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Updated: 10/15/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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These are comparisons in which the observed similarity appears too great to attribute to chance, but because of imprecise agreement the reconstruction of a well-defined form is not yet possible. In some cases these may be reflexes of doublets that have not yet been posited, or of morphemes that share a common monosyllabic root. Further comparative work may therefore lead to the transformation of some near comparisons into reconstructions with irregular material added in a note.

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1   

1sg oblique

WMP
Cebuano (SE Bohol) akeʔ1sg oblique
Murut (Kalabakan) ) r-akoʔ1sg oblique
Mongondow koʔi-n-akoʔ1sg oblique

Also Molbog ny-ahiʔ, Lotud j-okiʔ ‘1sg oblique’. The reconstruction of this variant, and *q-final forms of the first person plural inclusive and exclusive oblique pronouns, is based on material provided by Jason Lobel. The reconstruction of all forms of the oblique personal pronouns has benefited from unpublished data provided by Lobel, although they are independently reconstructible without this material.

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a   

arrow

Formosan
Kavalan siwararrow
Saisiyat (Taai) siwaLarrow

Despite the striking similarity of these forms a reconstruction is impossible. In both languages the last four segments could reflect either *iwal or *iwaR. However, Saisiyat s- can reflect only PAn *C-, which became Kavalan t-, and Kavalan s- can reflect only PAn *s or *S, which became Saisiyat h and ʃ respectively, leaving the proto-form in limbo, despite the near certainty that it points to a phonetically similar form in PAn.

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b   

backward:   retreat, move backward

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) endudto back up, walk or move backwards
Malay undurretirement, retreat, falling back

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) endud reflects *endud or *enduD; Malay undur reflects *unduD, *undur, or *unduR.

banana

WMP
Isneg báxatthe banana
Bontok bálatbanana plant: Musa sp.
Ifugaw bálatbanana plant; banana fruit
Nibong balakbanana
Tanjong balatbanana
Bintulu balakbanana
Ukit balakbanana
Kejaman balatbanana
Melanau (Matu) balakbanana
Lara Land Dayak barakbanana
Singhi Land Dayak borakbanana

The forms in northern Luzon reflect *baRat, while Tanjong and Kejaman balat can only come from *balat, and the remaining forms from *balak.

bat sp.

WMP
Ilokano kurarapníta bat
Tagalog kalapnítspecies of small bat
Bikol kulapnítsmall bat species
Cebuano kulaknitkind of edible fruit-eating bat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kelepenitthe smallest local variety of bat

beetle:   rhinoceros beetle

OC
Tabar taburuŋabeetle
Tolai tabururhorn-beetle, the grub of which eats into the heart of coconut and betel-nut palms
Lakalai la-tabuburucoconut beetle (makes a whirring noise); a toy noisemaker
Bugotu tabilolorhinoceros beetle
Nggela tambelulirhinoceros beetle

Osmond (2011:401) uses these and other non-corresponding forms to posit POc *tabuRuRu ‘kind of beetle’. While there clearly is a historical connection between these forms, the sound correspondences fail to agree, and a reconstruction is thus impossible on the basis of known evidence.

biting:   hold by biting carry in the mouth

WMP
Ilokano i-taŋálto carry in the teeth
Isneg ma-naŋálto mouth, put in the mouth, take into the mouth
Bontok ʔi-taŋálto hold between the teeth, as a pipe, or in the beak, as a bird
Ibaloy i-taŋalto put something in the mouth so that a part of it protrudes (as pencil, large camote, thermometer)
Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
Hanunóo mag-taŋágto hold on by biting
Cebuano taŋág, táŋaghold something between the teeth, vise and the like, or on something pointed

black

WMP
Yami vaheŋblack
Yami ma-vaheŋblack
Itbayaten vaeŋidea of blackness
Itbayaten ma-vaeŋblack
Itbayaten om-vaeŋbecome black
Itbayaten ka-vaeŋ-anthe black part of eye, the pupil
Itbayaten pa-vaeŋ-anto render something blacker
Ibatan baheŋblack, dark in color
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) bɨ:lɨŋblack

blacksmithing

WMP
Cebuano salsálforge; pound, hammer out metal that has not been heated
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) salsalto blacksmith; work in metal; to forge
Lun Dayeh aarbamboo bellows used during knife making
Lun Dayeh ŋ-aarto pump air using a bamboo bellows
Kelabit aarbellows
Kelabit n-aarto process of metal toolmaking; the process of using the bellows to pump air in blacksmithing

blind

WMP
Karo Batak pituŋblind
Toba Batak ma-pituŋblind
Toba Batak ma-mituŋto blind someone
Javanese pitoŋblind in one eye (Pigeaud)

blue-black

WMP
Ilongot (Kakiduge:n) bɨlɨŋblack
Kenyah (Long Atun) biləŋblue-green
Kenyah (Long Atun) laŋaw biləŋbluebottle (fly)

body

OC
Seimat tinu-body
Wuvulu inu-skin
Aua inu-body
Tongan sinobody; (of a tree) trunk; (of a ship) hull; to have a body
Niue tinothe body; the flesh; a person; hull of a canoe
Samoan tinobody; limbs
Tuvaluan tinobody; person; champion (before a verb)
Rennellese tinobody; trunk, stem (as of tree or plant); hull, as of canoe; wooden shaft of a spear
Anuta tinobody
Rarotongan tinothe body, the trunk, as distinguished from the limbs; the body, substance, or principal part of a thing
Maori tinoessentiality, self, reality
Hawaiian kinobody, person, individual, self; main portion

The last vowel of the Admiralty forms (Wuvulu, Aua, Seimat) and that of the Polynesian forms fails to agree, thus preventing a reconstruction.

bone:   collar bone (?)

WMP
Malay (Baba) tulaŋ səlaŋkacollar bone
Duri salaŋkajoint (elbow, knee, etc.)
Mandar salakkalower back
Buginese salaŋkashoulder
Makasarese salaŋgashoulder

Mills (1975:813-814) posited Proto-South Sulawesi *salaŋga ‘shoulder(?)’, with the voiced stop preserved in Makasarese, but changed in languages such as Buginese through regular postnasal devoicing. His gloss for both the Buginese and Makasarese forms is ‘breast bone of an animal’, but modern dictionaries give only ‘shoulder’ and verbs based on this noun.

borrow

WMP
Maranao sandaɁmortgage, security, pawn
Maranao sandaɁ-ipawnbroker, pawnshop, pawn, pledge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sandaɁto pawn something; to borrow money leaving some object of value as security
Iban sandaɁgive token price in kind, give goods for later payment in kind; hence lend against repayment of equivalent

breast

WMP
Agutaynen titinipple; breast; udder
Murut (Papar) titiʔbreast
Tombonuwo titiʔbreast
Kelabit itiʔfemale breast

brink:   brink, edge, shore

WMP
Cebuano tampibank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by
Iban tepiedge, margin
Iban tepi-anriver landing or bathing place
Malay təpiedge; brink; shore (as of a river)
Toba Batak topiedge, border
Toba Batak topi aekriver bank
Toba Batak topi lautshore of the sea
Old Javanese təpiedge, border, side
Balinese tepiborder, edge, limit, coast

Also Cebuano taŋpi ‘bank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by’.

