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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

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t   

te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

tadpole

WMP
Aklanon butóttadpole (baby frog)
Karo Batak buntatfrog eggs

take:   take, bring

WMP
PMin indotake, get, fetch
CMP
Ngadha idhobring, lead

take:   take with fingers

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ovicarry, convey, bear, bring, take along
CMP
Ngadha evipinch, scratch with the fingers
Ngadha vitake with the hand

take with hand

Formosan
Amis kahotto take in one’s hands; a handful
WMP
Ilokano kahútto take contents out of an empty opening
Ilokano kahut-énto stick in one’s hands in order to take out what is inside

(Dempwolff: *anzaŋ)

tall

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tanjaŋstature, figure (said of people)
Malagasy andzanaimpressive in form
Bahasa Indonesia anjaŋlong, tall (abbreviation of panjaŋ)
Bahasa Indonesia lanjaŋlong and thin
Toba Batak ganjaŋlong, tall

Through a number of arbitrary morpheme cuts, proposed to isolate *anzaŋ as a doublet of *panzaŋ 'long, tall'. However, the forms cited here, together with Kelabit kadaŋ 'long', Lampung tijjaŋ 'long' suggest a collection of non-cognate forms related by a common monosyllabic 'root' (Blust 1988).

taro

SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai ettaro
OC
Kosraean ohttaro variety
Marshallese wōttaro: Alocasia
Pohnpeian ohdtaro
Chuukese woottaro
Puluwat wootColocasia taro

The resemblance of Kowiai/Koiwai et to the Micronesian forms cited here is attributed to chance.

taro

CMP
Erai hutia tuberous plant: Colocasia
OC
'Āre'āre huia taro
Sa'a huitaro, Caladium esculentum, dry ground taro only
Arosi huitaro in an early stage; a species of taro

taro:   taro sp.

WMP
Gorontalo hutihukind of taro which is dangerous to eat, as it is poisonous
Wolio butikind of taro with very big leaves: Colocasia esculentum
OC
'Āre'āre huia taro
Sa'a huitaro, Caladium esculentum, dry ground taro only
Arosi huitaro in an early stage; a species of taro
Formosan
Puyuma vuHiRtaro

taut:   tight, taut

OC
Arosi harorotight, taut, of line
Tongan faostretch tight, make taut

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

te

tear:   tear, rip

WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) bidaŋtear, rip
CMP
Buruese bida-hcracked, sprouted; cracked open, as a newly sprouted seed
Buruese fida-hbreak open
Ngadha bizatear up, rip to pieces
Ngadha bhizatorn (as clothing), broken to pieces (as a pot)

tear:   split tear

WMP
Iban siraŋcleft, gash; division, partition, section; divide in sections, cut lengthwise
Iban siraŋ buritcleft between buttocks
Iban siraŋ tunjokhollow between fingers
OC
Tolai irto split, splice, esp. of small things
Roviana sirato tear cloth
Mota sirto shave, cut close

The Oceanic members of this comparison may be related, but until better evidence is available the resemblance between all of these forms is treated as a product of convergence.

(Dempwolff: *tes ‘to tear’)

tear:   to tear

WMP
Toba Batak tostorn, of thread
Toba Batak ma-tosto be torn
Sundanese təsonomatopoetic for the sound of snapping or breaking of small or thin objects
OC
Tongan toh-ito split (a leaf, usually a pandanus leaf), with a sharp shell
Samoan tos-ito score or scratch

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tes ‘to tear’.

teeth:   show the teeth

SHWNG
Numfor isshow the teeth
OC
Gedaged isissmile, grin (draw the lips away from the teeth)
Takia isisismile, grin

tell:   say, tell

WMP
Kelabit balanews, fame; say, tell
CMP
Leti walaspeak, talk, say
OC
Gilbertese banavoice, speech, words, recommendations

tell

WMP
Kankanaey béŋareported; told; related; announced; declared; proclaimed; published; promulgated; made known; heralded
CMP
Rotinese beŋainform, explain, speak; voice, speech, word

