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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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f   

fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fade

WMP
Kayan bulahto fade, as a colored fabric; run together, of colors in fabrics during washing; pale, of face or appearance,
Bare'e wundaobscure, indeterminate, of colors or the like; unclear

(Dempwolff: *kusem ‘faded’)

faded

WMP
Malagasy mi-húsinato besmear oneself
Malagasy husénanato be besmeared
Malay kusamlustreless, dull
Toba Batak husomrather black, of somewhat dark colors; dirty, filthy
Javanese kucemdrained of one’s vitality through grief, shock, etc.

There is no compelling reason to consider this anything more than a collection of unrelated forms. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kusem ‘faded’, noting the phonological irregularity of the Javanese form.

fall:   fall out

WMP
Kankanaey ma-búnugto fall, fall out (applied to hair)
Formosan
Amis fonorthe falling of dry twigs or leaves or fruit from a tree

(Dempwolff: *pelik ‘to vibrate’)

fan:   vibrate, fan

WMP
Tagalog pilikvibration (Laktaw)
Malagasy pelika[gloss]
Malay pəlikear ornament
Javanese pəlikspark

Dempwolff (1938) compared the forms given here with Malagasy pelika ‘to fan, vibrate, using them to posit Uraustronesisch *pelik ‘to vibrate’. I am unable to find a form that matches his Malagasy citation in any dictionary available to me, and even if it could be found, the semantic latitude allowed in this comparison and the phonological irregularity of the Malagasy form weigh heavily against accepting this as a valid etymology.

(Dempwolff: *tuluy ‘fast’)

fast

WMP
Tagalog pag-tulóy(in some areas) staying temporarily in a place as a guest
Tagalog mag-pa-tulóyto provide lodging for
Tagalog maka-tulóyable to continue or proceed
Javanese tuliand then, (right) after that
Balinese tulithen, a little later
Balinese tulithen

Based on the Tagalog and Javanese forms given here Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuluy ‘fast’ (schnellsein). It is difficult to see what might have motivated this decision.

fat

CMP
Kisar wurufat (n.)
OC
Tolai wurukswell, swell out; be fat (of a person), distend

father:   father, uncle, elder sibling

WMP
Ilokano tataterm of address used for a father or uncle, male one generation above speaker
Dusun Deyah tataelder sibling
Ma'anyan tataʔelder sibling

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fe

(Dempwolff: *upaw)

feathers:   lose hair or feathers

WMP
Tagalog úpawbald
Bikol úpawbald, shaved to baldness
Aklanon úpawfall out (said of hair)
Cebuano upáwbald, lacking hair on the head; devoid of vegetation; infertile
Maranao opawshave hair; bald head
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) upewbald
Tiruray ʔufawa bald head
Malagasy ofoscaling off
Malagasy mi-ofoto scale off, to cast the skin or slough

Tiruray ufaw is assumed to be a GCPh loan; the relationship of Malagasy ofo to the Philippine forms is attributed to chance.

feed

WMP
Sundanese bubuhpart, portion, share
Buginese bobogive food to, feed (as chickens)
CMP
Sika buwudistribution, division (of land, food, and things)
Tetun buhungive food or drink repeatedly
Ngadha vuvugnaw, nibble at (as a porcupine gnawing at tubers)

feelings:   harbor bad feelings toward

WMP
Sangir antaŋto suspect, as someone of having committed a theft
CMP
Fordata ataŋjealous of

(Dempwolff: *sisip ‘to feign, pretend’)

feign:   feign, pretend

WMP
Tagalog sisipto feign, pretend
Toba Batak sisipconcealed, hidden; bribery
Toba Batak padalan sisipto bribe, corrupt (someone)
Toba Batak ma-nisip-ido something secretly
Old Javanese sisipgrazing, brushing (only slightly wounding), not fully hitting the mark; grazed, only slightly wounded, not really hit
Javanese sisipto miss (one’s aim, etc.)
Javanese ñisipto miss a target
Balinese sisipfault, departure from right, misdeed; to sin, be guilty
Sasak sisipmake a mistake
OC
Samoan mata sisi-foa curse word: feigning eyes

