Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    y    z   

g   

ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

(Dempwolff: *puhaŋ ‘empty’)

gap:   gap, space, void

WMP
Tagalog puwáŋgap; space between; blank; a space for fitting in an answer; opening; way; a space for passing or going ahead
Malagasy fóanaempty, vain, void; freely, foolishly, uselessly
OC
Fijian vuato take possession of a village in war, driving the inhabitants out

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *puhaŋ ‘empty’ (leersein), citing the gloss of Fijian vua as ‘uninhabited’ (unbewohnt sein).

(Dempwolff: *hegab)

gasp

WMP
Pangasinan egábyawn
Tagalog higábyawn
Toba Batak ogapsuffocate, drown

gasp

WMP
Tagalog hikafbyawn
Karo Batak eŋkapgasp for air, be at one's last gasp
Toba Batak oŋkapgasp for air, cough

gather

WMP
Toba Batak binbincollected, gathered
Toba Batak pa-binbingather, accumulate, heap up
Tae' bimbinwrap around, wind something around
Formosan
Paiwan vilʸvilʸpull towards oneself (as one's hand)

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

ge

genitals

WMP
Bontok búgatvulva, female genitals
Old Javanese wugat, wugat-wugatback; back-part, tail

genitals

WMP
Hanunóo búrasseminal fluid
Cebuano búlaswhite odorous accumulation found under the foreski
Maranao boraspenis
Mansaka borassemen
Tiruray burosa euphemism for the genitals of either sex
Bare'e burosperm; also used as a term of abuse
OC
Molima bula-nagenitals, esp. Mons veneris

germinate; burst out:   germinate, burst out

Formosan
Thao fciqgermination of a seed; explosion, shot of a gun
WMP
Malay beras bertéhparched rice

Also Kavalan btuq ‘explode’. Malay bertéh probably derives from ber- + retéh, as in meretéh ‘springing up in little jerks, like shrimps jumping about in a landing basket’.

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

gh

ghost

WMP
Kenyah balispirit, ghost
Bare'e wali-egi(priestly language) soul, ghost
Bare'e wali-layowali-wata/ ghost

Chance. Adriani (1928) refers the Bare'e forms to Indonesian wali 'ghost', but cites no supporting evidence.

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

gi

girls:   term of address for girls

WMP
Sundanese enofriendly term for young girls ( = enod)
CMP
Manggarai enuMiss, term of address for a girl if one does not know her name (endu)

give:   be born, give birth

WMP
Chamorro fan-agubear (offspring), give birth
OC
Tongan fanauto have a child or children or offspring
Tongan fānauchildren, offspring
Samoan fānaube born; give birth; offspring; birth
Maori whānaube born; offspring, family group
Hawaiian hānaugive birth; lay an egg; born; offspring; child

give

OC
Motu hari-adivide, give away
Nehan hargive

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

gl

(Dempwolff: *suRsuR ‘to slide, glide’)

glide:   slide, glide

WMP
Tagalog sugsogfollow after
Ngaju Dayak tusohshaken out, poured out
Malagasy susu-susuforwardness, boldness
Malagasy mi-susu-susuto be forward
Toba Batak sursurto slide, trickle down, as soil or sand
Old Javanese ka-susu-susuhurried on, in a hurry
Old Javanese a-nusu-nusuto hurry on, push on
Javanese ke-susuin a hurry

Based on the above data (except for Old Javanese) Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *suRsuR ‘to slide, glide’. However, I have not found his Tagalog form in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and even if it is accepted, there is too little semantic agreement among any of the forms cited here to permit a confident reconstruction.

