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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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b   

be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

back:   rear, back, behind

WMP
Aklanon bulíʔrear, back
Aklanon ta-bulíʔturn the rear to
Hiligaynon bulíʔanus, buttocks, rear
Palawan Batak buliʔbutt, end; buttock
Cebuano búliʔpenis of man or animal
Maranao boliʔrear, stern, posterior, bottom
Nias furiback, behind; person in the rear; later; closing, termination, end, the last
Sundanese buribehind, at the back
Old Javanese burito follow
Old Javanese wuriback, behind, rear; leaving behind; that which (or the person who) is left behind, trace
Old Javanese anūt wurifollow behind, from behind
Old Javanese ka-wurileft behind, stay behind, in the rear; leave behind, leave unfinished
Old Javanese wury-anthat which is left behind or is left over from, trace
Javanese buriback, rear; later, after awhile
Javanese wuriback, rear; later on, in the future
Javanese ka-wurilast, past, left behind
Balinese buriback, backside
Balinese tut buribe followed by someone

Aklanon, Hiligaynon, Palawan Batak, Cebuano, Maranao and Sundanese, Old Javanese, Javanese, Balinese form two distinct low-level cognate sets. The similarity of these sets to one another and to Nias furi is attributed to chance.

back:   wave back and forth

WMP
Nias hifahang loosely, fit badly, shake, tremble, wobble, totter
SHWNG
Waropen ifaswing or wave back and forth
OC
Arosi iha-ihaquiver, as tops of trees

bad:   harbor bad feelings toward

WMP
Sangir antaŋto suspect, as someone of having committed a theft
CMP
Fordata ataŋjealous of

bait

WMP
Isneg ípānto ensnare (cited with appan 'bait')
Sasak impanfood, fodder; to feed

bait:   bait, grasshopper

WMP
Itbayaten aʔpanbait
Ilokano appánbait
Kapampangan apánbait
Hanunóo ʔapanan edible plague grasshopper, green in color, which travels in huge swarms
Aklanon apánlocust
Manobo (Sarangani) apanspotted grasshopper with green mouth

bamboo:   bamboo sp.

WMP
Isneg balagbágbamboo sp.
Sundanese balagbagbamboo stocks for a prisoner
Old Javanese bala(g)bagstocks

bamboo:   bamboo sp.

WMP
Tagalog palatpátlong, striped bamboo
Malay perepata shore tree: Sonneratia griffithii and S. acida
Toba Batak parapatkind of bamboo

bamboo:   bamboo sp.

WMP
Old Javanese periŋ buŋbaŋkind of bamboo
Sasak bumbaŋkind of bamboo (Old Sasak)
CMP
Komodo bobaŋshrub sp.
Ngadha boba, vovashrub with white blossoms

(Dempwolff: *p-al-upuq 'vegetable matter')

bamboo:   flattened bamboo

WMP
Tagalog palupoʔrack, stand, frame
Iban pelupohpalm, unident.
Malay pelupohflatten out by drubbing; to squash flat, esp. of larger varieties of bamboo to make flooring or fencing
Javanese plupuhsplit-bamboo section for walls, fences

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *p-al-upuq 'vegetable matter', which he regarded as a doublet of *p-al-aqpaq/. Apart from Malay and Javanese, however, there is little evidence for such an etymon. The similarity of the Tagalog and Iban forms to Malay pelupoh, Javanese plupuh is best attributed to chance.

banana:   banana sp.

WMP
Ilokano báratvariety of thin-skinned greenish banana
Bontok bálatbanana plant, including fruit
Ifugaw baflatbanana plant, banana fruit
Tanjong balatbanana
Kejaman balatbanana

Chance. There is a great temptation to compare Bontok and Ifugaw with Tanjong and KAJA under an etymon *balat, but Ilokano bárat suggests that this would be an error. Also cp. Sebop, Bintulu, Melanau (Mukah), Lara Land Dayak balak/ 'banana'.

