Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    y    z   

l   

le    li    lo    

(Dempwolff: *tumbak ‘crab claw, lance’ )

lance:   crab claw, lance

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tumbaklance
Malay tombakspear, lance
Old Javanese tumbaklance
Javanese tumbakspear, lance
OC
Tongan tupakind of land crab
Niue tupaa crab; a slave
Futunan tupakind of land crab
Samoan tupabeach crab, Cardisoma sp.
Kapingamarangi dubeland crab

This is one of the most remarkably speculative of all Dempwolff etymologies. The forms in western Indonesia refer exclusively to spears or lances, and those in Polynesian languages to land crabs, but here he has tried to force a connection by assuming that the primary reference in the latter case is to the claw of the crab, imagined as somehow believed to be lance-like (rather than pincer-like, which is far more likely). Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tumbak ‘crab claw, lance’ (Krebsschere, Lanze).

late

WMP
Isneg abátto be late
Aklanon ábota late-comer to dinner (or any meal)

laugh

WMP
Ifugaw kíkimanner of laughing, applied to women and children (onomatopoetic)
Ifugaw (Batad) kikia laugh
Kayan kikika shout or yell (of pleasure)

(Dempwolff: *eneb 'settle, clear, of liquids')

layer:   layer, stratum

WMP
Isneg annāplayer, stratum, bed (e.g. the leaves that cover the bottom of the hearth, etc.)
Malay enaptailings, alluvial deposit
Old Javanese enebthat which has settled on the bottom

TOP      le    li    lo    

le

leaf:   pulpy leaf

WMP
Tagalog balábaʔpulpy leaf or joint of plants such as the banana
Tae' balaʔbaʔfrond of the sugar palm the leaves of which are twisted together

Chance. Although this item might be considered a doublet of *palacipaq, Tae' balaʔbaʔ appears to derive from an infixed form of *bejbej (cf. Tae' baʔbaʔ).

lean-to

OC
Kwaio ofalarge lean-to, temporary shelter
Kosraean ohplean-to roof

TOP      le    li    lo    

li

light:   day, sun, light

WMP
Simalur balal, falalday, sun
Nias baladay
Mongondow bayaglight, radiance
OC
Molima valasun(light), day(light)

Chance. Kähler (1961) cites this comparison, but Mongondow y can only reflect *d, *r, or *y, none of which are regular sources of Simalur, Nias -l-.

lightning:   to flash, of lightning

CMP
PAmb itito lighten; flash, of lightning
OC
Gilbertese itilightning, thunderbolt, electricity, light
Tuvaluan itielectricity

Ranby (1980) gives NANU iti as a borrowing from English, but Gilbertese iti would appear to be a more likely source. The resemblance of these forms to Proto-Ambon *iti is regarded as a product of chance.

lining:   lining, mat

WMP
Bikol hápinlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer; to line (as shelves, boxes)
Kelabit epinsleeping mat

liquid:   fluid, liquid

WMP
Bikol antáʔjuice of fruits of the citrus family
Hanunóo ʔántaʔjuice, as from citrus fruits
Aklanon átaʔfluid, potion, liquids, semen
Cebuano átaʔink of squids and similar creatures
Mansaka ataʔfluid ejected by octopus/squid
Kayan ataʔwater

TOP      le    li    lo    

lo

lock:   lock of hair

OC
Tolai ipa curl of the head, lock of hair
Maori iholock of hair

(Dempwolff: *buntu)

lock:   lock up

WMP
Malay buntublocked; not admitting further ingress (of a cave walled up, a drain choked, a blind alley, etc.)
Sundanese buntunot permitting egress, dead-end (of a road, etc.), not able to continue through or move forward; something (such as a commercial transaction) which because of a hindrance cannot be carried out
Old Javanese wuntufull, blocked, clogged
Javanese buntustopped at one end; clogged; fig. bogged down
Javanese jalan buntudead-end road
Sasak buntustopped, plugged up, of anything that is tube-shaped
Bare'e buntuunable to go further; leave behind (as a travelling companion),
OC
Fijian butu-yaenclose in a net, as fish; bring things together to meet, as of the thatch on the roof of a house

(Dempwolff: *piŋgaŋ ‘loins’)

loins

WMP
Malagasy fiŋganaa trip up, a stroke by which a person is tripped up
Malay piŋgaŋwaist; loins
Javanese piŋgaŋloins

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *piŋgaŋ ‘loins’. The Javanese word probably is a Malay loan, and the Malagasy word, which Dempwolff glossed ‘move the legs’ (Bein stellen) is best ignored.

lose:   to lose

WMP
Maranao ilapto lose
Old Javanese ilepto lose

lose:   lose consciousness

WMP
Mansaka ayabafraid of heights
Ngaju Dayak hayapfainting spell
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ayabconfused, muddled up, wandering of the mind

(Dempwolff: *upaw)

lose:   lose hair or feathers

WMP
Tagalog úpawbald
Bikol úpawbald, shaved to baldness
Aklanon úpawfall out (said of hair)
Cebuano upáwbald, lacking hair on the head; devoid of vegetation; infertile
Maranao opawshave hair; bald head
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) upewbald
Tiruray ʔufawa bald head
Malagasy ofoscaling off
Malagasy mi-ofoto scale off, to cast the skin or slough

Tiruray ufaw is assumed to be a GCPh loan; the relationship of Malagasy ofo to the Philippine forms is attributed to chance.

low:   to low, moo

WMP
Ilokano úgato low, to moo (cows); the cry of the deer
Tagalog uŋáʔlowing of cattle
Bikol úŋaʔmooing, lowing of a cow
Cebuano úŋaʔlowing, mooing sound of cows and buffalos; low, moo, bawl as if mooing
OC
Rarotongan uŋōto low, as cattle, to bray, as an ass

The resemblance of Ilokano úga and of Rarotongan uŋō/ to the other forms and to one another is attributed to chance.

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    y    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_l.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-l