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sisip ‘to feign, pretend’ based on data from Tagalog, Toba Batak, Javanese and Samoan. I am unable to find an equivalent of his Tagalog form in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), or an equivalent of his Samoan expression in either Pratt (1893) or Milner (1966). However, even if these words were taken at face value this comparison would remain unconvincing without further support.

female:   woman, female

WMP
Subanon glibunwoman
Tiruray libuna female
Tiruray fe-libu-libun(of women) dressed up in one’s best clothes and ornamentation
Blaan (Koronadal) libunwoman
Bintulu liɓuna man’s or woman’s sarong

females:   term of address for females

WMP
Cebuano íaʔterm of address for older women
Iban iakterm of address for girls
OC
Tolai iaprefix used before names of females
CMP
Ngadha ioterm of address between women

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fi

fight

WMP
Kayan biteŋfighting, as in warfare
Wolio biteattack, assail

(Dempwolff: *sukar ‘dirt, filth’)

filth:   dirt, filth

WMP
Tagalog súkalrubbish; garbage; dirt; flotsam; scattered weeds
Javanese se-sukerexcrement

Dempwolff (1938) posited *sukar ‘dirt, filth’ on the basis of these two forms, but the sound correspondences are irregular, and there is no known support from other languages.

(Dempwolff: *laŋes ‘dirt, filth’)

filth:   dirt filth

WMP
Isneg laŋsíthe smell of fish, of blood, etc.
Ifugaw (Batad) laŋhiodor produced by fishes
Tagalog laŋísoil; lubricant oil; unction, the oil for anointing
Javanese laŋessoot from the smoke of an oil lamp
Javanese ŋe-laŋesto give off sooty smoke

Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *laŋes ‘dirt, filth’ (Schmutz). The Isneg and Ifugaw words form a ‘near comparison’ with Central Philippine forms such as Cebuano laŋsá ‘having a fishy smell or the taste of blood’.

fin

OC
Motu balatail fins of a fish
Sa'a paladorsal membrane of a swordfish
Woleaian pash(a)tail of a fish

fingers:   take with fingers

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ovicarry, convey, bear, bring, take along
CMP
Ngadha evipinch, scratch with the fingers
Ngadha vitake with the hand

finish

WMP
Cebuano bíaʔleave a place, leave something behind; abandon, de
Rejang biaʔcompleted, drained (glass or cup)

fire:   extinguish a fire

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) evukextinguish a fire
Mongondow obuextinguish a fire with water
Formosan
Puyuma Hevutextinguish a fire
Paiwan qevutjextinguish a fire

firewood

WMP
Bare'e awafirewood
Formosan
Paiwan savatspiles of firewood

(Dempwolff: *tegeŋ ‘steadfast, firm’)

firm:   steadfast, firm

WMP
Malay təgaŋtaut; outstretched; at full span
Toba Batak togaŋbe held open; keep someone or something out
Balinese tegeŋstrong
Makasarese tagaŋgood proof against; well able to endure

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tegeŋ ‘steadfast, firm’ (standhaftsein).

firmly:   hold firmly

WMP
Kalamian Tagbanwa kataŋgrip between the teeth
Tae' ataŋto hold, keep hold of, detain

(Dempwolff: *iwak)

fish

WMP
Javanese iwakmeat for the table; fish
OC
Samoan fa-ivafishing trip, fishing party

Chance. One of the most contrived and unconvincing comparisons in Dempwolff (1934-38), this proposed cognate set (which includes Lampung iwa 'fish', Sundanese iwak 'fish') should simply be discarded.

