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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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e   

ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

earth:   heap of earth

WMP
Ilokano baŋbaŋ-ánraise a heap of earth, a hill, about the roots of a row of plants
Malay babaŋdam, barrier against water (Brunei)

earth:   space between earth and sky

SHWNG
Waropen ataMilky Way
OC
Motu ata-ispace between earth and sky; above, seawards; used with kahana to mean 'southeast direction'
Tongan ʔatāroomy, spacious; free, at liberty; space, room; clearing; air, atmosphere, space between earth and sky; freedom, etc.

eat

WMP
Bontok ʔəkanfeast
Formosan
Puyuma ʔekaneat
PAty sekanchew

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

ed

edge:   edge, ridge

WMP
Bontok ʔíŋitgo near the edge, as of a cliff
OC
Chuukese iŋ-edge, ridge

edge:   edge, rim, flat container

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tambir-anan annex in either the front or rear of a house
Malagasy tavia washing basin
Javanese tambirwooden or bamboo extension of the deck space of a barge or sampan
OC
Fijian i-tabea small oval basket without handles

This is an example of a type of comparison that is unfortunately rather common in Dempwolff (1938), namely one in which the semantics of forms that would allow a higher-level reconstruction are extremely forced and artificial (the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese forms, which are semantically compatible, cannot safely support a reconstruction, given the longstanding Javanese influence on Banjarese and Ngaju Dayak). Unlike most of the chance resemblances for which Dempwolff proposed PAn reconstructions this one also shows an unacknowledged phonological irregularity, since he cites Fijian i-tabi ‘flat basket’, while Capell (1968) instead gives tabe ‘to hold or carry with the hands under’, i-tabe ‘a small oval basket without handles’.

(Dempwolff: *te(m)biŋ ‘edge, bank’)

edge:   edge, border

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tiwiŋriver bank
Iban tebiŋriver bank, shore, edge
Malay təbiŋbank (of river or canal); sandbank rising sharply from the sea
Toba Batak tobiŋedge of the water
Old Javanese tembiŋside, border, bank, flank, shore
Javanese tembiŋcliff: rim of a ridge
OC
Fijian tebethe brim or edge

Dempwolff (1938) posited *te(m)biŋ ‘edge, bank’, but this is one of the rare comparisons in which he allowed massive irregularity, since the expected Fijian reflex would be **tovi or **tobi, and the Ngaju Dayak form also shows an unexplained irregularity in the first vowel. The remaining forms are best regarded as late innovations in western Indonesia, or as loans from Malay.

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

ee

eel:   iguana, eel

OC
Bugotu vavamonitor lizard
Arosi hahaiguana
Rarotongan aasea eel

Bugotu and Arosi point to PSES *papa; the resemblance of Rarotongan aa to these forms is attributed to chance.

eel

WMP
Bontok dalíteel
Kankanaey dalíteel
Ifugaw dalíteel
OC
Nggela halispecies of eel (large)

Potentially a reflex of *zalit, but given their limited distribution the similarity of the Philippine forms to Nggela is best attributed to chance.

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

el

elder:   elder kinsman

WMP
Tagalog ambáʔuncle
Malay embahgrandfather, grandmother
Javanese embahgrandparent; old man
CMP
Rembong emboʔgrandparent/grandchild

elder sibling:   father, uncle, elder sibling

WMP
Ilokano tataterm of address used for a father or uncle, male one generation above speaker
Dusun Deyah tataelder sibling
Ma'anyan tataʔelder sibling

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

em

emotionally:   emotionally upset

WMP
Tagalog bagótexasperated; in a state of ennui or impatience
Malagasy vahotrabenumbed; fig. confounded, perplexed, embarrassed

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

en

enclosing:   enclosing wall

WMP
Banjarese ataŋfence enclosing a graveyard
Formosan
Paiwan qacaŋpigpen
Kanakanabu ʔacáŋəstone walls
Saaroa ʔacáŋəwalls of pigpen

end:   beam, house end

WMP
Isneg tam-paníkieither of the gable ends of a granary
Palauan olíkcrossbeam at ends of village meeting house above the door

(Dempwolff: *betaq)

endure:   bear, endure

WMP
Malay betahconvalescence, getting better (said to be from Persian bih-tah)
Javanese betahto feel comfortable; to withstand, endure

This is an example of the type of comparison that clutters Dempwolff (1938) and distracts attention from the many valid etymologies he recognized.

entice

WMP
Sundanese icuklure, tempt, entice someone
Old Javanese icukseduction, enticement; deceit
CMP
Manggarai icukaffection

entice:   entice, persuade

WMP
Kankanaey imókcovet, lust; desire eagerly -- applied to concupiscence and greediness
Tagalog hímokenticement, beguilement
Aklanon hímokpersuade, convince

The resemblance of Kankanaey imók to the Central Philippine forms is attributed to chance.