(Dempwolff: *bulus)

bare:   bare, of trees

WMP
Ngaju Dayak bulusbare part of a tree stem from the base to the first branches; more particularly the trunks of palm trees
Malay bolosstripped (of hair, leaves, feathers, etc.); fallen off (of a string-winding or wrapping); bare; bald; leafless; (fig.) left desolate

Chance, or borrowing from Malay.

bare:   bare, uncovered

WMP
Tagalog kalótnude
Javanese karutyoung corn
OC
Futunan kalu-matathe whites of the eyes

This is an example of the extreme lengths Dempwolff (1938) sometimes went to in order to force a comparison semantically when the sound correspondences permitted the reconstruction of a phonemic form. He glossed the Javanese form ‘maize without kernels’, but that is not the gloss in Horne (1974), and I am unable to find the form at all in Pigeaud (1938). Similarly, Futunan kalu-mata does not appear in Moyse-Faurie (1993), and even if it did the semantic distance between this and Tagalog kalót is so great as to render any comparison too speculative to take seriously.

barracuda sp.

OC
PAdm curonarrow-bodied barracuda
Gedaged tuza tan fish about 15” long
Pohnpeian suhrebarracuda (Sphyraena sp.)

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Ba

Barringtonia:   tree sp.: Barringtonia

OC
Gitua palaŋazitree with edible seed: Barringtonia Procera
Niue falaŋaitree sp.: Barringtonia samoensis

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

ba

(Dempwolff: *anDes)

basis:   foundation, basis

WMP
Malagasy m-andrylie down, be lying down, go to sleep
Malagasy f-andrif-anabed
Minangkabau andasbase for working on; surface support; anvil, as used by goldsmiths
Javanese paṇḍes(having been) cut off just above the roots
Balinese pandesgrind down, file

basket

WMP
Hanunóo balantákgeneral term for basket-type fish traps
Cebuano balantáksmall woven fish or eel trap with inwardly slanting tines to allow entrance but no exit
Kadazan Dusun balatakbasket
Malay (Brunei) belataklarge open basket
Kenyah belatakbasket with a handle
Kayan belatekbasket with a handle

Resemblance of Hanunóo, Cebuano to the others due to chance. The other items probably spread by borrowing.

basket

WMP
Bontok ballukusmall head basket having a lid
Formosan
Atayal (b)lukuʔlarge bamboo basket; umbrella

basket

WMP
Tontemboan wuatbox woven of leaves
CMP
Sika buatbasket used for lime and acidic fruits

basket:   kind of basket

WMP
Kankanaey antapkind of round tall basket, used to hold pared
Kankanaey camotes(sweet potatoes)
Ngaju Dayak ataplarge rattan basket shaped like a cigar box

basket:   basket pouch

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kantoŋpocket, pouch in clothing
Iban kantoŋsmall bag or case, overnight bag; air travel bag
Malay (Jakarta) kantoŋsatchel; pouch; cloth bag; pocket
Sundanese kantoŋsack, knapsack, money bag
Javanese kanṭoŋ-anpocket; cloth sack
Javanese ŋanṭoŋ-iput s.t. in a pocket or sack
Sasak kantoŋpocket
OC
Fijian katoa basket, box, trunk, suitcase
Tongan katobasket; suitcase; pouch; pocket
Samoan ʔatobasket; luggage, baggage

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kanTuŋ ‘Korb, Tasche am Kleid’ (basket, pouch on the clothing). However, as he noted, the last vowel of the Oceanic forms fails to agree with that of his reconstruction. The forms in western Indonesia appear to be loans from Malay which the Fijian, Tongan and Samoan forms resemble by chance.

bathe

WMP
Karo Batak usahrub, rub something in
Toba Batak usascour, scrub, rub
Old Javanese usuhbathe
Simalungun Batak usahwash (as the feet)

Apparently a chance resemblance. Although Old Javanese usuh may contain the root *-seq 'wet; wash', *e is regularly reflected as //o// in all of the Batak languages.

battlefield

CMP
Sika wuatfield of battle, battlefield
OC
Fijian vuatake possession of a village in war, driving the inhabitants out

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be

be out of breath:   pant, be out of breath

Formosan
Puyuma ŋəsŋəsbreathless, pant
Puyuma ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath
Paiwan ŋasŋasto pant
WMP
Ibaloy man-ŋasŋasto pant, breathe in short, labored breaths (as from exertion)

Tempting as it is to accept this as a valid comparison, the sound correspondences simply do not work. The Puyuma vowels disagree with those of the Paiwan and Ibaloy forms, and although the latter two languages appear to show a perfect agreement, Paiwan /s/ reflects *S and Ibaloy /s/ reflects *s, making reconstruction impossible. Like many other bases with initial velar nasal, this one probably is a product of convergent innovation involving the phonestheme ŋ-, widely associated in Austronesian languages with the nasal-oral area (Blust 2003a).

