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Updated: 4/22/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Proto-form indexes

(click on a *proto-form for its cognate set)

 PAN
1638
 PMP
3484
 PWMP
6830
 PPh
1210
 PCEMP
2774
 PCMP
2044
 PEMP
1608
 PSHWNG
359
 POC
2292
 combined   
22239

Counting proto-forms

Counts are shown below the proto-language index line. In counting numbers of entries for any given proto-language it is necessary to distinguish explicit from implicit reconstructions. Explicit reconstructions are always marked with a proto-form which is assigned to a stated proto-language. Implicit reconstructions, on the other hand, are logically implied at various levels by the structure of the family tree, but are not overtly indicated. Thus, PAN *enem 'six' contains three explicit reconstructions, each of which is required because it differs in shape, in meaning, or in both from its antecedent form:

PAN*enem'six'
PEMP*onəm'six'
POC*onom'six'

However, since PAN *enem evidently persisted in the same shape and meaning until the formal changes seen in PEMP *onəm, PMP *enem 'six', and PCEMP *enem 'six' are automatically supplied by the structure of the phylogeny (similar reflexes in CMP languages likewise imply PCMP *enem 'six'). Likewise, since PEMP *onəm evidently persisted until the innovation which produced POC *onom, PSHWNG *onəm 'six' is also implied. The highest-order reconstruction in a cognate set is thus always an explicit reconstruction, although any other proto-form that has undergone formal or semantic change from its antecedent is also explicitly indicated.

(The indexes, and the counts which appear below the proto-language index line, include both explicit and implicit reconstructions.)

Proto-Austronesian

 a    b    C    d    e    g    h    i    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


*-a₁ PAN imperative suffix 383
*-a₃ PAN subjunctive suffix 387
*a₄ PAN hesitation particle 381
*a₅ PAN ligature 382
*aba₁ PAN father 10
*aCab PAN a cover 25
*aCas PAN high, tall 26
*aCay PAN death 33
*adaS PAN bring, take along 6632
*adawiN PAN far 6634
*adi PAN no, not 7326
*a-enem PAN six (of humans) 2376
*a-esa PAN one (of humans) 2407
*ai₂ PAN interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc. 83
*ai₃ PAN come 7828
*ajem PAN heart; mind 6619
*aken PAN 1sg oblique 7960
*aki PAN grandfather, ancestor 6552
*aku PAN 1sg nominative; I 90
*ala PAN take, get, fetch, obtain; marry 118
*ala-en PAN be taken 7768
*alap PAN fetch, get, take 96
*alaq₁ PAN fetch, get, take 108
*alaq-en PAN be taken 114
*alim PAN forget 7144
*aluja PAN to paddle 126
*alujah PAN ant sp. 7226
*ama PAN father 134
*ama-ʔ PAN father (voc.) 149
*amen PAN 1pl ex oblique 7962
*am(e)ʔin PAN all; finished 180
*ami PAN 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) 9702
*amu PAN 2pl. nominative pronoun 9708
*-an PAN verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location 254
*aNak PAN child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan 183
*aN-aNak PAN child 186
*aNay PAN insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant 234
*aŋay PAN departure (?) 9146
*apa₂ PAN carry on the back 6553
*apu PAN grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) 273
*apuR PAN betel chew 272
*aRi PAN come; toward the speaker; let’s go! 297
*asa₁ PAN one 305
*asu₁ PAN dog 320
*ata₁ PAN 1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our 333
*auʔ PAN yes 351
*aya₁ PAN exclamation of annoyance, surprise, etc. 369
*aya₂ PAN (gloss uncertain) 370
*baba₁ PAN carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back 433
*ba-bahi PAN [woman, female] 6939
*babaw₃ PAN upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above 428
*babuy₃ PAN pig 441
*babuy-an PAN pigpen, pigsty, piggery 442
*baCaR PAN broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum 8795
*bahi PAN female 6934
*bajaq₁ PAN know, understand; ask, inquire 6439
*bajiw PAN edible mushroom sp. 7145
*bakaŋ₁ PAN bowlegged 9050
*bakbak₂ PAN sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound 477
*bakes PAN belt; tie around the waist 480
*baki₂ PAN grandfather 6554
*bakuŋ₁ PAN a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L. 484
*balalaCuk PAN a bird: the woodpecker 496
*balbal₁ PAN beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them) 528
*bales₁ PAN to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil 531
*bali₃ PAN wind 6555
*baliw PAN buy, sell 6557
*baliw₂ PAN return 559
*baluN PAN bind, bundle 578
*banaw PAN lake 9239
*baNaR PAN a thorny vine: Smilax spp. 611
*baNaS PAN male (of animals) 614
*baNaw PAN a thorny vine: Smilax spp. 619
*baNiC PAN to skin, flay 627
*bañaw PAN wash the body 754
*baŋaS PAN a tree: Melia azedarach 7114
*baŋaw PAN paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field 760
*baŋbaŋ₂ PAN butterfly, moth 766
*baŋbaŋ₆ PAN loud resounding sound 773
*baŋeliS PAN tusk; canine tooth 776
*baŋ(e)qeR₁ PAN rotten smell, stench 801
*baŋeS PAN skin 7227
*baŋeSiS PAN fragrant 804
*baŋun₁ PAN the Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa 7304
*baŋuN PAN wake up, get out of bed 787
*baqeRuh PAN new; bachelor 645
*baqeSiŋ PAN sneeze 7146
*baqi PAN grandmother 6438
*barat₁ PAN crossbeam 668
*baRah PAN ember, glowing coal 652
*baRaŋ PAN rib (?) 9176
*baRaq₁ PAN lung 662
*baRat₁ PAN crossbeam 666
*baRat₂ PAN cucumber: Cucumis sativus 6620
*b<aR>eŋbeŋ PAN buzzing, droning, humming 1065
*baReq PAN abscess, boil, swelling on the body 696
*baRija PAN weaver's sword (lath used to beat in and tighten the woof) 698
*baRiuS PAN typhoon 702
*baRuj PAN a dove: probably Ducula spp. 709
*basbas₁ PAN hit, strike 720
*basbas₂ PAN sprinkle 721
*baseq PAN wash clothes 6444
*basuq PAN to wash 6455
*baSaq PAN a flood; to overflow, be in flood 461
*baSaw PAN cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal 7066
*baSay PAN a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta 7070
*batu₃ PAN to throw 6501
*batu₄ PAN stone; testicle 6485
*bayu PAN to pound rice 6785
*beCeŋ PAN millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica 811
*beCik PAN tattoo 813
*beCuʔ PAN callus, blister 820
*bedul PAN swelling of the body 824
*bejbej₁ PAN wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material 830
*bekas₁ PAN to spring a trap 842
*bekas₂ PAN swift, fast 843
*bekbek₂ PAN sound of breaking, etc. 855
*bekuC PAN hunchbacked 868
*belaq PAN part of something split 879
*beli₁ PAN to buy 909
*benan PAN deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer 7228
*beNbeN PAN banana: Musa sapientum L. 6559
*beNelem PAN overcast, twilight 10931
*beNuC PAN pull out, extract 945
*beŋbeŋ₁ PAN blocked, as by a wall or curtain 1061
*beŋbeŋ₂ PAN buzz, hum 1064
*beriq PAN split, tear open 973
*beRas₁ PAN rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice 950
*beRas-an PAN container in which rice is stored 952
*beRay₁ PAN give 957
*beRek PAN domesticated pig 965
*beReqaŋ PAN molar tooth 970
*beRŋaw PAN bluebottle, large fly 993
*beRŋi-n PAN night 998
*beRus₁ PAN a plant: Rhus semialata 6560
*bes PAN whizzing sound 1019
*besuR PAN satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated 1011
*betak₁ PAN crack, split open (as dry ground) 1020
*beties PAN calf of the leg 1035
*betik₁ PAN snap the fingers; flick with the finger, fillip 1037
*betuŋ₁ PAN bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. 1046
*biaC PAN draw a bow to its full extent 1096
*biCuka PAN stomach 1106
*bilaŋ PAN to count, calculate; hold valuable 1148
*biliN PAN to follow after someone, walk behind 7115
*b<in>ahi PAN [woman, wife] 6941
*b<in>eCik PAN tattooed, marked with a design 815
*b<in>elaq PAN to have been split, cloven in two 881
*bineSiq PAN seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting 1190
*b<in>uRuk PAN to have become rotten 1771
*biNiC PAN hold in the hand 1194
*biqel PAN goiter 6463
*biqiR PAN lopsided, off-balance 1213
*biqut PAN curved, crooked, bent 1215
*biraŋ PAN anger, angry 1234
*birbir₂ PAN shiver, shake, tremble 1240
*biriC PAN to tear, rip 1242
*biRaq₁ PAN wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. 1218
*biRaS PAN roe, fish eggs 1224
*biRaSu PAN cane grass, Miscanthus sp. 1223
*biRbiR PAN lip 1235
*bisuR PAN satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated 1269
*bitbit₁ PAN pull at some part of the body 1278
