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Updated: 6/16/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Proto-form indexes: combined

(click on a *proto-form for its cognate set)

 PAN
1696
 PMP
3654
 PWMP
7270
 PPh
1786
 PCEMP
2918
 PCMP
2132
 PEMP
1725
 PSHWNG
431
 POC
2529
combined   
24141

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*n   

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

na


*-na PAN distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*-na PMP distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*-na PWMP distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*-na PCEMP distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*-na PCMP distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*-na PEMP distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*-na POC distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*na qutin POC penis 4770
*na topu POC sugarcane 7954
*na wai, na waiwai POC mango 5929
*na₁ PMP common noun article 3653
*na₁ PWMP common noun article 3653
*na₁ PCEMP common noun article 3653
*na₁ PCMP common noun article 3653
*na₁ PEMP common noun article 3653
*na₁ POC common noun article 3653
*na₂ PAN linker marking emphatic attribution 3654
*na₂ PMP linker marking emphatic attribution 3654
*na₂ PWMP linker marking emphatic attribution 3654
*na₃ PAN genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₃ PMP genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₃ PWMP genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₃ PCEMP genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₃ PEMP genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₃ POC genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₄ PMP already 11942
*na₄ PWMP already 11942
*na₄ PCEMP already 11942
*na₄ PCMP already 11942
*na₄ PEMP already 11942
*na₄ POC already 11942
*na₅ PMP conjunction: and 8755
*na₅ PWMP conjunction: and 8755
*na₅ PCEMP conjunction: and 8755
*na₅ PCMP conjunction: and 8755
*na₅ PEMP conjunction: and 8755
*na₅ POC conjunction: and 8755
*na-atay PWMP dead 54
*nabek PMP breakers, surf, waves 11943
*nabek PWMP breakers, surf, waves 11943
*nabek PCEMP breakers, surf, waves 11943
*nabek PCMP breakers, surf, waves 11943
*nabuq PMP to fall 3640
*nabuq PWMP to fall 3640
*nabuq PCEMP to fall 3640
*nabuq PCMP to fall 3640
*nadi POC hard stone used to make tools 6780
*nago POC face; front; prow of canoe 8058
*nai POC woman’s grass skirt 11868
*najam PAN accustomed to, familiar with; tame 3641
*najam PMP accustomed to, familiar with; tame 3641
*najam PWMP accustomed to, familiar with; tame 3641
*naŋkaq PWMP jackfruit 11534
*nakaw PMP steal 3643
*nakaw PWMP steal 3643
*nakaw PCEMP steal 3643
*nakaw PCMP steal 3643
*naku POC 1sg., I, me 12088
*namaw PMP sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon 3645
*namaw PWMP sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon 3645
*namaw PCEMP sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon 3645
*namaw PCMP sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon 3645
*n-ami PAN 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-ami PMP 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-ami PWMP 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-ami PCEMP 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-ami PCMP 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-ami PEMP 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-ami PSHWNG 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*namo POC lagoon 11842
*n-amu PAN 2pl. genitive, your, by you 9711
*namut PMP an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. 11109
*namut PWMP an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. 11109
*namut PCEMP an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. 11109