bug:   rice bug

WMP
Mansaka tanaŋawkind of insect that eats rice plants
Malay tuŋawblack sand flea (infests fowls and monkeys)
Bare'e oŋofoul-smelling bug that preys on rice

The final syllable is shared, but nothing else.

busy

WMP
Bikol mag-sibótto be busy or occupied
Malay sibokto be busy

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c   

carry:   hold by biting carry in the mouth

WMP
Ilokano i-taŋálto carry in the teeth
Isneg ma-naŋálto mouth, put in the mouth, take into the mouth
Bontok ʔi-taŋálto hold between the teeth, as a pipe, or in the beak, as a bird
Ibaloy i-taŋalto put something in the mouth so that a part of it protrudes (as pencil, large camote, thermometer)
Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
Hanunóo mag-taŋágto hold on by biting
Cebuano taŋág, táŋaghold something between the teeth, vise and the like, or on something pointed

chattering:   sound of a monkey chattering

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kərethe gutteral sound of a monkey
Binukid kera-kerafor monkeys to chatter

chattering:   sound of a monkey chattering

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kərethe gutteral sound of a monkey
Binukid kera-kerafor monkeys to chatter

chewed:   chewed material

WMP
Malagasy hótaanything chewed
Malagasy hota-inato be chewed
Makasarese kotachewed food (such as given to a young child)

Mills (1981:68) proposed ‘Proto-Indonesian’ *kuta() ‘to chew’, but the sound correspondences in the penult are irregular, and the similarity of these forms may be a product of chance.

chicken:   chicken louse

WMP
Ilokano gayamóchicken tick
Ilokano g<in>ayamóinfested by chicken ticks
Itneg (Binongan) gayyámolice (chicken)
Ibaloy Kayemo ~ Kamayochicken louse
Lun Dayeh gayamlice found on chickens
Tring gayamclothes louse

A perfect comparison, except that Philippine reflexes point unambiguously to a trisyllable, while those in northern Sarawak point just as unambiguously to a disyllable, leaving no clear basis for a reconstruction one way or the other.

chiming:   sound of tinkling or chiming

WMP
Pangasinan man-kalánsiŋto tinkle
Malay kərənciŋto keep chinking or clinking

Pangasinan points to *karanciŋ, but Malay to *karənciŋ. This phonological discrepancy may be due to the onomatopoetic character of the word, but in any case a reconstruction is not currently possible.

citrus:   citrus fruit

Formosan
Amis kamorawpomelo (in some areas)
WMP
Ilokano kamugaw ~ kamulawCitrus hystrix DC. Rutaceae (Madulid)

cock:   rooster, cock

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tandáŋrooster
Kadazan Dusun tandaaʔrooster, cock

collar:   collar bone (?)

WMP
Malay (Baba) tulaŋ səlaŋkacollar bone
Duri salaŋkajoint (elbow, knee, etc.)
Mandar salakkalower back
Buginese salaŋkashoulder
Makasarese salaŋgashoulder

Mills (1975:813-814) posited Proto-South Sulawesi *salaŋga ‘shoulder(?)’, with the voiced stop preserved in Makasarese, but changed in languages such as Buginese through regular postnasal devoicing. His gloss for both the Buginese and Makasarese forms is ‘breast bone of an animal’, but modern dictionaries give only ‘shoulder’ and verbs based on this noun.

comb

WMP
Ilokano sagaysáya comb
Ilokano ag-sagaysáyto come one’s hair
Casiguran Dumagat sukláya comb; to comb the hair
Bikol sukráylarge comb used by women; to comb the hair with this
Hanunóo sudláycomb
Aklanon súdlaycomb; to comb out
Cebuano súdlaycomb; harrow, a raft-like device with toothed undersides pulled by a water buffalo, used for raking off leaves and breaking up the lumps of soil
Maranao saldaycomb
Mansaka sodlaycomb
Tiruray seledoya kind of homemade comb
Yakan sugleya comb
Yakan mag-sugleyto comb the hair

The comparison of Tiruray seledoy with Greater Central Philippines forms such as Hanunóo sudláy, or Mansaka sodlay suggests a PPh *suleday, with metathesis of the medial cluster derived from schwa syncope in GCP. However, although Tiruray reduced prepenultimate *a to schwa, it does not appear to have reduced high vowels in the same way, making a direct comparison with the GCP forms problematic. Maranao, together with Tiruray seledoy could be taken as evidence for *saleday, but given their geographical contiguity, and evidence of heavy borrowing from Danaw languages into Tiruray (Blust 1992b), this could easily be a loan distribution.

complete

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat búʔuwhole, total, complete
Tagalog buʔóʔwhole, entire, complete

Borrowing from Tagalog.

contradict:   oppose, contradict

WMP
Agutaynen mag-soplakto oppose; to contradict, go against
Cebuano supláarrest the motion of dice or coins that have been thrown; interrupt someone’s speech, usually with a question; check vice, bad manners
Mansaka soplato disagree with; to disobey; to reprove

curve

WMP
Iban ilokhandsome, fair, beautiful
Malay élokbeauty; charm; loveliness
Rejang iloʔtortuous, windy
Javanese lukcurved portion of a kris blade

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *iluk 'convex curve', but based his etymon solely upon reflexes in Malay and Javanese which appear to contain a common root, but which are not cognate.

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d   

desire:   interest, desire

WMP
Cebuano híŋanhave enthusiasm, interest for something
Iban iŋincraving; long for, covet
Malay iŋinintense longing; temporary craving

device:   scarecrow device in paddy field

WMP
Kelabit kiʔikbamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak and frighten birds away from the fields
Sasak kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy

dew

WMP
Isneg lammódew
Tagalog hamógdew, moisture condensed from the air; vapor, the moisture in the air that can be seen
Tagalog ma-hamógdewy, wet with dew
Tagalog h<um>amógto form dew
Tagalog hamug-ánplace covered with dew

These words form a near comparison since Isneg lammó points to *lemu, and Tagalog hamóg possibly to *lamuR. In both cases there is a greater than chance resemblance with the established PAN reconstruction *ñamuR ‘dew’.

digging:   tool for digging

WMP
Ibaloy saŋKaphand-held digging tool: long metal or wood handle and short, wide, flat blade; trowel
Aklanon sáŋkaptool, utensil; well-equipped, complete, having all that is needed
Cebuano saŋkápcomplete, having the necessary equipment
Maranao saŋkapcomplete in equipment

The Ibaloy form points to *saŋgap, while the other forms cited here all support *saŋkap.

dirt:   dirt, grime

WMP
Yami loitfilth
Yami ma-loitdirty
Itbayaten rulitrubbish, dirt, stain, skin dirt
Itbayaten ka-rolitstate of being dirty
Itbayaten ka-rolit-anto be dirtied, to be soiled
Itbayaten rolit-anto make dirty, to render unclean
Ilokano rugítdirt, filth; excreta

drizzle

WMP
Cebuano talithia very fine drizzle; to drizzle
PSan taRitirain
PMin tariktikdrizzle, light rain

dust

WMP
Agta (Central Cagayan) ləppuash, dust
Malay ləbudust
Sundanese lebuash, dust
Old Javanese ləbūdust
Old Javanese a-ləbū-ləbūcovered with dust, playing in the dust
Balinese lebudust, ashes
Balinese ma-lebube cremated
OC
Makatea refudust
PPn refuashes, dust; spray

The western Indonesian forms are related, although some may be borrowed from Malay. The similarity of Agta (Central Cagayan) ləppu, Makatea refu and Proto-Polynesian *refu to these is best attribued to convergence, although the similarity of form and meaning is striking.

