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Updated: 6/9/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Proto-form indexes: combined

(click on a *proto-form for its cognate set)

 PAN
1696
 PMP
3654
 PWMP
7271
 PPh
1764
 PCEMP
2918
 PCMP
2132
 PEMP
1725
 PSHWNG
431
 POC
2529
combined   
24120

 a    a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    i    j    k    l    L    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    u    w    z   

*e   


*e POC numeral prefix 2431

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

eb, emb


*embaq PWMP bring, take along 2327
*embaw PWMP high, on top 2328
*ebeb PPH to sit on eggs, of a hen 12141
*embej PWMP bind the waist; band around the waist 2329
*ebek PWMP thudding sound 2286
*embeŋ PMP a dam; to dam a stream 2331
*embeŋ PWMP a dam; to dam a stream 2331
*embeŋ PCEMP a dam; to dam a stream 2331
*embeŋ PCMP a dam; to dam a stream 2331
*embeŋ PEMP a dam; to dam a stream 2331
*embet PWMP bind the middle 2330
*e boŋi POC it is getting dark, night is coming on 996
*ebuk PMP dust, powder 2287
*ebuk PWMP dust, powder 2287
*ebuk PCEMP dust, powder 2287
*ebuk PCMP dust, powder 2287
*ebun PMP heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather 2288
*ebun PWMP heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather 2288
*ebun PCEMP heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather 2288
*ebun PEMP heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather 2288
*ebuq PWMP gut a fish, eviscerate 2290
*ebuR PMP sow, strew, scatter 2291
*ebuR PWMP sow, strew, scatter 2291
*ebuR PCEMP sow, strew, scatter 2291
*ebuR PCMP sow, strew, scatter 2291
*ebus PWMP finished, gone 2292
*embut PWMP to pound, of the pulse 2333
*embut-embut PWMP fontanel 2334

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ed, end


*enda PWMP no, not 12140
*edaŋ PWMP light, radiance; shine 2293
*endaŋ PWMP stop, come to a stop 2357
*endaŋ endaŋ PWMP periodically stopping 2358
*edaq PMP vetative; don't 2294
*edaq PWMP vetative; don't 2294
*edaq PCEMP vetative; don't 2294
*edaq PCMP vetative; don't 2294
*edeg PWMP back (of humans or animals) 2295
*edem₁ PWMP overcast; dull lustre 2296
*edem₂ PAN soak, dye 2298
*edem₂ PMP soak, dye 2298
*edem₂ PWMP soak, dye 2298
*eden PWMP to brood, sit on eggs 2299
*enduR PMP thunder 2359
*enduR PWMP thunder 2359
*enduR PCEMP thunder 2359
*enduR PCMP thunder 2359
*endut PWMP resilient, springing back when pressed down 2360

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

eg, eŋg


*eŋga PWMP no, not 2438
*egaŋ PWMP dry, dried up 2302
*egap PWMP gasp, open the mouth to breathe 2300
*eŋgem PMP hold something inside the mouth 2439
*eŋgem PWMP hold something inside the mouth 2439
*egik PMP high-pitched throaty sound 2303
*egik PWMP high-pitched throaty sound 2303
*egik PCEMP high-pitched throaty sound 2303
*egik PCMP high-pitched throaty sound 2303
*e(ŋ)guk PMP make a gurgling sound 2454
*e(ŋ)guk PWMP make a gurgling sound 2454
*e(ŋ)guk PCEMP make a gurgling sound 2454
*e(ŋ)guk PCMP make a gurgling sound 2454

