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Updated: 2/18/2018


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


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-laC    -lak    -laŋ₁    -laŋ₂    -lap    -laq    -lat₁    -lat₂    -law    -leb    -lej    -lem    -lem₁    -len    -leŋ    -lep    -let (or *-leget?)    -liŋ₁    -liŋ₂    -liŋ₃    -liq    -liR    -lit₁    -lit₂    -luk (or *-luquk?)    -luŋ₁    -luŋ₂    -luR    -lus    -lut    


*-laC shine, flickering or flashing light

PAN *kilaClightning
PMP *kilatlightning
Amis flatto flicker; light appearing and then disappearing, as of a lighted match
Arosi hiralightning
Manggarai ilatshine, flash, sparkle
Puyuma meLaTiLaTto sparkle, glitter
Rembong silatshine, flash, sparkle


*-lak shine

PMP *bilakflash of light
PMP *cilakto shine, of heavenly bodies
PMP *silakray, beam of light
Aklanon bárlakshine, radiate
Sundanese burilakthrow off sparks; glitter (of the eyes)
Cebuano busílakradiate light, especially the sun
Hanunóo butlákrising, with reference to the sun
Hanunóo butlák-aneast
Karo Batak cerlakshine, gleam
Aklanon gilákglitter, shine
Javanese ilakclear, light, bright
Kambera jilakuglitter, sparkle, flicker
Kambera lalakuoily, shiny
Kambera lilakuflash, shine
Kambera lulakushine, glitter
Ngaju Dayak pila-pilakshiny (used only of gold and silver)
Sundanese tiŋ-burilakshine, sparkle (as the teeth)


*-laŋ₁ glitter, flash

Kankanaey bilaŋláŋglitter; glisten; glister; flash (as fire)
Malay gilaŋlustre; glow; having a shining surface
Kadazan Dusun puhaŋpolish, make shiny
Buginese welaŋray of light


*-laŋ₂ striped

PWMP *balaŋstriped, banded, multicolored
PMP *belaŋspotted
PWMP *palaŋstriped, spotted
Yami (Iranomilek) be-teŋelaŋ(of animals) striped, patchy in color
Gorontalo hulaŋosickness which leaves striped marks on the calves of the legs
Malay pelaŋstriped; banded
Kelabit pilaŋstriped
Pazeh raŋaraŋclouded leopard (Tsuchida gives this as 'tiger, lynx')


*-lap flash, sparkle

PMP *dilapto shine, flash
PMP *gilaplustre, shine
PMP *kilaplustre, shine
PMP *silapsparkle, dazzle
Old Javanese burilapflickering (as a torch)
Manggarai celapdazzled by blinding light
Tagalog diklápsparkle
Karo Batak erlapglitter, as gold, precious stones, etc.
Javanese gelaplightning that strikes something
Old Javanese gurilapflickering (as a torch)
Label hillightning; to flash, of lightning
Old Javanese hulapdazzlement, being unable to look at a bright light
Aklanon ídlapshine, glow
Casiguran Dumagat islapblinding reflection (from something shiny)
Malagasy jelakaclearness, brightness, sudden glitter, as a torch at night
Javanese kelapglisten, sparkle; glitter
Malay kerlapflash, glisten, as the wings of flying butterflies
Kapampangan kíldap(<M) lightning
Pangasinan kírlapglitter
Tagalog kislápsparkle
Palawan Batak kudláplightning
Ifugaw kuhílapwhat is brilliant, glittering, gleaming
Manggarai nilaplightning
Tolai palaflash
Malay relapglint, flash
Old Javanese sulapblinding (by a bright light)
Lau talato shine, of sun or moon
Lau talaf-ishine on, enlighten, lighten up
Wolio tilalight, radiation, glare, mirror; shine upon, irradiate, illuminate
Cebuano uylápflare up, burst into flames

Also Casiguran Dumagat ilép 'reflect (of something shiny)', Ilokano sírap 'dazzle'.


*-laq split

PAN *belaqsplit
PWMP *bilaqchip, splinter
PMP *kelaqcrack, split
PMP *silaqsplit
Lau alasplit across
Lau ala-alacracked, as a plate
Bare'e balasplit, in pieces
Buruese gela-hcracked
Fijian katelasplit or divide into two parts
Ngadha nelasplit, crack; cracked (as bamboo)
Amis plaʔsplit in two
Kelabit tekilaʔchips
Bunun timpuslaʔsplit
Paiwan tselaqcrack or split

Also Old Javanese telā 'cleft, crevice, crack, narrow opening'.