beam

WMP
Ilokano (a)wanántiebeam
Ifugaw wanánthe four beams of an Ifugaw house or granary... they serve as supporters of all the rafters of the pyramidal roof
CMP
Yamdena wananbamboo lath on which thatch is placed in making roofing
Fordata wananbamboo lath on which thatch is placed

beam:   beam, house end

WMP
Isneg tam-paníkieither of the gable ends of a granary
Palauan olíkcrossbeam at ends of village meeting house above the door

(Dempwolff: *betaq)

bear:   bear, endure

WMP
Malay betahconvalescence, getting better (said to be from Persian bih-tah)
Javanese betahto feel comfortable; to withstand, endure

This is an example of the type of comparison that clutters Dempwolff (1938) and distracts attention from the many valid etymologies he recognized.

beat:   beat, pound

WMP
Kankanaey umúgpulverized, brayed; ground, pounded, beaten, rubbed fine; reduced to ashes, dust
Tagalog úmogto beat (a person) to helplessness

beat:   beat, pound

WMP
Tagalog kibóta quick jerk of some part of the body
Ngaju Dayak kewutbeating of the pulse or arteries
Sundanese kəbutbeat dust out of something with a towel

Dempwolff (1938) used this comparison with Javanese kəwut ‘beat out’ instead of the Sundanese form cited here. However, I am unable to find a Javanese form meeting this description in either Horne (1974) or Pigeaud (1938), and the Tagalog form is both phonologically irregular and semantically deviant, leaving little comparative basis for a reconstruction.

bed

OC
Lau ifia bed (mat spread out) ifi-tai spread out, open out, as cloth or a mat
Molima ivi-nabed
Molima ivi-na taʔolinaput food on mats on the ground

bed:   bed, bier

WMP
Balinese pagabier
Sasak pagapalanquin for bridal pair
Formosan
PAty pagabed

beetle

WMP
Cebuano biyáwkind of small shiny beetle found in trees
Bare'e wiʔupurplish beetle that causes the death of a person if it obtains one of his hairs

beetle:   beetle sp.

WMP
Kankanaey abʔabbéŋkind of large, edible, whitish-gray cockchafer or June bug
Kayan abeŋlarge wood-boring beetle

begin:   begin anew

WMP
Sundanese babakannew settlement on previously uninhabited land; colony
Javanese bambanbegin anew
CMP
Ngadha vavaprocess of making a new start

behind:   rear, back, behind

WMP
Aklanon bulíʔrear, back
Aklanon ta-bulíʔturn the rear to
Hiligaynon bulíʔanus, buttocks, rear
Palawan Batak buliʔbutt, end; buttock
Cebuano búliʔpenis of man or animal
Maranao boliʔrear, stern, posterior, bottom
Nias furiback, behind; person in the rear; later; closing, termination, end, the last
Sundanese buribehind, at the back
Old Javanese burito follow
Old Javanese wuriback, behind, rear; leaving behind; that which (or the person who) is left behind, trace
Old Javanese anūt wurifollow behind, from behind
Old Javanese ka-wurileft behind, stay behind, in the rear; leave behind, leave unfinished
Old Javanese wury-anthat which is left behind or is left over from, trace
Javanese buriback, rear; later, after awhile
Javanese wuriback, rear; later on, in the future
Javanese ka-wurilast, past, left behind
Balinese buriback, backside
Balinese tut buribe followed by someone

Aklanon, Hiligaynon, Palawan Batak, Cebuano, Maranao and Sundanese, Old Javanese, Javanese, Balinese form two distinct low-level cognate sets. The similarity of these sets to one another and to Nias furi is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *ampu)

below:   support from below

WMP
Malay ampuholding up from below, esp. in the up-turned palms of the hand
Karo Batak ampuhold in the lap
Toba Batak ampuhold or take in the lap

bend:   bend, bent

WMP
Nias o-dro--bent
Bare'e odubend the knees and then straigten up, as in certain dances
OC
Cheke Holo odoʔodowalk in a slow, bent-over fashion, as from exhaustion or old age
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka odubow, stoop
Molima ʔodubend over, bend the head down

bend:   bend, curl

CMP
Rotinese eketwist, coil (of hair bound in a bun, or of a snake)
OC
Fijian oqowalk stooping, as in a house or in the presence of a chief

