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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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h   

he    hi    ho    hu    

hair

OC
Tanga olohair
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka kolo-nahair on body or limbs

hair:   lock of hair

OC
Tolai ipa curl of the head, lock of hair
Maori iholock of hair

(Dempwolff: *upaw)

hair:   lose hair or feathers

WMP
Tagalog úpawbald
Bikol úpawbald, shaved to baldness
Aklanon úpawfall out (said of hair)
Cebuano upáwbald, lacking hair on the head; devoid of vegetation; infertile
Maranao opawshave hair; bald head
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) upewbald
Tiruray ʔufawa bald head
Malagasy ofoscaling off
Malagasy mi-ofoto scale off, to cast the skin or slough

Tiruray ufaw is assumed to be a GCPh loan; the relationship of Malagasy ofo to the Philippine forms is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *unzuk)

hand:   hand over

WMP
Malay unjokholding out, offering with the hand; stretching out hand and arm
Toba Batak unjukpay the brideprice for a woman

Chance or borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *Ta(ŋ)kur ‘scrape or scratch with the hand’)

hand:   scrape or scratch with the hand

WMP
Malagasy taŋgustripped, denuded, used chiefly of locusts stripped of their wings and legs, and of herbs prepared for cooking
Toba Batak ma-nahurhollow out a tree trunk
Javanese ṭakur-ṭakurto paw, to dig with the hands or forefeet

Chance. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *Ta(ŋ)kur ‘scrape or scratch with the hand’ (mit der Hand scharren). In addition to the above forms he included Tagalog taŋkol ‘hand movement’ (Handbewegung), but no such word appears in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and I am unable to find corresponding forms in other Philippine languages.

harbor:   harbor bad feelings toward

WMP
Sangir antaŋto suspect, as someone of having committed a theft
CMP
Fordata ataŋjealous of

hare-lip

WMP
Tagalog biŋóthare-lipped (said of persons); notched, dented (said of chinaware, glassware, earthenware, ceramics, or the like)
Tagalog béŋutawry, out of line
Malay beŋaŋ-béŋutvery twisted; zigzagging

hare-lip

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat buŋísharelip; for a carabao to tear his nose by pulling away from his tether which is tied through the cartilege of his nose
Hanunóo búŋiʔharelip
Aklanon buŋíʔharelip
Cebuano búŋiʔharelip
Mansaka boŋiʔharelip
Binukid bugʔharelipped
Binukid ka-buŋiʔbe harelipped, have a cleavage in one's lip

harm:   evil, harm, disaster

WMP
Tagalog sáholdeficiency; lack of something;; state of being subdued or defeated
Tagalog sahólsubjugated; subdued; wanting; lacking
Malagasy sonadeath wail
Javanese so-sollose one’s head

Dempwolff (1938) proposed this comparison, which appears to be a collection of unrelated forms in all three languages. I am unable to find sona in Richardson (1885), and the closest form I can find to his so-sol is sol ‘uprooted (by storm)’ in Pigeaud (1938).

hatch:   to hatch

OC
Motu papaburst (of blossoms), hatch (of eggs), open the eye
Motu papa-iaunroll, open up a ball
Kwaio baba faafi-ahatch (of eggs)

Chance. For Motu papa-ia cf. note to *bajbaj.

have an angry facial expression

OC
Motu vaira huato look angry; not to smile with others
Niue faka-fu-fulato show anger by one’s expression, but not by words

Although both of these bases could reflect POc *fula, the absence of supporting evidence from other languages, and the occurrence of the base only with another word or with affixation raises suspicions that this rather striking resemblance is a product of chance.

(Dempwolff: *siraŋ ‘to form gaps’)

having gaps

WMP
Tagalog siláŋmountain pass; narrow path along mountain sides (Panganiban 1966)
Malay seraŋwide-meshed (of baskets or nets); sparse (of fruit on a tree)
Toba Batak siraŋseparated; to separate oneself from others; divorce

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *siraŋ ‘to form gaps’, but this comparison appears to be a forced collection of unrelated forms.