(Dempwolff: *simbat ‘temporary aid’)

temporary aid

WMP
Toba Batak sembatcompensation in lieu of the payment of a debt
Javanese di-simbatone asks, for example, to borrow a portion of something (as assistance); one temporarily joins in to work with others (Pigeaud 1938)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *simbat ‘temporary aid’, but there is little evidence for this form apart from the two languages that he used as support, and the first vowel of the Toba Batak form is irregular. Although borrowing from Javanese into Toba Batak without passing through the medium of Malay is virtually unknown, it seems best to treat this as a loan distribution pending the collection of a more convincing cognate set.

ten:   ten, in counting certain objects

OC
Tolai baratten, used of birds and their eggs, and sometimes pigs
Nggela mbalaten bunches of fruit
Arosi haraten, of bananas

(Dempwolff: *lemuk ‘weak’)

tender:   tender, weak

WMP
Malagasy lémukahaving the upper lip sunk in
Malay ləmukmild (of water)
Toba Batak lomukweak, tender

Malay lemuk, cited by Dempwolff, does not appear in any source I have been able to consult. The remaining part of this comparison is best considered unconnected. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *lemuk ‘weak’.

tense:   past tense marker

WMP
Sasak iparticle of past time
Sasak i terbinyesterday
OC
'Āre'āre ipast participle ending
'Āre'āre houraʔ-ishown
Rarotongan iparticle used with verbs or adjectives in forming indefinite past tenses or aorists; when used before the verb it is coupled with and after the verb
Hawaiian iparticle and clitic preceding subordinate verbs and marking completed or past action and state or condition; sometimes the linking ai follows the verb or verb phrase
Formosan
Amis iparticle indicating time past
Paiwan sibelonging to a certain time in the past

Apparently reconstructible for PCEP. The Paiwan and Amis forms disagree in pointing to *Si and *i respectively. I take the resemblance of PCEP *i to all other forms cited here as a product of chance.

term:   term of address for females

WMP
Cebuano íaʔterm of address for older women
Iban iakterm of address for girls
OC
Tolai iaprefix used before names of females
CMP
Ngadha ioterm of address between women

term:   term of address for girls

WMP
Sundanese enofriendly term for young girls ( = enod)
CMP
Manggarai enuMiss, term of address for a girl if one does not know her name (endu)

textile:   textile pattern

WMP
Bontok balíkind of basket weave, having a spiraling or coiling pattern
Iban bali belantan bali belumpoŋpatterns or kinds of ritual cloth

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

th

that:   provided that, in spite of

WMP
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atasas long as, provided that
Javanese atasin spite of the fact that

that:   so, so that

WMP
Tagalog paláso, so then
CMP
Manggarai palaso that, in order to

that

WMP
Manobo (Dibabawon) suyaʔthat (2p, 3p)
Formosan
Thao huyathat
WMP
Kallahan (Kayapa) huyaʔthis

The KALL and Manobo (Dibabawon) forms reflect earlier *suyaq. The similarity of Thao huya to these words is attributed to chance.

that

WMP
Mamanwa warothat (3p)
Lawangan aruhthat

that:   that, there

OC
Motu unathat (third person)
'Āre'āre ūnaa demonstrative, thus, so, like that, that way, referring to something that has been said; locative: here
'Āre'āre ʔūnaover there, there, yonder

that:   that, this

WMP
Pangasinan sáyathis
Formosan
Bunun (Isbukun) sayathat

Chance. These forms may each contain a reflex of *ia '3sg.'.