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

Er

Erythrina:   tree sp.: Erythrina indica

WMP
Ilokano bagbafgErythrina indica Lam
OC
Label balbala tree: Erythrina indica
Gedaged baza tree: Erythrina variegata
Gitua barama tree: Erythrina indica

Gedaged baz, Gitua baram 'k.o. tree: Erythrina indica' probably are cognate. The similarity of these to the other forms cited here is attributed to chance.

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

es

(Dempwolff: *bali)

escort:   accompany, escort

WMP
Ngaju Dayak balianshamaness
Malagasy vadypartner, husband, wife, companion, associate
Malay belianshaman

This set of forms, which Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned to *bali contains material reflecting two distinct etyma (*balian, *baliw₂).

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

ev

evil:   plot evil

WMP
Tontemboan antamjealous, envious
.
TND antamplot some evil act
WMP
Rhade atamto curse

evil:   evil, harm, disaster

WMP
Tagalog sáholdeficiency; lack of something;; state of being subdued or defeated
Tagalog sahólsubjugated; subdued; wanting; lacking
Malagasy sonadeath wail
Javanese so-sollose one’s head

Dempwolff (1938) proposed this comparison, which appears to be a collection of unrelated forms in all three languages. I am unable to find sona in Richardson (1885), and the closest form I can find to his so-sol is sol ‘uprooted (by storm)’ in Pigeaud (1938).

TOP      ed    ee    el    em    en    es    ev    ex    

ex

(Dempwolff: *tibag ‘dug out, excavated’)

excavated:   dug out, excavated

WMP
Tagalog tibágcutting; an excavation through high ground; landslide from a hill; erosion of soil from a river bank; excavated, quarried
Malay tebaka heavy cutting or chopping blow
Malay sa-tebaka fragment lopped off
Malay tebak tanahto dig out earth with a caŋkul (hoe); in pantuns (oral poems) tebak suggests clumsiness, a blow that does more harm than good

Probably a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) proposed PAn *tibag ‘dug out, excavated’.

exclamation

WMP
Ifugaw ahaexclamation denoting surprise or approval
Sundanese acahexclamation: well! why!

exclamation

WMP
Mansaka atiexclamation of dislike
Dairi-Pakpak Batak atiexclamation used to attract someone's attention from what he is saying

exclamation

WMP
Kayan ayahexclamation of surprise
Javanese ayahexclamation of incredulity
Formosan
Amis ayaexclamation showing displeasure or question

exclamation

WMP
Isneg boyes
Cebuano buboo, booing (in disapprobation)
Sasak bointerjection used to call dogs
Formosan
Paiwan buexclamation of surprise

exclamation

WMP
Tagalog washoo! (used in driving away pigs and other animals)
Bikol waʔwhoa, said to stop a horse
Cebuano waexpression of mild disappointment
Malay wahan interjection of surprise, astonishment, disappointment, etc.
Toba Batak waexclamation: now, then; please!
Mandar waexclamation of surprise, astonishment, disappointment, etc.
Formosan
Atayal wahfinal particle of mild exclamation and exhortation
Seediq wafinal particle of exclamation

Probably an independent development, motivated by a still poorly understood set of language universals (those governing non-auditory sensory iconicity).

exhalation:   breath exhalation

WMP
Malay kəlohdeep breathing
Malay mə-ŋəlohto heave a sigh
Karo Batak keluh-keluhcompletely out of breath
Toba Batak ŋoluto live; vital energy

(Dempwolff: *hapuq)

exhausted

WMP
Tagalog hapóʔtired
OC
Fijian yavuburned up, consumed

(Dempwolff: *lesaq ‘drained, exhausted’)

exhausted

WMP
Tagalog lasáʔdestroyed, demolished
Malay ləsahexhausted
Javanese lesahweak, tired, exhausted

Dempwolff cited Tagalog lasáɁ ‘destroyed, demolished’, and posited Uraustronesisch *lesaq ‘drained, exhausted’, but I find nothing of the kind in any modern dictionary of Tagalog, and even if it existed the penultimate vowel would be irregular.

(Dempwolff: *sindak ‘experience fear’)

experience fear

WMP
Tagalog sindákterror; fright; awe; a great fear with sudden wonder
Tagalog ka-sindák-sindákawesome; causing awe; dreadful; fearful; terrible; startling
Tagalog ma-sindákto be terrified; to be stunned; to be shocked
Toba Batak sindakkeep oneself apart or at a distance; remain apart; restrain oneself
Toba Batak par-sindakneutral

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *sindak ‘experience fear’, but the comparison fails to carry conviction.

experiment

WMP
Isneg ambástrial, experiment
Iban abasexamination, reconnaissance; go and see, visit, examine, look into, hear a case

extinguish:   extinguish a fire

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) evukextinguish a fire
Mongondow obuextinguish a fire with water
Formosan
Puyuma Hevutextinguish a fire
Paiwan qevutjextinguish a fire

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_e.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-e