to be from Malay)
  maŋ-hunsito lock up
Javanese kuncikey; padlock

Also Toba Batak hinsu (< met.) ‘closed, locked’. Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited *kunci ‘lock (plug)’.

(Dempwolff: *sabuk ‘loincloth’)

loincloth

WMP
Ngaju Dayak saboka kind of undergarment worn by men
  ha-sabokwear a sabok (of men)
Iban saboksarong, especially worn short, as by men, i.e. wrapped at waist and hardly reaching knees
Malay sabokbroad band of rich cloth worn by warriors of old romance; by being wound in many folds around the body it gave some protection against cuts
Toba Batak sabukloincloth
  mar-sabukwear a loincloth between the legs
  di-par-sabuk ihur-nait has its tail between its legs (of a discouraged dog)
Sundanese sabuksash (of boys and men, used for securing the sarong
Old Javanese sabuksash
  a-sabukto wear a sash
  p<in>aka-sabukused as a sash
  s<in>abukto cover, as with a sash
Javanese sabukcloth sash worn by males as part of their Javanese-style dress, or by market sellers to stow money
  sabuk-(sabuk)-anto put on or wear a sash
Balinese sabukbelt, girdle, sash
  ñabukto wear a sabuk
Sasak sabukgirdle
  sabuk dewarainbow (girdle of the gods)
Buginese sampuɁlarge, body-length sarong,; blanket

Almost certainly a loan distribution starting from Javanese. Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Original Austronesian’ *sabuk ‘loincloth’, but PWMP *bahaR is a far better-supported reconstruction for this meaning.

(Dempwolff: *kenaŋ ‘longing, yearning’)

longing, yearning

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kenaŋlonging, yearning; sorrow
Malay kənaŋpondering over memories (covers loving thoughts, vain regrets, and the memory of those who are dead)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kenaŋ ‘longing, yearning’.

long-tailed macaque

WMP
Tombonuwo koraʔmonkey, long-tailed macaque
Malay kramacaque; long-tailed crab-eating monkey: Macacus cynomolgus
Old Javanese kəramonkey

look hard at, gaze, stare at

WMP
Maranao pandaŋstare at, look at carefully
Iban pandaŋshow, exhibit, expose, shine forth
Malay pandaŋgazing at; seeing and noticing --- not merely glancing at; (fig.) observation or attention of any sort
Karo Batak pandaŋmake a comment, say something (negative) about something; rebuke, criticize
Toba Batak pandaŋcharacteristic; a warning sign that one makes with mantraps (pitfall spikes in a trail)
Sundanese pandəŋlooking upward; staring at
  mandəŋto look at a fixed point
  pandəŋ-anthe distance as far as the eye can see
Old Javanese a-manḍəŋto look hard, gaze, stare at, fix with one’s eyes; (in battle) to look someone defiantly in the eye
  a-panḍəŋ-anto stare each other in the eye
Javanese pandəŋscrutiny
  pandəŋ-anto try to outstare; objective
Sasak pandaŋto view, contemplate
  pandaŋ-ancontemplation

Borrowing from Javanese, Malay or both.

looks:   face, looks, appearance

WMP
Maranao parasface, looks, appearance
Tiruray falascolor, form, appearance; a face
Malay parasgood looks; appearance
Karo Batak parasbeautiful; worthy

Borrowing from Malay.

loose

WMP
Tombonuwo o-luŋgarslack, loose
Malay luŋgarloose-fitting (as clothes)
Tajio mu-luŋgurslack, loose

lose (in a business transaction)

WMP
Ilokano lúgiloss in business
  ag-lúgito suffer a business loss
  ma-lúgito suffer a loss in business; to be shortchanged, become bankrupt
  lugí-ento shortchange, cheat
Bontok lúgito be a loser; to do nothing of any value; to fail to get the expected use of something
Tagalog lúgifinancial loss in a business deal
  ka-lugih-ánloss in a commercial venture
Bikol lúgilosing, unprofitable (business)
  ma-lúgito lose money in business
Kayan (Uma Juman) lugiʔ ~ rugiʔmake no profit, take a loss in business
Kiput lugIʔloss, as in a commercial transaction

Borrowing of Malay rugi ‘loss, injury (other than physical); tort’, ultimately from Sanskrit. In Philippine languages this passed through Tagalog, where the initial consonant was changed from /r/ to /l/.

love potion or charm

WMP
Ilokano gayúmaa kind of drug used as an aphrodisiac; sensual magic or charm
Kapampangan gayúmaa love potion
Tagalog gayúmalove charm; unusual attraction; magic; charm
Cebuano gayúmaslow and effeminate in speech