*bituqen PAN star 1295
*bua₁ PAN foam, bubbles, froth 1356
*buak PAN bubbling up (as spring water) 1325
*bual₁ PAN spring, source of fresh water 1327
*buaq PAN fruit 1329
*buay₂ PAN (gloss uncertain) 1355
*bubu₂ PAN conical bamboo basket trap for fish 1366
*bubu₆ PAN grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) 1370
*bubuR₁ PAN jellyfish 1365
*buCa PAN mote in the eye; blind; blindness 1381
*buCa-en maCa PAN get a mote in the eye 1386
*buCaq PAN foam, froth 1380
*buCbuC PAN pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) 1393
*buCu PAN callus, corn; blister 1405
*buCuq PAN testicles 1401
*buhaŋ PAN hole, pit 1449
*buhet PAN squirrel 1450
*bujeq₁ PAN foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth 1466
*bukas PAN release, undo 6713
*bukeS PAN head hair 1499
*bukij PAN mountain; forested inland mountain areas 1506
*bukuN PAN back (anat.) 9177
*bula₂ PAN to give 7305
*bulaN PAN moon, month; menstruation 1533
*bulaR₁ PAN cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision 1552
*bulaw PAN golden colored 1560
*bulaw-an PAN gold 1561
*bulbul₂ PAN dust, pulverized stone 1568
*buled₁ PAN mountain 1570
*buli- PAN prefix of the *qali, *kali- series 1591
*bulilik PAN lizard sp. 1580
*buluN PAN companion 1597
*buluq₂ PAN type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. 1601
*b<um>aliw PAN buy 6558
*b<um>asuq PAN to wash 6456
*bunabun PAN rice seedling 1632
*bunuR₁ PAN to swell; swollen 7293
*bunuS PAN machete 6561
*buNbuN PAN fontanelle; crown of the head 1638
*buNi PAN to hide, conceal 1647
*buNuq PAN throw at, hit with a projectile 1684
*buNuq₁ PAN a constellation: the Pleiades 1681
*buŋa PAN flower, blossom 7349
*buŋuR PAN tree sp. 1913
*buqaya PAN crocodile 1710
*buRaw PAN drive off, chase away, expel 1737
*buRay PAN flower 7417
*buReS PAN spray water from the mouth 1751
*buRuk PAN rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character 1770
*busuR₁ PAN enemy 1796
*busuR₂ PAN hunting bow 1797
*buSek PAN drunkenness, intoxication 1786
*buuŋ PAN buzzing or humming sound 1850
*CabCab PAN clap, beat, hack 1935
*Cabu PAN to wrap 6635
*Ca-Capuh PAN broom 6563
*Ca-CaqiS PAN thread used for sewing (?) 1999
*CaCaw PAN pupil of the eye 1936
*Ca-Cawa PAN to laugh 2025
*Cakaw PAN steal 1937
*Cakaw-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 1950
*Caki PAN feces, excreta 1955
*Cali PAN cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta 6621
*Caliŋa PAN ear 1973
*Caliŋa na kaSiw PAN wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks 1975
*CaliS PAN rope, cord, twine, string 1959
*CaluN PAN fallow land; secondary forest 1977
*CaNem PAN grave; to bury 7437
*CaNem-en PAN what is buried or planted 7451
*CaNum PAN carry water 7454
*Caŋelaj PAN elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea 10710
*Caŋila PAN ear 2037
*Caŋis PAN weep, cry; mourn; to beseech 2039
*Caŋis-an PAN to cry over something or someone 7774
*Capa PAN to smoke fish or meat for preservation 1981
*Capaŋ PAN a patch, as on clothing 1988
*Capel PAN a patch; to patch 1990
*CapeS-i PAN to winnow 1995
*Capuh PAN sweep 6562
*Caqi PAN feces, excrement 2004
*CaqiS PAN to sew 1997
*CaqiS-an PAN place of sewing 2000
*Caqu PAN to know how, be able to, be skilled at 7838
*Caqu-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 7843
*CaSaw PAN open-air; outdoors 2011
*Cau PAN person, human being 2014
*Cau Cau PAN (gloss uncertain) 2021
*Cau nu maCa PAN pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) 8614
*Cawa PAN to laugh 2023
*CawiN PAN year 6564
*Cazem PAN sharp (of point or blade) 2032
*Cebak PAN smack against 2048
*Cebiq PAN split, divide, break off 6538
*Cebuj PAN natural spring, fresh water spring 2050
*Cebuk PAN thud 2052
*CebuN PAN smoke 6637
*Cebuŋ PAN to meet, come together 7116
*CebuS PAN sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum 2054
*CegCeg PAN beat, pound, hit 2056
*CekCek PAN pierce, penetrate 2059
*CekeS PAN kind of very slender bamboo 6622
*Celaq PAN crack, split, fissure 2063
*CelCel PAN beat, pound 2065
*Ceme-Cemel PAN uncultivated land 6566
*Cemel PAN grass, herbs; medicine 6565
*Cenek PAN thorn 2069
*CeRab PAN a belch 2072
*Cesek PAN insert, pierce, penetrate 2077
*Cidu PAN spoon, ladle, dipper 2083
*Cikel PAN return, go back 2088
*C<in>akaw PAN what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive) 1948
*C<in>aliS PAN was made into rope; what was made into rope 1965
*C<in>apa PAN smoked fish or meat 1986
*C<in>aqi PAN small intestine 2006
*C<in>aqiS PAN work produced by sewing or stitching 2003
*C<in>uNuh PAN be roasted (by someone) 2125
*CiŋaS PAN food particles caught between the teeth 2098
*Ciqaw PAN fish sp. 2094
*-Cu PAN 2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then 2168
*Cubuq PAN plant sprout 2106
*CugCug₁ PAN hit something against something else 2113
*CugCug₂ PAN knock or bump the head 7931
*Cukul PAN huddle, bow the head 5706
*Culi PAN deaf 6917
*C<um>abu PAN to wrap 6636
*C<um>aki PAN defecate 1957
*C<um>aliS PAN to tie with rope, fasten with rope 1967
*C<um>aŋis PAN to weep, cry, mourn 7773
*C<um>apu PAN to sweep 9609
*C<um>aqi PAN to defecate 2008
*C<um>aqiS PAN to sew 2002
*Cumay PAN Formosan black bear 6567
*Cumek PAN pulverize; crumble 2118
*CumeS PAN clothes louse; body louse 2119
*C<um>ubuq PAN to sprout, to grow 2108
*C<um>ugCug PAN knock or bump the head 7933
*C<um>uNuh PAN to roast (intr.) 2127
*C<um>uSuR PAN to string beads, etc. 2153
*CuNuh PAN roast food over a fire 2122
*CuNuh-an PAN to roast 2129
*CuŋCuŋ PAN make a booming sound 10559
*CuqelaN PAN condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish 2143
*Curis PAN scratch a line 2146
*CuSuR PAN string together, as beads 2149
*CuSuR-en PAN be strung, be skewered 2152
*Cuzuq PAN index finger 10560
*da PAN locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du) 8797
*da-ama PAN father 135
*dadaN PAN old, of things; ancient times 7018
*da-duSa PAN two, of people 7877
*dajam PAN accustomed to, tame 2181
*dajem PAN chills, as of malaria 2183
*dakep PAN catch, seize; embrace 7077
*dakep-en PAN be caught, captured 7080
*dakeS PAN a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp. 6682
*daki₁ PAN dirt on skin; dandruff 6611
*dakiS PAN climb, ascend 6612
*dakuC PAN snatch, grab 2186
*dalayap PAN kind of citrus tree and fruit 6856
*dalem PAN in, inside; deep 7088
*damaR PAN tree resin used in torches (?) 8079
*damuq PAN menstrual blood? 6723
*danaw PAN lake 7109
*danum-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 7463
*daNum PAN fresh water 7456
*daŋdaŋ₁ PAN broil; warm oneself or something near a fire 6963
*daŋdaŋ-an PAN place something near a fire 6969
*dapa PAN palm of the hand 2210
*dapaN PAN sole of the foot; footprint 6704
*daqaN PAN old, ancient 7020
*daqaNi PAN day 2197
*daqiS PAN forehead; face 6464
*daqu₁ PAN a tree: Dracontomelum edule 2198
*daqu₂ PAN soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria 6568
*daRa₁ PAN Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana 6569
*daRaq PAN blood; to bleed; menstruate 7205
*daReq PAN soil, probably clay 2200
*daRiŋ PAN groan, moan 2202
*daRiq PAN soil, probably clay 8900
*daSdaS PAN chest (anat.) 2203
*dataR PAN flat, flat or level land 7564
*daya PAN upriver, toward the interior 7210
*debdeb PAN chest 2216
*dekeC PAN paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice) 8087
*dekiŋ PAN to bark, of a deer 2223
*deles PAN bowstring 2226
*demdem₁ PAN brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still 2227
*demdem₂ PAN gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy 7567
*deŋeR PAN to hear; sound 8248
*depuŋ PAN venomous snake 2230
*deruŋ PAN deep booming sound 2237
*deRdeR PAN thunder 2232
*deRuŋ₁ PAN distant rolling thunder 2238
*di PAN locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du) 8796
*dikeC PAN sticky, adhesive 2248
*dikit PAN little, few, small in amount 2249
*dilaq₁ PAN to lick 7129
*di-ni PAN here 3678
*diNaŋ PAN rust 7117
*diRi PAN to stand 7383
*diRus PAN bathe 7330
*disdis PAN cut, slice 2256
*diteq PAN sticky substance 2258
*dua PAN over there, yonder 7323
*du-duSa PAN (gloss uncertain) 7879
*dukduk PAN ginger 6708
*du(ŋ)kuŋ PAN bend, curve 2284
*duma PAN someone; other people; be different 7685
*d<um>akep PAN to catch, capture; embrace 7079
*d<um>akiS PAN climb, ascend 6613