(Dempwolff: *ikut 'theft')

theft

WMP
Tagalog ikóttheft
Javanese ikutappropriate illegally to oneself

Chance. Dempwolff (1934-38) cites this comparison under *ikut 'theft', but I have been unable to find the Tagalog form, and for Javanese I find only ikut 'take away'.

there:   that, there

OC
Motu unathat (third person)
'Āre'āre ūnaa demonstrative, thus, so, like that, that way, referring to something that has been said; locative: here
'Āre'āre ʔūnaover there, there, yonder

thirsty

WMP
Iban austhirst, thirsty
Malay hausthirst
Balinese awusthirsty
Sasak austhirsty
Formosan
Puyuma Hauthirsty

The Iban and Malay forms are cognate; the Balinese and Sasak forms probably are Malay loans, and the similarity of Puyuma Hau to all of these is a product of chance.

this:   that, this

WMP
Pangasinan sáyathis
Formosan
Bunun (Isbukun) sayathat

Chance. These forms may each contain a reflex of *ia '3sg.'.

this:   this, proximal deictic

Formosan
Amis tonathese (unnamed) people
WMP
Bontok tunathis person, near speaker (opp. to that person, away from speaker)

throat:   neck, throat

OC
Lakalai bolo-laneck
Kwaio onothroat, neck
CMP
Kamarian enuneck
OC
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka odo-nahis throat

Chance. Although LAKA bolo- and Kwaio ono could reflect POc *ciono-, the Kwaio form appears to reflect *tonom 'to swallow' (cf. onom-anal 'throat, necḱ, onom-ia 'swallow').

throaty:   throaty sound

WMP
Tae' idusob
Tae' iʔduksound of a frog
CMP
Manggarai irukgrumble (stomach)

Tae' iʔduk and Manggarai iruk/ may contain a variant of the root *-dek 'hiccough, sob'. Whether this turns out to be the case or not, the similarity of these forms is best attributed to convergence.

throng:   crowd, throng

WMP
Makasarese baluluŋgo in crowds (as a herd of goats)
OC
Arosi haruruclose together, of a number of things (cf. ruru 'call together, come together')

throw

CMP
Tetun firuthrow away, cast away
Tetun firu-na sling
Ngadha biruthrow, fling; strike with a stick; catch in a trap, lasso, etc.

throw:   throw down

WMP
Maranao ampasdrop, fall down
Maranao ampas-ampasshake off all or most of the fruit of a tree to the ground
Malay hempasdashing down, hurling against. Of a man flinging down a burden, flinging himself down, slamming a door, etc.
Minangkabau ampasdashing down

thump:   hit, thump

WMP
Kankanaey abebékthump, bump, plunge. Sound of something heavy that strikes the water
Sundanese habekhit, beat

Chance (based on a common root *-bek 'sound of breaking, etc.').

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

ti

tie:   tie a knot

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) oluʔto knot, make a knot in
Muna gholutie a knot
Formosan
Paiwan selutstie in a knot

tight:   tight, taut

OC
Arosi harorotight, taut, of line
Tongan faostretch tight, make taut

(Dempwolff: *saka ‘to till the soil’)

till the soil:   till the soil

WMP
Tagalog sákafarming, raising crops
Ngaju Dayak sakasmall ditches from a river leading onto the land
Malagasy sahathe country, out of town; an orchard
OC
Fijian cakato do, make, work

Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) positted *saka ‘to till the soil’. However, this reconstruction has multiple problems, and the similarity of the forms compared now seems best attributed to chance. English (1986) gives Tagalog sáka as a borrowing of Spanish saca ‘taking out, extraction; exportation’, which seems equally questionable, but none of the other meanings appear to be connected in any obvious way.

tin

WMP
Toba Batak batu burostone from which a white dyestuff is extracted
Mentawai bulawwhite; white dye; tin
CMP
Ngadha bhuratin; wide armband of tin

(Dempwolff: *zuru ‘point, tip’)

tip:   point, tip

WMP
Tagalog dúloend, terminal, extremity; result; boundary; tip, end, point
Ngaju Dayak juru ~ johohaughtiness, arrogance
Malagasy mi-duru-duruto be very high, as the masts of a ship
Malay pen-jurucorner

Dempwolff proposed *zuru ‘point, tip’ (dbl. *duRu ‘corner’), and included such semantically divergent forms as Malay juru ‘trained worker (at some occupation other than a handicraft)’ and Javanese juru ‘person who performs a certain [skilled] job’, under the general gloss ‘master’ (also cf. Old Javanese juru ‘head, leader, chief (of a division, military or administrative; of a group or trade); tradesman, trained worker’). The entire collection seems extremely forced, and is best abandoned as ill-conceived.