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    

he

(Dempwolff: *panduŋ ‘head covering; crest’)

head covering

WMP
Ilokano pandóŋmantilla, women’s scarf
Ilokano ag-pandóŋto wear a mantilla
Pangasinan pándoŋmantilla, veil
Tagalog páloŋrooster’s comb
Tagalog pandóŋanything such as paper, cloth, banana or palm leaf used as head covering for protection against the sun or rain
Tagalog panduŋ-ánto put a head covering on someone
Bikol pandóŋa hood; a canopy; parasol
Bikol mag-pandóŋto shelter the head with a hood
Malagasy fáronaa black spot on the face
Toba Batak paduŋthe surface of a mortar, between the hole and the edge

Dempwolff (1938) compared the Tagalog, Malagasy and Toba Batak forms given here, and proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *panduŋ ‘head covering; crest’. The similarity between these forms now seems better treated as due to chance, and while the Philippine forms are clearly cognate and share the monosyllabic root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’, the Cordilleran words appear to be Tagalog loans.

heap

WMP
Balinese bukbukheap, pile
OC
Arosi huhuʔiplant a garden; dig, mound up

heap:   heap of earth

WMP
Ilokano baŋbaŋ-ánraise a heap of earth, a hill, about the roots of a row of plants
Malay babaŋdam, barrier against water (Brunei)

(Dempwolff: *qabusa)

heap:   hoard, heap

WMP
Malagasy avósaa heap
OC
Sa'a ahutaall, the whole of
Fijian yavusathe largest kinship and social division of Fijian society
Tongan ʔafuhabuild a family
Futunan afusadescendants

The Fijian and Polynesian forms may be cognate, though borrowing cannot be ruled out (Churchward 1959 does not list Tongan ʔafuha, and the anticipated form in any case would contain first-syllable //o//, not //a//). The relationship of the Malagasy and Sa'a forms to these and to one another is regarded as convergent (cf. Lau ʔafuta 'all, every', Arosi ʔahuta-na 'all, the whole of, all together', and similar forms in other Southeast Solomonic languages which indicate earlier *kafusa).

heartwood

WMP
Balinese eleshard inner wood of trees
Formosan
Puyuma Helusheartwood of trees

hernia

WMP
Ngaju Dayak buruthernia
Ngaju Dayak ba-buruthave a hernia
Malagasy vorotrathe part around the testicles of oxe;
Malagasy vorót-inahaving a rupture, having large testicles, used of people as well as cattle
Iban burutswollen testicles, orchitis; hydrocele
Malay buruthernia; rupture; (sometimes) hydrocele and any swelling of the scrotum
Malay burut pusatumbilical hernia
Acehnese burōthernia, enlarged scrotum
Dairi-Pakpak Batak burut-enhave a child
Sundanese buruthydrocele
Old Javanese burutkind of disease

Borrowing from Malay, except for Dairi-Pakpak Batak burut-en, which is best attributed to chance.

heron

WMP
Simalur baluŋheron: Ardea sumatrana
Toba Batak barbarto hew (wood, stone)
Toba Batak si-baruŋheron (white, silver-gray and black varieties)
OC
Tolai barwhite heron: Ardea sacra "hew, carve
Nggela mbambal-ito carve

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    

hi

hidden

OC
Kwaio fuustill hidden, of what is to be divined
Maori secretly, stealthily

hiss

OC
Nggela isito hiss, send off a dog
Pohnpeian isihhiss at

Probably a chance resemblance.

hit:   collide, hit, strike

WMP
Hiligaynon hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) atukkill a bird or chicken by piercing it with a needle or other small sharp instrument
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atognoise of knocking
Malay antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding
Toba Batak antukclub, heavy piece of wood with which one strikes
Toba Batak antuh-antukclub
Toba Batak maŋ-antukto hit; bump against

The Philippine forms are unrelated to those in western Indonesia. Of the latter only Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) and Malay, or Malay and the Batak languages permit a comparison, and this cannot safely be attributed to PWMP.

hit:   hit, thump

WMP
Kankanaey abebékthump, bump, plunge. Sound of something heavy that strikes the water
Sundanese habekhit, beat

Chance (based on a common root *-bek 'sound of breaking, etc.').