*d<um>ilaq PAN to lick 7131
*duRi₁ PAN thorn 6825
*duSa PAN two 7874
*duSa duSa PAN two by two, two at a time; two each 7909
*duSa-en PAN be divided into two 7906
*edem₂ PAN soak, dye 2298
*-en PAN marker of direct passive 2381
*enem PAN six 2361
*eRiq PAN sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 2399
*esa PAN one 2406
*gaCel PAN itch, feel itchy 7150
*garaŋ₁ PAN fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper 8842
*garuC PAN comb 8580
*gaRaŋ PAN small edible freshwater crab 3069
*gayaŋ PAN hunting spear 7611
*geCel PAN to pinch 9002
*gemel PAN take in the hand, clasp, grasp 2489
*gemgem PAN fist; hold in the fist 7612
*gerger₁ PAN shake, shiver, tremble 2501
*geriC PAN sound of ripping, gnawing, etc. 2503
*getil PAN to pinch 9004
*giŋgiŋ PAN cold, shivering 8237
*giRiŋ PAN ringing sound 2519
*gisgis₁ PAN rub, scrape against 2520
*guCguC PAN pluck, pull out 2523
*guŋguŋ PAN deep resounding sound 2537
*g<um>aruC PAN to comb 8583
*gumuN PAN body hair 8876
*gurgur₁ PAN sound of boiling water 2526
*guRiCa PAN octopus 7148
*gusi(ʔ) PAN gums 2532
*guSam PAN a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush 7489
*gutgut₁ PAN front teeth, incisors 2524
*hesek PAN pierce the ground 2664
*hisep PAN suck, inhale 2705
*hukaq PAN loosen, open 2730
*huRaC PAN artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon 5840
*i aCas PAN above, on top 28
*i babaw PAN above, on top of 430
*-i₁ PAN imperative suffix 3033
*i₁ PAN exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc. 3029
*i₂ PAN generic marker of location in space or time 3030
*i₃ PAN personal article 3031
*ia₁ PAN 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it 2785
*i-ami PAN 1pl. excl. nominative, we 9703
*ia-ni PAN this; here 3680
*ibaS PAN companion, close relative, other one 2792
*i-Cu PAN that (2p) 2172
*idas₁ PAN affine of Ego's generation 2814
*ijan PAN when? 2827
*i-kaSu PAN 2sg., you 9766
*ikuD PAN to follow 2839
*ikud PAN to sit 10690
*ikuR PAN tail 2840
*iluR₂ PAN river channel 2865
*ima PAN who? 6624
*<in> PAN perfective marker 2934
*ina PAN mother, mother's sister 2887
*in-alap PAN that which has been taken; was taken by 104
*iná-q PAN mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) 2896
*i-ni PAN this, here 3679
*ini PAN negative marker: no, not 6638
*inu PAN where? 2930
*i-nu PAN place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where? 3700
*iŋepis PAN thin (of material objects) 5341
*iŋsuŋ PAN wooden rice mortar 3060
*iRik PAN thresh with the feet (as rice) 2956
*isa isa PAN distributive; one-by-one, one at a time 2969
*isa₁ PAN one 2965
*isa-ŋa PAN the remaining one 2968
*isiʔ PAN flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents 2985
*iSeq PAN urine, urinate 2978
*iSiq PAN urine, urinate 2980
*iSu PAN 2sg. personal pronoun: you 2999
*ita₁ PAN we (incl.) 3004
*iten₁ PAN 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) 3008
*iten₂ PAN 1pl in oblique 7964
*iten₃ PAN we (incl.) 7699
*-i-ti PAN this, here 5635
*iuk₂ PAN citrus fruit (both orange and pomelo?) 7372
*ka- -an₁ PAN marker of the adversative passive 9736
*ka- -an₂ PAN formative for nouns of location 9737
*ka- -an₃ PAN formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal) 9738
*ka-₁ PAN marker of past time in temporal expressions 3145
*ka₁ PAN conjunctive particle, and 3146
*ka₂ PAN conditional, if 3147
*ka-₂ PAN stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions 9727
*ka₃ PAN oblique case marker for plural personal names 8800
*ka-₅ PAN formative for abstract nouns of quality 9730
*ka-aCay PAN kill (?) 35
*ka-aCay-an PAN lose someone through death (?) 36
*ka-bajaq PAN know, understand 6441
*kabal₁ PAN clothing 9746
*kabaR PAN clothing 9748
*kabit₁ PAN hook 7239
*kabus₂ PAN shrimp, lobster 9756
*ka-CaSaw-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 2013
*ka-Cau-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 2016
*kaCu PAN bring, carry 3067
*ka-dataR-an PAN plain, region of level land 7566
*kaen PAN eat 8008
*kaen-an PAN place where one eats; food 8030
*kaen-ay PAN will eat 8032
*kaen-en PAN be eaten by someone; cooked rice 8033
*kaen-i PAN eat it! 8036
*kahuS PAN scoop up 6571
*kaija PAN when? (in the past) 9787
*kak PAN sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc. 3073
*kaka₂ PAN elder sibling 9742
*kakaCu PAN spider 6570
*ka-kaen-an PAN place where one eats 8023
*ka-kaen-en PAN edible things, food 8024
*kakak PAN caw, cackle 8921
*ka-kalih PAN digging stick 7705
*kaŋkaŋ₂ PAN resounding sound 9079
*k-aku PAN 1sg oblique: to me, for me 92
*ka-kuRi PAN a rake 6581
*kalaw PAN bird sp. 3080
*kali- PAN prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) 10073
*kali₁ PAN canal, ditch 3084
*kalih PAN a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers 7702
*kaluŋkuŋ PAN deep resounding sound 10101
*kamay PAN hand 3090
*kamaya PAN plant sp.: Diospyros discolor 3089
*k-ami PAN 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) 9705
*k-amu PAN 2pl. nominative, you all 9709
*kamu-yu PAN 2pl. nominative, you all 9712
*ka-nu₁ PAN interrogative; probably 'when?' 3701
*kaNasay PAN a fish: the mullet 3101
*k<aN>uSkuS PAN claw, talon, fingernail 7274
*ka-pajay-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 7676
*ka-piliq-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 8123
*kapit PAN fasten together by sewing or tying 8920
*ka-pitu-an PAN seventh month (?) 8325
*kapkap PAN feel in the dark, grope 3111
*kapua PAN silk cotton, kapok 7306
*ka-qudip-an PAN livelihood 4639
*karkar PAN scratch up the earth, as a fowl 3120
*k<ar>uSkuS PAN scrape, scratch something from a surface 3302
*karut₁ PAN scrape, rasp 3124
*ka-Rabi-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 7376
*kaRaC PAN to bite 7712
*kaRaC-i PAN bite (imperative) 7716
*kaRaw₁ PAN to scratch an itch 7723
*kaRi₁ PAN word, speech, language 9794
*kaRus PAN scrape 3123
*kaS(e)pal PAN thick, of solid objects 3130
*kaSi-kaSiw PAN wooded, having lots of trees 7808
*kaSiw PAN wood; tree 7794
*kaSiw-en PAN (gloss uncertain) 7806
*kaSkaS PAN scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food 6614
*kaSu PAN 2sg., you 9764
*ka-tanem-an PAN area that is planted(?) 7447
*katawa PAN castor bean: Ricinus communis L. 10249
*ka-telu PAN (gloss uncertain) 8420
*katkat₂ PAN come undone, of stitches 9799
*ka-wanaN PAN right (side, hand, direction) 9475
*kawaS₁ PAN year, season; sky, heaven 6573
*kawaS₂ PAN talk, talk about, discuss 7255
*kaway₃ PAN net bag used by men for carrying things on back 7118
*kawayan PAN bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa 9776
*kawil₁ PAN fishhook 7240
*ka-wiRi PAN left side or direction 5999
*kawit PAN hook 7243
*kawkaw₁ PAN sickle for harvesting grain 7119
*ka-zalan-an PAN improvised trail, trail made by passing through? 7593
*kedi PAN small in size or amount 3158
*kedip PAN to blink 3156
*keŋkeŋ₁ PAN hollow, resounding sound 3203
*kelem PAN dark, overcast, visually obscure 8717
*kelip PAN to blink 3167
*kemkem₂ PAN bite down hard 10079
*kepit PAN press together; pressed together 9180
*keriq PAN chattering, crying of monkeys 3184
*keRan₁ PAN scab on a wound 8883
*keRaŋ₂ PAN scab, crust on a wound 3182
*keRaŋ₃ PAN dry 8884
*keRet PAN cut something slender or soft; reap crops 7120
*keRet-en PAN be cut 7122
*keRiw PAN hemp plant; hemp 6574
*keRkeR PAN shake, tremble 3186
*keRuŋ PAN resounding sound 3190
*keseR PAN strength, vigor, force 11019
*keskes₁ PAN scratch, scrape 3192
*ketil PAN pinch off 3196
*ketun PAN cut, sever 6639
*kezem PAN close the eyes 3199
*kezuC PAN to jerk suddenly, jump when startled 9977
*ki- PAN prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) 8785
*ki₂ PAN oblique case marker for personal nouns 8787
*kiaw PAN puling sound of a bird 3214
*kiCiŋ PAN body part 3215
*ki-CuNuh PAN (gloss uncertain) 2131
*kiŋkiŋ₁ PAN ringing sound 3248
*kikuR PAN tail 8891
*kilala PAN to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive 8773
*kiluŋ PAN curved; bay 3229
*k<in>a-Cau-an PAN nature, character 2018
*k<in>aCu PAN was brought; what was brought 6605
*k<in>aen PAN was eaten; what was eaten 8025
*k<in>aen-an PAN what was eaten; food 8031
*k<in>alih-an PAN place that has been dug up 7709
*k<in>aRaC-an PAN the bite of an animal 7722
*k<in>uja PAN what has been said/done (to cause someone to react)? 7469
*kiŋeR PAN to hear 10059