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e   

eagle

WMP
Tagalog bánoyeagle
Abai Sembuak kanuyeagle
Ida'an begak kənnuyeagle; kite
Murut (Tagol) kanduygeneric for eagles, hawks, etc.
Bisaya (Limbang) kanuyeagle
Lun Dayeh kanuy ~ kənuyeagle

Philippine and Bornean forms of this word are irreconcilable primarily because of discrepancies in the initial consonant, but also in some cases because of a lack of correspondence in the penultimate vowel.

east:   east monsoon

OC
Nauna kupeast wind; east
Baluan kumwest wind
Lou kumeast (wind)
Lou kum-ranortheast
Lou kum-lannorthwest
Loniu kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Nali kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Ere kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Likum kumeast wind
Lindrou kumsoutheast monsoon; east
Bipi kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Bugotu koburunorthwest monsoon
Nggela komburua northwest gale; northwest wind

This very tempting comparison is imperfect in two ways: 1. languages of the Admiralties point to *u as the first vowel, while those in the Solomons indicate *o, 2. languages of the Solomons suggest a proto-form *koburu, while those in the Admiralties could only have reduced such a trisyllable to a disyllable if the last consonant was *R (hence *kobuRu, with sporadic assimilation of the first vowel to the second, loss of *R and contraction of the resulting sequence of like vowels). Without data from other languages it is very difficult to tell whether this is a remarkable chance resemblance or a valid etymology with irregularities.

ebb:   ebb tide

WMP
Ilokano úgotebb tide
Ilokano maŋ-úgutto fish in the ebb tide (with the hands); to fish with the hands in tide pools
Ilokano um-úgotto ebb; subside (tide)
Malay surutwithdrawal; the ebbing of the tide; return to original state or condition

Malay surut can reflect *suRut or *surut, while Ilokano úgot can reflect *uRut, thus providing no comparative basis for a reconstruction with or without an initial consonant.

edge:   brink, edge, shore

WMP
Cebuano tampibank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by
Iban tepiedge, margin
Iban tepi-anriver landing or bathing place
Malay təpiedge; brink; shore (as of a river)
Toba Batak topiedge, border
Toba Batak topi aekriver bank
Toba Batak topi lautshore of the sea
Old Javanese təpiedge, border, side
Balinese tepiborder, edge, limit, coast

Also Cebuano taŋpi ‘bank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by’.

eel:   eel (small or young)

WMP
Aklanon índoŋ-índoŋeel
Cebuano indúŋkind of moray eel
Kadazan Dusun hinḏuŋsmall freshwater eel
Malay lindoŋ ~ lenduŋan eel, sp. unident.
Balinese linduŋelver, young eel
Sasak linduŋsmall ricefield eel

eels:   trap for fish or eels

WMP
Ilokano talakébkind of fish trap made of bamboo
Mansaka tarakuptrap for freshwater eels

The Ilokano form points to *-b, but the Mansaka form to *-p.

embarrassment

WMP
Maranao ledshame, embarrassment
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eledshame, embarrassment; to shame or embarrass
Sangir elladeʔshyness, embarrassment

Presumably from a PPh *elad or *eled, though reconstruction cannot be achieved with the evidence at hand.

emotional:   emotional pain

WMP
Cebuano síluʔhave hurt feelings (as when excluded from some event that others are invited to, or as a result of derision)
Iban siluʔsetting teeth on edge; nervous, having creepy feeling
Iban silu-iluʔlonely; restless; disappointed; ashamed
Malay silushy, bashful
Malay silu-silu-anmodest timidity, such as that of a young girl in a man’s presence
Sasak siluon edge (of the teeth after eating something sour, acid or tart)

The Cebuano form cited here points to *siluq, and the Malay and Sasak forms to *silu. Iban siluʔ is compatible with neither of these, but together with Cebuano síluʔ could be taken as evidence for Zorc’s (Zorc 1982) PAn *ʔ, if it were not for the extremely problematic nature of that proposed proto-phoneme (Blust 2013, sect. 8.2.2.4). Until further cognates are found, then, it seems best to treat this set as a near comparison. Despite this limitation, this word is of some interest, as it is clearly a doublet of *-ñilu and *ŋilu, both of which refer exclusively to the physical discomfort experienced in the teeth after eating something very sour or acid. This meaning also is found in the Iban and Sasak forms cited here, but Cebuano, Iban and Malay all include an additional reference to emotional pain, and this seems to be the distinguishing feature of this variant.

envy

WMP
Maranao sigienvy
Malay iri hatispite; malice; envy

exchange

WMP
Maranao sambiɁchange, exchange (as a car given in exchange for a jeep; change for money)
Iban sambiɁbarter, exchange

Maranao points to *sambiq, but Iban to *sambi, with apparently secondary final glottal stop.

exclamation:   exclamation of pain

WMP
Tiruray ʔadey ~ adoyexclamation of pain
Melanau (Sarikei) adiʔ ~ adəhexclamation of pain
Iban adih ~ adohexclamation of pain or surprise
Malay adoh ~ aduhoh! as an interjection of grief or pain

The variability in this form may be due to its highly expressive character, as it is usually uttered in moments of anguish or shock.

eyelash

Formosan
Saisiyat katimtimeyelash
WMP
Kallahan (Keleyqiq) kimkimeyelash

eyelash

Formosan
Saisiyat katimtimeyelash
WMP
Kallahan (Keleyqiq) kimkimeyelash

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f   

fade

WMP
Tboli budasto fade (as colors in clothes)
Kayan bulahto fade, as a colored fabric; to run together, of colors in fabrics during washing; pale, of face or appearance

Tboli budas points to *budas or *bujas, but Kayan bulah can only reflect *bulas. Also Bikol luʔdás ‘faded, discolored’.

fast:   quick, fast

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔalikæhfast
WMP
Sangir liŋkasəʔenergetic; a quick and strong man
Mongondow likatquick, fast

Saisiyat /l/ evidently points to *N (Li 1978:140), while the Sangir and Mongondow forms indicate *l. All of these forms are assumed to contain the root *-kas₃ ‘swiff, agile; energetic’ (Blust 1988:105).

fever:   nightmare, fever

WMP
Bontok ləmamto have a nightmare; dream of the dead; to dream of one being smothered
Ifugaw lománnightmare, nightly vision of a deceased relative while dreaming
Iban demamfever, feverish
Malay dəmamfever, any disease that is marked by a rise in temperature

few

Formosan
Paiwan keḍibe small; little, few
WMP
Uma kediʔsmall
Uma haŋ-kediʔfew, small in amount

Uma kediʔ reflects an undetermined final consonant *-pb, *-td, *kg, or *q, but Paiwan has lost none of these consonants in final position.

field:   scarecrow device in paddy field

WMP
Kelabit kiʔikbamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak and frighten birds away from the fields
Sasak kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy

field:   scarecrow device in paddy field

WMP
Kelabit kiʔikbamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak and frighten birds away from the fields
Sasak kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy

finger

Formosan
Amis tarodoʔfingers, toes
WMP
Bikol tuldóʔindex finger
Agutaynen toldokfinger
Agutaynen mag-toldokto point to or at something

fingers:   roll with fingers

WMP
Tagalog gilírolling something with the hand or fingers; rolled with the fingers to make round, as in making pills
Malay gelekrolling over (and flattening out); rolling up into pellets (of a road roller; being run over; sago rolled into pellets, etc.)