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

to

together:   close together

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ezekplant something close together, generally using a dibble stick to make the holes
CMP
Manggarai edekpressed close together, stuffed

together:   dense, close together

WMP
Kankanaey balídclose-woven
Formosan
Paiwan validthick (forest), dense, closely planted

topsy-turvy

WMP
Karo Batak burbartopsy-turvy, helter-skelter, in a jumble (as a heap of stones); confused, run in every direction, as tree roots
Toba Batak burburcrash or cave in, of earth
Balinese burburscatter, throw down in confusion
Balinese burbur-anconfusion, dispersion

(Dempwolff: *ines)

torture

WMP
Tagalog inísasphyxia; disgust, exasperation
Malay pekoŋ inascarbuncle on neck
Javanese enesdeeply grieved
OC
Tongan inopoise oneself for attack, hold fists or spear, etc. as if about to attack
Samoan ʔinoʔinofeel disgust (at), have revulsion (for); disgust; hate, hatred; contempt

Chance. This comparison is an intriguing example of how a spurious etymology can be manufactured and perpetuated by competent comparative linguists despite a telling lack of credentials. Dempwolff (1938) glossed the Tagalog form 'tortured' and the Tongan form 'torture'. Although he rejected the phonologically irregular Samoan form, Dyen (1953) otherwise accepted Dempwolff's comparison unchanged, including his glosses for Tagalog inís and Tongan ino. Neither Dempwolff's own sources (Laktaw 1914 for Tagalog, Colomb 1890 for Tongan) nor reliable alternatives of more recent date (Panganiban 1973 for Tagalog, Churchward 1959 for Tongan), however, support the discrepant glosses cited in Dempwolff (1934-38).

toward:   harbor bad feelings toward

WMP
Sangir antaŋto suspect, as someone of having committed a theft
CMP
Fordata ataŋjealous of

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

tr

trap:   animal trap

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) attibset a rat or mouse trap; catch a rat or mouse in a trap
Simalungun Batak atip-atipanimal trap

(Dempwolff: *seru ‘trap’)

trap

WMP
Tagalog síloɁloop; the shape of a curved string, ribbon or bent wire that crosses itself; noose; loop with a slipknot that tightens as the string or rope is pulled
Toba Batak sorua rat trap, consisting of a noose suspended from a springy bamboo
Javanese seroa certain type of barred fish trap

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *seru ‘trap’. However, Tagalog síloɁ reflects PPh *siluq ‘noose, snare; net, and is therefore phonologically incompatible with the other forms in this comparison, which are also phonologically incompatible with one another.

tray

WMP
Isneg biláorectangular box made from a single piece of bark and used for carrying the honeycomb, when gathering honey
Casiguran Dumagat bílaotype of woven tray or wide shallow basket (used for winnowing rice)
Tagalog biláocircular shallow basket-tray made of split bamboo

Casiguran Dumagat bílao probably is a Tagalog loan. The resemblance of the Isneg word to these forms is attributed to chance.

tree:   palm tree sp.

SHWNG
Buli balia palm: Oncosperma spp.
OC
'Āre'āre pariparipalm tree sp.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Hanunóo ʔabaŋʔábaŋa tree (Oroxylum indicum (Linn.) Vent.); the leaves are used as a plaster in treating boils and other swollen body parts
Karo Batak abaŋ abaŋtree with large leguminous fruits which contain very light winged seeds
Toba Batak abaŋ abaŋtree sp.
Makasarese ababaŋkind of tree: Colbertia
.
MUR abaŋilipe nut

Chance. For the etymology of the Batak forms cf. *qabaŋ qabaŋ 'float'.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ataptree sp.
Sundanese hantaptimber tree

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Ilokano ayam-ayammiddle-sized tree with leaves violet at the back; the latter are used in medicine
Old Javanese kayu hayam-hayam-ankind of tree?