*namut PCMP an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. 11109
*namut-namut PMP a tree: Cynometra spp. 6886
*namut-namut PWMP a tree: Cynometra spp. 6886
*namut-namut PCEMP a tree: Cynometra spp. 6886
*namut-namut PCMP a tree: Cynometra spp. 6886
*-nan PWMP that 3646
*nana₁ POC that, those 6720
*nana₂ PPH term of address for older female relative 11987
*nanaq PMP pus 7222
*nanaq PWMP pus 7222
*nanaq PCEMP pus 7222
*nanaq PCMP pus 7222
*nanaq PEMP pus 7222
*nanaq PSHWNG pus 7222
*nanaq POC pus 7222
*nanaq-an PWMP having pus 7224
*nanaq-en PWMP to suppurate, of a wound 7225
*nanaw PPH look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place 11848
*na-nu PAN what(?) 3703
*na-nu PMP what(?) 3703
*na-nu PWMP what(?) 3703
*naNaq PAN pus 7221
*naŋa₁ PMP estuary, mouth of a river 3658
*naŋa₁ PWMP estuary, mouth of a river 3658
*naŋa₁ PCEMP estuary, mouth of a river 3658
*naŋa₁ PCMP estuary, mouth of a river 3658
*naŋa₂ PMP kind of thick rattan 3659
*naŋa₂ PWMP kind of thick rattan 3659
*naŋa₂ PCEMP kind of thick rattan 3659
*naŋa₂ PCMP kind of thick rattan 3659
*naŋa₃ PCEMP mouth of a river, estuary 1189
*naŋa₃ PCMP mouth of a river, estuary 1189
*naŋuy PMP to swim 8381
*naŋuy PWMP to swim 8381
*naŋuy PCEMP to swim 8381
*naŋuy PCMP to swim 8381
*na-penuq PPH filled 6990
*na-piliq PWMP was chosen; what was chosen, one’s preference 8119
*na-pílay PPH was lame 10864
*napok POC breakers, surf, waves 11944
*nara PMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3649
*nara PWMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3649
*nara PCEMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3649
*nara PCMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3649
*naRa PAN to wait 72
*naRa PMP to wait 72
*naRa PWMP to wait 72
*naRah PMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3648
*naRah PWMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3648
*naRah PCEMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3648
*naRah PCMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3648
*naRah PEMP a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3648
*naRah POC a tree: Pterocarpus indica 3648
*na-sakit PPH was hurt or sick 8345
*nasi PWMP fermented rice 11988
*nasu PMP cook by boiling 8111
*nasu PWMP cook by boiling 8111
*nasu PCEMP cook by boiling 8111
*nasu PCMP cook by boiling 8111
*nasu PEMP cook by boiling 8111
*nasu POC cook by boiling 8111
*nasuk PAN cook by boiling 3650
*nasuk PMP cook by boiling 3650
*nasuk PWMP cook by boiling 3650
*nasuk PCEMP cook by boiling 3650
*nasuk PEMP cook by boiling 3650
*nasuk POC cook by boiling 3650
*natad PMP cleared area around house, cleared ground in village 7287
*natad PWMP cleared area around house, cleared ground in village 7287
*natad PCEMP cleared area around house, cleared ground in village 7287
*natad PCMP cleared area around house, cleared ground in village 7287
*natad PEMP cleared area around house, cleared ground in village 7287
*natar POC space outside the village 9542
*natek PWMP palm flour 11849
*n-aten PPH ours 12056
*nateŋ PMP vegetables 7285
*nateŋ PWMP vegetables 7285
*nati PMP young of animals 3651
*nati PWMP young of animals 3651
*nati PCEMP young of animals 3651
*nati PEMP young of animals 3651
*nati POC young of animals 3651
*natu PEMP child, offspring 10934
*natu PSHWNG child, offspring 10934
*natu POC child, offspring 10934
*natuq PMP ovary of an an oviparous animal 7825
*natuq PWMP ovary of an an oviparous animal 7825
*natuq PCEMP ovary of an an oviparous animal 7825
*natuq PCMP ovary of an an oviparous animal 7825
*natuq PEMP ovary of an an oviparous animal 7825
*natuq POC ovary of an an oviparous animal 7825
*nau PPH to teach, show someone how to do something 12473
*nawnáw PPH to dissolve something in water; swish around in water 11850
*nay PAN deictic particle: this 6644