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ej


*ejaq PWMP vetative; don't 2304
*e(ŋ)juŋ PWMP nose 2455

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ek, eŋk


*e(ŋ)kak PMP choke, gasp, struggle for breath 2456
*e(ŋ)kak PWMP choke, gasp, struggle for breath 2456
*e(ŋ)kak PCEMP choke, gasp, struggle for breath 2456
*e(ŋ)kak PCMP choke, gasp, struggle for breath 2456
*eŋkak-eŋkak PWMP choke, gasp, struggle for breath 2457
*ekal PPH to remove, take off or out 12243
*ekaŋ PWMP hoot, croak 2307
*eŋkaŋ PWMP spread the legs 2443
*ekap PMP gasp for air 2306
*ekap PWMP gasp for air 2306
*ekap PCEMP gasp for air 2306
*ekap PCMP gasp for air 2306
*eŋkaq PWMP breathe quickly or deeply 2442
*e(ŋ)kek PMP subdued laughter; sobbing 2458
*e(ŋ)kek PWMP subdued laughter; sobbing 2458
*e(ŋ)kek PCEMP subdued laughter; sobbing 2458
*e(ŋ)kek PCMP subdued laughter; sobbing 2458
*eŋkel PMP bent, stooped 2444
*eŋkel PWMP bent, stooped 2444
*eŋkel PCEMP bent, stooped 2444
*eŋkel PCMP bent, stooped 2444
*eŋkel PEMP bent, stooped 2444
*ekeŋ PMP stiff 2312
*ekeŋ PWMP stiff 2312
*ekeŋ PCEMP stiff 2312
*ekeŋ PCMP stiff 2312
*eŋkeŋ PMP moan, hum, howl 2447
*eŋkeŋ PWMP moan, hum, howl 2447
*eŋkeŋ PCEMP moan, hum, howl 2447
*eŋkeŋ PCMP moan, hum, howl 2447
*ekep PMP brood, sit on eggs 2310
*ekep PWMP brood, sit on eggs 2310
*ekep PCEMP brood, sit on eggs 2310
*ekep PCMP brood, sit on eggs 2310
*eŋker PWMP low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar 2446
*eket PWMP stick, adhere 2311
*e(ŋ)kik PMP shrill cry 2459
*e(ŋ)kik PWMP shrill cry 2459
*e(ŋ)kik PCEMP shrill cry 2459
*e(ŋ)kik PCMP shrill cry 2459
*ekit PMP squeak, shriek 2313
*ekit PWMP squeak, shriek 2313
*ekit PCEMP squeak, shriek 2313
*ekit PCMP squeak, shriek 2313
*ekuk PMP make a croaking sound 2314
*ekuk PWMP make a croaking sound 2314
*ekuk PCEMP make a croaking sound 2314
*ekuk PCMP make a croaking sound 2314
*ekup PWMP enclose, cover 2315
*eŋkus PWMP snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils 2448
*eŋkut PMP guttural sound 2449
*eŋkut PWMP guttural sound 2449
*eŋkut PCEMP guttural sound 2449
*eŋkut PCMP guttural sound 2449

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

el


*elak PMP separate two things 2316
*elak PWMP separate two things 2316
*elak PCEMP separate two things 2316
*elak PCMP separate two things 2316
*eleb PWMP knee 2317
*elem₁ PMP shade, darkness 2318
*elem₁ PWMP shade, darkness 2318
*elem₁ PCEMP shade, darkness 2318
*elem₁ PCMP shade, darkness 2318
*elem₂ PWMP cautious, suspicious 2319
*elet₁ PMP borrow, be in debt 2320
*elet₁ PWMP borrow, be in debt 2320
*elet₁ PCEMP borrow, be in debt 2320
*elet₁ PCMP borrow, be in debt 2320
*elet₂ PWMP exert strength or effort 2321
*eliŋ PMP high-pitched sound 2322
*eliŋ PWMP high-pitched sound 2322
*eliŋ PCEMP high-pitched sound 2322
*eliŋ PCMP high-pitched sound 2322
*eluŋ PMP bend, curve 2323
*eluŋ PWMP bend, curve 2323
*eluŋ PCEMP bend, curve 2323
*eluŋ PCMP bend, curve 2323

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

em


*ema₁ PMP father's sister, possibly address term 2324
*ema₁ PWMP father's sister, possibly address term 2324
*ema₁ PCEMP father's sister, possibly address term 2324
*ema₁ PCMP father's sister, possibly address term 2324
*ema₂ PWMP kiss 2326
*ema-q PMP father's sister, possibly address term 2325
*ema-q PWMP father's sister, possibly address term 2325
*ema-q PCEMP father's sister, possibly address term 2325
*ema-q PCMP father's sister, possibly address term 2325
*emeg PWMP damp, moist 2335
*emis₁ PMP sweet taste 2336
*emis₁ PWMP sweet taste 2336
*emis₁ PCEMP sweet taste 2336
*emis₁ PCMP sweet taste 2336
*emis₁ PEMP sweet taste 2336
*emis₁ PSHWNG sweet taste 2336
*emis₂ PEMP sweet taste 2647
*emis₂ PSHWNG sweet taste 2647
*emit PMP small in quantity, few; trifling amount 2337
*emit PWMP small in quantity, few; trifling amount 2337
*emit PCEMP small in quantity, few; trifling amount 2337
*emit PCMP small in quantity, few; trifling amount 2337
*emun PWMP if 2350
*emuŋ PWMP gather, collect together 2352
*emuR PMP hold in the mouth 2351
*emuR PWMP hold in the mouth 2351
*emuR PCEMP hold in the mouth 2351
*emuR PCMP hold in the mouth 2351
*emuR PEMP hold in the mouth 2351