(Dempwolff: *sibsib ‘glide off, slide off’)

glide off:   glide off, slide off

WMP
Old Javanese a-sisib-anto go (attack, etc.) in all directions (hither and thither)?
OC
Fijian sisito slip, of land; to invade a land, of warriors
Fijian vaka-sisi-tato cause of slip, of land
Tongan hihifodirection in which the sun sets, west
Samoan sisifowest

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sibsib ‘glide off, slide off’, but his comparison is both semantically and phonologically unconvincing. Neither the Old Javanese form (substituted for Dempwolff’s Javanese s<əl>isib, which I cannot find in Pigeaud 1938 or Horne 1974) nor Fijian sisi has any obvious semantic connection with the Polynesian words or with one another, at least under the meaning ‘glide off, slide off’. Moreover, the latter reflect POc *sipo, and are thus morphologically hi-hifo, si-sifo, not hihif-o, sisif-o.

glitter:   glitter, flash

CMP
Yamdena idakglitter, shine, light
OC
PMic iralight, flash, lightning

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

go

go:   follow, go after

WMP
Aklanon apasfollow after, go a little later
Hiligaynon apasfollow, go after
Cebuano apasfollow and catch up with; go after someone to bring him home
Maranao apascatch; miscarriage; go after
Formosan
Amis apaclate in arising; slow to arrive; primitive

(Dempwolff: *baRut 'goiter')

goiter

WMP
Karo Batak barutgoiter
Karo Batak barut-ensuffer from a goiter
Toba Batak barutgoiter
Toba Batak barut-onhave a goiter
Makasarese barroʔgoiter
Makasarese barrok-aŋgoiter, have a goiter

Chance. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Toba Batak barut with Tagalog bagót 'exasperated; in a state of ennui or impatience', Malay barut 'bandaging; long wrapper or bandage', and proposed *baRut 'goiter'. Neither of the latter words, however, appear to be cognate with the Batak forms (Tagalog bagót almost certainly contains a root *-gut 'angry').

goiter

WMP
Kavalan bluhukgoiter
Ilokano biélgoiter
Isneg biál, biél, bixāl, bilālgoiter
Ifugaw (Batad) bīolan enlarged thyroid gland, commonly called goiter
Bikol bugóngoiter
Rhade biambird's craw, crop; goiter
Gorontalo hutologoiter
Formosan
Bunun bihigoiter
Tsou fʔirigoiter
Puyuma buʔurgoiter
Puyuma K) vuHeRgoiter
Kanakanabu viʔíligoiter
Saaroa viʔiligoiter

Chance. Tsuchida (1976:141) assumes cognation of the Formosan forms and Ilokano biél, with assimilation of the last vowel in Bunun and the Tsouic languages, but this hypothesis requires at least two independent instances of sporadic assimilation in the same lexical item (one in Proto-Tsouic, the other in Bunun). Given this problem and the occurrence of still other phonetically similar but non-corresponding forms (as Puyuma buʔur) I prefer to treat this comparison as a product of chance.

goiter

WMP
Kankanaey buséygoiter
Bikol búsiyogoiter

good

WMP
Berawan (Long Terawan) jingood
Lelak jiagood
Lemeting jiagood
Sebop diangood
Kiput cəiʔgood
Bintulu dəzaʔgood
Kanowit jiakgood
CMP
Manggarai diʔagood, beautiful, pretty, refined; healthy
Lamaholot dikəʔgood, true, genuine (character)
Tetun diʔa-kgood, well
Tetun diʔa-ntamed, domesticated

(Dempwolff: *baluq)

gourd:   gourd, pumpkin

WMP
Ngaju Dayak balohpumpkin
Malay baluhwooden framework (inside a drum; in a howdah, etc.)
Javanese waluhpumpkin

Malay non-cognate, Ngaju Dayak possibly an early borrowing from Javanese.

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

gr

grandchild:   grandparent, grandchild

WMP
Simalur ituŋgrandmother (Lekon dial.)
Old Javanese ituŋgreat-great grandchild

grandfather

WMP
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) babukGF
OC
Nali papuGF
Likum paapuGF
Bonkovia pwapu-MB

grandparent:   grandparent, grandchild

WMP
Simalur ituŋgrandmother (Lekon dial.)
Old Javanese ituŋgreat-great grandchild

grandparent:   great grandparent

WMP
Samihim alaugreat-great grandparent, PPPP
Sasak balogreat grandparent, great grandchild (LeBar 1972)
CMP
Bimanese waroancestors (either sex)
Komodo warogreat grandparent, PPP

Chance. LeBar's Sasak balo/ and Bimanese waro are phonologically compatible, but Goris (1938) gives Sasak baloʔ 'great grandfather', be-baloʔ 'crocodile', and KOM waro suggests that the medial consonant in Bimanese waro does not derive from *l.