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Malay balatree sp.: Memecylon myrsinoides
Simalur bala-falatree sp.
Toba Batak si-balatree with weak, worthless wood
OC
Lau balatree sp.: Evodia Elleryana
CMP
Ngadha valatree sp.

Chance, Ngadha vala is assumed to be cognate with Manggarai balak 'tree sp.: Scindapsis, Rhaphidophora'.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Malay balak tioŋa tree: Pachychlamys sp.
CMP
Manggarai balaktree spp.: Scindapsis, Rhaphidophora
Rembong balaktree sp.: Pithecellobium angulatum

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) beletiʔtree of riverbanks yielding a tart fruit
Tagalog balíteʔa tree like a fig tree with which are associated certain folkloric superstitions
Kenyah beletéʔfruit (rambutan)
Bare'e belantetree sp,
Tae' bilantetree with broad heart-shaped leaves: Homalanthus populneus

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Hanunóo banáytree sp.
Simalur banæLombok pepper tree

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Ilokano baníPongamia mitis (L.) Merr. A tall leguminous tree with woody, oblong pods ... The bark and leaves of this tree are used to cure cough
Kapampangan baniwell-known tree
Malay banian epiphytic creeper: Dischidia rafflesiana
Bare'e banitree with very hard wood used in house construction
OC
Motu bania shrub: Salonum verbascifolium

tree:   tree sp.

OC
Lakalai balaa tree: Intsia bijuga. Its wood is used to make slit-gongs
Gedaged baza tree: Erythrina variegata. It grows quickly and gives much shade, sheds its leaves and during that time has bright red flowers
Gitua barama tree: Erythrina indica
Lau balaa tree: Evodia Elleryana

The forms in Gedaged and Gitua are cognate. The similarity of these words to those in LAKA and Lau is attributed to chance.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Itbayaten vinwa
Formosan
Paiwan vilʸuaqOreopanax formosanus, Hibiscus mutabilis
Paiwan maru-vilʸuaqPawlonia fortunei tree sp.: Homalanthus; forest tree with green fruit: Macaranga tanarius Linn.; tree with greenish flower and very sticky sap used as paste: Hernandia ovigera Linn. tree sp.
PSF
PSF biLuaqHibiscus tiliaceus (Tsuchida 1976:170)

tree:   tree sp.

CMP
Hawu ɓoatree which is common along the shore
Rotinese boamangrove which grows along the beaches
OC
Tolai buaspecies of vine, Wedelia biflora, with yellow flowers, common in thickets near the beach
'Āre'āre pua-puaa palm tree, used for bows for children
Arosi buaa-buawild betel nut; species of tree with white flowers and large leaves
Rotuman puatree bearing white flowers: the frangipani or Plumeria acutifolia
Fijian buaname of two sorts of tree: (1) a tree with beautiful flowers and very hard wood, used for scent, perfume: Fagraea berteriana, Potaliaceae, (2) an imported tree with odoriferous white flowers: Plumeria acutifolia, Apocynaceae
Tongan puakind of tree bearing white flowers with yellowish centers, frangipani
Niue puaa tree: Fagraea berteriana
Niue pua likibanyan tree: Ficus prolixa and Ficus obliqua
Samoan puasmall tree with fragrant flowers (Gardenia sp.)
Samoan pua fitismall tree, the frangipani: Plumeria sp.
Samoan pua-luluforest tree with scented flowers: Fagraea sp.
Nukuoro buatree sp.: Guettarda speciosa L.
Rennellese puaa tree that sometimes grows on hetaʔu trees; its fragrant flowers are used in leis; its leaves and flowers resemble those of plumeria
Rennellese pua ʔatuaplant with small yellow flowers: Fagraea berteriana
Rennellese pua-banoa large tree: Guettarda speciosa L.
Tuvaluan puatree sp.: Guettarda speciosa
Kapingamarangi buaplant sp.: Guettarda speciosa