fish:   trap for fish or eels

WMP
Ilokano talakébkind of fish trap made of bamboo
Mansaka tarakuptrap for freshwater eels

The Ilokano form points to *-b, but the Mansaka form to *-p.

flat:   flat surface

WMP
Ilokano tumpápflat end (ttom of glass); flat nose (leppáp)
Malay təmpapbringing down the flat of the hand on anything; hand’s breadth

fly

WMP
Yami i-salapto fly
Itbayaten sayapidea of flying
Itbayaten mapa-sayapto fly
Ivatan s<om>ayapto fly
Old Javanese s<um>ayabto move (drift, float, sail) through the air

food:   stuff mouth with food

Formosan
Kavalan s<um>umuncram food into one’s mouth
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat samɛltalk with the mouth full of food

friend:   friend (male to male)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ariHa man’s male friend
Paiwan qalifriend (when both friends are male)
WMP
Tiruray ʔadiha term of address and reference used between males of the same generation

Despite the distinctive semantic agreement of these terms and their general formal similarity it is impossible to achieve a reconstruction, since Puyuma ariH points to *aliq, Paiwan qali points to *qali, and Tiruray adih points to a proto-form with medial *d, *j or *z.

fruit:   citrus fruit

Formosan
Amis kamorawpomelo (in some areas)
WMP
Ilokano kamugaw ~ kamulawCitrus hystrix DC. Rutaceae (Madulid)

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g   

gnat

Formosan
Kavalan samuqa type of small gnat
Paiwan ta-tamekgnat

This is a perfect comparison except for the last-syllable vowel, since Paiwan points unambiguously to PAn *e and Kavalan u can only reflect *u.

grime:   dirt, grime

WMP
Yami loitfilth
Yami ma-loitdirty
Itbayaten rulitrubbish, dirt, stain, skin dirt
Itbayaten ka-rolitstate of being dirty
Itbayaten ka-rolit-anto be dirtied, to be soiled
Itbayaten rolit-anto make dirty, to render unclean
Ilokano rugítdirt, filth; excreta

growl

Formosan
Paiwan giriŋa growl
Paiwan g<m>iriŋto growl
WMP
Old Javanese aŋ-gərəŋto growl, snarl
Javanese gereŋto roar; to moan in pain
Balinese gereŋhum (of a crowd), roar
Sasak gərəŋhave a deep or heavy voice

The vowels of Paiwan do not match those of languages in western Indonesia, although these forms undoubtedly are onomatopoetic, and may signal differences of voice pitch.

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h   

hen:   strut as rooster around hen

WMP
Bontok sagígito sidle, of a rooster near a hen; a style of dancing
Binukid sagigilfor a rooster to strut around a hen; to imitate this movement
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) segigirof a rooster, to strut

hoarse (of the voice)

WMP
Malay sərakhoarse or harsh (of the voice); not usually of natural gruffness (garau), but of hoarseness as the result of a cold or of talking too much
Tae' sarrahoarse, broken, of the voice

Perfect except that Malay reflects *-k or *-g, while Tae' cannot reflect either.

hold by biting:   hold by biting carry in the mouth

WMP
Ilokano i-taŋálto carry in the teeth
Isneg ma-naŋálto mouth, put in the mouth, take into the mouth
Bontok ʔi-taŋálto hold between the teeth, as a pipe, or in the beak, as a bird
Ibaloy i-taŋalto put something in the mouth so that a part of it protrudes (as pencil, large camote, thermometer)
Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
Hanunóo mag-taŋágto hold on by biting
Cebuano taŋág, táŋaghold something between the teeth, vise and the like, or on something pointed

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i   

infested with lice

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kosmadto have many lice in one’s hair
Cebuano kusladhost of lice and nits; for hair to be infested with lice and nits

insert

Formosan
Pazeh mu-lezekto plant into ground or something
WMP
Bontok ləsəkto pierce, as to test if something is cooked, or to find out the depth of mud; to stab

Pazeh lezek can only reflect *Nasek, and Bontok lesek can only reflect *lesek or *Resek. Both forms apparently contain the root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

interest:   interest, desire

WMP
Cebuano híŋanhave enthusiasm, interest for something
Iban iŋincraving; long for, covet
Malay iŋinintense longing; temporary craving

interrupted:   interrupted of sleep

Formosan
Amis cmetan interval of sleep
Amis pa-cmetto nap
WMP
Ilokano sam-samétinterrupted (sleep)

invite

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) aRlainvite, ask to go out
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-a-aRlainvite, ask to go out
WMP
Bikol agdáinvite, ask to come
Bikol mag-agdáinvite, ask to come
Aklanon ágda(h)invite, remind someone of an invitation
Hiligaynon ágdaask, invite
Cebuano agdáinvite someone to do something

The Philippine data support *d as the second consonant, but Puyuma indicates *l.

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j   

jump down

WMP
Tagalog talónjump; leap; plunge; a jump or dive into water; waterfall
Tagalog t<um>alónto jump or leap (generally, but not necessarily downward)
Iban terejunleap down, drop, plunge down
Iban aiʔ terejuncataract
Malay tərjundropping; to fall or leap down (of leaping off a horse, letting oneself drop from a window, diving into a stream, etc.

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l   

left (not right)

WMP
Old Javanese kiwaleft
Old Javanese a-ŋiwato go to the left
Old Javanese ka-kiwato the left of
Javanese kiwaleft; immoral, unethical; unstrategically located
Balinese kiwaleft, sinister

Also Tagalog kiwáɁ ‘left, left hand side’, Ma'anyan kawiɁ ‘left side’, Malagasy haví-a ‘the left side’, Iban kibaɁ ‘left’, jari kibaɁ ‘left hand’, Sundanese kenca ‘left, left side’. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kiwa ‘left, left side’, despite the far better supported PAn *wiRi in this meaning, and included Malay kiwa ‘be awkward, clumsy’ in his comparison, although no such form appears in Wilkinson (1959). This comparison is highly suggestive, but does not support a reconstruction.

lice:   infested with lice

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kosmadto have many lice in one’s hair
Cebuano kusladhost of lice and nits; for hair to be infested with lice and nits

light tap

WMP
Tagalog tapíklight tap with the hand or just the fingers
Tagalog t<um>apíkto tap; to pat with the palm of the hand or fingers
Iban tepikslapping (as in slapping a moquito on oneself)
Malay təpeka flick; a very gentle blow with a flat object

With root *-pik ‘pat, light slap’.

loud noise

WMP
Tagalog takáploud, insulting language
Iban tekapdeafened (as by the sound of a gunshot)

louse:   chicken louse

WMP
Ilokano gayamóchicken tick
Ilokano g<in>ayamóinfested by chicken ticks
Itneg (Binongan) gayyámolice (chicken)
Ibaloy Kayemo ~ Kamayochicken louse
Lun Dayeh gayamlice found on chickens
Tring gayamclothes louse

A perfect comparison, except that Philippine reflexes point unambiguously to a trisyllable, while those in northern Sarawak point just as unambiguously to a disyllable, leaving no clear basis for a reconstruction one way or the other.