Probably chance, although both forms appear to contain the root *-kel 'bend, curl'.

bent:   bend, bent

WMP
Nias o-dro--bent
Bare'e odubend the knees and then straigten up, as in certain dances
OC
Cheke Holo odoʔodowalk in a slow, bent-over fashion, as from exhaustion or old age
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka odubow, stoop
Molima ʔodubend over, bend the head down

bent

WMP
Maranao biŋoʔto curve, as a ripening rice stalk
Sundanese béŋobent, with curves, not straight; crooked mouth

beside:   beside, next to

WMP
Aklanon ípiŋside-by-side with, next to
Bare'e impigive way to, yield so as to make room (for someone coming)

between:   space between earth and sky

SHWNG
Waropen ataMilky Way
OC
Motu ata-ispace between earth and sky; above, seawards; used with kahana to mean 'southeast direction'
Tongan ʔatāroomy, spacious; free, at liberty; space, room; clearing; air, atmosphere, space between earth and sky; freedom, etc.

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bi

bier:   bed, bier

WMP
Balinese pagabier
Sasak pagapalanquin for bridal pair
Formosan
PAty pagabed

bird:   bird sp.

WMP
Sangir bohintiŋspeckled, flecked (only said of chickens)
Tae' burintiwading bird with stilt-like legs; it can swim, and its meat and eggs are eaten

bird:   white bird

OC
Tolai barwhite heron
Motu paraa bird: white-headed shelldrake
Maori whara-wharalong plumes of the white heron, worn by chiefs on state occasions.

birth:   be born, give birth

WMP
Chamorro fan-agubear (offspring), give birth
OC
Tongan fanauto have a child or children or offspring
Tongan fānauchildren, offspring
Samoan fānaube born; give birth; offspring; birth
Maori whānaube born; offspring, family group
Hawaiian hānaugive birth; lay an egg; born; offspring; child

bite:   bite down on

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) ītibclench the teeth, bite down on something
Cebuano itlíbbite gently with the front teeth; nibble at

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bl

black:   black magic

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat báraŋtype of black magic
Bikol báraŋbewitch, cast a spell on someone using techniques similar to voodoo
Aklanon báraŋblack magic, voodoo, witchcraft
OC
Gedaged bazincantation, spell, magic, charm

Malay probably borrowed from Javanese, possibly through the medium of a Tagalog dialect (though Panganiban does not list a cognate form for Standard Tagalog). The resemblance of Tetun to Malay, Javanese and Sasak is attributed to chance.

blanket:   blanket, coverlet

WMP
Kankanaey kabénto envelop; to wrap up; to cover; to muffle; to inwrap; to roll up (as a child in a blanket larger than itself)
Tae' kabankind of cloth cover made from pieces of cloth that have been sewed together, used as a blanket or mat

(Dempwolff: *han-ir 'fatty, greasy')

blood:   stench of fish or blood

WMP
Tagalog bániladhering dirt on neck
Ngaju Dayak han-errepugnant odor of fish, frogs or blood
Malagasy lánysmell, stench
Malagasy mányfetid, rank. Used only of the odor from human beings who are filthy
Malay (h)an-irfetid, offensive in odor. Of bad meat, rotten meat, putrid water, decaying vegetable matter, etc.
Javanese an-ircloyingly rich-tasting
Mandar man-n-erstench, especially of fish or blood
Makasarese man-n--ereʔstench, especially of fish or blood

The Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese forms are cognate, but probably represent a late innovation in western Indonesia. The resemblance of the Tagalog and Malagasy forms to these is assumed to be a product of chance, and although the South Sulawesi forms appear to be cognate, they point to an etymon with penultimate *e, and so do not permit a clear-cut reconstruction.

blood

OC
Mengen totoblood
Gedaged totospurting, squirting (as blood)
Tongan totoblood
Niue totoblood; sap, juice; a plant with milky sap (Euphorbia atoto)
Samoan totoblood; to bleed
Tuvaluan totoblood
Tuvaluan laakau totoa small herb, Euphorbia atoto
Kapingamarangi dodoblood; to bleed
Nukuoro dodoblood
Rennellese totoblood; sap, as of banana trunk or fruit; to bleed, emit sap
Anuta totoblood; red
Rarotongan totoblood
Maori totoblood; to bleed
Hawaiian kokoblood; rainbow-hued
Hawaiian a-kokoendemic shrubs and small trees (Euphorbia spp.) with jointed leaves, oblong stems, and milky sap

