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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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s   

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sago:   sago palm

WMP
Balinese entalpalm-tree
OC
Lau otaspecies of shrub with large leaves and large white flowers, on swampy ground
'Āre'āre otapalm tree with big edible leaves
Mota otasago palm
Rotuman otasago palm
Fijian otaplant species with edible leaves
Anuta otasago palm

The resemblance of Balinese ental to the other forms cited here is attributed to chance. The Lau and Arosi forms must reflect earlier *osa, and Rotuman ota must be a loan, although its source remains problematic. This leaves Mota ota, Anuta ota 'sago palm' as the only clearly cognate forms, but given the evidence for borrowing in Rotuman this distribution is perhaps best regarded as a product of diffusion.

sand

WMP
Cebuano bunbúnfine sand; filled with, covered with sand
Mansaka bonbónsand
OC
Tawala bubusand

(Dempwolff: *se(m)buq ‘satiated’)

satiated

WMP
Tagalog súboɁsmall amount of food sufficient for a mouthful; a morsel
Malay səmbuhrecovery from illness; getting well
Toba Batak sombupacified; satisfied; quieted, of thirst, desire for revenge, anger, desire
Javanese sembuh-anbatik that has been renewed by being redyed

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *se(m)buq ‘satiated’, but no reconstruction of any great time-depth appears possible from this comparison.

save:   save, not use

WMP
Bontok ʔəkəsgo without
CMP
Manggarai eŋkessave, not use

say:   say, tell

WMP
Kelabit balanews, fame; say, tell
CMP
Leti walaspeak, talk, say
OC
Gilbertese banavoice, speech, words, recommendations

say:   say, want to

CMP
Moa iwrasay, want to
Wetan iwrato say; think, presume, wonder
Kei iwarnews, tidings, rumor
SHWNG
Buli iwawant, wish; make, do; an old word that still occurs in sailing language

The resemblance of Buli iwa to the forms in CMP languages probably is due to chance. The CMP forms may be related, but it is not clear that a form found only in Moa, Wetan and Kei must derive from a PCMP etymon.

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sc

scab:   sore, scab

WMP
Tagalog pílakwhitish growth in the eye causing blindness
Iban em-pilaksore or ulcer, esp. of foot or leg

scatter

WMP
Maranao parakscatter (as people scattered about and residing in different locations)
CMP
Rembong parakdrive off, drive away

(Dempwolff: *ujus)

scour:   rub, scour

WMP
Karo Batak ugusrub against something
Toba Batak ugusrub, scrub oneself
OC
Sa'a usu, usu-usurub, daub, wipe, grate

Chance. Dempwolff (1938) compared these forms to Tagalog ulós 'wound caused by a pointed instrument; act of striking with a speaŕ and Javanese urus 'affair, matter; to handle, take care of; administer a laxative' under a proposed etymon *ujus.

scour:   scrape, scour

WMP
Mongondow iidscour, scrub (as in using a stone to rub one's skin in bathing)
CMP
Fordata iʔirscrape off
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai iʔirfile

The resemblance of the Mongondow form to the similar words in eastern Indonesia is attributed to chance.

scrape

SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai iʔirfile
Formosan
Amis sisirscraping sound; to slide

scrape:   scrape, scour

WMP
Mongondow iidscour, scrub (as in using a stone to rub one's skin in bathing)
CMP
Fordata iʔirscrape off
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai iʔirfile

The resemblance of the Mongondow form to the similar words in eastern Indonesia is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *Ta(ŋ)kur ‘scrape or scratch with the hand’)

scrape or scratch with the hand

WMP
Malagasy taŋgustripped, denuded, used chiefly of locusts stripped of their wings and legs, and of herbs prepared for cooking
Toba Batak ma-nahurhollow out a tree trunk
Javanese ṭakur-ṭakurto paw, to dig with the hands or forefeet

Chance. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *Ta(ŋ)kur ‘scrape or scratch with the hand’ (mit der Hand scharren). In addition to the above forms he included Tagalog taŋkol ‘hand movement’ (Handbewegung), but no such word appears in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and I am unable to find corresponding forms in other Philippine languages.

(Dempwolff: *kaDus ‘stroke, scratch’)

scratch:   stroke scratch

WMP
Tagalog kálosstrickle; grain leveller used when measuring grain
Tagalog mag-kálosto level grains with a strickle
OC
Fijian karo-karorough to the touch, of skin, as with prickly heat

Dempwolff posited *kaDus ‘stroke, scratch’ based on these two forms, which appear to have no connection with one another.

(Dempwolff: *Ta(ŋ)kur ‘scrape or scratch with the hand’)

scratch:   scrape or scratch with the hand

WMP
Malagasy taŋgustripped, denuded, used chiefly of locusts stripped of their wings and legs, and of herbs prepared for cooking
Toba Batak ma-nahurhollow out a tree trunk
Javanese ṭakur-ṭakurto paw, to dig with the hands or forefeet

Chance. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *Ta(ŋ)kur ‘scrape or scratch with the hand’ (mit der Hand scharren). In addition to the above forms he included Tagalog taŋkol ‘hand movement’ (Handbewegung), but no such word appears in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and I am unable to find corresponding forms in other Philippine languages.

scrotum

WMP
Malay kontolshort, thick pendulous object; (fig.) a testicle or the penis
Old Javanese konṭolscrotum
Javanese konṭolscrotum
OC
Sa'a ʔuʔua round object, a lump in pounded
Sa'a ʔuʔu i diliberries of dracaena; testicle

This rather fanciful etymology was used by Dempwoff (1938) to reconstruct *kunTul ‘scrotum’. However, the Javanese form is probably a Malay loan, and the Sa'a form a chance resemblance arising from the general meaning ‘round object, lump’ (aside from which *kuntul would regularly yield *Ɂuu, not *ɁuɁu). A far better-supported term for this meaning in PMP *laseR ‘scrotum and testicles’.

scrub:   rub, scrub

OC
PMic iri irito rub, scrub, grind, erase
Rennellese igi igito complete final polishing of a canoe

scrub:   rub, scrub

WMP
Itbayaten isʔisscales
Itbayaten isʔis-anremove scales
Pangasinan isísto scour
Kapampangan isísannual, or bi-annual scrubbing of houses
Tagalog isís, isʔísshrub the leaves of which have a sandpaper-like surface; scrubbing
Formosan
Puyuma HisaHisof animals, to rub the back
Paiwan clisaciissomething rubbed against (tree, where wild pig scratches)

The similarity of Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Tagalog is attributed to borrowing from Tagalog. The similarity of these forms to Puyuma, Paiwan and to Itbayaten is regarded as a product of chance.