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m   

maggot

Formosan
Paiwan tikaya maggot
WMP
Agutaynen tiʔgaymaggots

In both languages *s > t, so this might be derived from *sikay, but the glottal stop in Agutaynen would still be unexplained, as this normally corresponds to Paiwan q.

male:   friend (male to male)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ariHa man’s male friend
Paiwan qalifriend (when both friends are male)
WMP
Tiruray ʔadiha term of address and reference used between males of the same generation

Despite the distinctive semantic agreement of these terms and their general formal similarity it is impossible to achieve a reconstruction, since Puyuma ariH points to *aliq, Paiwan qali points to *qali, and Tiruray adih points to a proto-form with medial *d, *j or *z.

male consanguine

OC
Sa'a uwelimother’s brother-sisters-son relationship
Wayan tavalecross-cousin: specifically, a person of either sex who is the child of one’s father’s classificatory sister or one’s mother’s classificatory brother (address and referenc term)
Fijian tavalemale cross-cousin, son of father’s sister or mother’s brother (man speaking)

mango sp.

WMP
Tausug balunutMangifera caesia Jack ex Wall. Anacardiaceae (Madulid 2001)
Malay (Brunei) bəlunoha fruit, Mangifera sp.
Malay (Sarawak) bəlunoha fruit, Mangifera sp.

material:   chewed material

WMP
Malagasy hótaanything chewed
Malagasy hota-inato be chewed
Makasarese kotachewed food (such as given to a young child)

Mills (1981:68) proposed ‘Proto-Indonesian’ *kuta() ‘to chew’, but the sound correspondences in the penult are irregular, and the similarity of these forms may be a product of chance.

menses

WMP
Isneg aŋénmenses, menstrual flow
Isneg m-aŋénto menstruate
Kelabit saŋənmenstrual flow

A perfect comparison except that the initial segments of these forms disagree, and Kelabit s in directly inherited forms is normally found only as the reflex of *t before a high front vowel.

mix

WMP
Cebuano sambugmix things together; for emotions to have a tinge of something else mixed; mixture; add ingredients
Iban campurmix; mixed, mingled
Malay campurmixing up; compounding; blending; interfering in
Sundanese campurto mix; mixed
Old Javanese campurmixed; unclean, in a state of impurity (because of menstruation), defiled
Javanese campurto mix (with); mixed
Javanese ka-campur-anmixed (with)
Javanese campur-ana mixture of
Balinese campuhmix, mingle
Balinese campurmix; have sexual or other intercourse; unclean, ceremoniallyimpure, not be able to enter a temple (usually because of menstruation)

Cebuano points to an etymon with *b, while languages of western Indonesia support *p. The forms in at least Old Javanese, Modern Javanese and Sundanese probably are loans from Malay.

monkey:   sound of a monkey chattering

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kərethe gutteral sound of a monkey
Binukid kera-kerafor monkeys to chatter

monkey:   sound of a monkey chattering

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kərethe gutteral sound of a monkey
Binukid kera-kerafor monkeys to chatter

monsoon:   east monsoon

OC
Nauna kupeast wind; east
Baluan kumwest wind
Lou kumeast (wind)
Lou kum-ranortheast
Lou kum-lannorthwest
Loniu kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Nali kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Ere kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Likum kumeast wind
Lindrou kumsoutheast monsoon; east
Bipi kupsoutheast monsoon; east
Bugotu koburunorthwest monsoon
Nggela komburua northwest gale; northwest wind

This very tempting comparison is imperfect in two ways: 1. languages of the Admiralties point to *u as the first vowel, while those in the Solomons indicate *o, 2. languages of the Solomons suggest a proto-form *koburu, while those in the Admiralties could only have reduced such a trisyllable to a disyllable if the last consonant was *R (hence *kobuRu, with sporadic assimilation of the first vowel to the second, loss of *R and contraction of the resulting sequence of like vowels). Without data from other languages it is very difficult to tell whether this is a remarkable chance resemblance or a valid etymology with irregularities.

mouth:   hold by biting carry in the mouth

WMP
Ilokano i-taŋálto carry in the teeth
Isneg ma-naŋálto mouth, put in the mouth, take into the mouth
Bontok ʔi-taŋálto hold between the teeth, as a pipe, or in the beak, as a bird
Ibaloy i-taŋalto put something in the mouth so that a part of it protrudes (as pencil, large camote, thermometer)
Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
Hanunóo mag-taŋágto hold on by biting
Cebuano taŋág, táŋaghold something between the teeth, vise and the like, or on something pointed

mouth:   stuff mouth with food

Formosan
Kavalan s<um>umuncram food into one’s mouth
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat samɛltalk with the mouth full of food

move backward:   retreat, move backward

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) endudto back up, walk or move backwards
Malay undurretirement, retreat, falling back

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) endud reflects *endud or *enduD; Malay undur reflects *unduD, *undur, or *unduR.

mute

WMP
Cebuano amaŋmute; silent
Cebuano in-amaŋpantomime, in sign language
Maranao amaŋdeaf or mute
Berawan (Long Terawan) m-aməŋmute
Kiput m-aməŋmute

Philippine evidence points to *amaŋ, but Bornean evidence supports *aməŋ.

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n   

naked

WMP
Ilokano lábusnaked (from the waist down; naked from the waist up = uksób)
Iban lamusunprotected, naked above the waist

Perfect except that a medial b : m correspondence between these languages is otherwise unknown.

nape:   nape of the neck

WMP
Ilokano teŋŋedneck; collar of a garment
Ifugaw toŋodneck, neck and throat
Binukid teŋelnape, back of the neck

neck:   nape of the neck

WMP
Ilokano teŋŋedneck; collar of a garment
Ifugaw toŋodneck, neck and throat
Binukid teŋelnape, back of the neck

nightmare:   nightmare, fever

WMP
Bontok ləmamto have a nightmare; dream of the dead; to dream of one being smothered
Ifugaw lománnightmare, nightly vision of a deceased relative while dreaming
Iban demamfever, feverish
Malay dəmamfever, any disease that is marked by a rise in temperature

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o   

of sleep:   interrupted of sleep

Formosan
Amis cmetan interval of sleep
Amis pa-cmetto nap
WMP
Ilokano sam-samétinterrupted (sleep)

open:   wide open

WMP
Ilokano biŋat-ento open wide, dilate
Iban biŋakwide (nostrils), stretched open (basket)

oppose:   oppose, contradict

WMP
Agutaynen mag-soplakto oppose; to contradict, go against
Cebuano supláarrest the motion of dice or coins that have been thrown; interrupt someone’s speech, usually with a question; check vice, bad manners
Mansaka soplato disagree with; to disobey; to reprove

owl

WMP
Ilokano púekowl
Berawan (Long Terawan) manoʔ wəkowl

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p   

paddy field:   scarecrow device in paddy field

WMP
Kelabit kiʔikbamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak and frighten birds away from the fields
Sasak kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy

paddy field:   scarecrow device in paddy field

WMP
Kelabit kiʔikbamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak and frighten birds away from the fields
Sasak kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy

pain:   emotional pain

WMP
Cebuano síluʔhave hurt feelings (as when excluded from some event that others are invited to, or as a result of derision)
Iban siluʔsetting teeth on edge; nervous, having creepy feeling
Iban silu-iluʔlonely; restless; disappointed; ashamed
Malay silushy, bashful
Malay silu-silu-anmodest timidity, such as that of a young girl in a man’s presence
Sasak siluon edge (of the teeth after eating something sour, acid or tart)