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Malay bolia tree: Oroxylum indicum
Bare'e wulia tree whose roots, bark and wood chips are used to make palm wine bitter, and to prevent souring: Bridelia minutiflora
Tae' bulia tree with red wood that is very useful in house construction, and bast fiber used to make palm wine bitter and to color it red: Bridelia minutiflora
Buginese bulikind of plant
Makasarese bulimake bitter and strong, of sago starch
Makasarese paʔ-bulisubstance used to make sago starch bitter and strong, namely the bast fiber of certain trees
Wolio bulikind of mangrove tree
CMP
Rotinese fuli-haʔatree sp.
Buruese fulia tree, the 'pule' of Ambon
OC
Kwaio fuli-fulitree with heavy, sweet pith fed to pigs

The Sulawesian forms from Bare'e to Wolio are assumed to form one geographically and genetically restricted cognate set. The resemblance of the members of this set to the other forms cited here is attributed to chance.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Iban buastree of Vitex sp.
Malay buasa tree: Premna spp.
Sangir buaseʔsmall tree or shrub the sap of which causes itching

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Simalur bufftree sp.
Bare'e bubia tree which yields bast that is chewed with the sirih: Artocarpus dasyphylla

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Ilokano burbúrfur, pile, shag; moth (nocturnal or crepuscular)
Ilokano burbúr-ankind of spaniel, poodle or pekinese dog with long, thick hair, generally wavy or curly
Ilokano b-in-urbúr-ankind of nappy cotton cloth
Isneg bugbúgkind of forest tree
Tagalog búboywhite silk cotton tree producing stuffing cotton known as kapok
Hanunóo buybúykapok tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn.
Aklanon búybuycotton tree, used for stuffing pillows and mattresses: Ceiba pentandra L.
PSan bubuRkapok
Sangir buwuheʔkapok
CMP
Ngadha vuvutree sp.

It is tempting to consider Hanunóo buybúy a loan from one of the languages of northern Mindoro, and so recognize a PPh *buRbuR 'silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra'. However, this hypothesis fails to account for the appearance of a palatal glide in the Tagalog and Aklanon words without an implausible extension of the hypothesis to include these languages. The comparison thus appears to be a product of chance.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Wolio bulakind of fruit tree: Phyllanthus emblica
OC
Tongan pulakind of tree, leaves velvety grey; flowers, mauve; fruit, round, borne in small bunches, inedible: Solanum sp.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Makasarese buʔbuluʔkind of tree with edible fruit, somewhat like those of the katondeŋ Vitex cofassus)
CMP
Manggarai bubulkind of forest tree the bark of which is used as a topical medicine
Tetun bubul, bubura tree of the Eucalyptus family
OC
Gedaged bubultree with white sap; the fruit is eaten by cassowaries and pigs

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Isneg buʔbúʔa forest tree whose white flowers are much frequented by bees
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) buʔbuʔTall, slender palm, probably of the genus Pinanga. Its fruit is used as a substitute for Areca catechu in the betel chew
Malay saba bubutree sp.
Nias fa-muwukind of tree (cited under bubu)
Buginese bubukind of plant
CMP
Bimanese wuwukind of banyan tree
Manggarai bumbukind of citrus tree with oblong fruit the size of a human forearm that can be eaten with the skin on
Ngadha vuvutree sp.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Ilokano búithe plant yielding Manila hemp
Isneg buʔíkind of wild banana. Its edible fruits contain only a few scattered seeds
Malay bui, buhia tree, Diospyros sp.; a climber, Roucheria griffithiana

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Bontok ʔənə́pan erect, medium-sized tree with edible fruit: Bridelia glauca B1. (Euphorbiac.)
CMP
Manggarai eneptree the bark of which is used as an ingredient in palm toddy: Peltophorum pterocarpum
Ngadha enétree sp.