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

na


*nákem PPH will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind 10969

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

ne


*neknek PMP gnat, sandfly, fruit fly 3661
*neknek PWMP gnat, sandfly, fruit fly 3661
*neknek PCEMP gnat, sandfly, fruit fly 3661
*neknek PEMP gnat, sandfly, fruit fly 3661
*nema PAN what thing? 7324
*nemnem PAN think 3662
*nemnem PMP think 3662
*nemnem PWMP think 3662
*nemnem PCEMP think 3662
*nemnem PEMP think 3662
*nepuq PMP stonefish 6514
*nepuq PWMP stonefish 6514
*nepuq PCEMP stonefish 6514
*nepuq PEMP stonefish 6514
*nepuq PSHWNG stonefish 6514
*neRab PMP yesterday 3663
*neRab PWMP yesterday 3663

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

ni


*-ni PAN proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*-ni PMP proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*-ni PWMP proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*-ni PCEMP proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*-ni PCMP proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*-ni PEMP proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*-ni POC proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*ni PAN genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni PMP genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni PWMP genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni PCEMP genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni PEMP genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni POC genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni aku PMP 1sg. agent 94
*ni aku PWMP 1sg. agent 94
*ni aku PCEMP 1sg. agent 94
*ni aku PCMP 1sg. agent 94
*ni aku PEMP 1sg. agent 94
*ni ida PWMP of them, by them 2817
*ni-a PAN 3sg. agent/possessor 385
*ni-a PMP 3sg. agent/possessor 385
*ni-a PWMP 3sg. agent/possessor 385
*ni-a PCEMP 3sg. agent/possessor 385
*ni-a PCMP 3sg. agent/possessor 385
*nihawa PMP breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break 7968
*nihawa PWMP breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break 7968
*ni-ima PAN whose? 8840
*niket PMP sticky, adhesive 3667
*niket PWMP sticky, adhesive 3667
*niket PCEMP sticky, adhesive 3667
*niket PCMP sticky, adhesive 3667
*niknik PMP sandfly 11954
*niknik PWMP sandfly 11954
*niknik PCEMP sandfly 11954
*niknik PCMP sandfly 11954
*niknik PEMP sandfly 11954
*niknik PSHWNG sandfly 11954
*niknik POC sandfly 11954
*ni-ku PMP 1sg genitive (marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me) 8770
*ni-ku PWMP 1sg genitive (marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me) 8770
*nilaw PMP bright light 3669
*nilaw PWMP bright light 3669
*nilaw PCEMP bright light 3669
*nilaw PCMP bright light 3669
*nilu PMP intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge 8149
*nilu PWMP intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge 8149
*nilu PCEMP intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge 8149
*nilu PCMP intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge 8149
*nimas PAN bailer in a canoe 8539
*nimas PMP bailer in a canoe 8539
*nimas PWMP bailer in a canoe 8539
*nimas PCEMP bailer in a canoe 8539
*nimas PEMP bailer in a canoe 8539
*nimas POC bailer; to bail water from a canoe 8540
*nini PCEMP shake, tremble, rock 7160
*nini PCMP shake, tremble, rock 7160
*nini PEMP shake, tremble, rock 7160
*nini POC shake, tremble, rock 7160
*ninih PMP shake, tremble, rock 3670
*ninih PWMP shake, tremble, rock 3670
*niniŋ PCEMP clear, of water 11958
*niniŋ PCMP clear, of water 11958
*niniq₁ PMP plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets 3671
*niniq₁ PWMP plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets 3671
*niniq₁ PCEMP plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets 3671
*niniq₁ PCMP plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets 3671
*niniq₁ PEMP plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets 3671
*niniq₁ POC plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets 3671
*niniq₂ PMP sandfly 11955
*niniq₂ PWMP sandfly 11955
*niniq₂ PCEMP sandfly 11955
*niniq₂ PCMP sandfly 11955
*niniq₂ PEMP sandfly 11955
*niniq₂ PSHWNG sandfly 11955
*niŋal PMP echo 3684
*niŋal PWMP echo 3684
*niŋal PCEMP echo 3684
*niŋal PCMP echo 3684
*niŋniŋ PMP clear, of water 3685
*niŋniŋ PWMP clear, of water 3685
*nipaq PMP a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans 8398
*nipaq PWMP a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans 8398
*nipaq PCEMP a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans 8398
*nipaq PEMP a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans 8398
*nipaq POC a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans 8398
*nipay PMP snake 3672
*nipay PWMP snake 3672
*nipay PCEMP snake 3672
*nipay PCMP snake 3672
*nipen PAN tooth 7136
*nipen PMP tooth 7136
*nipen PWMP tooth 7136
*nipen PCEMP tooth 7136
*nipen PCMP tooth 7136
*nipen PEMP tooth 7136
*nipen PSHWNG tooth 7136
*nipi PCEMP dream 5305
*nipi PCMP dream 5305
*nipi PEMP dream 5305
*nipi POC dream 5305
*nipis PMP thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipis PWMP thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipis PCEMP thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipis PCMP thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipis PEMP thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipis PSHWNG thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipis POC thinness (of materials) 8672
*nipon POC tooth 7137
*niRab PWMP yesterday 3673
*niRu PMP winnowing basket 7302
*niRu PWMP winnowing basket 7302
*nisnis-an PPH to wipe away, wipe off 11672
*nisnís PPH to wipe, rub, scrub 11671
*n-ita PAN 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*n-ita PMP 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*n-ita PWMP 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*n-ita PCEMP 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*n-ita PCMP 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*n-ita PEMP 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*nituq PMP a fern: Lygodium spp. 3686
*nituq PWMP a fern: Lygodium spp. 3686
*nituq PCEMP a fern: Lygodium spp. 3686
*nituq PCMP a fern: Lygodium spp. 3686
*niuR PMP coconut 7013
*niuR PWMP coconut 7013
*niuR PCEMP coconut 7013
*niuR PCMP coconut 7013
*niuR PEMP coconut 7013
*niuR PSHWNG coconut 7013
*niuR POC coconut 7013
*niwaŋ PMP thinness, of people and animals 3676
*niwaŋ PWMP thinness, of people and animals 3676
*niwaŋ PCEMP thinness, of people and animals 3676
*niwaŋ PCMP thinness, of people and animals 3676