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    

ho

(Dempwolff: *qabusa)

hoard:   hoard, heap

WMP
Malagasy avósaa heap
OC
Sa'a ahutaall, the whole of
Fijian yavusathe largest kinship and social division of Fijian society
Tongan ʔafuhabuild a family
Futunan afusadescendants

The Fijian and Polynesian forms may be cognate, though borrowing cannot be ruled out (Churchward 1959 does not list Tongan ʔafuha, and the anticipated form in any case would contain first-syllable //o//, not //a//). The relationship of the Malagasy and Sa'a forms to these and to one another is regarded as convergent (cf. Lau ʔafuta 'all, every', Arosi ʔahuta-na 'all, the whole of, all together', and similar forms in other Southeast Solomonic languages which indicate earlier *kafusa).

hold:   hold firmly

WMP
Kalamian Tagbanwa kataŋgrip between the teeth
Tae' ataŋto hold, keep hold of, detain

hole:   bore a hole, drill

OC
Tolai barbara-bara/ bore a hole, punch
Eddystone/Mandegusu vala-valathe bow by which a drill is rotated; to drill a hole
Nggela valopierce a hole in porpoise tooth
Kwaio falodrill a hole
Sa'a haloto bore, to drill
Arosi haroto bore, twist a stick in making a hole

hole

WMP
Tae' bubuʔbore or drill, bore a hole; a drill
Makasarese boʔboʔa hole made in something (e.g. in a housepost, in a sack by a mouse gnawing); opening, hollow, small round cavity in an oblong block of rice; emerge, come out, of an egg being laid or a baby chick hatching,
CMP
Ngadha vuvuopening, hole (as a mousehole)

holes:   round (holes)

WMP
Tiruray ʔibudrounded (holes)
Kadazan Dusun ivodbecome round (holes, eyes)

Chance. Despite the striking formal and semantic similarity of these forms the correspondences are irregular (Kadazan Dusun o points to *e, Tiruray u to *u). The Tiruray form shows irregularities associated with Danaw loans, but a cognate word is yet to be identified in a Danaw language (or, for that matter, any other language).

(Dempwolff: *eŋgaŋ)

hornbill

WMP
Malagasy éŋganawings of birds (Prov.)
Malay eŋgaŋhornbill
Toba Batak oŋgaŋhornbill: Buceros bicornis

The Malagasy form appears to be a chance resemblance, and the Toba Batak form could easily be a loan from Malay.

house:   beam, house end

WMP
Isneg tam-paníkieither of the gable ends of a granary
Palauan olíkcrossbeam at ends of village meeting house above the door

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    

hu

(Dempwolff: *balaŋ)

hurl:   sling, hurl

WMP
Malay balaŋhurling
Malay balaŋ-balaŋprojectile
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ambalaŋ, arimbalaŋsling, catapult
Toba Batak balaŋ, ambalaŋsling, catapult
Sundanese balaŋthrow, hurl
Old Javanese balaŋthrow at, fling down
Old Javanese habalaŋthrow (something) at
OC
Gilbertese banaa sling; to hurl with sling and stones

Late innovation, with some borrowing for Malay, Toba Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Sundanese, Old Javanese; chance for Gilbertese.

hut

WMP
Tagalog dampáʔhut, hovel, cabin (poor and small)
Bikol dapáʔstack of rice in the field
Cebuano dápaʔstorage place (hut or large box) for corn and rice
Iban dampaʔtemporary longhouse built by a group of families farming contiguous land at a distance from the main longhouse

This comparison, first proposed without the Bikol member in Blust (1970), has long been problematic because the Philippine evidence points to *-q, but the Iban evidence is incompatible with this (Blust 2009:561-568). There is a very strong temptation to assume cognation here, but on balance the similarity of these forms is perhaps best attributed to chance.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_h.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-h