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se

seed

WMP
Aklanon híasseed; idea, thought
CMP
Ngadha iʔefruit; seed, pit

send

CMP
Asilulu atusomething sent; shipment
Buruese atu-ksend
Formosan
Bunun satosend; see off; take along; lead; bring (Nihira)

separate:   peel off, separate

WMP
Pangasinan ebákto peel (a fruit, etc.)
Cebuano ufbakto separate layers of the banana trunk

Chance, although both forms appear to contain the root *-bak₃ 'split off, separate'.

separate:   to separate

WMP
Maranao belasbereave
Balinese belassever, separate, part from, divorce; wean (a child)

separate:   to separate

WMP
Bontok búlakbreak up, as a group of people or a segmented fruit
Kankanaey búlak, ma-bulák-anseparated, severed, parted
Ifugaw bulʔákdivide something in four equal parts, to quarter
Tagalog buwágdemolished; dissolved, disbanded (said of societies and groups)
Hanunóo búlagseparation, divorce
Aklanon bueágto separate, disjoin, put/pull apart; leave one another, separate, go apart
Hiligaynon búlagdivorce, sever, separate, depart
Cebuano búlagto separate from, get separated

(Dempwolff: *awat)

separation

WMP
Tagalog awatweaning; withdrawal or reduction of fuel or fire
Malagasy avakaseparate, sever
Toba Batak aotstroll around, roam

(Dempwolff: *set fire to)

set fire to

Formosan
Amis rafrafbe inflamed with (anger)
WMP
Tagalog dabdabglow; glitter; lustre; shine
Kelabit dadabfor fire to flare up

Wolff (2010:812) proposes PAn *dabedab ‘set fire to’ on the basis of these three words. However, the KELA form is not reported in Blust (1993), or Amster (1995), nor does a similar word appear in the Lun Dayeh dictionary of Ganang, Crain, and Pearson-Rounds (2006). Wolff’s ‘KELA dadab’ is thus a ghost form that serves no legitimate purpose in this etymology, and the semantic divergence of the Amis and Tagalog items does not instill confidence that the comparison is valid.

set in order

OC
Roviana tuvakato mend, repair
Fijian tuvato set in order, arrange

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sh

shake

WMP
Ilokano wisíwisto shake, to worry, of an animal shaking its prey
Cebuano wisiwísishake something violently in all directions to get it loose; be violently mauled

Chance?

shake:   shake out

WMP
Ifugaw bikbíkact of beating, knocking on something (e.g. on one's breast)
Formosan
Amis fikfikshake off, shake out (as clothing)
Puyuma -vikvikshake dust off (e.g. clothing by holding it with both hands)

(Dempwolff: *kiu ‘shark’)

shark

WMP
Malagasy a-kiushark
OC
Roviana kisoshark
Fijian gioa shark

This comparison appears to be a product of chance. Despite several problems with the data Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kiu ‘shark’.

sharpen:   sharpen to a point

WMP
Kankanaey ilapsharpen to a point
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) irabcarefully sharpen a point on something

Chance?

shell

WMP
Hanunóo buláluʔa sea snail similar to bagtúŋan, except that its cover is white, smooth, and larger
Cebuano bulálu, bulá'luʔgeneric term for good-sized or large cowries
Bare'e bulaluthe colorful shell with which headcloths are smoothed (from Parigi)

(Dempwolff: *karaq ‘shell’)

shell

WMP
Tagalog kálatortoise; tortoise shell
Malagasy háramother-of-pearl
Malay karahpatchy in coloring, of tortoise shell, the teeth when lumps of sirih are sticking to them, leaves when drying and showing spots, etc.

Dempwolff (1938) assigned the above words along with Javanese karah ‘metal piece by which a blade is affixed to a handle’, Toba Batak hara ‘turtle’ and Sa'a kara ‘to scrape, to grate’ to *karaq ‘shell’. However, the Javanese and Sa’a forms are semantically distant from the others, the Toba Batak form does not appear in Warneck (1977), and of the remaining forms Tagalog kála and Malay karah are phonologically incompatible. This leaves just the Tagalog and Malagasy forms as potential comparata, and the similarity between them hardly seems to depart from chance.

(Dempwolff: *karaq ‘shell’)

shell

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat káraspecies of sea turtle (the eggs are gathered for food, but the meat is not edible)
Tagalog kálatortoise; tortoise shell
Bikol káratortoise shell
Malagasy háramother-of-pearl
Malay karahpatchy in coloring, of tortoise shell, the teeth when lumps of sirih are sticking to them, leaves when drying and showing spots, etc.

Dempwolff (1938) assigned the above words along with Javanese karah ‘metal piece by which a blade is affixed to a handle’, Toba Batak hara ‘turtle’ and Sa'a kara ‘to scrape, to grate’ to *karaq ‘shell’. However, the Javanese and Sa'a forms are semantically distant from the others, the Toba Batak form does not appear in Warneck (1977), and of the remaining forms Tagalog kála and Malay karah are phonologically incompatible. This leaves just the Tagalog and Malagasy forms as potential comparata, and the similarity between them hardly seems to depart from chance.

shellfish:   shellfish sp.

OC
Southeast Ambrym vuvusan unidentified shellfish
Niue fufuunivalve shellfish, small and lumpy: sea snail

shellfish sp.

OC
Dobuan sinaoyster
Arosi sinaa large species of echinus

shelter:   shelter, conceal

WMP
Kankanaey íduŋto shelter, take shelter
Toba Batak induŋto feign, conceal something

shield

WMP
Kelabit utapshield
Berawan (Long Terawan) utaʔshield
Melanau (Mukah) utapshield
Bare'e untashield (priestly language)

shoot:   shoot up

WMP
Kankanaey bigíto shoot, to sprout. For instance, mature palay, after having fallen into the water on the field, or when getting wet in the granary
Ifugaw bigíshoot, sprout of plants
Sangir bikishoot up, flourish (plants)

(Dempwolff: *tunzaŋ ‘push, shove’)

shove:   push shove

WMP
Toba Batak ma-nunjaŋto tread, stamp
Javanese ke-tunjaŋget knocked against or run over

Probably a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tunzaŋ ‘push, shove’ (stossen).

show:   show the teeth

SHWNG
Numfor isshow the teeth
OC
Gedaged isissmile, grin (draw the lips away from the teeth)
Takia isisismile, grin

shrill whistle or chirrup

WMP
Itbayaten wiiwicicada, sound of cicada
Bontok wiwímake a high-pitched whistling sound

shrub sp.