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Ilokano áberkind of marine fish of about the size and shape of a sardine
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) aborjellyfish

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Pangasinan ásaásasmall herringlike salt water fish
Toba Batak asa-asaa dried sea fish

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Cebuano baghákkind of medium-sized grouper
Malay begahak, gahaklarge silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema

fish:   fish sp.

OC
Motu balalafish sp.
Nggela valalasp. of long fish
Pohnpeian pwahlahla fish, the snapper: Lutjanus gibbus

(Dempwolff: *baraw)

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Tagalog balaw-baláwfermented anchovies on boiled rice
Malay baraua carp: Hampala macrolepidota

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Kapampangan balufish sp.
Cebuano baluʔgarfish
OC
Arosi barubarufish sp.
Niue palufish sp.
Samoan palua fish (Aphareus sp.) up to 3 ft. long
Rennellese pagupagublue-finned triggerfish
Maori parūfish sp.
Tuvaluan palucastor oil fish: Ruvettus sp.
Anuta parusmall red reef fish

The resemblance of Cebuano baluʔ to the other forms is probably a product of chance. Some of the Oceanic forms (particularly the Polynesian forms) may be related, but a specific common gloss is yet to be found.

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Ilokano baráŋansmall, black-gray, fresh-water fish, whose meat is esteemed
Hanunóo baráŋunlarge red and white speckled fish

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Buginese bui, bui-buifish sp.
Makasarese bui-buiedible fish about 10 cm. in length: horse mackerel, Caranx leptolepis
OC
Gitua bui-buia fish: Moses perch

fish:   fish sp.

OC
Tolai bulafish sp.
Samoan pulaa fish, Pempheris sp.
Hawaiian pulaa fish, perhaps Pempheris mangula
Anuta puratype of fish

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat búnakspecies of freshwater fish
Mansaka bonagkind of thin black and white ocean fish about 15 cm. wide by 22 cm. long with small scales; it is poisonous to eat
CMP
Rotinese bunakkind of marine fish which inflates when touched even slightly

fish:   fish sp.

OC
Lakalai e-puaa fish
Tongan fuafish similar to the mullet, but rounder in cross-section

fish:   fish sp.

OC
Tolai ivefish sp.
Tongan ihefish sp.
Samoan isefish of genera Hemirhamphus and Belone
Maori ihegarfish: Hemirhamphus intermedius
Hawaiian ihe-ihea fish, the halfbeak

The similarity of RALU ive to the Polynesian forms is attributed to chance.

fish:   fish sp.

OC
Kosraean ohlohlkind of fish
Mota olooloa fish

fish:   fish sp.

WMP
Aklanon bueáwfish with yellow stripe
Formosan
Puyuma vulawfish (general)
Paiwan vulʸawloach (fish sp.)

fish:   fish sp.

CMP
Buruese wapo, waputa fish: a grouper
OC
Gedaged wabwhite fish about three feet long
Seimat wahbrownish grouper about one meter long, with a thick body

(Dempwolff: *han-ir 'fatty, greasy')

fish:   stench of fish or blood

WMP
Tagalog bániladhering dirt on neck
Ngaju Dayak han-errepugnant odor of fish, frogs or blood
Malagasy lánysmell, stench
Malagasy mányfetid, rank. Used only of the odor from human beings who are filthy
Malay (h)an-irfetid, offensive in odor. Of bad meat, rotten meat, putrid water, decaying vegetable matter, etc.
Javanese an-ircloyingly rich-tasting
Mandar man-n-erstench, especially of fish or blood
Makasarese man-n--ereʔstench, especially of fish or blood

The Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese forms are cognate, but probably represent a late innovation in western Indonesia. The resemblance of the Tagalog and Malagasy forms to these is assumed to be a product of chance, and although the South Sulawesi forms appear to be cognate, they point to an etymon with penultimate *e, and so do not permit a clear-cut reconstruction.

fish:   to string fish, etc.

