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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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c   

ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

(Dempwolff: *liŋaw ‘still, calm’)

calm:   still, calm

WMP
Tagalog liŋáwbewildered, confused
Ngaju Dayak la-liŋawsorrowful, mournful
Malagasy ha-dinuforgotten
Toba Batak liŋounclear sound
OC
Tongan liŋo-liŋoabsolutely calm
Samoan liŋo-liŋo-abe hushed, silent

This probably is best treated as a collected of unrelated forms until such time as better comparative data is available. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronessisch *liŋaw ‘still, calm’ (Stillsein).

(Dempwolff: *taduq ‘calm, of the wind’)

calm (of the wind)

WMP
Tagalog tarócalm (of the wind)
Ngaju Dayak tadohcalm, still (of wind, weather, water)
OC
Sa'a arustationary, of fish with their fins moving

Dempwolff (1938) used this comparison to posit ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taduq (dbl. *te(n)duq) ‘calm, of the wind’ (Windstille). However, I am unable to find the Tagalog form in any modern dictionary of the language, and even if it were available, it is phonologically irregular, lacking a final glottal stop. In addition, Ngaju Dayak tadoh is ambiguous for a form with penultimate *a or *e, and the Sa'a form is best treated as a chance resemblance.

carbuncle:   boil, carbuncle

WMP
Ilokano busálifuruncle, boil
Isneg butálismall boil or furuncle on arms or buttocks
Itawis hutáliboil, abscess
Bontok busálicarbuncle
Kankanaey busáliinfected wound, suppurating sore
OC
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka fuselithe discharge from an ulcer

carry:   bring, carry

WMP
Ilokano ʔawítcarry, bear
Bontok ʔawítcarry; take with one; accompany
Maranao awidload, baggage; bring, carry

carry:   bring, carry

SHWNG
Buli wataŋbring, carrying towards or bringing of
OC
Arosi wabring, carry, take

causative:   causative marker

WMP
Ifugaw i-causative prefix
OC
Rennellese i-causative

TOP      ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

ce

cease:   stop, cease

WMP
Toba Batak ontokseal up, stop flowing
Bare'e ontostop, stay still, remain

center:   split down the center

OC
Tolai palaŋsplit down the center, as a bamboo
Maori parahalf of a tree which has been split down the middle

ceremony

OC
Cheke Holo bulepeace, formerly established through feast exchanges between chiefs
Roviana bulecalm, peaceful, fine (as weather)
Eddystone/Mandegusu bulepeace; calm weather; make peace; be calm, of the weather
Maori purea ceremony for removing tapu and for other purposes
Maori pure kōiwia propitiatory rite; perform the pure rite
Hawaiian puleprayer; to pray; grace; blessing

certain:   ten, in counting certain objects

OC
Tolai baratten, used of birds and their eggs, and sometimes pigs
Nggela mbalaten bunches of fruit
Arosi haraten, of bananas

TOP      ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

ch

(Dempwolff: *ibaq)

change:   other, to change

WMP
Tagalog ibáother, another; different, distince'
Toba Batak iba ibaperson, self
Javanese ébahmove
Javanese éwahchange

Chance. Dempwolff (1934-38) combined these forms with Ngaju Dayak iwa-n 'sister-in-law (woman speaking)'.

chase:   pursue, chase

WMP
Isneg ápala common creeping herb. Possessed by a man, it enables him to overtake a fleeing enemy with the utmost ease
Isneg max-ápalpursue, chase
Ifugaw (Batad) āpalchase after to catch or to drive away, as to chase a thief, or a pig to catch it or drive it away
Bikol hápagpursue, chase
Sumbawanese apanpursue, chase

chip off:   break off, chip off

WMP
Maranao poporbreak or chip off
Balinese puhpuhfragment, break pieces off

chirrup:   shrill whistle or chirrup

WMP
Itbayaten wiiwicicada, sound of cicada
Bontok wiwímake a high-pitched whistling sound

chop:   chop, split, adze something

Formosan
Thao taqtaqchopping of wood; to chop wood
Thao taqtaqto chop or adze something
Thao ta-taqtaqadze used to hollow out canoe hull, etc.
Thao taqtaqto split bamboo
Paiwan taqtaqsplit bamboo

The Thao form could reflect either *saqsaq or *taqtaq, the Paiwan form only *saqsaq. Probably a chance resemblance.