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

en


*-en PAN marker of direct passive 2381
*-en PMP marker of direct passive 2381
*-en PWMP marker of direct passive 2381
*ena PMP catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. 2355
*ena PWMP catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. 2355
*ena PCEMP catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. 2355
*ena PEMP catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. 2355
*enap PMP scale of a fish 2354
*enap PWMP scale of a fish 2354
*enap PCEMP scale of a fish 2354
*enap PCMP scale of a fish 2354
*enat PPH to pull something toward oneself 12142
*enat-en PPH to pull something toward oneself 12143
*enem PAN six 2361
*enem PMP six 2361
*enem PWMP six 2361
*enem PCEMP six 2361
*enem PCMP six 2361
*enem enem PMP six by six, six at a time 2374
*enem enem PWMP six by six, six at a time 2374
*enem enem PCEMP six by six, six at a time 2374
*enem enem PEMP six by six, six at a time 2374
*enem ŋa puluq PMP sixty 2372
*enem ŋa puluq PWMP sixty 2372
*enem ŋa puluq PCEMP sixty 2372
*enem ŋa puluq PCMP sixty 2372
*enem-an PPh group of six 2371
*enep PPh keep to oneself 2382
*e(n)teŋ PMP stare, look fixedly at 2450
*e(n)teŋ PWMP stare, look fixedly at 2450
*e(n)teŋ PCEMP stare, look fixedly at 2450
*e(n)teŋ PCMP stare, look fixedly at 2450
*e(n)teŋ PEMP stare, look fixedly at 2450

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    


*eñat PWMP stretch 2434
*eñep PMP sunken, submerged 2435
*eñep PWMP sunken, submerged 2435
*eñep PCEMP sunken, submerged 2435
*eñep PCMP sunken, submerged 2435

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    


*eŋap PMP gasp for breath 2432
*eŋap PWMP gasp for breath 2432
*eŋap PCEMP gasp for breath 2432
*eŋap PEMP gasp for breath 2432
*eŋap POC gasp for breath 2432
*eŋaq PWMP wide open (mouth) 2433
*eŋeŋ PWMP buzz, hum 2437
*eŋes PPh sniffle, snore 2436
*eŋik PWMP high-pitched sound of complaint 2441
*eŋit PPH laugh; laughter 4974
*e(ŋ)kab PWMP open, uncover 2305
*e(ŋ)keb PMP a cover, to cover 2308
*e(ŋ)keb PWMP a cover, to cover 2308
*e(ŋ)keb PCEMP a cover, to cover 2308
*e(ŋ)keb PCMP a cover, to cover 2308
*e(ŋ)keb PEMP a cover, to cover 2308
*eŋus PPh sniffle, pant 2452
*eŋut PMP complain loudly 2453
*eŋut PWMP complain loudly 2453
*eŋut PCEMP complain loudly 2453
*eŋut PCMP complain loudly 2453

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ep, emp


*epak PWMP break, crack, split 2383
*epan PWMP start a fire 2384
*epaŋ PMP notch; notched 2386
*epaŋ PWMP notch; notched 2386
*epaŋ PCEMP notch; notched 2386
*epaŋ PCMP notch; notched 2386
*epap PWMP clap, flap, slap 2385
*empas PWMP fall away, crumble (as a wall) 2338
*epat PMP four 5162
*epat PWMP four 5162
*epat PCEMP four 5162
*epat PCMP four 5162
*epat epat PMP four at a time 5184
*epat epat PWMP four at a time 5184
*epat epat PCEMP four at a time 5184
*epat epat PCMP four at a time 5184
*epat-an PWMP group of four (?) 5182
*epat-en PWMP be divided into four 5183
*empeŋ PMP block, obstruct, dam a stream 2339
*empeŋ PWMP block, obstruct, dam a stream 2339
*empeŋ PCEMP block, obstruct, dam a stream 2339
*empeŋ PCMP block, obstruct, dam a stream 2339
*epeŋ PMP make a dull sound in the ears 2387
*epeŋ PWMP make a dull sound in the ears 2387
*epeŋ PCEMP make a dull sound in the ears 2387
*epeŋ PCMP make a dull sound in the ears 2387
*epid PWMP braid, intertwine 2388
*epiq PMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2389
*epiq PWMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2389
*epiq PCEMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2389
*epiq PCMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2389
*epis PPH fibrous material at base of coconut frond 12098
*epit₁ PMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2390
*epit₁ PWMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2390
*epit₁ PCEMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2390
*epit₁ PCMP burnt food which adheres to the pot 2390
*empu PMP grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner 2340
*empu PWMP grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner 2340
*empu PCEMP grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner 2340
*empu PCMP grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner 2340
*empu PEMP grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner 2340
*empu PSHWNG grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner 2340
*empu-an PWMP object of respect; distinguished or respected person 2341
*epuk PMP make a popping sound 2392
*epuk PWMP make a popping sound 2392
*epuk PCEMP make a popping sound 2392
*epuk PCMP make a popping sound 2392
*empu-ni-a PWMP owner, possessor 2342
*empú-ŋ PWMP grandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative) 2343
*empu-q PMP grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) 2344
*empu-q PWMP grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) 2344
*empu-q PCEMP grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) 2344
*empu-q PCMP grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) 2344
*epus PMP stump, stub; finish, complete 2393
*epus PWMP stump, stub; finish, complete 2393
*epus PCEMP stump, stub; finish, complete 2393
*epus PCMP stump, stub; finish, complete 2393
*epus PEMP stump, stub; finish, complete 2393
*eput PWMP puff, blow suddenly 2394