*kipit PAN narrow; pinch between tongs, etc. 9932
*kiRim PAN seek, search, look for 6575
*kiRim-en PAN be looked for 6578
*kiRkiR PAN rasp, file 6705
*kiRus PAN scrape 3239
*kiskis PAN to shave, scrape off 9836
*kiSkiS PAN scrape off 3240
*kita₁ PAN we (incl.) 7701
*kita₂ PAN to see 8527
*kita-en PAN be seen by someone (?) 8533
*ki-tunuh PAN (gloss uncertain) 2132
*kiwkiw PAN to wave, wag (tail); to stir (people) up 9802
*-ku PAN 1sg genitive (marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me) 8769
*ku PAN oblique of common nouns (cf. *ki, *ka) 8801
*kuan₁ PAN hamlet; kin-based residential unit 3257
*kuaw PAN kind of bird and the sound of its call 3258
*kuCkuC PAN roll up, curl up tightly 7295
*kuCu PAN head louse 7640
*kudem PAN darkened by clouds, overcast 3259
*kuden PAN clay cooking pot 6510
*kudeŋ PAN clay cooking pot 9249
*kudis PAN scurfy skin disease; scabies 3260
*kudkud PAN hoof, lower leg of an ungulate 3262
*kuja₁ PAN how?, how is it? what is the matter? 7467
*kukuŋ₁ PAN small bird that produces a deep resounding call 9183
*kuŋkuŋ₁ PAN deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages 9184
*kulaC PAN bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. 8465
*kulay₁ PAN worm, insect 6641
*kuliC PAN rind, peeling of fruits or tubers 7213
*k<um>aCu PAN to bring, to carry along 6606
*k<um>aen PAN to eat 8027
*k<um>ahuS PAN scoop up 6572
*k<um>ali PAN to dig up, excavate, as tubers 7708
*k<um>aRaC PAN to bite 7720
*k<um>aRaw PAN to scratch an itch 7724
*k<um>aSiw PAN (gloss uncertain) 7802
*k<um>eRet PAN cut something slender 7121
*kumeS PAN pubic hair 9845
*k<um>etun PAN chop up, as firewood 8245
*k<um>iRim PAN to seek, search, look for 6577
*kumiS PAN pubic hair 8002
*k<um>ita PAN to see 8532
*k<um>uCu PAN to delouse 7649
*k<um>uja PAN (gloss uncertain) 7470
*k<um>uRi PAN to rake 6582
*k<um>uSkuS PAN to scrape 7268
*kuNkuN PAN Formosan hill partridge 6579
*ku(ŋ)kuŋ PAN deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry 3322
*kupit PAN press together, close tightly 3280
*kurap PAN ringworm 9778
*kuris₁ PAN scurfy skin disease; scabies 3290
*kurkur PAN dig in the soil 10020
*kuRi PAN rake 6580
*kuSa PAN work 3299
*kuSkuS₁ PAN claw, talon, fingernail 7272
*kuSkuS₂ PAN scrape 3301
*kuti PAN vulva, vagina 7453
*kutkut₂ PAN scrape off 9850
*kuya₁ PAN bad, defective 6642
*labaw PAN rat 8172
*labi PAN excess; more than; surpass 3326
*labiq PAN excess, surplus 8759
*laCeŋ PAN stinging nettle: Laportea spp. 7166
*lahud PAN downstream, toward the sea 7039
*lahuN PAN steam, vapor 8156
*lajam PAN familiar with, accustomed to 7492
*lakup PAN cover, wrapping 7872
*la-lima PAN five (in counting people) 7390
*lama PAN old, former 3343
*lamlam PAN impetuous 3347
*lamuj PAN to mix 10657
*laŋaw PAN housefly 7573
*laŋaw-en PAN infested with flies, covered with flies 7576
*laŋ(e)si PAN unpleasant odor 3395
*laŋiC PAN sky 7528
*laŋu PAN vertigo 3393
*lapis PAN flying squirrel 6643
*laplap PAN loose (as of clothing) 3356
*laRaŋ PAN to forbid 3360
*laRiw PAN run, run away, flee, escape 3361
*la(n)tuk PAN curved, bowed 3390
*lawa₁ PAN wide 3373
*lawaq₂ PAN spider; spiderweb 8177
*lawaR PAN flying squirrel 6583
*lawas₁ PAN wide, broad 3371
*layap PAN to fly 3378
*layaR PAN sail 7409
*layu PAN wither, wilt 7111
*lebeŋ PAN to bury 7171
*lebleb PAN foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain 7256
*lecik PAN fly off, of solid bits or water droplets 3404
*lemek₁ PAN soft 3412
*lemlem PAN dark, of weather; overcast 3418
*lepaw₁ PAN hut 3423
*lezep PAN submerge, disappear under water 3438
*liduŋ PAN shelter, cover, protection; shade 9153
*likaC PAN lightning 7276
*likaw PAN curve, bend, winding 7531
*likeS PAN mosquito 6584
*likud PAN back 7535
*likud-an PAN back area, place at the back? 7539
*liku-likud PAN (gloss uncertain) 7540
*liku-likud-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 7541
*lima PAN five 7384
*linuR PAN earthquake 3472
*liNuŋ PAN calm, tranquil, of the surface of water 3475
*liŋaw PAN shadow 3486
*lipen PAN tooth 7105
*lipet PAN to fold, fold over 9031
*liqeR PAN neck 7356
*liseqeS PAN nit, egg of a hair louse 7817
*liuS PAN circumambulate, circumvent 3481
*lubaŋ₁ PAN burial pit 7311
*luCuŋ PAN the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis 6845
*lukeNaw PAN Formosan clouded leopard 6585
*lukuC PAN parasitic plant sp. 3518
*luluN PAN to roll up, as a mat 7543
*lum PAN ripe 3531
*l<um>ubaŋ PAN to bury, place in a pit or hole 7314
*lupas₁ PAN peach 7229
*lupaS PAN spit, spit out 3533
*luSeq PAN tears 7667
*lutuk PAN the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus 6586
*ma-₁ PAN stative prefix 8752
*ma-₂ PAN future prefix 8753
*ma-aCay PAN die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon 37
*ma-ala PAN be fetched, be taken 7786
*ma-alap PAN be taken 99
*ma-anak PAN (gloss uncertain) 192
*ma-bajaq PAN know, understand 6442
*ma-bali₁ PAN windy 6556
*ma-bañaw PAN wash the body 757
*ma-baSaw PAN cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long 7068
*ma-belaq PAN be split, in two 882
*ma-besuR PAN satiated, full from eating 1016
*ma-buCa PAN blind 1389
*ma-bunuR PAN to swell; swollen 7294
*ma-buRaw PAN driven away, chased off 1741
*ma-buSek PAN drunk, intoxicated 1788
*maCa PAN eye, focal point, center or most prominent part 8601
*ma-Cakaw PAN to steal 1940
*ma-Caŋis PAN tearful, crying easily 2041
*ma-Caqu PAN to be capable, able, knowledgeable 7841
*ma-Cawa PAN to laugh 2028
*ma-CiŋaS PAN have food particles caught between the teeth 2100
*ma-CuNuh PAN roasted 2133
*ma-dajam PAN accustomed to, tame 2182
*ma-dajem PAN chills, as of malaria 2184
*ma-dalem PAN deep 7092
*ma-dalis PAN smooth, slippery 2192
*ma-daRaq PAN bloody, bleeding; to menstruate 7207
*ma-demdem PAN dark, overcast, gloomy 7569
*ma-kaen PAN will eat (?) 8010
*maka-enem PAN six times (frequentative multiplicative) 2366
*maka-lima PAN five times 7391
*maka-pija PAN (for) how many days? 8052
*maka-pitu PAN (gloss uncertain) 8314
*ma-kaRaC PAN to be bitten 7718
*maka-Sepat PAN four times 5170
*maka-walu PAN eight times (frequentative, multiplicative) 5947
*ma-keseR PAN strong, vigorous, energetic, forceful 11020
*ma-kiRim PAN found? 6576
*ma-kuCu PAN (gloss uncertain) 7642
*ma-kuja PAN what are you doing? what’s happening? 7471
*ma-kuliC PAN skinny, thin, underweight 9145
*ma-laŋu PAN dizzy, drunk 3394
*ma-laRiw PAN run, run away, flee 3362
*ma-lebleb PAN foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain 7265
*ma-lima-N PAN fifty 7401
*maliqi PAN pregnant 3563
*mamah PAN parental sibling 8745
*ma-najam PAN accustomed to, familiar with; tame 3642
*manu PAN interrogative marker: which? 3571
*manuk PAN chicken 6948
*maNaŋ PAN sharp 7296
*ma-Nipis PAN thin (of materials) 8673
*ma-Niwaŋ PAN thin, of persons and animals 7051
*ma-Nuka PAN wounded 3708
*ma-ŋilu PAN painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour 7505
*ma-paqiC PAN bitter (?) 6874
*ma-piliq PAN (gloss uncertain) 8116
*ma-pizpiz PAN closely spaced, set close together 7415
*ma-pukaw PAN dim, of vision 7525
*ma-puNi PAN white 6685
*ma-puSaN PAN twenty 6647
*ma-qaCi PAN ebb, of water in streams; low tide 4144
*ma-qajaw PAN sunny, hot 4150
*ma-qañud PAN adrift 4414
*ma-qataq PAN raw, unripe 4341
*maqaw PAN a plant: Litsea cubea (Lour.) 6587
*ma-qetaq₁ PAN raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked 4488
*ma-quSaw PAN thirsty 4750
*ma-quzaN PAN rainy 4783
*maR-ama PAN to be father and child 136
*maR-buaq PAN bear fruit 1336
*maRe-anak PAN parent and child 199
*maR-ina PAN to be mother and child 2898
*maR-luSeq PAN to shed tears, weep 7669
*maR-qani PAN harvest; to harvest 4227
*maS PAN and 3572
*ma-Sasak PAN ripe; cooked 5066
*ma-SateD PAN escort, accompany 5079
*ma-Sepat PAN (gloss uncertain) 5168
*ma-SeReC PAN tight, firm 8210
*ma-Seyaq PAN shy, embarrassed; ashamed 5205
*ma-Sikad PAN ashamed; shy; modest 7263
*ma-Suab PAN to yawn, yawning 5361
*ma-Suaw PAN to yawn 6695
*ma-Sulem PAN dim, dark 5392
*ma-takut PAN fearful, afraid 7427
*ma-talaw PAN fearful, cowardly 7421
*ma-taŋa PAN will open? 6711
*-matek PAN jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. 6861
*ma-telu PAN (gloss uncertain) 8424
*ma-tuduR PAN to sleep 8360
*ma-tunuh PAN roasted 2134
*ma-tuqaS tuqaS PAN old, elder, senior 8514
*ma-ulaw PAN dazed, confused 5765