Despite its superficial plausibility, this comparison is best attributed to chance, since POc *draRaq meant ‘blood’.

blow:   to blow

WMP
Malay empusblowing hard; panting and puffing
Javanese empusbamboo used to blow on the fire to make it hotter
Sasak emposto blow
CMP
Tetun huublow on

blow:   blow the nose

OC
PMic paŋus-iblow the nose
Formosan
Pazeh ba-baŋutthe whole area around the mouth and the nose
WMP
PPh faŋublow the nose

(Dempwolff: *tulup ‘blowpipe’)

blowpipe

WMP
Toba Batak ultopblowpipe; also youngest leaves of the banana and palms, when rolled up and about as thick as a blowpipe
Old Javanese tulupblowpipe
Javanese tulupblowgun
Javanese nulupto shoot pebbles, etc. at something with a blowgun

Despite the rather striking general resemblance of these forns this comparison is phonologically irregular, as is best treated as a product of chance. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tulup ‘blowpipe’, but PMP *sumpit is a far better candidate for this meaning.

blunt

WMP
Balinese puntulblunt, dull
Bare'e bundu, wundu, wuntublunt, with blunt point, with truncated or broken point
OC
Southeast Ambrym vutdull, blunt

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bo

(Dempwolff: *bani(r))

board:   board, plank

WMP
Ngaju Dayak banerlong outgrowth under the branch of a tree
Malay banirbuttress-like projection from a tree trunk
Acehnese banieplank-like outgrowth under the branches of some trees
Sundanese caniroutgrowth from root of old tree
Sasak banirpart of wood, the youngest annual tree ring
CMP
Selaru mbanplank
OC
Yapese bæńroot of a type of tree which grows among the mangroves (sticks up above the water)
Formosan
Tsou fahricypress (considered best for making boards)
Paiwan valʸiboard, wooden plank
Saaroa valhiriboard

Dempwolff reconstructed *bani(r), and Tsuchida (1976) posits *baNiR/. I regard Saaroa, Tsou, Paiwan and Ngaju Dayak, Malay, Acehnese, Sundanese, Sasak as forming two geographically restricted cognate sets. The resemblance of these sets to one another and to Selaru and Yapese is attributed to chance.

boil:   boil, carbuncle

WMP
Ilokano busálifuruncle, boil
Isneg butálismall boil or furuncle on arms or buttocks
Itawis hutáliboil, abscess
Bontok busálicarbuncle
Kankanaey busáliinfected wound, suppurating sore
OC
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka fuselithe discharge from an ulcer

boil:   cook, boil

Formosan
Paiwan atukto boil
WMP
Rhade atŭkto cook

(Dempwolff: *ketug ‘to beat, pound’)

booming sound

WMP
Tagalog kutógthrob; pulsation
Old Javanese kətugbooming, thundering, rumbling, crashing, roaring, rattling, thumping; thunder

Dempwolff (1938) posited *ketug ‘to beat, pound’ based on a comparison of this Tagalog form with Javanese ketug ‘to beat out’. I am unable to find the latter form in either Horne (1974) or Pigeaud (1938), and have substituted Old Javanese kətug for it. In either case, until further supporting evidence is found this comparison is best treated as a product of chance.

(Dempwolff: *te(m)biŋ ‘edge, bank’)

border:   edge, border

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tiwiŋriver bank
Iban tebiŋriver bank, shore, edge
Malay təbiŋbank (of river or canal); sandbank rising sharply from the sea
Toba Batak tobiŋedge of the water
Old Javanese tembiŋside, border, bank, flank, shore
Javanese tembiŋcliff: rim of a ridge
OC
Fijian tebethe brim or edge

Dempwolff (1938) posited *te(m)biŋ ‘edge, bank’, but this is one of the rare comparisons in which he allowed massive irregularity, since the expected Fijian reflex would be **tovi or **tobi, and the Ngaju Dayak form also shows an unexplained irregularity in the first vowel. The remaining forms are best regarded as late innovations in western Indonesia, or as loans from Malay.