TOP      ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

cl

clap:   slap, clap

WMP
Ilokano dapákto make a galloping sound; walk with heavy footsteps
Cebuano dagpákslap hard enough to make a noise
CMP
Buruese rapa-hslap, clap

Probably best treated as a convergent development with the common monosyllabic root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

clasp:   clasp in the arms

CMP
Tetun fahaclasp in the arms
Buruese babahold or carry in the arms

clause-final:   clause-final particle

WMP
Isneg ioften added to a word at the end of a sentence without changing the meaning
Formosan
Amis ʔian untranslatable particle at the end of a dependent clause

(Dempwolff: *te(m)bak ‘to clear forest’.)

clear forest for planting

WMP
Tagalog tabákcutlass, kind of bolo or large knife
Toba Batak tombakforest, thicket
Toba Batak ma-nombah-ito clear forest

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed *te(m)bak ‘to clear forest’.

close:   close together

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ezekplant something close together, generally using a dibble stick to make the holes
CMP
Manggarai edekpressed close together, stuffed

close:   dense, close together

WMP
Kankanaey balídclose-woven
Formosan
Paiwan validthick (forest), dense, closely planted

(Dempwolff: *pezam 'close the eyes')

close the eyes

WMP
Malay pəjamclosing the eyes
Toba Batak pojamclosed, of the eyes; blind
Toba Batak pojam ni bulannew moon
OC
Fijian moðesleep
Fijian moðe-rato sleep on, with or in
Fijian vaka-moðe-ito bid good-bye or good sleep to
Tongan moheto sleep, be asleep; (of a boat) to anchor or remain for the night; (of the wind) to blow from a specified direction during the night
Tongan mohe-ato be abounding in sleeping fish (of a reef)
Samoan moesleep; have sexual intercourse

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *pezam ‘close the eyes’ (dbl. (*penDem), but the Toba Batak form is better treated as a Malay loan, and the Fijian and Polynesian forms, which show multiple phonological irregularities, as chance resemblances to the forms in insular Southeast Asia.

TOP      ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

co

cock's:   cock's comb

WMP
Bontok baluŋábiŋcock's comb and wattles
Kankanaey baluŋábiŋcrest, comb (of a cock or hen)
Ifugaw baluŋábiŋcock's comb, also applied to the crest above the head of a hen
Malay baloŋcomb (of cock)

Malay baloŋ may be cognate with the first two syllables of the northern Philippine forms. Until more information is available, however, this comparison is perhaps best treated as a product of chance.

coconut

OC
Wuvulu upmature coconut with meat
'Āre'āre opugreen coconut
Sa'a opugreen drinking coconut
Seimat upcoconut

cold:   cold, cool

WMP
Sasak embelcool
Tontemboan emelcold, cooled, of cooked food or boiled water that has cooled

collide:   collide, hit, strike

WMP
Hiligaynon hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) atukkill a bird or chicken by piercing it with a needle or other small sharp instrument
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atognoise of knocking
Malay antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding
Toba Batak antukclub, heavy piece of wood with which one strikes
Toba Batak antuh-antukclub
Toba Batak maŋ-antukto hit; bump against

The Philippine forms are unrelated to those in western Indonesia. Of the latter only Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) and Malay, or Malay and the Batak languages permit a comparison, and this cannot safely be attributed to PWMP.

comb:   cock's comb

WMP
Bontok baluŋábiŋcock's comb and wattles
Kankanaey baluŋábiŋcrest, comb (of a cock or hen)
Ifugaw baluŋábiŋcock's comb, also applied to the crest above the head of a hen
Malay baloŋcomb (of cock)

Malay baloŋ may be cognate with the first two syllables of the northern Philippine forms. Until more information is available, however, this comparison is perhaps best treated as a product of chance.

come across by chance:   meet, come across by chance

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia suato approach one another, to meet
OC
Arosi suato meet, fall in with, come across

These two have probably met by chance, as no other supporting evidence for this comparison is known.