*meCaq PAN paddy leech 3580
*-meCaq PAN paddy leech 10103
*mi- PAN prefix marking possession of some object 10846
*mi-da-duSa PAN do something with someone else, perform an action together 7892
*m<in>aCa PAN open-eyed (?) 8606
*m<in>aCay PAN burial ground (?) 64
*mu- PAN movement prefix 8789
*mujiŋ PAN face (human) 7282
*mujiŋ-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 7283
*mula PAN to plant 3630
*mumu PAN Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) 7187
*-na PAN distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then 3655
*na₂ PAN linker marking emphatic attribution 3654
*na₃ PAN genitive of plural personal names 8693
*na₄ PAN already 8754
*najam PAN accustomed to, familiar with; tame 3641
*n-ami PAN 1pl. excl. genitive, our 9707
*n-amu PAN 2pl. genitive, your, by you 9711
*na-nu PAN what(?) 3703
*naNaq PAN pus 7221
*naRa₂ PAN to wait 72
*nasuk PAN cook by boiling 3650
*nay PAN deictic particle: this 6644
*nema PAN what thing? 7324
*nemnem PAN think 3662
*-ni PAN proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now 3677
*ni PAN genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb 8781
*ni-á PAN 3sg. agent/possessor 385
*ni-ima PAN whose? 8840
*nimas PAN bailer in a canoe 8539
*nipen PAN tooth 7136
*n-ita PAN 1st pers. incl. genitive; our 7698
*-nu PAN marker of uncertainty 3687
*nu₁ PAN if, when (in future) 3715
*nu₃ PAN genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) 8802
*nunuh PAN female breast 7789
*Na PAN conjunction: and 3652
*Nabek PAN breakers, surf, waves 3639
*NaCeŋ PAN vegetables 7284
*Nali PAN cicada 3644
*Namat PAN iron (metal) 7307
*Naŋuy PAN to swim 8380
*Naqeji PAN boundary between adjacent rice fields 7230
*Nasu PAN cook by boiling 8110
*NataD PAN outside 7286
*Neŋ PAN look, see 3666
*NeŋNeŋ PAN stare, look fixedly 3664
*Nibu PAN lair, den of an animal 6588
*Nihib PAN rock shelter, cave under a rock 7123
*Nipis PAN thinness (of materials) 8860
*NiSawa PAN breath; to breathe 7967
*Niteq PAN sap of a tree or plant 3674
*Niwaŋ PAN thinness, slenderness 7050
*Nuka PAN wound 3707
*N<um>aŋuy PAN to swim 8382
*NuqeS PAN bone marrow 7124
*Nusuŋ PAN rice mortar 3539
*Nutud PAN join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.) 7188
*ñamñam PAN tasty, delicious (?) 6044
*ñamuR PAN dew 6885
*ñawñaw PAN rinse, wash 6049
*ŋabŋab PAN bite off the surface of something 6040
*ŋajan PAN name 7493
*ŋajay PAN saliva, drivel 10991
*ŋalŋal PAN to chew, masticate 8764
*ŋaŋa₂ PAN open the mouth 7984
*ŋawŋaw PAN sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person 8594
*ŋayaw PAN headhunting 6526
*ŋeCŋeC PAN gnash the teeth 8147
*ŋerŋer PAN growl 8546
*ŋesŋes PAN to pant, be out of breath 8555
*ŋetŋet PAN gnaw, nibble 8556
*ŋiCŋiC PAN show annoyance or irritation 8595
*ŋidaw PAN toothless 8564
*ŋilu PAN painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour 7503
*ŋipen PAN tooth 7138
*ŋiSŋiS PAN beard 6683
*ŋitŋit₁ PAN gnaw 6070
*ŋusŋus PAN to snore, growl, grunt 8598
*ŋusuq PAN nasal area; snout 7553
*ŋuSuN PAN nosebleed 6589
*ŋuSuR PAN nasal mucus 6674
*pa PAN still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else) 8812
*pa-₂ PAN causative prefix 9461
*pa-aCay PAN kill 55
*pa-aluja PAN to paddle 127
*pa-añud PAN set adrift 4416
*pa-bajaq PAN give knowledge, teach 6443
*pa-beRay PAN to give 961
*pacek PAN wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel 3733
*paCak PAN spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal 3732
*pa-Caŋis PAN to make someone cry; to let someone cry 2044
*p-aCay-en PAN be killed 59
*pa-daNum PAN to irrigate 7460
*pa-dekeC PAN to stick or paste on 8091
*padeŋ PAN to extinguish, douse a fire 10860
*paen PAN bait 8565
*paheku PAN bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum 6706
*pa-hinzam PAN lend 2691
*paid PAN fan 7140
*pajay PAN rice in the field; rice plant 7675
*pajiS PAN enemy 6625
*pa-ka- PAN causative of stative verbs 9463
*pa-kaCu PAN to send 6607
*paka-duSa PAN twice, do something twice 7893
*pa-kaen PAN to feed 8015
*pa-kaen-en PAN to feed, be fed 8016
*pa-ka-keseR PAN (gloss uncertain) 11021
*pa-kita PAN to show 8531
*pakpak₁ PAN to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping 7507
*paleCuk PAN shoot, sound of shooting 3767
*pa-likaw PAN (gloss uncertain) 7532
*pa-likud PAN (gloss uncertain) 7536
*paliq₁ PAN an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas 3772
*paliSi PAN taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite 3774
*paliSi-en PAN be tabooed (?) 3775
*palu₃ PAN to hammer, pound, hit 7422
*palu-palu PAN hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering 7424
*panaq PAN throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow 6474
*pa(n)tuk₂ PAN to knock, strike against 3911
*paNaw PAN go, walk away, depart 3802
*paNid PAN wing 8898
*paNiŋ PAN door 7822
*paŋa₁ PAN fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation 3894
*paŋudaN PAN pandanus 3915
*pa-p-aCay PAN kill 60
*pa-pespes PAN to massage 10889
*pa-pija PAN how many? (of people) 8053
*pa-pitu PAN seven (of humans) 8316
*paqa₁ PAN thigh 7509
*pa-qetut PAN to fart, break wind 4502
*paqiC PAN hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness 6871
*paqpaq₁ PAN chew 3829
*pa-qudip PAN care for, raise (an animal) 4641
*pa-qumah-an PAN (gloss uncertain) 4691
*pa-quzaN PAN (gloss uncertain) 4787
*pariuk PAN earthenware cooking pot 3864
*paR- X -en PAN divide into x (x = numeral) 3874
*paRa₁ PAN storage shelf; attic, loft 3845
*paRaw PAN hoarse 3841
*paR-enem-en PAN do six times 2370
*paR-isa-an PAN to unite, combine in one 2971
*paRiS PAN stingray 3859
*paR-Sepat-en PAN do four times 5177
*paR-walu-en PAN do eight times 5950
*pasaqan₁ PAN shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole 3875
*pasek PAN wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost 8184
*paspas₁ PAN beat out, thresh 3877
*pasu PAN cheek bone 3878
*pa-susu PAN give the breast to, nurse a child 7629
*pa-susu-en PAN to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked) 7630
*pa-SateD PAN send (?) 5081
*pa-Sezam PAN lend 5224
*pat-a PAN four (in counting certain referents) 5186
*pataS PAN tattoo 6590
*pataS-an PAN an instrument for tattooing 11006
*pa-tumaNa PAN to make someone listen 7924
*pa-tuzuq PAN to point out, give directions (?) 8827
*pa-uSa PAN to send away 6656
*pa-utaq PAN cause to vomit 5869
*peceq₁ PAN break into several large pieces 7615
*peCik PAN snap, as the fingers or a slingshot 3919
*pedek PAN wink, blink 3920
*pedel PAN to wring out, as water from wet clothes 7257
*pedped₁ PAN press together, pack solid 3922
*pekpek₁ PAN beat, hit 3929
*pelus PAN slip off 3934
*peñu PAN the green turtle 7000
*perus PAN slip or slide off 3938
*peReq PAN squeeze out juice, wring out water 7511
*peRes PAN squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing 7513
*pespes PAN squeeze, massage 3941
*pespes-i PAN massage (imperative) 10891
*peSiq PAN squeeze out juice; squirt out 6626
*pi- PAN causative of location 10554
*piad PAN dish, plate 7147
*pija PAN interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few 8047
*pija pija PAN some, several 8056
*pijpij PAN close together 7414
*pikpik PAN sound of patting or tapping 3969
*pikuq₁ PAN to bend, curve; bent, curved 7172
*piliq PAN to choose, to select; to pick out 8112
*piliq-i PAN choose it! 8129
*piluk₁ PAN crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot 7250
*p<in>a-kaen PAN was fed by someone 8020
*p<in>anaq PAN shoot with a bow 6476
*pin-duSa PAN (gloss uncertain) 7897
*p<in>espes PAN was massaged by someone 10890
*piŋi PAN cheek 4001
*pipi₂ PAN female genitalia (child’s word?) 8131
*pi-pitu PAN seven each 8318
*piRaS PAN roe, eggs of fish or crustacean 7518
*piRaS-an PAN be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean 7521
*pisel PAN pinch, squeeze; knead 11012
*pispis₁ PAN hair on the temples 10913
*pitpit₂ PAN pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off 9053
*pitpit₃ PAN to beat, whip 10917
*pitpit-en PAN be pinched, squeezed, or pressed 9054
*pitu pitu PAN seven by seven, seven at a time 8327
*pitu₁ PAN seven 8310
*piuk PAN dent, dimple 3998
*pílay PAN lame, crippled 10862
*pu- PAN causative of motion 10555
*puCaq PAN foam, froth, lather 4013
*pu-Caqi PAN to defecate 10535
*pu-daNum PAN to water, irrigate 7462
*pudu PAN fruit of the betel pepper 11016