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

no


*nofo POC sit; stay or stop moving; reside 10388
*nonok POC gnat, sandfly 11947
*nonom POC to think 11948
*nopo-nopo POC to fear, be intimidated by 6769
*nopuq POC stonefish 6515
*noRap POC yesterday 11949

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

nu


*-nu PAN marker of uncertainty 3687
*-nu PMP marker of uncertainty 3687
*-nu PWMP marker of uncertainty 3687
*-nu PWMP 2sg possessor and non-subject agent 8790
*nu- PAN future marker with words for days 11638
*nu- PMP future marker with words for days 11638
*nu- PWMP future marker with words for days 11638
*nu₁ PAN if, when (in future) 3715
*nu₁ PMP if, when (in future) 3715
*nu₁ PWMP if, when (in future) 3715
*nu₂ PWMP 2sg.; you 6516
*nu₃ PAN genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) 8802
*nu₃ PMP genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) 8802
*nu₃ PWMP genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) 8802
*nues PMP squid 7053
*nues PWMP squid 7053
*nues PCEMP squid 7053
*nues PCMP squid 7053
*nuka PMP wound 6435
*nuka PWMP wound 6435
*nuka PCEMP wound 6435
*nuka PCMP wound 6435
*nuka-en PWMP affected by sores, wounded 6434
*nunu₁ POC earthquake 6900
*nunu₂ POC to slough, shed the skin, as a snake 6978
*nunu₃ POC female breast 7790
*nunuh PAN female breast 7789
*nunuh PMP female breast 7789
*nunuh PWMP female breast 7789
*nunuh PCEMP female breast 7789
*nunuh PEMP female breast 7789
*nunuk PMP a tree: the banyan or strangler fig 3711
*nunuk PWMP a tree: the banyan or strangler fig 3711
*nunuk PCEMP a tree: the banyan or strangler fig 3711
*nunuk PCMP a tree: the banyan or strangler fig 3711
*nunuk PEMP a tree: the banyan or strangler fig 3711
*nunuk POC a tree: the banyan or strangler fig 3711
*nu-nunu POC earthquake 6901
*nuŋnuŋ PWMP stare, look fixedly 3716
*nupi PWMP dream 9598
*nuRuq PMP luck 3712
*nuRuq PWMP luck 3712
*nus PMP squid, cuttlefish 3714
*nus PWMP squid, cuttlefish 3714
*nus PCEMP squid, cuttlefish 3714
*nus PCMP squid, cuttlefish 3714
*nusa₁ PMP island 7054
*nusa₁ PWMP island 7054
*nusa₁ PCEMP island 7054
*nusa₁ PCMP island 7054
*nusa₁ PEMP island 7054
*nusa₁ PSHWNG island 7054
*nusa₁ POC island 7054
*nusa₂ POC smaller types of reef squid 7057
*nuso POC smaller types of reef squid 7056

na    na    ne    ni    no    nu    

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 6/16/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-p_n1.htm