The Cebuano form cited here points to *siluq, and the Malay and Sasak forms to *silu. Iban siluʔ is compatible with neither of these, but together with Cebuano síluʔ could be taken as evidence for Zorc’s (Zorc 1982) PAn *ʔ, if it were not for the extremely problematic nature of that proposed proto-phoneme (Blust 2013, sect. 8.2.2.4). Until further cognates are found, then, it seems best to treat this set as a near comparison. Despite this limitation, this word is of some interest, as it is clearly a doublet of *-ñilu and *ŋilu, both of which refer exclusively to the physical discomfort experienced in the teeth after eating something very sour or acid. This meaning also is found in the Iban and Sasak forms cited here, but Cebuano, Iban and Malay all include an additional reference to emotional pain, and this seems to be the distinguishing feature of this variant.

pain:   exclamation of pain

WMP
Tiruray ʔadey ~ adoyexclamation of pain
Melanau (Sarikei) adiʔ ~ adəhexclamation of pain
Iban adih ~ adohexclamation of pain or surprise
Malay adoh ~ aduhoh! as an interjection of grief or pain

The variability in this form may be due to its highly expressive character, as it is usually uttered in moments of anguish or shock.

peek:   peek, peep at

WMP
Pangasinan man-silípto peep
Mansaka silibto peek, at; to watch secretly

The Pangasinan form points to *silip, but the Mansaka form to *silib, and so far no arbiter that would allow us to favor one of these choices has been found.

peel

WMP
Isneg mag-lábutto peel (oranges, etc.)
Maranao abotpeel off skin

These forms differ in reflecting the presence or absence of *l-, making reconstruction of a Proto-Philippine form impossible.

peep at:   peek, peep at

WMP
Pangasinan man-silípto peep
Mansaka silibto peek, at; to watch secretly

The Pangasinan form points to *silip, but the Mansaka form to *silib, and so far no arbiter that would allow us to favor one of these choices has been found.

penetrate:   pierce, penetrate

Formosan
Amis tisekto stick a needle through the middle of to hold together, as a hair bun
WMP
Cebuano tisukto plant seed into the ground; thrust a sharp object on the ground; implant in the mind

Amis s reflects *S, but Cebuano s reflects *s.

pierce:   pierce, penetrate

Formosan
Amis tisekto stick a needle through the middle of to hold together, as a hair bun
WMP
Cebuano tisukto plant seed into the ground; thrust a sharp object on the ground; implant in the mind

Amis s reflects *S, but Cebuano s reflects *s.

plant: black nightshade:   plant: black nightshade, Solanum nigrum

WMP
Tagalog kuntia plant: black nightshade, Solanum nigrum
CMP
Rembong leboq kentia plant, ranti: Solanum nigrum (leboq = ‘leaf’)

plover sp.:   sandpiper sp., plover sp.

OC
Gilbertese kiririlong-legged plover (sandpiper)
Kosraean kululkind of bird: sandpiper
Rarotongan kuririthe sandpiper, a sea wading bird the frequents the sandy stretches near the lagoons
Hawaiian ʔūliliWandering tattler: Heteroscelus incanus, a slender winter migrant to Hawaii, slaty above and white with dusky bars and streaks beneath

Clark (2011:361) proposed Proto-Remote Oceanic *kVlili ‘Wandering tattler: Heteroscelus incanus’, but the evidence he presents does not permit a complete reconstruction.

pregnant

WMP
Kelabit alihpregnancy
Kelabit m-alihpregnant
CMP
Buruese galipregnant

pufferfish

OC
Iduna sisitoʔapufferfish
Fijian toatwo kinds of fish: a round fish like the sumusumu (thornless pufferfish), and a rather squarish variety

This comparison was proposed by Osmond (2011:124), who reconstructed POc *toqa ‘kind of fish with toxic flesh, probably Ostracion’.

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q   

queasy; urge to vomit:   queasy, urge to vomit

WMP
Tagalog duwálgas expulsion from the stomach
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) buarfeeling of vomiting (as that caused by windy stomach, etc.)
Malay mualqueasy; loathe something; vomit
Balinese ualfeeling of fatigue and pain in the tendons of the hands and feet

queasy; urge to vomit:   queasy, urge to vomit

WMP
Tagalog duwákretching
Maloh talim-buakto vomit
Malay muaknauseating, revolting

quick:   quick, fast

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔalikæhfast
WMP
Sangir liŋkasəʔenergetic; a quick and strong man
Mongondow likatquick, fast

Saisiyat /l/ evidently points to *N (Li 1978:140), while the Sangir and Mongondow forms indicate *l. All of these forms are assumed to contain the root *-kas₃ ‘swiff, agile; energetic’ (Blust 1988:105).

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r   

raptorial bird

WMP
Maranao koroaŋbig spotted hawk
Tae' kuajaŋlarge raptorial bird, kind of eagle

resound

WMP
Iban ketoŋsection of bamboo with holes on opposite sides, used to scare birds by beating on it, or by hanging it with a stick to be sounded by the wind
Malay kətoŋto make the sound of ‘tong’ (the noise of a gong)
OC
Tolai ketuŋto sound or resound, as the feet of a running person

With root *-tuŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.

retreat:   retreat, move backward

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) endudto back up, walk or move backwards
Malay undurretirement, retreat, falling back

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) endud reflects *endud or *enduD; Malay undur reflects *unduD, *undur, or *unduR.

rhinoceros beetle

OC
Tabar taburuŋabeetle
Tolai tabururhorn-beetle, the grub of which eats into the heart of coconut and betel-nut palms
Lakalai la-tabuburucoconut beetle (makes a whirring noise); a toy noisemaker
Bugotu tabilolorhinoceros beetle
Nggela tambelulirhinoceros beetle

Osmond (2011:401) uses these and other non-corresponding forms to posit POc *tabuRuRu ‘kind of beetle’. While there clearly is a historical connection between these forms, the sound correspondences fail to agree, and a reconstruction is thus impossible on the basis of known evidence.

rice bug

WMP
Mansaka tanaŋawkind of insect that eats rice plants
Malay tuŋawblack sand flea (infests fowls and monkeys)
Bare'e oŋofoul-smelling bug that preys on rice

The final syllable is shared, but nothing else.

roll with fingers

WMP
Tagalog gilírolling something with the hand or fingers; rolled with the fingers to make round, as in making pills
Malay gelekrolling over (and flattening out); rolling up into pellets (of a road roller; being run over; sago rolled into pellets, etc.)

rooster:   strut as rooster around hen

WMP
Bontok sagígito sidle, of a rooster near a hen; a style of dancing
Binukid sagigilfor a rooster to strut around a hen; to imitate this movement
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) segigirof a rooster, to strut

rooster:   rooster, cock

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tandáŋrooster
Kadazan Dusun tandaaʔrooster, cock

rose-myrtle

WMP
Hanunóo kalamúndiŋa lime tree and its fruit: Citrus mitis Blco.
Cebuano kalamúndiŋa small citrus tree bearing small, round, acid fruit
Malay kələmuntiŋevergreen shrub with an edible fruit, the rose-myrtle: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

Also Malay kərəmuntiŋ ‘evergreen shrub with an edible fruit, the rose-myrtle: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa’.