*puduN PAN ball of thread; spool 4019
*puja PAN navel, umbilical cord 6627
*pujek PAN navel, umbilical cord 6628
*pukaw PAN night-blindness, nyctalopia 7524
*puki PAN vulva, vagina 7143
*pukpuk PAN to hammer, pound, beat 8647
*pulu₁ PAN handle 4040
*puluC PAN a plant: Urena lobata 4039
*puluq₁ PAN group of ten 6902
*p<um>anaq PAN shoot with a bow 6477
*p<um>ataS PAN to tattoo, make designs 11005
*p<um>ekpek PAN (gloss uncertain) 10894
*p<um>espes PAN to massage 7235
*p<um>iliq PAN to choose, select, pick out 8126
*puna-punay PAN greenish fruit dove 8658
*punay PAN greenish fruit dove 8656
*punuq₁ PAN brain, marrow 6645
*puNi PAN whiteness 6684
*pu-ŋajan PAN (gloss uncertain) 7500
*puŋuN PAN bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.) 4081
*puRuq PAN a bird, the quail 4058
*puSaN PAN twice 6646
*puteq PAN gummy secretion 4063
*punti₁ PAN banana 7783
*putput₁ PAN to pluck, pull out 8670
*putun₂ PAN to break off, cut off, as a limb 8266
*qa₁ PAN locative particle 4395
*qa₂ PAN interrogative particle 7526
*qabaŋ₁ PAN boat, canoe 4097
*qabaRa₁ PAN shoulder 4087
*qabaRa-an PAN shoulder (?) 4089
*qabaS PAN notch cut in a tree 4091
*qabu₁ PAN ash, cinder, powder 4114
*qabu-an PAN place of ashes; hearth 4121
*qaCay PAN liver 4123
*qaCeb PAN deadfall trap to catch small mammals 4137
*qaCi- PAN prefix variant of the *qali/kali- set 4140
*qaCi PAN ebb, of water in streams 4141
*qaCipa PAN turtle sp. 4138
*qadiS PAN hawk sp. (harrier?) 7125
*qajaw PAN day 4148
*qalad PAN fence, wall 4154
*qaleb PAN knee 4156
*qalep PAN beckon, wave 4163
*qali- PAN prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) 10074
*qa-lima PAN hand 9000
*qalima PAN hand 10227
*qali-puju PAN hair whorl 4174
*qali-puju-an PAN hair whorl 8890
*qaluR₁ PAN current, deep channel in the middle of a river 4183
*qalu-Sipan PAN centipede 4186
*qamataq PAN raw, eat something raw 4190
*qamiS PAN north wind 4198
*qamiS-an PAN north; winter 4199
*qani₁ PAN proximal deictic: this 4232
*qani₂ PAN this; here 3682
*qanibuŋ PAN fruit-bearing bush or tree 4205
*qaniS PAN harvest; to harvest 4225
*qanup PAN to hunt wild game 4247
*qanus₁ PAN a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay) 7084
*qaNa PAN stranger; enemy 7126
*qaNeb PAN door 7258
*qaNi- PAN variant of the *qali/kali- prefix 4230
*qaNi PAN weaving spindle 4231
*qaNiC PAN animal skin, hide, leather 4212
*qaNiCu PAN ghost, spirit of the dead; owl 4207
*qaNi-matek PAN jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. 6862
*qaNi-meCaq PAN paddy leech 10104
*qaNiŋu PAN 'shadow, reflection 4233
*qaNuaŋ PAN large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) 4241
*qaNuNaŋ PAN a tree: Cordia dichotoma 4243
*qaNup-an PAN hunting ground, hunting territory 4249
*qaNup-en PAN what is hunted, wild game 4251
*qañud PAN drift on a current, carried away by flowing water 4412
*qaŋeliC PAN stench or burning substances 4398
*qaŋeRiS PAN stench of spoiling fish 4399
*qaŋeRu PAN stench of spoiled or souring organic matter 4400
*qaŋeseR PAN stench of urine 4402
*qaŋeSit PAN stench, musky odor of an animal 4403
*qaŋqaŋ PAN barking of a dog 4410
*qapeju PAN gall, gall bladder, bile 4258
*qapiC PAN tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching 7173
*qapid PAN braid, twine 4264
*qapucuk PAN peak of a mountain 4266
*qapuR PAN lime, calcium 4267
*qaqay PAN foot, leg 4273
*qaRaw PAN snatch, take away by force, rob 4276
*qaRem PAN pangolin, scaly anteater 4280
*qaReNu PAN a plant, Phragmites spp. 7082
*qaRidaŋ PAN bean, pea (generic) 6648
*qaRiw PAN dry 6649
*qaRsem PAN sourness, acidity 4286
*qasawa PAN spouse: husband, wife 4294
*qaseb PAN smoke 4302
*qasepa PAN astringent 4304
*qasiN PAN saltiness, salty taste 4308
*qasiRa PAN salt 4325
*qasiRa-en PAN anything which has been salted 4327
*qaSelu PAN pestle 4303
*qataq PAN eat something raw 4340
*qatimela PAN flea 4357
*qatip₁ PAN part of the loom 4359
*qatip-an PAN part of the loom 4361
*qauŋ PAN to howl, of a dog 4377
*qauR₁ PAN bamboo sp. 4373
*qawqaw PAN to bark, of a dog 4384
*qayam₁ PAN bird 4386
*qazi PAN no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada) 4393
*qebel PAN smoke 4421
*qeCah PAN rice husk, rice bran 4422
*qeCeŋ PAN obstruction, barrier 4424
*qeCeŋeN PAN black 6623
*qeCqeC PAN tight, constricted 8522
*qeCuR PAN sexual arousal, sexual excitement 4426
*qedet PAN press down on 4427
*qekuŋ PAN owl 4432
*qeleC PAN interval, intervening space 4436
*qelqel PAN chew, gnaw on 6650
*qelud PAN housepost, pillar 6593
*qemin PAN all 4446
*qemqem PAN hold in the closed mouth 4449
*qemu PAN sticky rice cake 6686
*qenay PAN sand 4450
*qenuR-an₁ PAN animal haunt, place frequented by animals 4467
*qeNeb₁ PAN to close, to shut; door 4456
*qeNeb₂ PAN spread all over 4459
*qeNuR PAN animal trail 4465
*qepit PAN squeeze, press between 4472
*qesak PAN ripe; cooked; ready to eat 4478
*qesep PAN sip, suck 4481
*qesir PAN hiss, sizzle 4483
*qetaq PAN eat something raw 4485
*qetut₁ PAN fart, flatulence 4497
*qia PAN exclamation (probably of affirmation or confirmation) 4517
*qiaw PAN animal cry 4516
*qiCeluR PAN egg 4521
*qiCqiC PAN nibble off, gnaw off 4525
*qidus PAN spoon, ladle 4530
*qijap PAN resent, blame; resentment, jealousy 4535
*qiluS PAN wipe after defecating 4548
*qinep PAN lie down to sleep 4555
*q<in>umah PAN (gloss uncertain) 4694
*qiNaS PAN moon, month 6687
*qiNeb PAN door 4554
*qiNuaŋ PAN large ruminant species 4560
*qipiŋ PAN incline one's head to the side 4565
*qipit₁ PAN pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze 4563
*qiRik PAN thresh with the feet, as rice 4576
*qiSu PAN shark 4586
*qitik₁ PAN small, little; few 4593
*qiuŋ₁ PAN natural sound 4599
*qiut PAN copulate, have sexual intercourse 4598
*qu₂ PAN grammatical particle 4799
*quaŋ₁ PAN empty, vacant 4618
*quaŋ₂ PAN howling or yelping of a dog 4619
*quay PAN rattan, Calamus sp. 4614
*qubaN PAN gray hair 4621
*qubiS PAN pubic hair 6651
*quCaN PAN scrub-land, bush 4630
*qudaŋ PAN shrimp, crayfish, lobster 4632
*qudaS PAN gray hair 6652
*qudem PAN dark, dull (of light or color) 4634
*qudip₁ PAN life, alive 4636
*qujiŋ PAN charcoal 4646
*qukut PAN hunched over, bowed (as with age) 4651
*qulas PAN dewdrop 7189
*qulej PAN type of small worm 4656
*qules₁ PAN clothing 4660
*qulu qulu PAN head-end, upper part 4682
*quluh PAN head 4673
*qumah PAN swidden, work a swidden 4687
*q<um>ajaw PAN to shine, of the sun 4151
*quman PAN repeat oneself monotonously 4696
*q<um>aNiC PAN to skin an animal 4214
*q<um>aNup PAN to hunt, go hunting 4248
*qumaŋ PAN hermit crab 4701
*q<um>aŋqaŋ PAN to bark, of a dog 4411
*q<um>esep PAN suck 4482
*q<um>etut PAN to fart, break wind 4504
*(q)<um>uNah PAN to do or go first; to lead 9111
*qumuR PAN fill the mouth with food or water 4710
*q<um>uzaN PAN to rain; it is raining 4788
*(q)uNah PAN first, before, anterior in time 9110
*quNuNaŋ PAN tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp. 4722
*quNuq PAN beads, necklace of beads 4723
*qupuŋ PAN bunch, cluster 4729
*quriaw PAN noise, clamor 4734
*qusiR PAN pursuit (as of enemies or game) 5853
*quSaw PAN thirst 4748
*quSaw-an PAN thirsty 4749
*quSeNap PAN fish scale 4743
*quSeŋeC PAN anger, angry 4751
*quSuŋ PAN edible mushroom (generic) 4753
*qutiN PAN penis 4768
*quyaS PAN to sing; song, tune, melody 9074
*quzan-en PAN to be rained on 4790
*quzaN PAN rain 4779
*rakat PAN walk 4813
*ramig PAN cold (of weather) 10692
*rauC PAN peel rattan, bamboo 4833
*rawraw PAN to rinse 4839
*reken PAN coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set 4868
*reŋeC PAN angry, annoyed 4886
*reŋiC PAN grimace at pain 4887
*riSriS PAN hoe up weeds; weed a garden 6653
*Rabi-an PAN evening, night 7380
*Rabiqi PAN late afternoon, evening; evening meal 4806
*Rabi-Rabi PAN every night, happening every night 7382
*RabiS PAN small knife 7190
*RabuC PAN uproot, pull out by the roots 6530
*RaCus PAN hundred 7316
*Rahap PAN seeds for sowing 8157
*RameC PAN root 6594
*Rames PAN squeeze, knead 4819
*RamiS PAN root 6654
*RaSuŋ PAN ambush, attack from concealment 6678
*Raya PAN big, large 7358
*Reken PAN coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set 4867
*ReŋeC PAN angry, annoyed 9447
*Riaq PAN sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 4900
*RibaS PAN demolish 4902
*Ribawa PAN swell; swelling, tumor 6688