companion

WMP
Kenyah ipaone of a pair
Bare'e ipacompanion, comrade

(Dempwolff: *belas)

compassion:   pity, compassion

WMP
Malay belaspity; mercy; sympathy
Malay belas kaséhanmercy and compassion
Old Javanese welaspity, compassion, sympathy
Javanese welaspity, sympathy; sympathetic, sorry for
Balinese welasmercy, pity, favor
Makasarese ballasaʔsuffer greatly, have much difficulty with something; be miserable

The similarity of Makasarese ballasaʔ to the other forms cited here probably is due to chance. The remainder of this comparison is best regarded as a late innovation in western Indonesia, with likely borrowing either from Malay or from Javanese.

conceal:   shelter, conceal

WMP
Kankanaey íduŋto shelter, take shelter
Toba Batak induŋto feign, conceal something

conceive

WMP
Ngaju Dayak etekpresumption, suspicion; opinion
Toba Batak atikperhaps
Javanese aṭikfinger/toe joints
Javanese ŋ-aṭikmove (something loose) back and forth; manipulate the parts of

Chance. Despite the non-conforming Ngaju Dayak form and the wide latitude in semantics Dempwolff 1934-38 proposed this comparison presumably on the assumption that the affixed form in Javanese was a clearer indication of the meaning of the base form than the base form itself.

confused

WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) biŋoŋdizzy, stupid, confused
Malay biŋoŋmuddle-headed
Acehnese biŋóŋstupid, silly, confused, stupefied, dazed; to doze
Simalur biŋoŋ, fiŋoŋstupid, silly
Sundanese biŋuŋbeaten, cowardly, be embarrassed, not know what to do, irresolute, desperate
Old Javanese biŋuŋconfused
Javanese biŋuŋbewildered, confused
Balinese biŋuŋenraged, distracted, perplexed, confused, mad
SHWNG
Buli biŋu1confused
OC
Pohnpeian piŋconfused, disordered, messy
CMP
Ngadha biŋuintoxicated; dozing; distorted; stunned; mad, insane, crazy

Most of the items both in western and eastern Indonesia are assumed to be loans from Malay. The similarity of Pohnpeian piŋ to these forms is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *bulut)

confused

WMP
Malay bolot, bulutbundling up; wrapping up loosely or carelessly; bustle about, fuss
Dairi-Pakpak Batak buluttangled, of rope, thread, thoughts
Toba Batak buluttangled, of hair or cordage

(Dempwolff: *ulik)

confusion

WMP
Tagalog ulik-ulikhesitant; uncertain; perplexed
Malagasy ólikawinding, as a road, etc.; also Provincial for a rope, and the intestines

(Dempwolff: *kaliŋ ‘connecting piece’)

connecting piece

WMP
Tagalog kaliŋsteering handle of a rudder, tiller; door latch, bolt of a lock
Javanese kaliŋnose ring for buffalo
OC
Fijian kaliwooden headrest
Tongan kaliŋnative wooden pillow or headrest
Samoan ʔalibamboo pillow, headrest

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kaliŋ with the vague gloss ‘Zwischenstück’ (‘connecting piece’), using it to combine a collection of semantically disparate forms solely on the grounds that they could all be assigned to a reconstruction of the same shape.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋkəq ‘piece, connecting piece’)

connecting piece

WMP
Tagalog tuŋkiʔpoint; extremity; tip (as of the nose)
Ngaju Dayak tuŋkiha large cut out or punched-out piece (as of wood or earth)
Ngaju Dayak ma-nuŋkihcut out a large piece
Malagasy túhia jointing, a joining of two or more things
Malay toŋkahlengthening at the top; superimposing; of lengthening a sarong by sewing a piece along the top (that piece being concealed by a coat)
Toba Batak tuhoborder marker

Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋkəq ‘piece, connecting piece’.

consciousness:   lose consciousness

WMP
Mansaka ayabafraid of heights
Ngaju Dayak hayapfainting spell
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ayabconfused, muddled up, wandering of the mind

(Dempwolff: *kekel ‘constant, steady’)

constant:   constant, steady

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kakaleager, ardent, zealous; untiring
Malay kəkalpermanence; enduring or perpetual, of eternity, constancy in love, etc.
Sundanese kəkəlstubborn, unyielding, sticking to one’s opinion
Javanese kekel(of rice) well-done and sticky; (of laughing, coughing) hard, convulsive
OC
Sa'a ʔoʔoto stay, stay about, not go anywhere