WMP
Tagalog tábalexcessively leafy so that a plant or tree has become fruitless or sterile
Toba Batak tabar-tabara shrub

Dempwolff (1938) cited Tagalog tábal as ‘name of a shrub’, but I cannot find it in any modern dictionary of the language, or in Madulid (2001), and this comparison is consequently best considered a chance resemblance.

shut:   cover, shut

WMP
Tagalog atábcovering, roofing or siding made of palm leaves
Kenyah atepclosed
Melanau (Mukah) atebshut, close
Ngaju Dayak atepwhat one uses for closing or shutting: bolt, clasp, door; closed
Muna ghontoclose, shut, cover, obstruct, block

The Bornean forms point to *ateb; the similarity of Tagalog atáb/ and Muna ghonto to these is attributed to chance.

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si

sickly

WMP
Toba Batak oŋgikseemingly dead
Javanese eŋgik-ensickly, prone to illness
CMP
Ngadha gifeel unwell, feverish, sick

side:   slope, mountain side

WMP
Gorontalo biŋgislope of a mountain
Banggai biŋgislanting, oblique, at an angle
CMP
Bimanese biŋgirim, edge, border

(Dempwolff: *tambaŋ ‘side, opposite side, cross side’)

side:   side, flank

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tambaŋgo towards
Ngaju Dayak tambaŋ-anferryman who takes others across a river
Malay tambaŋferrying
Malay tambaŋ-anferry-crossing
Toba Batak tambaŋwide, across, behind
Javanese tambaŋto leave one’s spouse but not divorce him/her
OC
Sa'a apa ~ apaapapart, side, half
Fijian tabathe upper arm of human beings; foreleg of an animal; wing of birds; branch of tree; store of a house; page of a book
Tongan tapaedge, rim, border; boundary, boundary line; side (of a square, triangle, etc.)
Samoan tafa-tafaside
Futunan tafa-tafasmall field; bordering
Samoan tafaflank, slope
Samoan tafa luabe two-sided, made of two pieces

Dempwolff (1938) proposed PAn *tambaŋ ‘side, opposite side, cross side’, glossing the Malay and Javanese forms as ‘überqueren’ (‘cross over’), and the Fijian form as ‘side’, but this meaning does not occur in Capell (1968). The entire comparison is extremely forced, and best treated as a collection of random similarities.

sing:   sing, song

WMP
Tagalog hílaa type of boat song or rowing song
Bikol hílawork song sung when pulling or hauling
Malagasy hirasinging; a song

Chance. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared these forms, but was forced to recognize a fossilized affix in the Malagasy word (h-ira), Tagalog and Bikol híla appear to be connected with híla 'pull, drag, tow, haul; a load, as a unit measure for haulage'.

sister-in-law:   brother-in-law, sister-in-law

WMP
Ilokano abíratbrother-in-law, sister-in-law. A term confined to persons who are married to two brothers or sisters
Bontok ʔabilátthe relationship between spouses of siblings
Kankanaey ʔabilátbrother-in-law, sister-in-law. Applied to persons who have married brothers or sisters
Malay birasconnection by marriage (in the case of two men who have married sisters, or of two women who have married brothers

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sk

(Dempwolff: *zuluk ‘pierce, penetrate’)

skewer:   pierce, skewer

WMP
Tagalog dulókdigging out and burning sticks and rubbish in a kaingin [swidden], or a burning off
Ngaju Dayak julokbe escorted, brought to a place
Malagasy dzuluka (a bar to prevent entrance
Malay jolokpoking at; thrusting forwards or upwards, of thrusting a pole into a tree to knock down fruit or flowers, stirring up wasps by poking a stick into their nests, etc.
Toba Batak man-jullukpenetrate, bore through
Javanese juluk(of royalty) named, called, having the title (of); nicknamed
Javanese nulukto move something upward (as a sarong that his sliding down)
OC
Samoan suluput in, insert, sheathe; put on, wear; tuck (clothing) in; slide

Dempwolff (1938) included these forms under ‘Uraustronesisch’ *zuluk ‘pierce, penetrate’ (Stechen). However, there is little to recommend this comparison, which appears to be a collection of formally compatible words that have almost nothing else in common. It is true that the meaning ‘penetrate, bore through’ in Toba Batak man-julluk is fairly similar to ‘put in, insert, sheathe’ in Samoan sulu, but the medial geminate is unexplained (Dempwolff wrote ju<l>luk), and it is further noteworthy that Tongan hulu ‘to fix one’s loincloth by tucking in one end of it at the waist; to tidy up the edges of a mat by tucking in the protruding ends’, was omitted despite its obvious cognation, presumably because it would weaken the argument for comparing the Samoan form with those in insular Southeast Asia

skin:   skin disease

WMP
Maranao bodokskin on the head which is scaly, skin lesion
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) buzukskin disease on the scalp which forms large scabby areas
Malay bodokleprosy in its early stage
Old Javanese wuḍugleprosy
Javanese buḍugleprosy
Javanese buḍug-enhave/get leprosy

Malay bodok is assumed to be a loan from Javanese. The similarity of the Philippine forms to those in western Indonesia is attributed to chance.

skull:   skull, cranium

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat buŋóskull, skeleton
Tagalog buŋóʔskull
Bikol buŋóʔskeleton, skull
Aklanon buŋóʔskull
Formosan
Amis foŋohhead
Bunun buŋuhead
Tsou fŋuuhead
Siraya voŋohead
Kanakanabu na-vuŋuhead
Saaroa vuŋuʔuhead

Although initially tempting, this comparison is problematic in two respects: 1. the final correspondence appears to be without parallel, 2. the referent in Philippine languages evidently is the bony structure of the body in general rather than the skull in particular. With regard to the first of these points Zorc (1982:115) has argued for the reconstruction of PAn *-q, *, and *-h. Amis foŋoh points to an etymon with *-h, but this is cohtradicted by all Philippine witnesses, which can indicate only *-q or *.

sky:   space between earth and sky

SHWNG
Waropen ataMilky Way
OC
Motu ata-ispace between earth and sky; above, seawards; used with kahana to mean 'southeast direction'
Tongan ʔatāroomy, spacious; free, at liberty; space, room; clearing; air, atmosphere, space between earth and sky; freedom, etc.