Apparently a Tagalog loanword outside the Central Philippine languages.

lover, mistress

WMP
Ilokano kabítmistress, lover
Tagalog kabítmistress, paramour (colloquial)
Bikol kabítmistress

Probably a Tagalog loan, evidently connected with kabít ‘connected, attached, fastened, united’.

loyal, faithful, devoted

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) tapátfaithful, honest, sincere
Tagalog ma-tapátdevoted; loyal; faithful; sincere; genuine; real; honest
Cebuano tapátto be true and loyal to someone; resolve oneself to reform; sincere

The Botolan Sambal form is assumed to be a Tagalog loan.

TOP      lak    lam    lan    lar    lau    lav    law    laz    lea    lef    lep    les    let    lie    lig    lin    lio    liq    loc    loi    lon    loo    los    lov    loy    luc    lum    lux    lyc    lye    lyr    

lu

luck, fortune

xxx
Tontemboan ukurfate, destiny
WMP
Maranao okorluck, fortune; lucky; fate; specify, limit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ukurpower inherent in some possession or some person which/who appears to be charmed or appears to bring good luck
Tiruray ʔukurfate, destiny
Tboli uŋkulgood luck; fortunate
Kayan ukunluck, fortune
Iban ukurfate, destiny, luck
Old Javanese ukurone's portion or lot
SHWNG
Buli ukurpredict one's fortune from reading the palm of the hand

Almost certainly a loan distribution originating from some non-standard dialect or dialects of Malay. Neither Wilkinson (1959) nor Poerwadarminta (1976) gives ukur in this meaning, but Iban ukur suggests that a similar word may be found in BMAL with they meaning in question.

luck, fortune, fate

WMP
Isneg bagiyaʔhappiness, rejoicing
Maranao bagiʔ-anfate
Tiruray bagiʔluck, fate
Malay bahagiagood fortune sent by God
Old Javanese bha gya, bagegood fortune, luck; fortunate, lucky
Javanese bagiahappiness, well-being

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

luck:   profit, gain, fortune, luck

xxx
Tontemboan untuŋprofits, gain; victory; prosperity
WMP
Maranao ontoŋluck, fortune, blessing
Tausug untuŋprofit, gain
Kadazan Dusun untuŋgain, profit
Kayan utuŋprofits, gains
Iban untoŋprofit; unexpected gain, windfall
Malay untoŋfate, destiny
Bahasa Indonesia untuŋprofit, gain
Simalur untuŋfate, destiny, lot
Toba Batak untuŋgain, profit, fortune
Javanese untuŋlucky; profit, gain
Sasak untuŋluck, fortune, chance
Sangir untuŋgain, profit, fortune, luck
Mongondow untuŋprofit, gain
CMP
Kambera utuŋuadvantage, profit, gain
SHWNG
Buli untuŋluck, fortune, profit
Numfor untuŋwindfall, piece of good luck
Kowiai/Koiwai untuŋprofit; to win

Widespread borrowing from Malay.

lumber:   planed lumber

WMP
Ilokano táblaplank, board
Casiguran Dumagat tablaplaned lumber, sawn lumber; board
Tagalog tabláboard; a broad, thin piece of wood
Maranao tablalumber, board

Borrowing from Spanish.

luxury

WMP
Ilokano lúholuxury
Tagalog lúholuxury
  ma-lúhoepicurean; pleasure-loving; luxurious
  ka-luhúh-anluxuriousness
Bikol lúholuxury

Borrowing of Spanish lujo ‘luxury’.

TOP      lak    lam    lan    lar    lau    lav    law    laz    lea    lef    lep    les    let    lie    lig    lin    lio    liq    loc    loi    lon    loo    los    lov    loy    luc    lum    lux    lyc    lye    lyr    

ly

lychee fruit

WMP
Ilokano litsíaslychee fruit
Tagalog litsíaslychee fruit
Bikol litsíalychee tree and fruit

Borrowing from Hokkien.

lye, caustic soda

WMP
Ilokano lihíalye, caustic soda
Tagalog lihíyacaustic soda, lye
Cebuano lihíyacaustic soda or lye obtained from wood ashes; make lye

Borrowing of Spanish lejia ‘lye’.

lyre

WMP
Ilokano líralyre; lire (currency)
Agutaynen líralyre

Borrowing of Spanish lira ‘lyre’.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 1/12/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Loans-Index-l