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s   

sandpiper sp.:   sandpiper sp., plover sp.

OC
Gilbertese kiririlong-legged plover (sandpiper)
Kosraean kululkind of bird: sandpiper
Rarotongan kuririthe sandpiper, a sea wading bird the frequents the sandy stretches near the lagoons
Hawaiian ʔūliliWandering tattler: Heteroscelus incanus, a slender winter migrant to Hawaii, slaty above and white with dusky bars and streaks beneath

Clark (2011:361) proposed Proto-Remote Oceanic *kVlili ‘Wandering tattler: Heteroscelus incanus’, but the evidence he presents does not permit a complete reconstruction.

scar

WMP
Ilongot bɨkɨdscar
Balinese biketscar, mark of a wound

scarecrow:   scarecrow device in paddy field

WMP
Kelabit kiʔikbamboo piece turned by a wind-driven propeller so as to creak and frighten birds away from the fields
Sasak kə-kiriksmall windmill in the rice paddy

scrape:   scrape, scratch

Formosan
Puyuma kabkabscratch, scrape
WMP
Ibaloy KabKabto cause an abrasion of the skin; to scratch, scrape the skin (as rock does)

Ibaloy KabKab points to *gabgab. Both of these forms show the common association of initial velar stops in Austronesian languages with the notions ‘scratch, scrape, rub’ and the like.

scratch:   scrape, scratch

Formosan
Puyuma kabkabscratch, scrape
WMP
Ibaloy KabKabto cause an abrasion of the skin; to scratch, scrape the skin (as rock does)

Ibaloy KabKab points to *gabgab. Both of these forms show the common association of initial velar stops in Austronesian languages with the notions ‘scratch, scrape, rub’ and the like.

shark

WMP
Sasak maŋiwaŋshark (said to be from Buginese)
Gorontalo moŋgiaŋoshark (Mills 1975)
Totoli maŋibanshark
Pendau maŋibanshark
Dampelas maŋibanshark
Bare'e maŋiba(ni)shark
Mamuju maŋihaŋshark
Buginese maŋiwɨŋshark
Makasarese maŋiwaŋshark
CMP
Manggarai beŋiwaŋ ~ meŋiwaŋkind of shark
OC
POc maŋewakind of shark

Despite the generic similarity of these words the only forms that show sufficient agreement in sound correspondences to permit a reconstruction (*maŋiwaŋ) are Sasak maŋiwaŋ, which appears to be a Buginese loan, and the similar forms in Buginese and Makasarese, which are very closely related. These, together with POc *maŋewa strongly suggest a PMP form similar to *maŋiwaŋ, but its precise form cannot be reconstructed based on currently available evidence.

shore:   brink, edge, shore

WMP
Cebuano tampibank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by
Iban tepiedge, margin
Iban tepi-anriver landing or bathing place
Malay təpiedge; brink; shore (as of a river)
Toba Batak topiedge, border
Toba Batak topi aekriver bank
Toba Batak topi lautshore of the sea
Old Javanese təpiedge, border, side
Balinese tepiborder, edge, limit, coast

Also Cebuano taŋpi ‘bank of a body of water; edge of a surface; nearby, close by’.

short-necked

WMP
Ilokano riŋkékshort-necked, bull-necked
Ngaju Dayak ra- reŋek ~ reŋe-reŋekshort (of the neck)
Sasak rikətshort (of bamboo, the neck)

sit:   sit, squat

WMP
Maranao toadsquat; position on all fours (hands and feet)
Dohoi tuotsit
Lawangan tuwutsit
Taboyan tuwɨtsit

Maranao points unambiguously to *a as the last-syllable vowel of this form, which Barito languages indicate either *ə or *u.

slant

Formosan
Amis siwitto slant, set at an angle
WMP
Bontok ʔíwinto bend sideways
Kankanaey iwiŋ-énto incline; to bend; to lean (one’s head) sideways
Ifugaw iwíŋsideward turning or holding one’s head
Ibaloy ma-iwilto be tilted, listing to one side, skewed, leaning at an angle of less than 90 degrees instead of nicely vertical (as flagpole, plant whose roots have been eaten away, basket set wrongly on one’s back)
Ibaloy iwi-iwilstaggering, swaying (as drunk, baby learning to walk), wobbly, incapable of steady position (as chair with damaged leg)
Tagalog hiwídtwisted; dislocated; awry; out of line; not aligned; out of joint; oblique; slanting
Tagalog naka-hiwísaslant
Aklanon híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side
Waray-Waray hiwíʔcurved; zigzag; bent; twisted
Cebuano hiwíʔcrooked, winding or twisting, slanting to one side or askew; crooked, dishonest; deformed; become crooked, make something crooked; make a face at someone
Cebuano ka-hiwiʔ-anmisdeed
Binukid híwiʔ(for something) to be askew, crooked, to one side

Remarkably, although all of these forms are compatible with the first four segments of *Siwi-, none agree in identifying an ancestral final consonant.

slide

WMP
Cebuano lúsadgo, bring down, descend, dismount
Malay luncurslipping down; (fig.) lapsing
Malay loŋsorslipping forward or downward (as in slipping off a person’s lap)

The last-syllable vowels in these forms cannot be traced to a common source.

slippery

WMP
Kadazan Dusun lamaslippery
Malagasy lamasmoothed, made slippery
Balinese lamasthin slimy membrane, mucus on fruit or fish
Mongondow lamagslippery

small

WMP
Maranao ketiltiny, small
Malay kəcilsmall; minor

Probably a Malay loanword in Maranao.

Solanum nigrum:   plant: black nightshade, Solanum nigrum

WMP
Tagalog kuntia plant: black nightshade, Solanum nigrum
CMP
Rembong leboq kentia plant, ranti: Solanum nigrum (leboq = ‘leaf’)

sound:   sound of tinkling or chiming

WMP
Pangasinan man-kalánsiŋto tinkle
Malay kərənciŋto keep chinking or clinking

Pangasinan points to *karanciŋ, but Malay to *karənciŋ. This phonological discrepancy may be due to the onomatopoetic character of the word, but in any case a reconstruction is not currently possible.

sound:   sound of a monkey chattering

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kərethe gutteral sound of a monkey
Binukid kera-kerafor monkeys to chatter

southeast:   southeast wind (?)