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sl

slap:   slap, clap

WMP
Ilokano dapákto make a galloping sound; walk with heavy footsteps
Cebuano dagpákslap hard enough to make a noise
CMP
Buruese rapa-hslap, clap

Probably best treated as a convergent development with the common monosyllabic root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

slice

CMP
Rotinese kilito cut or trim a piece of wood or leaf-stalk into long, lengthwise strips
OC
Sa'a kirito cut
Arosi kirislice with a knife, cut open a tin

Probably a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *suRsuR ‘to slide, glide’)

slide:   slide, glide

WMP
Tagalog sugsogfollow after
Ngaju Dayak tusohshaken out, poured out
Malagasy susu-susuforwardness, boldness
Malagasy mi-susu-susuto be forward
Toba Batak sursurto slide, trickle down, as soil or sand
Old Javanese ka-susu-susuhurried on, in a hurry
Old Javanese a-nusu-nusuto hurry on, push on
Javanese ke-susuin a hurry

Based on the above data (except for Old Javanese) Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *suRsuR ‘to slide, glide’. However, I have not found his Tagalog form in either Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), and even if it is accepted, there is too little semantic agreement among any of the forms cited here to permit a confident reconstruction.

(Dempwolff: *linsad ‘to slip, slide’)

slide:   slip, slide

WMP
Tagalog linsáddislocated; disjointed; out of joint
Malay lesattotally flat
Toba Batak lisattrampled down, crushed under
Javanese lincadslip, slide (?)

Chance. Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *linsad ‘to slip, slide’ (Ausgleiten), but I cannot find either the Malay or Javanese forms in any modern dictionary, and the residual comparison is feeble.

(Dempwolff: *sibsib ‘glide off, slide off’)

slide off:   glide off, slide off

WMP
Old Javanese a-sisib-anto go (attack, etc.) in all directions (hither and thither)?
OC
Fijian sisito slip, of land; to invade a land, of warriors
Fijian vaka-sisi-tato cause of slip, of land
Tongan hihifodirection in which the sun sets, west
Samoan sisifowest

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *sibsib ‘glide off, slide off’, but his comparison is both semantically and phonologically unconvincing. Neither the Old Javanese form (substituted for Dempwolff’s Javanese s<əl>isib, which I cannot find in Pigeaud 1938 or Horne 1974) nor Fijian sisi has any obvious semantic connection with the Polynesian words or with one another, at least under the meaning ‘glide off, slide off’. Moreover, the latter reflect POc *sipo, and are thus morphologically hi-hifo, si-sifo, not hihif-o, sisif-o.

(Dempwolff: *balaŋ)

sling:   sling, hurl

WMP
Malay balaŋhurling
Malay balaŋ-balaŋprojectile
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ambalaŋ, arimbalaŋsling, catapult
Toba Batak balaŋ, ambalaŋsling, catapult
Sundanese balaŋthrow, hurl
Old Javanese balaŋthrow at, fling down
Old Javanese habalaŋthrow (something) at
OC
Gilbertese banaa sling; to hurl with sling and stones

Late innovation, with some borrowing for Malay, Toba Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Sundanese, Old Javanese; chance for Gilbertese.

(Dempwolff: *linsad ‘to slip, slide’)

slip:   slip, slide

WMP
Tagalog linsáddislocated; disjointed; out of joint
Malay lesattotally flat
Toba Batak lisattrampled down, crushed under
Javanese lincadslip, slide (?)

Chance. Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *linsad ‘to slip, slide’ (Ausgleiten), but I cannot find either the Malay or Javanese forms in any modern dictionary, and the residual comparison is feeble.

slope:   slope, mountain side

WMP
Gorontalo biŋgislope of a mountain
Banggai biŋgislanting, oblique, at an angle
CMP
Bimanese biŋgirim, edge, border

slow:   weak, slow

WMP
Kankanaey baflasweak, feeble, faint; slow, tardy
CMP
Ngadha bharaweak, exhausted; careless, lazy

slow

WMP
Tagalog dáhanslowness of movement or action; weakness or lack of intensity; softness as contrasted with aggressiveness
Tagalog dáhan-dáhanslowly; in a slow manner
Hanunóo dáhanslowness, quietness; respect
Hanunóo ma-dáhanslow, quiet; respectful
Malay lahan ~ perlahanslowly, quietly

Despite its excellent semantic match and near-perfect formal match, this comparison is only possible by accepting a unique correspondence of d- in Tagalog and other Philippine languages, to l- in Malay. This comparison was tentatively accepted in Blust (1970), where it was noted, however (152), that “Ml. l < *d in this form has no known parallels. While chance cannot be completely ruled out as an explanation of the formal and semantic resemblance of these items, the probability seems high that the comparison is valid. An explanation for the discrepant initial segment of the Malay word has not yet been found.” Today, 43 years later, we still lack an explanation.

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sm

small

WMP
Banjarese indikshort
Nias (h)idesmall, gentle, light
Buginese ideʔsmall
CMP
Manggarai ijekvery small
Manggarai idoksmall

smelt:   melt, smelt

WMP
Tagalog búboʔsmelting, casting, fusing
Tagalog bató-ŋ b-in-úboʔconcrete stone or cement
CMP
Manggarai wowopouring out liquid, liquefaction, smelting of metals

smoke:   rise (of smoke)

WMP
Toba Batak bulbulspiral up, of smoke
OC
Tolai vuvulto rise (of smoke or steam)

smoke:   rise (of smoke)

WMP
Toba Batak mar-bual-bualrise up, of smoke
Javanese buelbillow upward in clouds
OC
Tolai vualmist, fog, steam; pillar of smoke, cloud; foggy, misty

smoke

WMP
Samal humbusmoke
Makasarese umbusmoke

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sn

sneeze

WMP
Kapampangan atciŋsneeze
Bikol hatsiŋsneeze
Aklanon atsi(h)sneeze
Cebuano atsisneeze
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) etisaʔsneeze
Kenyah (Long Anap) acisneeze
Madurese assimsneeze
Mongondow asisound of sneezing
Makasarese burassiŋto sneeze
Chamorro achom, hachemto sneeze
CMP
Manggarai acissound of a sneeze
Kambera ahisneeze
OC
Mussau asiŋesneeze
Lakalai hatihosneeze
Pohnpeian asisneeze
Formosan
Bunun qasbiŋsneeze
.
LON yeciŋsneeze
OC
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka asiosneeze
Tubetube yasinasneeze

Convergent innovation. Most of the forms cited here show multiple iconicity, beginning with a low vowel which approximates the position of the mouth at the onset of a sneeze, proceeding through an alveolar or palatal fricative or affricate, which mimics the oral closure preceding the release of a sneeze, and ending with a high vowel (plus nasal), which mimics the narrowed oral aperture and partial nasal channel which typically terminates a sneeze.