*-lat₁ open the eyes wide

PWMP *buk(e)latopen the eyes wide
PMP *kilatopen the eyes wide
Toba Batak alatlook around, observe
Banggai bilatwith the eyes open
Cebuano budlátbulging eyes; for the eyes to bulge
Tagalog dílatact of opening of the eyelids
Tagalog hílatstretching of opening (as by pulling down the eyelid)
Kelabit kulatwake up
Tagalog mulátopen (said of eyes)
Pazeh mu-xuratto open one's eyes


*-lat₂ scar

PMP *piRlatscar
Lau balawhite from scars, of the face or body
Ifugaw biklátscar, cicatrix
Bontok bílatscar
Rembong gilatscar
Kankanaey kalálatscarred
Bikol piklátdeep scar
Kalamian Tagbanwa ulatscar

Also Isneg inírat 'the scar left on a tree when a nest of bees has been removed from it'.


*-law dazzling light

PMP *ilawreflected light
PWMP *kilawreflected light
PMP *nilawbright light
PWMP *silawglare, blinding light
Malay kelip-kelaushimmer
Fijian mimiloshiny, glossy
Bare'e piloto flicker, of a fire
Kelabit siloshiny (Also Malagasy tsílo 'lighted by a candle, torch, etc.')
Bare'e wiloshining of a light or fire
Buginese wilodazzled by glare

-laC    -lak    -laŋ₁    -laŋ₂    -lap    -laq    -lat₁    -lat₂    -law    -leb    -lej    -lem    -lem₁    -len    -leŋ    -lep    -let (or *-leget?)    -liŋ₁    -liŋ₂    -liŋ₃    -liq    -liR    -lit₁    -lit₂    -luk (or *-luquk?)    -luŋ₁    -luŋ₂    -luR    -lus    -lut    



*-leb sink, disappear

PWMP *elebdisappear under water
PMP *leblebsink, disappear under water
PMP *telebsink, vanish from sight
Manggarai belepsink
Balinese celebdip in water, baptize
Manggarai delepsink (< *-lep?)
Old Javanese kelebbe submerged, sink
Manggarai lelepimmerse, as a blade in tempering it (< *-lep?)
Manggarai melepsink (< *-lep?)
Lau ōlosink down, as a stone sinks in water (< *-lep?)
Manggarai selepsink, submerge (< *-lep?)
Cebuano tunlúbstick, dunk something completely or partially into a liquid or solid


*-lej sink

PWMP *elejsink
Bare'e dolosubmerge, go under water
Maranao galedsink, as in liquid; immerse
Isneg páládsink, go to the bottom
Cebuano unlúdsink, submerge (possibly from earlier *ulnúd, with root *-n-ed)


*-lem sink

PMP *telemsink, disappear under water
Manggarai delemsink
Malay kapal silamsubmarine
Malay selamimmersing oneself in water, diving
Malay teŋgelamsinking, being submerged


*-lem₁ dark; obscure

PWMP *gelemgloomy, dark
PAN *kelemdark
PWMP *m-alemnight
PAN *qiS(e)lemdark color
PWMP *selemdark
PWMP *silemfade from sight; gloom, obscurity
PWMP *tilemdark, black
Malay balamdimly seen
Malay belam-belamdusk; twilight; indistinctness
Ngaju Dayak bilemblack
Maranao delemmoonless, night which is dark; black
Puyuma d-em-a-durempitch-dark
Thao di<sh>lumgreen, blue
Casiguran Dumagat dikləmraincloud; dark, blurry, cloudy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) dukilembecome night
Gaddang dulemcloud
Balinese gulemcloud
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) halembe silhouetted, be only an indistinct shadow
Agta (Central Cagayan) hiklemnight
Bikol ílomdescribing someone with dark brown skin
Sentah Land Dayak karumdark
Cebuano kilum-kiflumdusk (< *-dem?)
Balinese kulemnight, dark
Manggarai lemnew moon
Toba Batak lomlomdark, black
Ilokano lúlemovercast, clouded over, gloomy, darkish
Pazeh ma-raremhave poor sight (because of age, etc.)
Kelabit milempurple, color of a bruise
Singhi Land Dayak ŋaromnight
Maranao salemdarkening, as of the sun
Paiwan selemthe dark, the World of the Dead
Paiwan sulemdarkness, twilight
Bikol sulómdark, obscure, as a house without lights
Balinese tilemlast day of the moon; new moon
Old Javanese ulemshining (only) palely, dim, wan, languishing, faded
Paiwan velʸelemcloud shadows; overcast


*-len to swallow

PCEMP *belento swallow
PMP *telento swallow
PMP *tilento swallow
Bikol hálonto swallow
Rotinese sila, sileto swallow


*-leŋ reverberating sound

Malay biŋoŋ alaŋknocked sily; bewildered
Malay gelaŋclang, ringing sound
Maranao olaleŋecho
Ilokano pelléŋbe stunned, stupefied, rendered senseless (by a blow on the head, the report of a gun, the crash of thunder, etc.)
Ilokano síleŋwhat annoys the ear through its strong sound (drums, bells, etc.)