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kekel ‘constant, steady’, but the evidence he presented provides little convincing support for his reconstruction.

container:   woven container

WMP
Bontok ʔəpəna woven, basin-shaped sleeping hat
Kankanaey epenpad, for instance a leaf spread inside the pot in which rice is boiled, anything spread in a basket to stop a gap, etc.
Toba Batak omponwoven sack used for rice

container:   edge, rim, flat container

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tambir-anan annex in either the front or rear of a house
Malagasy tavia washing basin
Javanese tambirwooden or bamboo extension of the deck space of a barge or sampan
OC
Fijian i-tabea small oval basket without handles

This is an example of a type of comparison that is unfortunately rather common in Dempwolff (1938), namely one in which the semantics of forms that would allow a higher-level reconstruction are extremely forced and artificial (the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese forms, which are semantically compatible, cannot safely support a reconstruction, given the longstanding Javanese influence on Banjarese and Ngaju Dayak). Unlike most of the chance resemblances for which Dempwolff proposed PAn reconstructions this one also shows an unacknowledged phonological irregularity, since he cites Fijian i-tabi ‘flat basket’, while Capell (1968) instead gives tabe ‘to hold or carry with the hands under’, i-tabe ‘a small oval basket without handles’.

(Dempwolff: *taki ‘contradict someone’)

contradict someone

WMP
Bikol mag-takíto insult someone by belittling his accomplishments
Malay mə-nakito debate; to dispute; to argue

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taki ‘contradict someone’ (widerede), based on Tagalog taki-taki ‘digression’ and the Malay word given here, but I am unable to find his Tagalog form in Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and the available evidence does not strongly support a reconstruction with the shape and meaning he proposed.

cook:   cook, boil

Formosan
Paiwan atukto boil
WMP
Rhade atŭkto cook

cool:   cold, cool

WMP
Sasak embelcool
Tontemboan emelcold, cooled, of cooked food or boiled water that has cooled

coral

CMP
Ngadha butucoral; pearl; decoration
OC
Mono-Alu butulureef

cough

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) buhaʔinduce coughing
Tiruray buhaʔa cough; to cough
Tiruray buhaʔ-ensick with a cough
CMP
Rotinese boʔoto cough
OC
Motu huacough
WMP
Binukid buhaʔcough; to cough; induce coughing

The Tiruray form is assumed to be a Manobo loan; the similar of the Rotinese and Motu forms to these is attributed to chance.

cough

WMP
Toba Batak oŋkolcough
OC
Mailu okocough
Mono-Alu ōcough

Chance. Toba Batak oŋkol probably contains a root *-kel, seen in such Philippine forms as Manobo (Sarangani) kelkel and Kalamian Tagbanwa kulkul 'cough'.

cough

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) ukukto cough
CMP
Rembong uhuʔsound of a cough

(Dempwolff: *kukak ‘cough’)

cough

WMP
Malagasy kúhakaa cough, coughing
Toba Batak hohakhock up phlegm

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kukak ‘cough’, but the support given for this is too weak to merit a reconstruction without further evidence (Malagasy should reflect *k- as h, and Toba Batak should reflect *u as u).

(Dempwolff: *wilis)

count

WMP
Javanese wiliscounted, calculated
OC
Sa'a wiligive tribute, contribute money to a chief at a feast
Fijian wilicount, read

counting:   ten, in counting certain objects

OC
Tolai baratten, used of birds and their eggs, and sometimes pigs
Nggela mbalaten bunches of fruit
Arosi haraten, of bananas

(Dempwolff: *taman ‘yard, courtyard’)

courtyard:   yard, courtyard

WMP
Malay tamangarden; pleasure-ground
Old Javanese tamanflower-garden, pleasure-garden, park
OC
Tolai tamanthe clear piece of ground around a house, a yard, hence the outside of the house, or of anything
Sa'a ama-athe courtyard, outside, at the door

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taman ‘yard, courtyard’ (Hof), but there is little likelihood that any of these forms are related.