sneeze

WMP
Sasak siŋroot of baksiŋ 'to sneeze'
Mongondow asisound of a sneeze
CMP
Kambera áhisneeze
OC
Loniu -siŋsneeze
Nali -siŋsneeze

Probably products of chance convergence motivated by universal sound symbolism.

snout:   snout, nose

WMP
Simalur aŋossnout, beak, bill
Wolio aŋonose

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so

so:   so, so that

WMP
Tagalog paláso, so then
CMP
Manggarai palaso that, in order to

so:   so, so that

WMP
Tagalog paláso, so then
CMP
Manggarai palaso that, in order to

soaking:   soaking wet

WMP
Aklanon bunákwet, damp; to moisten, dampen, wet
Hiligaynon búnakto wet, to dampen
Cebuano búnakwash clothes
Mansaka bonakto wash, as clothes
Tae' bonakwet, soaking wet
Tae' bunakasoaking wet

soil:   dig up the soil

WMP
Hanunóo buwákany hole in the ground into which taro, yams, and other root crops are placed, i.e. for planting
Tae' buakdig up the soil with a digging stick

(Dempwolff: *buŋkar)

soil:   dig up the soil

WMP
Tagalog buŋkáldug out (said of stones and soil); tilled (said of soil)
Bikol buŋkálturn over the soil, break ground; dig something out of the ground; uproot
Ngaju Dayak buŋkar, uŋkarunpack (a chest), unload (a boat)
Malay boŋkarheaving up, raising up something heavy
Toba Batak buŋkartake apart
Javanese buŋkardisassembled parts; unload things from a vehicle

song:   sing, song

WMP
Tagalog hílaa type of boat song or rowing song
Bikol hílawork song sung when pulling or hauling
Malagasy hirasinging; a song

Chance. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared these forms, but was forced to recognize a fossilized affix in the Malagasy word (h-ira), Tagalog and Bikol híla appear to be connected with híla 'pull, drag, tow, haul; a load, as a unit measure for haulage'.

song

WMP
Isneg buyássong (in general)
Isneg mag-buyásto sing
Sasak buaʔsong
Sasak buaʔ lakaʔsong, love song
Sasak buaʔ lawassong, as is sung in the rice paddies
Mongondow buyaksong sung during the monayuk ceremony
OC
Lonwolwol busong
Nukuoro huasing a song
Rennellese huasong; sing a song
Kapingamarangi huasing, chant

soot

WMP
Bontok palasoot from the smoke of a fire, especially on the interior of a house; be covered with soot
Wolio paa ombubrown stains on fingers or throat, caused by heavy smoking

Probably a convergent semantic innovation from PMP *paRa 'storage shelf', since the latter was located above the hearth. In this connection cp. Malay araŋ para ('soot' + 'storage shelf') 'soot'.

sore:   sore, scab

WMP
Tagalog pílakwhitish growth in the eye causing blindness
Iban em-pilaksore or ulcer, esp. of foot or leg

sound:   dull resounding sound

WMP
Itbayaten m-aʔbeŋresounding (of low-pitched tone)
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abuŋswish of horsefly, gnat; buzz of flies, mosquitos or bees

Probably convergent innovation from a common root *-beŋ₃ 'dull resounding sound'.

sound:   throaty sound

WMP
Tae' idusob
Tae' iʔduksound of a frog
CMP
Manggarai irukgrumble (stomach)

Tae' iʔduk and Manggarai iruk/ may contain a variant of the root *-dek 'hiccough, sob'. Whether this turns out to be the case or not, the similarity of these forms is best attributed to convergence.

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sp

space:   space between earth and sky

SHWNG
Waropen ataMilky Way
OC
Motu ata-ispace between earth and sky; above, seawards; used with kahana to mean 'southeast direction'
Tongan ʔatāroomy, spacious; free, at liberty; space, room; clearing; air, atmosphere, space between earth and sky; freedom, etc.

(Dempwolff: *puhaŋ ‘empty’)

space:   gap, space, void

WMP
Tagalog puwáŋgap; space between; blank; a space for fitting in an answer; opening; way; a space for passing or going ahead
Malagasy fóanaempty, vain, void; freely, foolishly, uselessly
OC
Fijian vuato take possession of a village in war, driving the inhabitants out

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *puhaŋ ‘empty’ (leersein), citing the gloss of Fijian vua as ‘uninhabited’ (unbewohnt sein).

(Dempwolff: *siak ‘spicy tasting’)

spicy tasting

WMP
Ngaju Dayak siaksavagery, fury, rage
Malagasy siakaviolence, savageness, cruelty, fierceness
Karo Batak siakvery hot on the tongue
Toba Batak siakspicy, hot, as pepper

Dempwolff used the Toba Batak, Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy forms to reconstruct *siak ‘spicy tasting’. However, the Toba Batak form does not appear to be cognate with those in the Barito languages, leaving us with unrelated reconstructions in Proto-Batak and Proto-Barito. Despite this shortcoming a gloss was assigned based on the meaning in a single witness.

spill:   spill out

WMP
Kapampangan bubuupset a vessel or basket so that what is inside falls out
Kayan buvuʔto drip, dripping (as water from a container); to swarm out, as ants

spit

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ilebspittle; to spit
Kadazan Dusun ihobvomit

spite:   provided that, in spite of

WMP
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atasas long as, provided that
Javanese atasin spite of the fact that

split

WMP
Cebuano buʔákbreak something open, to pieces; for something to break
Mansaka bowaksplit open (as a nut)
Sundanese bohakopen, flayed, scratched, esp. of a deep scratch; split or crack in the skin; gaping wound
Formosan
Paiwan vuakto hatch

split:   split down the center

OC
Tolai palaŋsplit down the center, as a bamboo
Maori parahalf of a tree which has been split down the middle

split:   chop, split, adze something

Formosan
Thao taqtaqchopping of wood; to chop wood
Thao taqtaqto chop or adze something
Thao ta-taqtaqadze used to hollow out canoe hull, etc.
Thao taqtaqto split bamboo
Paiwan taqtaqsplit bamboo

The Thao form could reflect either *saqsaq or *taqtaq, the Paiwan form only *saqsaq. Probably a chance resemblance.

split:   split tear

WMP
Iban siraŋcleft, gash; division, partition, section; divide in sections, cut lengthwise
Iban siraŋ buritcleft between buttocks
Iban siraŋ tunjokhollow between fingers
OC
Tolai irto split, splice, esp. of small things
Roviana sirato tear cloth
Mota sirto shave, cut close