*Rimeja PAN sword grass: Imperata cylindrica 6689
*Rinu PAN winnowing basket 7301
*RiNaS PAN long feathers used for personal adornment 6595
*RiNaS-an PAN the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant 6596
*Riqek PAN thresh grain by trampling 4914
*Ritu PAN loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa 6629
*Rubu PAN nest, lair 6597
*Rudaŋ PAN old, of people 7581
*R<um>ahap PAN to sow seeds 8158
*Rumaq PAN house 7303
*RuqaNay PAN male 4938
*Rusuk PAN ribs 8475
*RuSRuS PAN to scrape smooth, to plane a surface 7297
*sa₁ PAN nominative case marker for plural personal names 8809
*sa₂ PAN locative marker 9514
*sa₃ PAN one (clitic form of *esa) 9545
*sabay₁ PAN do something together with others 9075
*sabsab PAN slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down 9102
*sah(e)NaR PAN to shine, of the sun 4974
*saheNaR PAN to shine, of the sun 9156
*sakal PAN restraining device on animals 4982
*saka-pitu PAN (gloss uncertain) 8321
*sakat PAN rise, climb up 4984
*sakay₂ PAN walk 6691
*sakeC PAN muntjac, barking deer 6598
*saksak₁ PAN hack, chop into pieces 4986
*sakut PAN to carry, transport, move something 9158
*salaw PAN to pour, of heavy rain 9590
*saleŋ PAN pine tree, pitch pine 7523
*saliw PAN buy, sell 5003
*samaq PAN remnant, leftover 9591
*samuR PAN to mix; mixture 9758
*saNiw PAN whetstone 9276
*saŋeday PAN lean or rest on 5118
*sapaq₁ PAN stream, river 9244
*sapaw PAN field hut 5020
*sapay PAN drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth 9620
*sapet PAN grab with the hand, catch 9255
*sa-puluq PAN ten 6905
*saput₂ PAN to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned 9629
*saqit PAN hook; to hang up 9197
*saqsaq PAN bamboo which has been split and flattened 5053
*sa-supay-an PAN whetstone 7261
*sebu PAN bladder 8949
*sebuS PAN douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ 5130
*sedu PAN hiccough 5134
*sejep PAN enter, penetrate 5136
*sekel PAN bend, bow 5140
*seksek₁ PAN to stuff, cram in; be crowded 8905
*selem₁ PAN sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun 8912
*selsel₁ PAN insert, cram in 5149
*seŋet₂ PAN to sting or bite, of an insect 9538
*seŋseŋ PAN cork, stopper, plug 5237
*sepiq PAN break off fruit or branches 9501
*sepsep PAN sip, suck 7478
*sepsep-en PAN to be sucked up or in 7483
*sequŋ PAN horn of an animal 9446
*si ama PAN father (ref.) 137
*si ia₁ PAN 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it 2786
*si ia₂ PAN demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there 2788
*si₁ PAN nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names 8782
*sibu PAN bladder (?) 5241
*sidu PAN spoon, ladle 5244
*sihikay PAN maggot 7231
*si-ima PAN who? 8841
*siku₁ PAN elbow 8485
*silaq PAN split 5267
*siNaR PAN sun 5287
*sipit PAN tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze 9217
*sipsip PAN sip, suck 5308
*siRa₁ PAN yesterday 6709
*siRup PAN to sip, as through a straw 9091
*siwaq PAN fissure, split in something 9635
*siwsíw PAN to cheep; baby chick 9323
*su PAN nominative case marker for common nouns 8810
*suiq PAN a bird: the sandpiper (?) 9595
*suked PAN prop, support; to prop up or support 9087
*suksuk PAN pierce, penetrate; insert 8293
*sukud PAN walking stick, cane, staff 5467
*suleN PAN insert, plug 5389
*suli₂ PAN to reverse, turn around 9560
*sulud₂ PAN push 9640
*s<um>akay PAN to walk 6692
*s<um>akut PAN to carry, transport, move something 9159
*s<um>ebuS PAN to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire 8944
*s<um>epsep PAN to suck, sip 7481
*s<um>iku PAN to elbow; to push or jab with the elbow 8491
*s<um>uksuk PAN to enter, penetrate, pierce 8298
*s<um>ulud PAN to push 9641
*s<um>uNaR PAN to shine, radiate light 7291
*s<um>upay PAN to whet, grate, sharpen 7260
*s<um>usu PAN to suckle, suck at the breast 7631
*suNaR PAN light, radiance 7289
*suŋa PAN do wrong, do in reverse 9725
*supay PAN whetting, sharpening 7259
*supsup PAN sip, suck 5426
*suqaR PAN thorn 5428
*suquN PAN carry on the head 5433
*suRuq₂ PAN to call on a person to do something 9304
*susu₁ PAN female breast; udder 7625
*susuN PAN to stack up 7559
*Sa₁ PAN ligature 5105
*Sa₂ PAN locative particle 5107
*SabaN PAN cloth used to carry a child on the back 4951
*SabaRat PAN south wind (?) 4953
*Sabij PAN twins of the same sex 4958
*Sabit PAN long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying 4960
*SadiRi PAN housepost 4964
*Sadu PAN many, much, plenty 4968
*Sajek PAN smell; to smell (transitive) 4976
*Sajek-en PAN to smell 4981
*SakuC PAN transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips 4988
*Salas PAN forest, wilderness, woods 4993
*Samaq PAN a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. 6630
*Samud PAN a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum 7191
*Sanaq PAN river otter 6599
*SapaR PAN unroll a mat, spread out a mat 5016
*Sapejiq PAN smarting, stinging pain 5021
*Sapiq PAN flattened 7407
*Sapit PAN press together, press between two surfaces 5023
*SapSap PAN feel, grope 5031
*SapuSap PAN feel, grope 5034
*Sapuy PAN fire 5036
*SaRuŋ PAN snore, groan, etc. 5061
*Sasak PAN ripe; cooked 5064
*Sasaq PAN whet, sharpen 5067
*Sasaq-an PAN whetstone, grindstone 5073
*Sa-Sepat PAN four (of humans) 5179
*SateD PAN accompany, escort; send, return 5077
*SateD-an PAN escort, accompany (imperative) 5086
*Sauni PAN in a little while, momentarily, later 5089
*Saw PAN question particle 5100
*Sawak PAN waist, back of the waist 5091
*Sawiki PAN betel nut: nut of Areca catechu 6693
*SawSaw PAN wash, rinse 5098
*SayaN PAN termite 6534
*SebaN PAN carry a child with a carrying cloth 5124
*SebuC PAN pluck, pull up (as weeds) 5128
*Sekak PAN to crow, to caw 5137
*Seked PAN stop an activity, take a break, rest 7232
*Sema PAN tongue 5155
*Semay PAN cooked rice 5152
*Semut PAN smothering, suffocating 5157
*Señaw PAN to wash 5227
*Seŋad PAN to breathe 7192
*Seŋaw PAN to breathe (?) 7174
*Sepat PAN four 5161
*Sepi PAN dream 5192
*SeReC PAN to bind tightly; belt 8208
*Sesi PAN flesh, meat 5199
*Setek PAN cut, sever, chop 5201
*Seyaq PAN shyness, embarrassment; shame 5203
*Seyup PAN blowing on (a fire, etc.) 5209
*Seyup-an PAN place of blowing 5213
*Sezam PAN borrow, lend 5219
*Si-₁ PAN instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus 5333
*Si-₂ PAN originate from, come from 5335
*Si-₃ PAN to wear, put on clothes, etc. 10693
*Sidi PAN Formosan serow, mountain goat 6600
*Sijap PAN broom 7194
*Sika- PAN prefix for ordinal numbers 2836
*Sikad PAN ashamed; shy 7262
*Sika-duSa PAN second 7899
*Si-kaen PAN instrument used for eating 8021
*Sika-lima PAN fifth (ordinal numeral) 7397
*Sikam PAN mat 5250
*Sikan PAN fish 5252
*Sika-pitu PAN seventh 8322
*Sika-puluq PAN tenth 6907
*Sika-Siwa PAN ninth 9168
*Sika-telu PAN third 8434
*Siket PAN tie, bind, attach to by tying 5256
*Si-lahud PAN wind from the sea (?) 7046
*SimaR PAN grease, oil, fat 5277
*Simu PAN 2p pronoun: you 5283
*Sin- PAN verb prefix 5291
*Sina PAN a plant: Erechtites spp. 7418
*S<in>ebaN PAN what is carried on the back 5126
*SiNuq PAN beads 5289
*Siñaw PAN to wash 5337
*Siñaw-an PAN place where one washes 5339
*Siŋus PAN sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose) 5351
*SipaR PAN opposite side (esp. of a river) 5294
*Sipes PAN cockroach 5297
*Sipi PAN dream 5300
*SipuR PAN to count 6696
*SiRup PAN sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl 5318
*SiSiN PAN omen bird: Alcippe spp. 7127
*Siwa PAN nine 9164
*Siwid PAN slanting, awry 5331
*Su- PAN take off, remove (+ noun) 10522
*Suab PAN yawn 5359
*Suaji PAN younger sibling 5368
*Suaji-an PAN called or regarded as siblings (?) 5376
*Suaw PAN yawn 6694
*SulaR PAN snake 5386
*Sulem PAN dimness, twilight 5390
*Sulij PAN lie or sleep next to 5395
*SulSul PAN to masturbate 7264
*SuluR PAN lower or let down, as on a rope 5398
*S<um>apaR PAN unroll, spread out a mat 5018
*S<um>apuy PAN (gloss uncertain) 5048
*S<um>ateD PAN accompany, escort 5084
*S<um>eŋad PAN to breathe 7193
*S<um>eReC PAN tighten, fasten firmly 8213
*S<um>eyup PAN to blow 5217
*S<um>uni PAN to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) 5418
*Suni PAN chirping of birds; noise, sound 5415
*SuNus PAN withdraw, pull out, extract 5420
*Supiq PAN plant shoot 5411
*SuqSuq PAN drip or drain out 5429
*SuRas PAN wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) 5434