OC
Nggela itu-itua stick or string for stringing fish
Gilbertese itu, itututo sew, to thread (beads, fish)

Chance. Gilbertese itu may be cognate with Motu Jituri 'a string of fish' (< POc *i-tuRi 'instrument for stringing'), but this interpretation cannot be applied to Nggela itu-itu.

fish sp.

WMP
Malay badaredible sea-water fish, sp. unid.
Old Javanese waderkind of small freshwater fish
Javanese baḍèran edible river fish

A Dempwolff comparison of very limited distribution and questionable validity

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fl

(Dempwolff: *tambaŋ ‘side, opposite side, cross side’)

flank:   side, flank

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tambaŋgo towards
Ngaju Dayak tambaŋ-anferryman who takes others across a river
Malay tambaŋferrying
Malay tambaŋ-anferry-crossing
Toba Batak tambaŋwide, across, behind
Javanese tambaŋto leave one’s spouse but not divorce him/her
OC
Sa'a apa ~ apaapapart, side, half
Fijian tabathe upper arm of human beings; foreleg of an animal; wing of birds; branch of tree; store of a house; page of a book
Tongan tapaedge, rim, border; boundary, boundary line; side (of a square, triangle, etc.)
Samoan tafa-tafaside
Futunan tafa-tafasmall field; bordering
Samoan tafaflank, slope
Samoan tafa luabe two-sided, made of two pieces

Dempwolff (1938) proposed PAn *tambaŋ ‘side, opposite side, cross side’, glossing the Malay and Javanese forms as ‘überqueren’ (‘cross over’), and the Fijian form as ‘side’, but this meaning does not occur in Capell (1968). The entire comparison is extremely forced, and best treated as a collection of random similarities.

flash:   dazzle, flash

WMP
Ilokano irapto dazzle
OC
PMic iralight, flash, lightning

flash:   to flash, of lightning

CMP
PAmb itito lighten; flash, of lightning
OC
Gilbertese itilightning, thunderbolt, electricity, light
Tuvaluan itielectricity

Ranby (1980) gives NANU iti as a borrowing from English, but Gilbertese iti would appear to be a more likely source. The resemblance of these forms to Proto-Ambon *iti is regarded as a product of chance.

flash:   glitter, flash

CMP
Yamdena idakglitter, shine, light
OC
PMic iralight, flash, lightning

flat:   flat roof

WMP
Sasak paraflat or level roof
Chamorro fagaslightly sloping roof of house, which is poor for water runoff

Chance. Other comparisons such as *buŋbuŋ(-an) 'ridge pole show clearly that the house in WMP society had a sloping roof.

flat

WMP
Malay papakflat; even, smooth-surfaced
Javanese papaklevel, even with
Sasak papakeven at the ends, as someone whose fingers are all the same length
OC
Rennellese papato be flat, flattened; to flatten

The forms in western Indonesia probably represent a Malay loan distribution, while Rennellese papa is assumed to be a chance resemblance.

flat container:   edge, rim, flat container

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tambir-anan annex in either the front or rear of a house
Malagasy tavia washing basin
Javanese tambirwooden or bamboo extension of the deck space of a barge or sampan
OC
Fijian i-tabea small oval basket without handles

This is an example of a type of comparison that is unfortunately rather common in Dempwolff (1938), namely one in which the semantics of forms that would allow a higher-level reconstruction are extremely forced and artificial (the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese forms, which are semantically compatible, cannot safely support a reconstruction, given the longstanding Javanese influence on Banjarese and Ngaju Dayak). Unlike most of the chance resemblances for which Dempwolff proposed PAn reconstructions this one also shows an unacknowledged phonological irregularity, since he cites Fijian i-tabi ‘flat basket’, while Capell (1968) instead gives tabe ‘to hold or carry with the hands under’, i-tabe ‘a small oval basket without handles’.