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Tiruray ʔitila tree: Kingiodendron alternifoliolum (Merr.)
Mongondow insila tree: Trema orientale

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Iban belahvarious trees: Ixora spp.
Toba Batak si-boláa tree with five-lobed red leaves
Formosan
Paiwan lʸa-vela-velaqa tree: Cyperus cyperinus

tree:   tree sp.

WMP
Javanese wunitree sp.; the tart fruits that grow in clusters on this tree
CMP
Rotinese bunihardwood tree the leaves of which are used as medicine in treating ringworm
OC
Tolai bunia littoral, spreading tree, Calophyllum inophyllum. Timber red and very useful. The curved branches are used for canoe-ribs and for ships
Eddystone/Mandegusu buniplant sp.
Rotuman huniflowering bush with dark green leaves, petioles often reddish. Fruit about the size of marbles

tree:   tree sp.: Barringtonia

OC
Gitua palaŋazitree with edible seed: Barringtonia Procera
Niue falaŋaitree sp.: Barringtonia samoensis

tree:   tree sp.: Erythrina indica

WMP
Ilokano bagbafgErythrina indica Lam
OC
Label balbala tree: Erythrina indica
Gedaged baza tree: Erythrina variegata
Gitua barama tree: Erythrina indica

Gedaged baz, Gitua baram 'k.o. tree: Erythrina indica' probably are cognate. The similarity of these to the other forms cited here is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *bulus)

trees:   bare, of trees

WMP
Ngaju Dayak bulusbare part of a tree stem from the base to the first branches; more particularly the trunks of palm trees
Malay bolosstripped (of hair, leaves, feathers, etc.); fallen off (of a string-winding or wrapping); bare; bald; leafless; (fig.) left desolate

Chance, or borrowing from Malay.

tremble

WMP
Sasak bibittremble, shake (from fear or impatience)
CMP
Bimanese βiβitremble from fear

Chance. Bimanese βiβi probably reflects *berber or *birbir.

(Dempwolff: *luRuq ‘to drizzle’)

trickle:   drizzle, trickle

WMP
Tagalog lugoʔdrizzle, trickle
Malay lurohdropping, being shed, esp. of leaves and fruit

Chance. I cannot find a Tagalog word of this shape with the stated meaning in any modern dictionary. Based on these two forms, and Javanese luh ‘tears’, which clearly reflects PAn *luSeq, Dempwolff (1938) nonetheless proposed Uraustronesisch *luRuq ‘to drizzle’.

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tu

(Dempwolff: *buTek)

turbid

WMP
Javanese buṭek(of water) not clear, riled up
CMP
Komodo butéʔturbid, muddy
OC
Fijian butōdark, darkness

KOM butéʔ is assumed to be a Javanese loan. The resemblance of Fijian butō to these forms is attributed to chance.

turn

WMP
Bikol bírikback to front
Bikol mag-bírikturn something (as a doorknob); cause a change in direction
Hanunóo bírikrevolving, twirling of spindle and the spinning of cotton thread
Cebuano bílikturn on its axis, spin something; twist individual strands to be made into rope
Mansaka bilikto turn (as a crank)
CMP
Kambera bilikuto turn (as a horse to the left or right), bend around (as a branch to break it off)

turtle:   turtle sp.

OC
Lau balaturtle sp.
Fijian balathe male turtle; the name refers to the tail or penis

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tw

twin

OC
Tanga iutwo
Sa'a iutwin

twinkle

OC
Nggela iro-iroiridescent
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka notwinkle (star)

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ty

tying:   tying material

WMP
Bikol balakbákwide strips of the abaca or banana stalk used for tying
Madurese balakbaktie or handcuff hands and feet

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-n_t.htm
 


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Noise-Index-t