The Oceanic members of this comparison may be related, but until better evidence is available the resemblance between all of these forms is treated as a product of convergence.

sponge

OC
Roviana omomolong grass-like variety of sponge
Tongan omasponge
Samoan omomisponge

spread:   spread out

WMP
Bontok ʔasákinvade, as enemies invading a village; spread out, as people hunting for a missing water buffalo
Karo Batak asakexpand, spread out, seek an exit; penetrate, press on, jostle, crowd out

spread:   spread out

WMP
Old Javanese (h)ayarunfold, spread out (to dry)
CMP
Sika ʔajarspread out (of rice, maize, tobacco, sand, etc.)

sprout:   sprout, plant, shoot

WMP
Old Javanese səmishoot, sprout, bud (just emerging; of twig, leaf, also flower?)
Javanese semito sprout, put out buds
OC
Wayan sosomibe replaced, succeeded, substituted; act of replacing, succeeding
Wayan i-sosomireplacement, substitute, successor
Fijian sosomianything that replaces another thing, a substitute, a successor to a person

Dempwolff (1938) cited Fijian i-so-somi ‘seedling’, but this is not the sense of this term in Bauan Fijian as given by Capell (1968), or in Wayan as given by Pawley and Sayaba (2003). In the absence of further evidence this comparison is best treated as a product of chance.

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sq

squirrel

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tupayname of a squirrel with reddish-brown breast and gray back; it is somewhat larger than a rat
Malay tupaygeneric for squirrels and tupaias (shrews)

Borrowing from Malay, or a late innovation in Borneo.

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st

stage:   growth stage of rice

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat basbasa stage in the transplanting of rice
Dairi-Pakpak Batak basbasflowering of the rice plant before the grain appears

stalk

WMP
Acehnese baʔtree, trunk, stem, stalk
OC
Fijian bathe stalk of taro leaves (only)
Samoan fastalk, stem of taro, banana, and certain other plants

The Fijian and Samoan forms are assumed to be related; the similarity of the Acehnese form to these is due to chance.

stand:   stand apart

WMP
Ngaju Dayak pampaŋthe ends of the antlers of deer; more generally the ends of anything similar; raised part, excrescence on something else
Malay pampaŋkemudi fork-support for paddle-rudder
Bare'e pampastand at right angles to one another, as pieces of wood that are tied into a cross; stand out straight, as buffalo horns that do not curve

(Dempwolff: *la(m)bas ‘stand open’)

stand open

WMP
Tagalog labásexterior, outside
Ngaju Dayak lawaslink, what connects two joints or bones, as the joint of a finger, or the node in sugarcane, bamboo or rattan
Malay lawasclear, open, unobstructed, of an open field; a coconut palm stripped of its coconuts; of a palm with no fruit on it; of a comfortable feeling after the stomach has been rid of a heavy meal
Toba Batak labasopen, uncovered
Toba Batak lambasbroad, wide (of space)

On the basis of this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *la(m)bas ‘stand open’ (öffenstehen). It seems much better treated as a product of borrowing (Toba Batak from Malay) and chance (the rest).

stand up

WMP
Tagalog kaykayfootprint
Toba Batak hehestand up, raise oneself

Dempwolff (1938) proposed this comparison, which seems to be a product of chance.

(Dempwolff: *tegeŋ ‘steadfast, firm’)

steadfast:   steadfast, firm

WMP
Malay təgaŋtaut; outstretched; at full span
Toba Batak togaŋbe held open; keep someone or something out
Balinese tegeŋstrong
Makasarese tagaŋgood proof against; well able to endure

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tegeŋ ‘steadfast, firm’ (standhaftsein).

(Dempwolff: *kekel ‘constant, steady’)

steady:   constant, steady

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kakaleager, ardent, zealous; untiring
Malay kəkalpermanence; enduring or perpetual, of eternity, constancy in love, etc.
Sundanese kəkəlstubborn, unyielding, sticking to one’s opinion
Javanese kekel(of rice) well-done and sticky; (of laughing, coughing) hard, convulsive
OC
Sa'a ʔoʔoto stay, stay about, not go anywhere

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kekel ‘constant, steady’, but the evidence he presented provides little convincing support for his reconstruction.

(Dempwolff: *si(dD)aŋ ‘steep, precipitous’)

steep:   aslant, steep, precipitous

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sidaŋ ~ siraŋoblique, slanting (as something that was cut at an oblique angle)
Malagasy síranasloping

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *si(dD)aŋ ‘steep, precipitous’, but this comparison appears to be confined to Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy. It is thus best treated as ‘noise’ not on grounds of false cognation, but rather on the grounds that it cannot be reconstructed for a proto-language of any considerable time-depth.

stench

WMP
Tagalog aŋispeculiar repulsive odor of human excreta or putrefied food
Iban aŋispuffed, blown out of breath, perspire

stench

WMP
Ilokano aŋlemstench of burning cloth
OC
Nggela aŋoemit a sour smell, as of urine

Although this comparison was accepted in Blust (1989) it now appears to be arbitrary, since Nggela aŋo shows parallel sound correspondences and a generic semantic similarity to several forms in non-OC languages. For a general discussion of the word family *qaŋ- meaning 'stench' cf. Blust (1988:60ff).

(Dempwolff: *han-ir 'fatty, greasy')

stench:   stench of fish or blood

WMP
Tagalog bániladhering dirt on neck
Ngaju Dayak han-errepugnant odor of fish, frogs or blood
Malagasy lánysmell, stench
Malagasy mányfetid, rank. Used only of the odor from human beings who are filthy
Malay (h)an-irfetid, offensive in odor. Of bad meat, rotten meat, putrid water, decaying vegetable matter, etc.
Javanese an-ircloyingly rich-tasting
Mandar man-n-erstench, especially of fish or blood
Makasarese man-n--ereʔstench, especially of fish or blood

The Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese forms are cognate, but probably represent a late innovation in western Indonesia. The resemblance of the Tagalog and Malagasy forms to these is assumed to be a product of chance, and although the South Sulawesi forms appear to be cognate, they point to an etymon with penultimate *e, and so do not permit a clear-cut reconstruction.

