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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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m   

me    mi    mo    mu    

magic:   black magic

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat báraŋtype of black magic
Bikol báraŋbewitch, cast a spell on someone using techniques similar to voodoo
Aklanon báraŋblack magic, voodoo, witchcraft
OC
Gedaged bazincantation, spell, magic, charm

Malay probably borrowed from Javanese, possibly through the medium of a Tagalog dialect (though Panganiban does not list a cognate form for Standard Tagalog). The resemblance of Tetun to Malay, Javanese and Sasak is attributed to chance.

make:   make amends

WMP
Bontok ʔáwidmake supplication to spirits while walking along a trail.
Kankanaey ʔáwidto exorcise; to conjure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hawidgift which is given to someone to salve hurt feelings

manner:   action, manner

WMP
Balinese indikaction, behavior; matter, thing, topic (of speech)
Buginese indiʔmanner, way of behaving

(Dempwolff: *teges ‘to mark, designate’)

mark:   to mark, designate

WMP
Toba Batak togosconsecrated, dedicated
Old Javanese təgəsclearness; meaning, explanation
Old Javanese ma-nəgəsto make clear, explain
Javanese təgəsmeaning, significance, sense
OC
Fijian dokato respect or honor

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teges ‘to mark, designate’ (bezeichnen).

marker:   causative marker

WMP
Ifugaw i-causative prefix
OC
Rennellese i-causative

marker:   past tense marker

WMP
Sasak iparticle of past time
Sasak i terbinyesterday
OC
'Āre'āre ipast participle ending
'Āre'āre houraʔ-ishown
Rarotongan iparticle used with verbs or adjectives in forming indefinite past tenses or aorists; when used before the verb it is coupled with and after the verb
Hawaiian iparticle and clitic preceding subordinate verbs and marking completed or past action and state or condition; sometimes the linking ai follows the verb or verb phrase
Formosan
Amis iparticle indicating time past
Paiwan sibelonging to a certain time in the past

Apparently reconstructible for PCEP. The Paiwan and Amis forms disagree in pointing to *Si and *i respectively. I take the resemblance of PCEP *i to all other forms cited here as a product of chance.

marker:   plural marker

CMP
Asilulu aplural noun marker
Formosan
Paiwan -apluralizer with personal nouns and pronominal articles
OC
Kapingamarangi apluralizing prefix

marrow

WMP
Malay benakmarrow; brain; quick (of nail)
Tontemboan wunakmarrow; the best, the tastiest part of a game animal

marry:   wedding, to marry

WMP
Maranao kawiŋwed; wedding; betrothed; husband, wife
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kawiŋof a bride and groom, to enact the ceremony of exchanging rice which completes the marriage formalities
Mansaka kawinto hold a wedding ceremony
Mansaka kawin-in-into be betrothed; to be engaged
Tiruray kawiŋto perform the wedding ceremony on a couple
Mapun kawinto perform the wedding ceremony; to put on a wedding celebration
Yakan mag-kawinto marry, have a wedding
Yakan pag-kawin-anwedding (the place of the celebration)
Tausug mag-kawinto solemnize a marriage
Tausug kawinto solemnize a marriage
Ida'an Begak kawinto marry (people), crossbreed (trees); said to be a Malay loan
Malay kawin ~ kahwinmarriage, wedlock

Borrowing from Malay. Wilkinson (1959) suggests that this may ultimately be a loan from Persian.

mat:   lining, mat

WMP
Bikol hápinlining; insulation, padding; layer, ply, veneer; to line (as shelves, boxes)
Kelabit epinsleeping mat

mat

WMP
Isneg abáʔmat
Itawis abákmat
Kankanaey ábekmat (mostly used to sleep on)
Ifugaw ábokany kind of mat to sleep on
Casiguran Dumagat abəkwoven mat; make a mat
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ambokmat

The similarity of Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ambok to the northern Philippine forms is due to chance.

mat

WMP
Toba Batak amparbroad mat
OC
Suau ebamat
.
Sinaugoro gepamat

material:   tying material

WMP
Bikol balakbákwide strips of the abaca or banana stalk used for tying
Madurese balakbaktie or handcuff hands and feet

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me

mean:   mean, cruel

WMP
Bontok ʔísikmean, mischievouos (as to attempt to destroy a person's goods); impudent
Kankanaey ísikcruel, merciless, hardhearted, ruthless, pitiless
Ifugaw íhiktrouble-making, quarreling talk
Kayan isikupset, annoyed; a rash act; being rash

meet

WMP
Bontok ʔábatto meet, usually by plan or prior arrangement
Kankanaey ábatmeet, meet with, fall in with, find, encounter
Iban ambatgo to meet
Muna po-ghawameet with

meet

WMP
Bontok ʔabə́tjoin; meet; come together, of inanimate objects, as the edges of a wound
Kankanaey ʔabétmeet with; fall in with; find; encounter
Pangasinan ʔabétto meet
Iban ambatgo to meet

meet:   meet, come across by chance

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia suato approach one another, to meet
OC
Arosi suato meet, fall in with, come across

These two have probably met by chance, as no other supporting evidence for this comparison is known.