OC
Nauna kupeast wind
Lou kumnorth wind
Lou kum-ranorthwest wind
Lou kum-lannortheast wind
Lenkau kumsouth wind
Loniu kupsoutheast monsoon
Titan kupeast wind
Sori laŋa umsoutheast wind
Bipi kumsoutheast monsoon
Nggela komburunorthwest gale, northwest wind

spatter:   splash spatter

WMP
Ilokano tapliákwaves splashing at the shoreline
Mansaka taplakto throw something (as mud) on someone

splash:   splash spatter

WMP
Ilokano tapliákwaves splashing at the shoreline
Mansaka taplakto throw something (as mud) on someone

squat:   sit, squat

WMP
Maranao toadsquat; position on all fours (hands and feet)
Dohoi tuotsit
Lawangan tuwutsit
Taboyan tuwɨtsit

Maranao points unambiguously to *a as the last-syllable vowel of this form, which Barito languages indicate either *ə or *u.

stamp

WMP
Cebuano antákstamp one’s foot
Malay əntakramming or stamping down; pounding (of treading something underfoot)

With root *-tak₂ ‘sound of cracking, splitting, cracking’ (?).

star

WMP
Malagasy kintanastar
Javanese lintaŋstar

These items may share a common root with Malay bintaŋ 'star', but cannnot be considered cognate. Dempwolff (1938) segmented the initial consonants (l-intaŋ, k-intana) and posited a prototype *intaŋ, which is here rejected.

step

Formosan
Pazeh lawata step
Amis lawatto step, to take a step; a single step

Pazeh lawat can only reflect *Nawat, and Amis lawat can only reflect *lawat or *Rawat.

strong

WMP
Punan Tuvu' tuʔahstrong
OC
Rennellese toʔastrength, authority; to be strong; to win; to bully, mistreat

strut:   strut as rooster around hen

WMP
Bontok sagígito sidle, of a rooster near a hen; a style of dancing
Binukid sagigilfor a rooster to strut around a hen; to imitate this movement
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) segigirof a rooster, to strut

stuff:   stuff mouth with food

Formosan
Kavalan s<um>umuncram food into one’s mouth
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat samɛltalk with the mouth full of food

surface:   flat surface

WMP
Ilokano tumpápflat end (ttom of glass); flat nose (leppáp)
Malay təmpapbringing down the flat of the hand on anything; hand’s breadth

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t   

tail:   wagging of tail

WMP
Ilokano kiwíkiwwagging of the tail
Ilokano ag-kiwíkiwto wag the tail
Cebuano kiwákiwwag one’s tail

threaten

WMP
Tagalog ambáʔthreatening gesture
Malagasy ámbanamenacing gestures with the hand or arm
Iban embascare, threaten (as by intimidating someone near with a show of strength)

Tagalog ambáʔ may be a loan from some dialect of Malay for which the form has not yet been reported (perhaps Malay (Brunei))). However, the Malagasy form cannot be explained in this way.

thunder

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat kəduhthunder; to thunder
Tagalog kulógthunder
Tagalog k<um>ulógto thunder; to give forth thunder
Malagasy kútrukathe thunder
Malagasy mi-kútrukato thunder
Javanese kruḍugto rumble (Pigeaud)
OC
Fijian kudruto grunt, to groan, to grumble; to suffer conclusive contortions like the priest of old under inspiration

Dempwolff (1938) posited *kuDug ‘roar, rumble’, but no reconstruction can be reached from the data given here.

tide:   ebb tide

WMP
Ilokano úgotebb tide
Ilokano maŋ-úgutto fish in the ebb tide (with the hands); to fish with the hands in tide pools
Ilokano um-úgotto ebb; subside (tide)
Malay surutwithdrawal; the ebbing of the tide; return to original state or condition

Malay surut can reflect *suRut or *surut, while Ilokano úgot can reflect *uRut, thus providing no comparative basis for a reconstruction with or without an initial consonant.

tinkling:   sound of tinkling or chiming

WMP
Pangasinan man-kalánsiŋto tinkle
Malay kərənciŋto keep chinking or clinking

Pangasinan points to *karanciŋ, but Malay to *karənciŋ. This phonological discrepancy may be due to the onomatopoetic character of the word, but in any case a reconstruction is not currently possible.

tool:   tool for digging

WMP
Ibaloy saŋKaphand-held digging tool: long metal or wood handle and short, wide, flat blade; trowel
Aklanon sáŋkaptool, utensil; well-equipped, complete, having all that is needed
Cebuano saŋkápcomplete, having the necessary equipment
Maranao saŋkapcomplete in equipment

The Ibaloy form points to *saŋgap, while the other forms cited here all support *saŋkap.

toothless

OC
Tolai ŋeotoothless
'āre'āre natotoothless

Potentially from *ŋaso or *ŋeso, but with disagreement of the penultimate vowel. With initial velar nasal symbolizing the mouth and nose area (Blust 2003a).

trap:   trap for fish or eels

WMP
Ilokano talakébkind of fish trap made of bamboo
Mansaka tarakuptrap for freshwater eels

The Ilokano form points to *-b, but the Mansaka form to *-p.

tree:   tree, Terminalia spp.

WMP
Tagalog palawaga tree: Terminalia citrina (Madulid 2001)
Malay pəlawaya large tree: Terminalia foetidissima

Tagalog –g can reflect only *g or *R, while Malay –y can reflect neither.

tree:   tree, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

WMP
Tagalog kulásia tree: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f.
Palauan kuáta tree in the coffee family, good for roofing: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f.

These forms certainly look like they should be related, but pretonic vowels normally became schwa in Palauan, and *l became y. The combination əy before a stressed vowel would be expected to yield i, not u, hence **kiát.

tree:   tree, Glochidion spp.

WMP
Tagalog tabaŋagGlochidion sp., Euphorbiaceae (Madulid 2001)
Malay təbuŋura tree: Glochidion laevigatum

tree: Memecylon paniculatum

WMP
Batangan tamisana tree: Memecylon paniculatum Jack. Melastomataceae
Punan Tuvu' temaha tree: Memecylon paniculatum

The Batangan form may be tamis-an, and so point to *tamis, while the Punan Tuvu' form points instead to *temas.

turtle

WMP
Palawan Batak bayóʔoturtle
Aborlan Tagbanwa bayuʔuturtle
Samal baʔuʔuland turtle
Malay biukua water tortoise: Notochelys platynota; it has a yellow streak extending from the eye, giving it a rather languid look

twitch

WMP
Tagalog kibóta quick jerk of some part of the body; a twitching; throb; pulsation; palpitation; slight movement of the closed lips
Cebuano kibútfor the anus to move in contracting; for the mouth to move in chewing or speaking; for a mass of something to move in a somewhat wriggling fashion; movement of the anus or lips
Iban kima-kimuttwitching, jerking (as lips before speaking)

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w   

wagging:   wagging of tail

WMP
Ilokano kiwíkiwwagging of the tail
Ilokano ag-kiwíkiwto wag the tail
Cebuano kiwákiwwag one’s tail

wave

WMP
Malay gəlombaŋlong rolling waves at sea, in contrast to short, steep seas (ombak), or ground swell (alun)
Bare'e balumbabillow, large wave

Fine, except that g : b is not a sound correspondence between these languages.

whisper

Formosan
Paiwan tj<m>eŋtjeŋto whisper
Paiwan ma-tja-tjeŋtjeŋto whisper together (two persons)
WMP
Maranao toŋtoŋwhisper, rumor

wide:   wide open

WMP
Ilokano biŋat-ento open wide, dilate
Iban biŋakwide (nostrils), stretched open (basket)

width

WMP
Maranao belaŋwidth
Kelabit bəraŋwidth (of a river, house, field)

wind:   southeast wind (?)

OC
Nauna kupeast wind
Lou kumnorth wind
Lou kum-ranorthwest wind
Lou kum-lannortheast wind
Lenkau kumsouth wind
Loniu kupsoutheast monsoon
Titan kupeast wind
Sori laŋa umsoutheast wind
Bipi kumsoutheast monsoon
Nggela komburunorthwest gale, northwest wind

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 10/15/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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