bore:   bore a hole, drill

OC
Tolai barbara-bara/ bore a hole, punch
Eddystone/Mandegusu vala-valathe bow by which a drill is rotated; to drill a hole
Nggela valopierce a hole in porpoise tooth
Kwaio falodrill a hole
Sa'a haloto bore, to drill
Arosi haroto bore, twist a stick in making a hole

born:   be born, give birth

WMP
Chamorro fan-agubear (offspring), give birth
OC
Tongan fanauto have a child or children or offspring
Tongan fānauchildren, offspring
Samoan fānaube born; give birth; offspring; birth
Maori whānaube born; offspring, family group
Hawaiian hānaugive birth; lay an egg; born; offspring; child

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br

breadfruit (seeded)

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kamánsispecies of seeded breadfruit tree: Artocarpus camansi
Kapampangan kamansíʔa citrus fruit
Tagalog kamansíʔa kind of tree of the breadfruit family
Cebuano kamansibreadfruit with seeds, the seeds and pulp of which are eaten as a vegetable when not ripe: Artocarpus camansi
Maranao kamansiʔbreadfruit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kemasithe seeded breadfruit tree and its fruit: Artocarpus camansi
OC
Futunan masifermented breadfruit; pit for preparing fermented breadfruit
Samoan masikind of food made with breadfruit left to ferment in a special pit
Rennellese masipudding, as of taro, bananas or geemugi (tree with fruits that are pounded into pudding, with a nutritional oil that may last five years; the seeds are also eaten)

Despite its initial appeal this comparison is problematic in at least two ways. First, Philippine languages disagree among one another with regard to the presence or absence of a final glottal stop, suggesting a history of borrowing. Second, given the unexplained discrepancy in number of syllables between Philippine and Oceanic forms the wider comparsion is best treated as a chance resemblance.

break off:   break off, chip off

WMP
Maranao poporbreak or chip off
Balinese puhpuhfragment, break pieces off

breath:   breath exhalation

WMP
Malay kəlohdeep breathing
Malay mə-ŋəlohto heave a sigh
Karo Batak keluh-keluhcompletely out of breath
Toba Batak ŋoluto live; vital energy

bring:   bring, carry

WMP
Ilokano ʔawítcarry, bear
Bontok ʔawítcarry; take with one; accompany
Maranao awidload, baggage; bring, carry

bring:   bring, carry

SHWNG
Buli wataŋbring, carrying towards or bringing of
OC
Arosi wabring, carry, take

bring:   take, bring

WMP
PMin indotake, get, fetch
CMP
Ngadha idhobring, lead

brother-in-law:   brother-in-law, sister-in-law

WMP
Ilokano abíratbrother-in-law, sister-in-law. A term confined to persons who are married to two brothers or sisters
Bontok ʔabilátthe relationship between spouses of siblings
Kankanaey ʔabilátbrother-in-law, sister-in-law. Applied to persons who have married brothers or sisters
Malay birasconnection by marriage (in the case of two men who have married sisters, or of two women who have married brothers

brush:   grass, brush

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) omabrush, bushes
Toba Batak omagrass used for horse fodder
CMP
Bimanese omaswidden

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

bu

bully:   to bully

WMP
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atamto hurt, bully
Rhade atamto curse

bunch

WMP
Itawis huntúlpile, bundle
Sasak buntultie together in loops (as rice stems that are still uncut by evening)
Tontemboan wuʔtula bunch (as of onions)

bundle

OC
Nggela ipaa bundle
CMP
Ngadha ivabind into a bundle, as stalks of maize

bundle

OC
Tigak volobundle
Hawaiian boloa long bundle, as of hard poi

(Dempwolff: *segseg ‘to burn’)

burn

WMP
Tagalog sigsíga torch made of split bamboo or a bundle of grass or reeds put together
Malagasy sésitrathe act of smoking hemp
Malagasy sesér-anato be smoked, of hemp
Toba Batak ma-soksokto burn, be burned
Toba Batak ma-noksoh-ito burn something

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *segseg ‘to burn’, but the Malagasy form is phonologically irregular, and the semantic connection of the Tagalog and Toba Batak forms is too general to permit a secure inference of cognation.

(Dempwolff: *tela ‘burst open’)

burst out

WMP
Tagalog talatear up
Javanese təlaa crack in dried soil
OC
Fijian dolaopen (as a door, but not of eyes, mouth, or book)

Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tela ‘burst open’ (aufbersten). I am unable to find the Tagalog form that he gives in any modern dictionary, and the wider comparison is best attributed to chance.

butterfly

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) lollobutterfly
Malagasy lolobutterfly, moth

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_b.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-b