step

OC
Mota auto step, move on the feet
CMP
Ngadha aurungs of a ladder; be in steps one over the other

step:   step onto

WMP
Tiruray ʔendaʔstep onto something
Tae' endaʔladder

(Dempwolff: *liŋaw ‘still, calm’)

still:   still, calm

WMP
Tagalog liŋáwbewildered, confused
Ngaju Dayak la-liŋawsorrowful, mournful
Malagasy ha-dinuforgotten
Toba Batak liŋounclear sound
OC
Tongan liŋo-liŋoabsolutely calm
Samoan liŋo-liŋo-abe hushed, silent

This probably is best treated as a collected of unrelated forms until such time as better comparative data is available. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronessisch *liŋaw ‘still, calm’ (Stillsein).

stink

WMP
Sasak beŋesstink badly
CMP
Manggarai beŋasrotten, pungent (of an odor)
Manggarai beŋisbegin to smell, rotten (of meat)
Manggarai beŋusrotten (of smell)

stink

WMP
Malay bau beŋubeginning to smell badly, e.g. of a carcass
CMP
Ngadha beŋuto reek, stink

Chance. Ngadha beŋu probably is connected with Manggarai beŋur 'odor of something rotten', beŋus 'rotten (of smell)' or beŋut 'somewhat rotten (of a gourd, etc.).

stink

WMP
Kankanaey beŋáegstink, smell bad
Bikol baʔŋógthe smell of dung or excrement; the smell of mud containing rotten wood, leaves

stir up a fire

WMP
Tagalog kahigstir up a fire
Malagasy hayburning (a word not used alone, but in compounds)

Dempwolff (1938) cites this comparison, but I find nothing like the Tagalog form in any modern dictionary of the language (it is more likely to be káhig ‘scratch up the soil, as a fowl’). Zorc (1971) cites this for PPh with the meaning ‘fire’, but so far as I have been able to determine it is entirely without support.

stocky:   stout, stocky

WMP
Ilokano bekbékthickset, stocky, stout
Balinese begbegstout, stocky (person)

stomach

WMP
Mentawai baGastomach
CMP
Manggarai barastomach
OC
Tanga balbelly, abdomen
Label balastomach
Tolai bala-stomach, belly, abdomen, entrails
PW-or-TS
PRuk baraŋəbelly

The New Ireland forms are related; their resemblance to the similar items in Taiwan

stop:   stop, cease

WMP
Toba Batak ontokseal up, stop flowing
Bare'e ontostop, stay still, remain

stop:   stop, of the wind

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat enébfor the wind to stop
Balinese enapcease, fall (wind), leave off

stop:   stop for

WMP
Aklanon hápitstop for, pick up (when on one's way)
Manobo (Sarangani) apitstop at a place for a short while, fetch something in passing
Malagasy afitrastopped, hindered, impeded
Manobo (Dibabawon) hapitstop somewhere along the way

Chance. For the source of Malagasy áfitra cf. *ampet.

(Dempwolff: *tuli ‘to moor; stop by to visit’)

stop by:   stop by, to moor a boat

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tulistop, stay still
Ngaju Dayak tali-anlanding place, place where a boat is moored
Malagasy túdiretaliation, requital; return, approaching
Toba Batak tulivisit, call on someone when passing by

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Urindonesisch’ *tuli ‘to moor; stop by to visit’ (Einkehren, Anlegen).

stout:   stout, stocky

WMP
Ilokano bekbékthickset, stocky, stout
Balinese begbegstout, stocky (person)

(Dempwolff: *eneb 'settle, clear, of liquids')

stratum:   layer, stratum

WMP
Isneg annāplayer, stratum, bed (e.g. the leaves that cover the bottom of the hearth, etc.)
Malay enaptailings, alluvial deposit
Old Javanese enebthat which has settled on the bottom

stream:   stream, pour

WMP
Old Javanese barabasstreaming
Javanese brabasporous, seep out
Makasarese barabasaʔsuddenly fall down in a mass (fruits, leaves, rain)

(Dempwolff: *panca(rR) ‘stream of water’)

stream of water

WMP
Isneg pásagurine
Isneg ma-másagto urinate, to make water
Malay pancargushing out; issue; emanation (of a man’s issue or descendants, the flash of lightning, the ooze of honey from a hive, the brains being dashed out of a man’s head, the soul as an emanation of the Primal Light

On the basis of the Malay and Malagasy forms Dempwolff (1938) proposed *panca(rR) ‘stream of water’ (Wasserstrahl), but until a better comparison is available this one, even with the addition of Isneg pásag, is best treated as a product of convergence.

stretch:   obstruct, stretch across

WMP
Tae' pampaŋtransverse, stretched across the breadth of
CMP
Manggarai pampaŋobstruct, restrain, hinder, prevent; separate (as two people who are fighting)

(Dempwolff: *kuju(r) ‘stretch out’)

stretch out

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kujohan elongated heap
Old Javanese kujura measure (pile) or bar of cake-shaped objects
Javanese kojorpiled up bars or bar-shaped objects

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kuju(r) ‘stretch out’, but there is little to distinguish this from a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *seba(r) ‘disseminate, strew around’)

strew around:   disseminate, strew around

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sawarscattered, of seeds that are planted in the holes made with a dibble stick
Malay me-ñəbarto sow
Malay səbar-anseed
Javanese ñəbarto spread, scatter; to distribute
Javanese sebar-andistributed, spread about
OC
Fijian covapour out

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *seba(r) ‘disseminate, strew around’, but plausible cognates are found only in western Indonesia, where they may be borrowings from Malay. Fijian cova does not appear in Capell (1968).

strike:   collide, hit, strike

WMP
Hiligaynon hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) atukkill a bird or chicken by piercing it with a needle or other small sharp instrument
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atognoise of knocking
Malay antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding
Toba Batak antukclub, heavy piece of wood with which one strikes
Toba Batak antuh-antukclub
Toba Batak maŋ-antukto hit; bump against

The Philippine forms are unrelated to those in western Indonesia. Of the latter only Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) and Malay, or Malay and the Batak languages permit a comparison, and this cannot safely be attributed to PWMP.

string:   to string fish, etc.