(Dempwolff: *p-al-upuq 'vegetable matter')

flattened:   flattened bamboo

WMP
Tagalog palupoʔrack, stand, frame
Iban pelupohpalm, unident.
Malay pelupohflatten out by drubbing; to squash flat, esp. of larger varieties of bamboo to make flooring or fencing
Javanese plupuhsplit-bamboo section for walls, fences

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *p-al-upuq 'vegetable matter', which he regarded as a doublet of *p-al-aqpaq/. Apart from Malay and Javanese, however, there is little evidence for such an etymon. The similarity of the Tagalog and Iban forms to Malay pelupoh, Javanese plupuh is best attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *tepas ‘pressed flat’)

flattened bamboo

WMP
Malay mə-nəpasto pack full
Toba Batak topaspound bamboo or palm wood flat in order to make house walls from it
Javanese tepescoconut fiber

On the basis of the above forms, all of which he glossed as ‘flattened bamboo’, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed PAn *tepas ‘pressed flat’. However, I have been able to find this gloss only in the Toba Batak form, and the Javanese and Toba Batak forms are phonologically irreconcilable.

float

WMP
Wolio ampeafloat, set adrift, drift with the current
OC
Arosi sahefloat in water or air, as thistledown or a feather

flow

WMP
Toba Batak bakbakto flow, of tears
CMP
Ngadha bhabhato ooze, flow slowly out (as palm sap from a cut trunk)

flow

WMP
Ngaju Dayak babaŋ(used only in combination) flow strongly (tears)
CMP
Ngadha bhabhato ooze, flow slowly out (as palm sap from a cut trunk)

(Dempwolff: *buri)

flow

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ba-buriflow into or out of
OC
Fijian vuri-wai(flowing water) = river (Dempwolff 1938)

flower

Formosan
Bunun puaqflower
OC
Tongan puaflowering bush: Fragraea berteriana
Niue puabud of a flower
Samoan puasmall tree with fragrant flowers: Gardenia sp.
Rennellese puabud; papaya flower
Hawaiian puaflower, blossom

Despite the striking resemblance of this form among related languages the lack of support in any language outside Bunun and Polynesian strongly suggests that this comparison is a product of chance.

fluid:   fluid, liquid

WMP
Bikol antáʔjuice of fruits of the citrus family
Hanunóo ʔántaʔjuice, as from citrus fruits
Aklanon átaʔfluid, potion, liquids, semen
Cebuano átaʔink of squids and similar creatures
Mansaka ataʔfluid ejected by octopus/squid
Kayan ataʔwater

fly:   to fly

WMP
Isneg ayābfly away or up with
Simalungun Batak ayapfloat in air, hover

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fo

(Dempwolff: *kebut ‘fold together, wrap’)

fold:   fold, wrinkle

WMP
Tagalog kubótwrinkle (e.g. of the skin); rumple; corrugation; fold
Tagalog kubótwrinkle; ridge; fold; wrinkled
OC
Fijian kovuto tie up fish, etc. in banana leaves
Tongan kofugarment; clothing; dress
Futunan kofuclothing
Samoan ʔofugarment, dress; clothes; food done up in small bundle of leaves for cooking in a stone oven or for convenience

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kebut ‘fold together, wrap’, but the resemblance of the Tagalog form to the Fijian and Polynesian words seems is best attributed to chance.

follow:   follow, go after

WMP
Aklanon apasfollow after, go a little later
Hiligaynon apasfollow, go after
Cebuano apasfollow and catch up with; go after someone to bring him home
Maranao apascatch; miscarriage; go after
Formosan
Amis apaclate in arising; slow to arrive; primitive

food

WMP
Isneg ípānensnare (cf. appān bait)
Mentawai ibafish; food, nourishment; to fish
Sasak impanfood, fodder; to feed

The Isneg and Sasak forms may be independently affixed forms of *pæn. The similarity of Mentawai iba to these is attributed to chance.