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

er


*erak PWMP harsh loud sound 2395
*erit PCEMP scratch, scrape 2400
*erit PCMP scratch, scrape 2400
*erit PEMP scratch, scrape 2400
*erut PWMP rumbling sound 2402

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

eR


*eRes PMP shrink (of living things) 2396
*eRes PWMP shrink (of living things) 2396
*eRes PCEMP shrink (of living things) 2396
*eRes PCMP shrink (of living things) 2396
*eRiq PAN sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*eRiq PMP sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*eRiq PWMP sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*eRiq PCEMP sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*eRiq PCMP sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*eRiq PEMP sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*eRiq PSHWNG sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

es


*esa PAN one 2406
*esa PMP one 2406
*esa PWMP one 2406
*esa PCEMP one 2406
*esa PCMP one 2406
*esa PEMP one 2406
*esa PSHWNG one 2406
*esa POC one 2406
*esa esa PMP one by one 2410
*esa esa PWMP one by one 2410
*esa esa PCEMP one by one 2410
*esa esa PCMP one by one 2410
*esak PMP cooked, ripe 2403
*esak PWMP cooked, ripe 2403
*esek₁ PMP crowded; crowd together 2411
*esek₁ PWMP crowded; crowd together 2411
*esek₁ PCEMP crowded; crowd together 2411
*esek₁ PEMP crowded; crowd together 2411
*esek₂ PMP drive in stakes or posts 12245
*esek₂ PWMP drive in stakes or posts 12245
*esem PWMP sour 2412
*eseŋ PMP blow the nose by pinching off one nostril 2414
*eseŋ PWMP blow the nose by pinching off one nostril 2414
*eseŋ PCEMP blow the nose by pinching off one nostril 2414
*eseŋ PCMP blow the nose by pinching off one nostril 2414
*esuŋ PMP rice mortar 2415
*esuŋ PWMP rice mortar 2415
*esuŋ PCEMP rice mortar 2415
*esuŋ PCMP rice mortar 2415

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

et, ent


*etak PWMP notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis 2416
*eták PPh bush knife, machete 2429
*etas PWMP slash, chop away 2417
*eteb PWMP cut off, prune 2418
*etek PWMP sound of light knocking 2419
*etel PMP constipation; packed hard and firm 2421
*etel PWMP constipation; packed hard and firm 2421
*etel PCEMP constipation; packed hard and firm 2421
*etel PCMP constipation; packed hard and firm 2421
*eter PMP shake, vibrate, tremble 2422
*eter PWMP shake, vibrate, tremble 2422
*eter PCEMP shake, vibrate, tremble 2422
*eter PCMP shake, vibrate, tremble 2422
*etes₁ PMP chop, hack, cut off 2423
*etes₁ PWMP chop, hack, cut off 2423
*etes₁ PCEMP chop, hack, cut off 2423
*etes₁ PCMP chop, hack, cut off 2423
*etes₂ PWMP cross a river 2424
*etik PWMP little, few; small amount 2425
*etip PWMP burnt rice which adheres to the pot 2427
*etuk PMP knock, pound, thud 2428
*etuk PWMP knock, pound, thud 2428
*etuk PCEMP knock, pound, thud 2428
*etuk PCMP knock, pound, thud 2428
*entul PWMP bounce, rebound 2377

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ez


*enzak PWMP step, tread; stamp 2378
*ezan PMP notched log ladder 2430
*ezan PWMP notched log ladder 2430
*ezan PCEMP notched log ladder 2430
*ezan PCMP notched log ladder 2430
*enzi PWMP term of address to girls 2379
*enzi-q PWMP term of address to girls 2380
*e(n)zuk PWMP proffer, offer 2451

eb    ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 6/9/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-p_e1.htm