cover:   cover, shut

WMP
Tagalog atábcovering, roofing or siding made of palm leaves
Kenyah atepclosed
Melanau (Mukah) atebshut, close
Ngaju Dayak atepwhat one uses for closing or shutting: bolt, clasp, door; closed
Muna ghontoclose, shut, cover, obstruct, block

The Bornean forms point to *ateb; the similarity of Tagalog atáb/ and Muna ghonto to these is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *tambeŋ ‘covered, veiled’)

covered:   covered, veiled

WMP
Tagalog tábiŋcurtain; screen; a covered frame that hides, protects, or separates; veil; anything that screens or hides (as a veil of clouds); shade; something that shuts out light
Malay tambaŋa mine
Malay mə-nambaŋto mine
Javanese tawəŋcovering

Dempwolff (1938) proposed PAn *tambeŋ ‘covered, veiled’ for what is best treated as a collection of unrelated forms.

covering:   covering membrane of plants

WMP
Tagalog bálokmembraneous covering structure of plants, fruits, or nuts
.
RHB baloksheath (betel nuts), cover of bamboo, corn

coverlet:   blanket, coverlet

WMP
Kankanaey kabénto envelop; to wrap up; to cover; to muffle; to inwrap; to roll up (as a child in a blanket larger than itself)
Tae' kabankind of cloth cover made from pieces of cloth that have been sewed together, used as a blanket or mat

TOP      ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

cr

(Dempwolff: *tumbak ‘crab claw, lance’ )

crab claw:   crab claw, lance

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tumbaklance
Malay tombakspear, lance
Old Javanese tumbaklance
Javanese tumbakspear, lance
OC
Tongan tupakind of land crab
Niue tupaa crab; a slave
Futunan tupakind of land crab
Samoan tupabeach crab, Cardisoma sp.
Kapingamarangi dubeland crab

This is one of the most remarkably speculative of all Dempwolff etymologies. The forms in western Indonesia refer exclusively to spears or lances, and those in Polynesian languages to land crabs, but here he has tried to force a connection by assuming that the primary reference in the latter case is to the claw of the crab, imagined as somehow believed to be lance-like (rather than pincer-like, which is far more likely). Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tumbak ‘crab claw, lance’ (Krebsschere, Lanze).

crag

WMP
Bontok pagaŋhave sharp edges, of a stone
Old Javanese paraŋrock, crag
OC
Motu hagacrag, high rock

cranium:   skull, cranium

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat buŋóskull, skeleton
Tagalog buŋóʔskull
Bikol buŋóʔskeleton, skull
Aklanon buŋóʔskull
Formosan
Amis foŋohhead
Bunun buŋuhead
Tsou fŋuuhead
Siraya voŋohead
Kanakanabu na-vuŋuhead
Saaroa vuŋuʔuhead

Although initially tempting, this comparison is problematic in two respects: 1. the final correspondence appears to be without parallel, 2. the referent in Philippine languages evidently is the bony structure of the body in general rather than the skull in particular. With regard to the first of these points Zorc (1982:115) has argued for the reconstruction of PAn *-q, *, and *-h. Amis foŋoh points to an etymon with *-h, but this is cohtradicted by all Philippine witnesses, which can indicate only *-q or *.

(Dempwolff: *laḍaŋ ‘cropland’)

cropland

WMP
Tagalog laláŋcreation; creature
Ngaju Dayak la-ladaŋhut or house used for only a short time
Iban ladaŋbank, dyke or firebreak to mark boundary or protect land; swamp or wet paddy field enclosed by bunds
Malay ladaŋunenclosed plantation on dry ground; planted clearing in contrast to an enclosed plantation (kəbun), or to a ricefield in a swamp (sawah)
Toba Batak ladaŋfield, meadow

Based on these four forms and Javanese laḍaŋ ‘clearing’, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *laḍaŋ ‘cropland’. However the Javanese form cannot be located (the closest I have found is Pigeaud’s laḍaŋ ‘good opportunity; room to do something’). Apart from the Iban and Malay forms, which are clearly cognate, but show Iban’s recurrent pattern of antonymy (Blust 1981), the remaining forms are best treated as a collection of random similarities.