*SuReNa PAN snow 6601
*SuRSuR PAN drawstring; to thread a drawstring 5443
*SuRut PAN pull, draw 5446
*SuRut-en PAN be pulled or drawn 5447
*SuSuq PAN drip or drain out 5448
*Suyeʔab PAN to yawn 5452
*Suʔu PAN 2sg. agent/possessor 5463
*-ta PAN 1pl. incl. genitive suffix 10272
*ta-₁ PAN 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun 10270
*ta-ama PAN father (ref.) 138
*tabaN PAN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?) 7176
*tabi PAN plough 10356
*tabtab₂ PAN slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down 10336
*tabukul PAN casting net for fishing 10313
*tadaw PAN kind of large knife 7195
*tageRaŋ PAN ribcage 6535
*ta-ina PAN mother (ref.) 2901
*taina PAN female, of animals 10814
*takes PAN to wrap around 10390
*takis PAN sword 7325
*taktak₁ PAN to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something 10430
*taktak₂ PAN clatter, clack 10524
*taku₂ PAN dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up 10640
*takut PAN fear 7425
*talaw PAN timid, fearful; coward 5481
*taliuk PAN turn, go around 5483
*tama₁ PAN appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark 5491
*tamtam PAN smack the lips 5505
*tanaq PAN a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) 6697
*tanayan PAN bamboo sp. 7196
*tanem-an PAN area that is planted(?) 7450
*taNah PAN red 9434
*taNam PAN to taste, try 7298
*taNaS PAN village; place of residence 8159
*taNek PAN to cook anything but rice 7331
*taNek-en PAN to be cooked 7339
*taNiud PAN mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta) 7254
*tañam PAN try, taste 5522
*taŋa₂ PAN to open 6710
*tapeS PAN winnow 1992
*tapis₁ PAN loincloth (?) 5509
*tapus PAN end, complete, finish 5511
*taqan₁ PAN set a trap 5513
*taR- PAN prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action 10286
*taRah PAN to wait 6679
*taRaq₁ PAN hewing with an adze 8137
*taRaq-i PAN Adze it!, Hew it! 8142
*ta(R)kes PAN wrap around, encircle 5535
*taRuqan PAN field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village 6698
*tata₁ PAN collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation 10523
*tatak PAN hoe 6699
*ta-telu PAN three (of humans) 8437
*ta-tenun-an PAN loom 8735
*tebaS PAN to cut, clear vegetation 5542
*tebek PAN pierce, stab 5543
*tebuS PAN sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum 7952
*teda PAN leftover, remainder 5552
*teguŋ PAN to boom, resound 5559
*tekep PAN a cover; to cover with a flat surface 10472
*tekiq PAN high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko 5565
*tektek₁ PAN chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables 8913
*tektek₂ PAN gecko, house lizard (onom.) 5566
*tektek-en PAN be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced 8918
*tekuŋ₂ PAN to rap, knock, make a booming sound 10759
*telu PAN three 8414
*tenem PAN sea, ocean 6700
*tenep PAN submerge 5589
*tenun PAN to weave (cloth, baskets) 8734
*tenun-an PAN loom 8738
*tenun-en PAN to be woven by someone 8742
*teŋiC PAN grimace at pain 5591
*teŋteŋ₁ PAN drone, droning tone 5597
*tepuk PAN hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping 5593
*terter PAN shiver, tremble 5586
*tiaN PAN abdomen, belly 7812
*tibuk PAN pound, throb 5600
*tik₁ PAN sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something 2090
*tikel PAN bend 5606
*tiktik PAN to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface 2085
*tikuRas PAN a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge 6707
*timaNa PAN to hear, listen 10760
*timij PAN chin, jaw 5619
*timu PAN salt 7346
*timuR PAN south or east wind 7343
*timuRmuR PAN rinse the mouth 7347
*timus PAN salt 7345
*t<in>aNek PAN boiled foods other than rice? 7335
*t<in>ektek PAN was chopped up 8916
*t<in>enun PAN was woven by someone; what was woven 8736
*t<in>enun-an PAN woven cloth 8739
*t<in>uduq PAN dripped; what dripped 7363
*tinun PAN to weave (cloth, baskets) 8741
*ti-pitu PAN (gloss uncertain) 8324
*tirtir₁ PAN shiver, tremble 5627
*tiR(e)pis PAN spittle 10568
*titik PAN to beat on something loudly 5687
*titu PAN puppy; young animal in general? 7321
*tuba PAN a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica 8455
*tudiŋ PAN to point out 10553
*tuduq PAN to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water 7361
*tuduq-an PAN to drip 7366
*tuduq-en PAN to drip 7365
*tuduR PAN to sleep 8357
*tuduS PAN knee 7350
*tuiq PAN bird sp. 5660
*tuked PAN prop, support 8931
*tuktuk₁ PAN beak of a bird; to peck 5665
*tuktuk₂ PAN top, summit, crown 5666
*tuktuk₃ PAN to knock, pound, beat; crush 10573
*tuku₁ PAN prop, post 5667
*tukud PAN prop, support 7957
*tukul PAN to sprout, begin to grow 10497
*tulani PAN bamboo nose flute 8386
*t<um>anem PAN to plant 7449
*tumaNa PAN to hear, listen 7923
*t<um>aNek PAN to cook anything but rice 7337
*t<um>aRah PAN to wait 6681
*t<um>aRaq PAN to adze wood, hew wood with an adze 8140
*t<um>azem PAN sharpen 7165
*t<um>ebek PAN to pierce, to stab 5546
*t<um>enun PAN to weave 8737
*t<um>əktək PAN to chop, hack, cut off 8917
*t<um>iktik PAN tap or flick (finger, small implement, etc.) against something 2087
*t<um>imaNa PAN to hear, listen 10761
*t<um>uba PAN to stun fish with plant poison 8460
*t<um>umaNa PAN to hear, listen 7925
*t<um>uzuq PAN to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice 8831
*tunuh-an PAN to roast 2130
*tuNa PAN freshwater eel 8373
*tuqaS PAN old, of people; primary forest, old forest 8505
*tuqaS tuqaS PAN older people, elders 8512
*tuqed PAN tree stump; stubble 5682
*tuqtuq PAN to hammer, pound, crush 5683
*tuquN PAN an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa 7233
*tuRtuR PAN resonant sound 5689
*tuRukuk PAN chicken 6690
*tutuh PAN beat, pound, bump, thump 9026
*tutur₂ PAN cooing of a dove 10820
*tutut PAN sparrow or similar bird 10821
*tuzuq₁ PAN to point at, point out; give directions 8820
*tuzuq-en PAN be pointed at, be pointed out 8833
*ua PAN exclamation of surprise, etc. 5709
*ubuC PAN pluck, pull out 5716
*udu PAN grass 5739
*ujuŋ PAN nose 5749
*uka₁ PAN negative existential: there is none 7128
*ulaŋ PAN repeat, do again 5767
*ulaw PAN confusion, perplexity 5764
*<um>₁ PAN marker of actor focus 5805
*um-adaS PAN bring 6633
*um-ai PAN to come 7829
*um-ala PAN to fetch, get, take 7787
*um-alaq PAN fetch, get, take 113
*uman PAN again 5791
*um-aŋay PAN to leave, depart (?) 9147
*um-aRi PAN to come 299
*umaS PAN to pickle, preserve meat or fish 7299
*umuR PAN hold in the mouth 5804
*um-uSa PAN to go, to walk 6657
*um-utaq PAN to vomit 5870
*uNay PAN sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh 5811
*uNuq PAN beads 5818
*uŋay PAN ritually sacrificed monkey? 7348
*uReŋ PAN horn of an animal 10877
*uSa PAN go 6655
*u-Siwa PAN nine (of things?) 9170
*utaq PAN vomit 5865
*utaq-an PAN vomit (imperative) 5872
*utaq-en PAN be vomited up; vomit (command) 5873
*waCaN PAN deep pool or pond 7197
*waCa-waCaN PAN small pond(?) 7198
*wadaŋ PAN collarbone, clavicle 5915
*wakwak PAN bird sp.; to caw, crow 5941
*walay PAN thread 6783
*walu PAN eight (of non-humans) 5943
*wanaN PAN right (side, hand, direction) 9473
*waNan PAN right (side, hand, direction) 5956
*waNiS PAN tusk of wild boar 6602
*waNiS-an PAN wild boar 6603
*waNu PAN honeybee 6604
*waqay PAN foot, leg 5962
*waqit PAN barb, point; canine tooth? 7419
*waray PAN to separate, as two people 5963
*waRi₁ PAN day; sun; dry in the sun 5968
*waSaw PAN leaf 8067
*watawat PAN wave, flutter (as a flag) 5977
*wa-walu PAN eight (of humans) 5954
*wili PAN return, come back 5996
*wiŋawiŋ PAN wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side 6007
*wiRi PAN left side or direction 5998
*witiwit PAN wag, swing from side to side 6003
*za(ŋ)kuC PAN grab, grasp, seize 6026
*zalan PAN path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something 7589
*zalan-an PAN passageway, place where one has walked 7597
*zalan-zalan PAN small path or trail 7598
*zaRami PAN rice straw 8375
*zaRum PAN needle 7605
*zawa₂ PAN millet sp.: Setaria italica (?) 8750
*za-zalan PAN (gloss uncertain) 7595
*zelaq PAN tongue 7135
*zulu PAN earlier, in advance 6039

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 PAN    PMP    PWMP    PPh    PCEMP    PCMP    PEMP    PSHWNG    POC    combined   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 4/22/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-pl_pan.htm