(Dempwolff: *taŋtaŋ ‘to grip, grasp’ )

grasp:   grip, grasp

WMP
Tagalog taŋtáŋcontinuous, jerky pulling of a rope or the like
Malagasy tántanaheld and taken by the hand
Toba Batak ma-naŋtaŋto loosen
Old Javanese taŋtaŋto challenge
Javanese tantaŋ-andare, challenge

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taŋtaŋ ‘to grip, grasp’ (mit her Hand greifen).

grass

WMP
Malagasy véroa tall grass: Andropogon hirtus L.
Balinese belua species of long grass

grass:   grass, brush

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) omabrush, bushes
Toba Batak omagrass used for horse fodder
CMP
Bimanese omaswidden

grasshopper:   bait, grasshopper

WMP
Itbayaten aʔpanbait
Ilokano appánbait
Kapampangan apánbait
Hanunóo ʔapanan edible plague grasshopper, green in color, which travels in huge swarms
Aklanon apánlocust
Manobo (Sarangani) apanspotted grasshopper with green mouth

(Dempwolff: *kuRkuR ‘to rub, grate’)

grate:   to grate

WMP
Tagalog kugkogsound of grating
Toba Batak maŋ-hurhurto grate on a grater, as in making curry

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kuRkuR ‘to rub, grate’. I am unable to find Tagalog kugkog in any modern dictionary.

great:   great grandparent

WMP
Samihim alaugreat-great grandparent, PPPP
Sasak balogreat grandparent, great grandchild (LeBar 1972)
CMP
Bimanese waroancestors (either sex)
Komodo warogreat grandparent, PPP

Chance. LeBar's Sasak balo/ and Bimanese waro are phonologically compatible, but Goris (1938) gives Sasak baloʔ 'great grandfather', be-baloʔ 'crocodile', and KOM waro suggests that the medial consonant in Bimanese waro does not derive from *l.

(Dempwolff: *taŋtaŋ ‘to grip, grasp’ )

grip:   grip, grasp

WMP
Tagalog taŋtáŋcontinuous, jerky pulling of a rope or the like
Malagasy tántanaheld and taken by the hand
Toba Batak ma-naŋtaŋto loosen
Old Javanese taŋtaŋto challenge
Javanese tantaŋ-andare, challenge

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taŋtaŋ ‘to grip, grasp’ (mit her Hand greifen).

growl

WMP
Tagalog íŋilgrowl, snarl
Cebuano úŋulgrowl, snarl
CMP
Sika ʔeŋergrowling of a dog, grunting, etc.

Chance, although all three contain a likely root *-ŋer 'growl' seen also in Maranao ŋeŋer 'growl, howl, grunt'.

growth:   growth stage of rice

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat basbasa stage in the transplanting of rice
Dairi-Pakpak Batak basbasflowering of the rice plant before the grain appears

(Dempwolff: *labaq ‘increase, growth’)

growth:   growth, increase

WMP
Tagalog labáʔincrease, growth; usurious interest
Toba Batak labaprofit, yield, benefit

Based on the comparison of these forms plus Ngaju Dayak laba ‘have a result’, and Javanese labah ‘addition, supplement’ (Zusatz), Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *labaq ‘increase, growth’. However, Hardeland (1859) gives Ngaju Dayak laba ‘exceptionally lucky’ (vorzugsweise glücklich), and I am unable to find a similar Javanese form in either Horne (1974) or Pigeaud (1938). Given the collapse of the rest of his comparison and the absence of newer support the relationship between the Tagalog and Toba Batak forms given here is best attributed to chance.

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    go    gr    gu    

gu

guess:   guess, suspect

WMP
Tiruray ʔantukto guess
Karo Batak atekpresume, suspect; be of the opinion

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    y    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_g.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-g