crossbeam supporting floor

WMP
Pangasinan salásacrossbeam supporting the floor
Maranao salasaɁfloor

crotch

WMP
Cebuano púkaŋchild's word for female genitalia
Murut (Lowland) pukaŋthigh

crowd:   crowd, throng

WMP
Makasarese baluluŋgo in crowds (as a herd of goats)
OC
Arosi haruruclose together, of a number of things (cf. ruru 'call together, come together')

cruel:   mean, cruel

WMP
Bontok ʔísikmean, mischievouos (as to attempt to destroy a person's goods); impudent
Kankanaey ísikcruel, merciless, hardhearted, ruthless, pitiless
Ifugaw íhiktrouble-making, quarreling talk
Kayan isikupset, annoyed; a rash act; being rash

crush

OC
Lakalai bibipestle or stone used for pounding almonds
Lau bibicrush, weigh down
Lau bibiŋ-icrush it
Arosi bibito crush, squeeze, crowd
Arosi bibiŋ-iasqueezed, crowded

crush

OC
Nggela pisato press, crush
Rotuman pisachewed sugarcane
Molima pisalabroken; to break (as a coconut)

TOP      ce    ch    cl    co    cr    cu    

cu

(Dempwolff: *teba ‘cultivated land’)

cultivated land

WMP
Malagasy tévito be cut at the roots, as a tree
Malagasy mi-tévito cut down trees to make a clearing in a forest
Javanese tebagathering place for birds, animals; scope, territory
OC
Fijian tovaa flat piece of land, formerly planted with yams

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch *teba ‘cultivated land’ (Fruchtland), but without better evidence this reconstruction appears fanciful.

curl:   bend, curl

CMP
Rotinese eketwist, coil (of hair bound in a bun, or of a snake)
OC
Fijian oqowalk stooping, as in a house or in the presence of a chief

Probably chance, although both forms appear to contain the root *-kel 'bend, curl'.

(Dempwolff: *keDut ‘curl’)

curl

WMP
Tagalog kulótcurl; a curled lock of hair
Tagalog kulut-ínto make curly
Malagasy herutra ~ kerutracream
Malay kədutcrease; fold; deep furrow
Javanese kedutcoarsely woven (Pigeaud 1938)

Dempwolff (1938) posited *keDut ‘curl’, but there is little semantic cohesion to this set of formally compatible words.

curse

WMP
Ngaju Dayak iapcurse (spoken by an elder against a younger person)
CMP
Bimanese iʔacurse
Ngadha ie, iocurse, swear, be cursed

(Dempwolff: *beluR)

curvature

WMP
Tagalog bílogroundness, rotundity; circle
Tagalog bilóground, rotund, circular
Javanese welonhaving split apart

cut

WMP
Maranao boʔolcut (as a fish)
Malay buhulwheal; stripe; cut (from blow)

cut

OC
'Āre'āre osi-acut, bevel timber for joints
Sa'a osicut, score, bevel canoe planks for joints
Arosi osicut, score; level off with a plane
Hawaiian ʔokicut, sever, hew
Mono-Alu osicut

cut:   cut up, cut off

WMP
Nias balisever, cut, split
OC
Lakalai valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree
Nggela vali-valicut meat into portions
'Āre'āre pari-a(NG. cut up (animals and fish)
'Āre'āre hari-a(OG. lop off branches
Arosi haritear off

Chance (cp. POc *paRi 'cut or lop off branches').

cut:   cut up, cut off

WMP
Nias balisever, cut, split
OC
Lakalai valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree
Nggela vali-valicut meat into portions
'Āre'āre pari-a(NG. cut up (animals and fish)
'Āre'āre hari-a(OG. lop off branches
Arosi haritear off

Chance (cp. POc *paRi 'cut or lop off branches').

(Dempwolff: *zu(ŋ)kit ‘cut off’)

cut off

WMP
Tagalog dúkitcarving made by sharp-pointed instrument; cavity or hole made on some surface with fingers or some instrument
Tagalog dúkitto make holes on some surface by fingers or some instrument
Toba Batak man-juŋkitfetch down (fruit from a tree); pull out teeth; cut open (a boil)

Based on the forms given here Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *zu(ŋ)kit ‘cut off’, a form that now appears to be unsupportable.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_c.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-c