melt:   melt, smelt

WMP
Tagalog búboʔsmelting, casting, fusing
Tagalog bató-ŋ b-in-úboʔconcrete stone or cement
CMP
Manggarai wowopouring out liquid, liquefaction, smelting of metals

membrane:   covering membrane of plants

WMP
Tagalog bálokmembraneous covering structure of plants, fruits, or nuts
.
RHB baloksheath (betel nuts), cover of bamboo, corn

menses:   menses, menstruation

WMP
Isneg aŋénmenses, menstrual flow
Kelabit saŋenmenses, menstruation

menstruation:   menses, menstruation

WMP
Isneg aŋénmenses, menstrual flow
Kelabit saŋenmenses, menstruation

(Dempwolff: *sebut ‘mention, refer to’)

mention

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sewutfame, renown
Malay səbutsaying; utterance; enunciation; to say; to mention
Javanese sebutsubject talked about
Javanese ñebutto utter, mention; to confer a title or rank
OC
Fijian cawu-tato pronounce a name

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sebut ‘mention, refer to’, but the Fijian form is phonologically irregular, and the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese forms could be loans from Malay.

metal:   iron (metal)

WMP
Palawan Batak baribáriiron, metal
Iban besi baristeel

Richards (1981:28) compares the Iban form with Malay keris bahari ‘kris with a long, narrow, straight blade’. Other terms that may be related are Thao balis ‘iron (metal)’, and Kavalan baris ‘nail’. However, the Thao word is clearly a loan, probably from Bunun (although our lexicographic resources for the latter are insufficient to determine this with certainty), and the semantically deviant Kavalan form evidently reflects a prototype with medial *l rather than *r or *R (Li and Tsuchida 2006:8). By way of counterbalancing these problems, there is a second comparison (Palawan Batak karát ‘rusty’, Malay karat ‘rust’) which provides independent support for an early knowledge of iron. On balance, this is perhaps best regarded as a chance resemblance, but the number of suggestive forms and the potential value of a comparison with this meaning keeps hope alive. The term *bari is discussed at some length in Blust (1976) and Blust (1999), where it is suggested that it may have referred to meteoric iron.

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mi

(Dempwolff: *teleŋ ‘middle’)

middle

WMP
Javanese tələŋdeep; innermost depths; heart
OC
Fijian tolothe trunk of the body; the middle part of a thing

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teleŋ ‘middle’ (Mitte).

mildew:   mold mildew

WMP
Ilokano bóʔotmold, mildew
Bontok búʔutmouldy (as bread)
Kankanaey bóʔotmouldiness; mustiness; lichen. White or grey lichens growing on stones, etc., for instance Anaptychia sp.
Kankanaey na-boót-anmouldy; musty
Ifugaw būutmould (as on a dank log); cobwebs
Ifugaw (Batad) būutspider web
CMP
Rembong butkind of Polyporus fungus

misbehaving

WMP
Cebuano bagaʔmisbehaving in an unusual way (as by peeping at someone while they are bathing); brazen
Subanen/Subanun bagaarrogant (Churchill 1913)
Ngaju Dayak baganame of a mythical woman who was very unchaste
Ngaju Dayak baga-bagaimmoral, unseemly (used only of women)
Iban baraʔgiven up to frivolity
Iban b. daraa frivolous woman

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mo

mold:   mold mildew

WMP
Ilokano bóʔotmold, mildew
Bontok búʔutmouldy (as bread)
Kankanaey bóʔotmouldiness; mustiness; lichen. White or grey lichens growing on stones, etc., for instance Anaptychia sp.
Kankanaey na-boót-anmouldy; musty
Ifugaw būutmould (as on a dank log); cobwebs
Ifugaw (Batad) būutspider web
CMP
Rembong butkind of Polyporus fungus

moment:   a moment ago, in a moment

WMP
Tae' attuʔa moment, in a second
CMP
Manggarai entukjust now

moment:   a moment ago, in a moment

WMP
Tae' attuʔa moment, in a second
CMP
Manggarai entukjust now

monkey

WMP
Atta ayóŋmonkey
Isneg ayóŋmonkey, ape
Singhi Land Dayak ayoŋlong-tailed monkey

monkey

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) iboʔmonkey
Karo Batak limboSiamese monkey
Toba Batak limbomonkey sp.

moo:   to low, moo

WMP
Ilokano úgato low, to moo (cows); the cry of the deer
Tagalog uŋáʔlowing of cattle
Bikol úŋaʔmooing, lowing of a cow
Cebuano úŋaʔlowing, mooing sound of cows and buffalos; low, moo, bawl as if mooing
OC
Rarotongan uŋōto low, as cattle, to bray, as an ass

The resemblance of Ilokano úga and of Rarotongan uŋō/ to the other forms and to one another is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *tuli ‘to moor; stop by to visit’)

moor a boat:   stop by, to moor a boat

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tulistop, stay still
Ngaju Dayak tali-anlanding place, place where a boat is moored
Malagasy túdiretaliation, requital; return, approaching
Toba Batak tulivisit, call on someone when passing by

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Urindonesisch’ *tuli ‘to moor; stop by to visit’ (Einkehren, Anlegen).

mountain:   slope, mountain side

WMP
Gorontalo biŋgislope of a mountain
Banggai biŋgislanting, oblique, at an angle
CMP
Bimanese biŋgirim, edge, border

move:   sway, move

WMP
Kayan me-gioʔto sway in walking
Kayan me-giohto sway, as a tall tree in the wind
Old Javanese giyuhmoving to and fro, shaking
Makasarese gioʔmovement, the way that one moves in walking, manner of doing something, way of acting

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mu

mushroom

WMP
Kankanaey bogkind of edible grayish-white mushroom
CMP
Rembong wuŋtypes of terrestrial mushrooms

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_m.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-m