food:   food plant

WMP
Kankanaey bulúŋankind of edible white mushroom
Cebuano bulúŋankind of sweet banana with a green peel, Musa sapientum, var. suaveolens

forbid

WMP
Sangir pahaʔforbidden
PCha paghăʔto forbid

(Dempwolff: *leles ‘lose consciousness’)

forget

WMP
Toba Batak lolosto forget
Old Javanese lələsto disappear

Dempwolff (1938) added Fijian lolo-a ‘unwell; seasickness’ to this and posited Uraustronesisch *leles ‘lose consciousness’ (das Bewustsein verlieren). This is best treated as a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *apu(r)a)

forgiveness:   pardon, forgiveness

WMP
Tagalog apúlaʔchecking or stopping the progress (as of swelling, sickness, revolt, or the like, before it worsens)
Sundanese hampuraforgiveness
Javanese apurapardon, forgiveness
Balinese ampuraforgive, pardon

The forms in Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese are cognate, but the similarity of these to Tagalog apulaʔ is due to chance.

form

WMP
Toba Batak tompashape, form of something
Toba Batak topato form, forge
Javanese tepatact, sensitivity

forth:   wave back and forth

WMP
Nias hifahang loosely, fit badly, shake, tremble, wobble, totter
SHWNG
Waropen ifaswing or wave back and forth
OC
Arosi iha-ihaquiver, as tops of trees

(Dempwolff: *anDes)

foundation:   foundation, basis

WMP
Malagasy m-andrylie down, be lying down, go to sleep
Malagasy f-andrif-anabed
Minangkabau andasbase for working on; surface support; anvil, as used by goldsmiths
Javanese paṇḍes(having been) cut off just above the roots
Balinese pandesgrind down, file

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fr

fraction:   part fraction

Formosan
Paiwan tamaqa fraction (of thing, number)
WMP
Maranao samaqremnant, unconsumed food after meal, survivor, remainder

(Dempwolff: *lawlaw ‘weak, feeble’)

fragile:   weak, fragile

WMP
Tagalog lawlawdefeat
Javanese loloLook at that! (said out of dissatisfaction with something)

Dempwolff cited these forms in support of Uraustronesisch *lawlaw ‘weak, feeble’ (Schwachsein). However, I find no Tagalog form with the meaning given, or anything close to it in any modern dictionary of the language, and the whole comparison is best treated as a product of chance.

fragment:   fragment, piece broken off

WMP
Maranao poporbreak or chip off
Balinese puhpuhfragment, break pieces off

(Dempwolff: *ki(n)cu ‘deceit, fraud’)

fraud:   deceit, fraud

WMP
Malay kicuswindle, cheating
Toba Batak hinsuclosed, locked
Javanese kecuthief, one who breaks in by force

Also Toba Batak hunsi ‘closed, locked’, a borrowing of Malay kunci ‘lock or bolt’, metathesized in hinsu. Dempwolff (1938) posited *ki(n)cu ‘deceit, fraud’.

frog

WMP
Itbayaten palakafrog, toad, tadpole (not found in Itbayat)
Ivatan palakafrog
Tagalog palákaʔfrog
Cebuano palákaʔfrog

All-in-all this form is best regarded as a loanword. I am indebted to Alexander Smith for bringing this to my attention.

(Dempwolff: *ampu)

from:   support from below

WMP
Malay ampuholding up from below, esp. in the up-turned palms of the hand
Karo Batak ampuhold in the lap
Toba Batak ampuhold or take in the lap

from:   suspend from poles

OC
Lakalai balasuspend from a pole, hang between posts (as a pig)
Eddystone/Mandegusu palapole
Nggela mbalambalalong poles on which the kokopa (ridgepole) rests

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fu

fungus

WMP
Isneg ibbáwvery small, slender, white, edible mushrooms that grow in dense clusters
Nias hiwofungus, mold, mildew

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_f.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-f