OC
Nggela itu-itua stick or string for stringing fish
Gilbertese itu, itututo sew, to thread (beads, fish)

Chance. Gilbertese itu may be cognate with Motu Jituri 'a string of fish' (< POc *i-tuRi 'instrument for stringing'), but this interpretation cannot be applied to Nggela itu-itu.

stripe

OC
Roviana voloso-naa boundary
Roviana volos-iato bound
Roviana volo-volosolines, stripes
Fijian voloa small striped fish

stroke:   stroke (as in swimming)

OC
Label par, pa-parto swim
'Āre'āre haraspread, of the arms; stretch; to stroke
Hawaiian halomotion of hands in swimming

(Dempwolff: *kaDus ‘stroke, scratch’)

stroke:   stroke scratch

WMP
Tagalog kálosstrickle; grain leveller used when measuring grain
Tagalog mag-kálosto level grains with a strickle
OC
Fijian karo-karorough to the touch, of skin, as with prickly heat

Dempwolff posited *kaDus ‘stroke, scratch’ based on these two forms, which appear to have no connection with one another.

strong tasting

WMP
Tagalog sáhaŋthe strength of alcoholic drinks
Ngaju Dayak sahaŋSpanish pepper, much used by the Dayaks as both food and medicine; there are various kinds of sahaŋ
Banjarese sahaŋpepper
Malay sahaŋpepper

Proposed by Dempwolff (1938) as ‘sharp tasting’. The Ngaju Dayak form probably is borrowed from Banjarese, and the similarity of these to the Tagalog word is best attributed to chance.

stupid

WMP
Aklanon búŋogfool, stupid fellow, jerk
Mansaka boŋostupid
Ngaju Dayak ba-bodostupid
Malagasy bodoinfantile, childish, young, simple; in one's dotage
Old Javanese boŋohact foolishly
Javanese boŋohpleased, delighted

(Dempwolff: *utu)

stupid

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat utú-utúcrazy, mentally retarded
Tagalog utúʔ-utóʔsimpleton
Aklanon ótoʔ-ótoʔtake advantage of, play for a fool
Toba Batak otostupid, dumb, foolish, witless
Javanese utubeginner, novice, neophyte
Chamorro ududumb, mute, speechless

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su

(Dempwolff: *laru ‘substance used to purify fermenting liquids’)

substance used in fermenting palm wine

WMP
Malagasy larua tree, the juice of which mixed with the Sakalava use as a fish poison; it yields a kind of India-rubber
Malay laruingredient to prevent or retard fermentation in toddy
Toba Batak rarua tree whose bitter bark is used to make palm wine intoxicating: Peltophorumferrugineum Benth.
Javanese laruto produce charcoal by permitting wood to smoulder for three days in a covered pit

Apart from Toba Batak raru, which probably is a Malay loanword, the other forms cited here appear to show a similarity to one another that is due to chance. Dempwolfff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *laru ‘substance used to purify fermenting liquids’ (Mittel zum Klären gärender Flüssigkeiten).

suck

WMP
Manobo (Dibabawon) sumsumto suck
OC
Maxbaxo -čumčumw-ito suck
Mae sum-ito suck

suck

Formosan
Paiwan tjiptjipto suck
OC
Hiw titto suck
Northeast Ambae titito suck

Probably a convergent development.

suffix:   numeral suffix

OC
Bugotu -isuffix forming ordinals
Fijian iparticle postposed to numerals to form distributives

sun:   day, sun, light

WMP
Simalur balal, falalday, sun
Nias baladay
Mongondow bayaglight, radiance
OC
Molima valasun(light), day(light)

Chance. Kähler (1961) cites this comparison, but Mongondow y can only reflect *d, *r, or *y, none of which are regular sources of Simalur, Nias -l-.

(Dempwolff: *ampu)

support:   support from below

WMP
Malay ampuholding up from below, esp. in the up-turned palms of the hand
Karo Batak ampuhold in the lap
Toba Batak ampuhold or take in the lap

supposition

WMP
Tagalog hákaʔsupposition, idea, notion; suspicion
Iban eŋkaperhaps, in case, on the chance that, supposing

suspect:   guess, suspect

WMP
Tiruray ʔantukto guess
Karo Batak atekpresume, suspect; be of the opinion

suspend:   suspend from poles

OC
Lakalai balasuspend from a pole, hang between posts (as a pig)
Eddystone/Mandegusu palapole
Nggela mbalambalalong poles on which the kokopa (ridgepole) rests

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sw

swallow:   to swallow

WMP
Madurese ellekto swallow
Sangir elluʔto swallow

sway

WMP
Ifugaw buyyóŋearthquake
Hanunóo búyuŋunwinding, spiraling, going around and around, specifically the unwinding of lengths of yarn from a horizontal yarn reel
Hanunóo buyúŋ-ana four-spoked, horizontal yarn reel
Aklanon búyoŋspin, turn round and round, go in circles
Cebuano búyuŋbecome dizzy
Malay boyoŋswaying
Old Javanese wuyuŋdisturbance of one's inner peace; anger, bad temper, crossness
Makasarese boyoŋsway gently back and forth

Makasarese boyoŋ appears to be a loan from Malay. The resemblance of the other forms both to this word and to one another is regarded as a product of chance, although the sequence -VyV- is known to be symbolic of swinging or swaying movement in other morphemes (Blust 1988:57-58).

(Dempwolff: *bayaŋ ‘sway’)

sway

WMP
Ngaju Dayak bayaŋspinning top
Malay bayaŋvague outline, shadow
Javanese bayaŋcarry on a stretcher

Based on this set of data Dempwolff posited *bayaŋ ‘sway’, but the resemblance between these forms is best attributed to chance. As noted in Blust (1988:57-58), medial –y- is common in morphemes meaning ‘swing, sway, vacillate’ and the like.

sway:   sway, move

WMP
Kayan me-gioʔto sway in walking
Kayan me-giohto sway, as a tall tree in the wind
Old Javanese giyuhmoving to and fro, shaking
Makasarese gioʔmovement, the way that one moves in walking, manner of doing something, way of acting

sweep:   sweep away

WMP
Pangasinan palísburn weeds in a seedbed or other piece of land
Kapampangan palísbroom
Tagalog pálisleveler; straight-edged tool for leveling grains to the mouth of measuring devices; sweeping off or away
CMP
Rotinese haliwipe off, wipe away, rub away, brush away (esp. of tears, but also of dirt)

swimming:   stroke (as in swimming)

OC
Label par, pa-parto swim
'Āre'āre haraspread, of the arms; stretch; to stroke
Hawaiian halomotion of hands in swimming

swing:   swing, wave

WMP
Hanunóo biyáwswinging afar
Iban biauwave about, wave to someone; wave a fowl over a person or thing as a minor rite

swollen

WMP
Karo Batak besarswollen, puffed up; important (only in tuan besar 'important man', from Malay)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak besarswell, swollen, of the skin or other body parts
Toba Batak bosarrash, skin eruption, eczema
Old Javanese besehswollen
Balinese besehswell (parts of the body); swollenness.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_s.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-s