*-lep sink, submerge

Maranao alep-alepsink deeply, penetrate through and through
Mongondow doḷopdive, submerge
Javanese ilepput under water, soak
Maranao olepsink deeper
Javanese silepsubmerged in water


*-let (or *-leget?) intervene; interspace

PMP *beletinterval
PMP *cieletintervening space
PMP *seletinsert between
Pangasinan leé taisle, space between
Tagalog salítinterspersion
Maranao soŋgaletintervene, interrupt
Javanese wilet(of gamelan music) interval between notes

-laC    -lak    -laŋ₁    -laŋ₂    -lap    -laq    -lat₁    -lat₂    -law    -leb    -lej    -lem    -lem₁    -len    -leŋ    -lep    -let (or *-leget?)    -liŋ₁    -liŋ₂    -liŋ₃    -liq    -liR    -lit₁    -lit₂    -luk (or *-luquk?)    -luŋ₁    -luŋ₂    -luR    -lus    -lut    



*-liŋ₁ clear ringing sound

PWMP *keliŋhave a ringing sound
PWMP *tiliŋringing sound
Bare'e dilionom. for a tap or stroke on a drum, or against metal
Toba Batak huliŋsound out
Javanese jléŋmetal clanking
Hanunóo káliŋjingle
Old Javanese keléŋto ring a prayer-bell
Aklanon kilíŋ-kilíŋto ring (a bell)
Cebuano kuliliŋringing, tinkling sound as that of a phone or small bell
Manggarai liŋsound, to sound, as a flute, clap of the hands
Ngadha ruliresound, ring
Malay suliŋfife, flageolet, or pipe


*-liŋ₂ cross-eyed

PWMP *zuliŋcross-eyed
Bimanese giricross-eyed, squinting
Karo Batak jéliŋcross-eyed
Bontok kusliŋto squint, as in bright sunlight
Isneg palʔíŋ(<M) strabismus
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) siliŋcross-eyed


*-liŋ₃ turn, revolve, turn around

PWMP *baliŋto wind
PMP *biliŋturn, revolve
PWMP *galiŋroll, grind
PMP *giliŋroll, grind
PWMP *guliŋto roll
PWMP *iliŋshake the head in negation
Bare'e boliliturn around
Mongondow boliŋto turn
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) kiliŋturn
Pangasinan palíŋturn
Manggarai tiliŋturn, revolve


*-liq return, restore

PMP *uliqreturn, restore
Itbayaten viliidea of returning or restoring


*-liR flow

PMP *aliRflow
PWMP *qiliRflow down, downstream
PMP *saliRflow
Bare'e gilito stream, flow down
Malay jalirto flow (Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak jarir 'to flow, as water')
Sangir selliheʔcurrent
Tetun sulito flow


*-lit₁ caulk; adhesive material

PMP *bulitglue, paste; stick, caulk
PMP *dalitglue, paste, plaster; caulk
PMP *pilitsticky, adhesive
PMP *pulitglue, paste; stick, caulk
Tetun belitviscous, gluey, sticky
Malay chalitsmear; besmirching
Ilokano dúlitstick, adhere (when touching glue, paste, etc.)
Kankanaey dumlítto lime, cement, putty with; to stick, cause to cleave, adhere
Kayan halitstuck or pasted on
Kayan jepalitsticky, soft, plastic
Kayan kalitclay
Javanese kelétfirmly attached
Sasak malitkind of clay used to make blowpipe pellets
Tetun nuklitsticky
Malay palitsmudging


*-lit₂ wind, twist

PMP *belitto wind
PMP *bilitto wind
PAN *litlitto wind
PMP *pulittwine around
Toba Batak alitwound, turned, twisted
Javanese benḍalitto twist, (inter)twine
Bare'e gillto wind, twist around
Kayan kelilita bandage; to bandage
Kankanaey litílittwist, wring ( < *litlit?)
Amis palittied, ensnared
Fijian qalitwist together, roll together on the knee under the palm of the hand, as in making string

-laC    -lak    -laŋ₁    -laŋ₂    -lap    -laq    -lat₁    -lat₂    -law    -leb    -lej    -lem    -lem₁    -len    -leŋ    -lep    -let (or *-leget?)    -liŋ₁    -liŋ₂    -liŋ₃    -liq    -liR    -lit₁    -lit₂    -luk (or *-luquk?)    -luŋ₁    -luŋ₂    -luR    -lus    -lut    



*-luk (or *-luquk?) bend, curve

PMP *belukbend, twist
PWMP *bilukto tack (in sailing)
PWMP *celukcorner
PWMP *kelukbend, curve
PCEMP *kilukwavy or zigzag line
PWMP *luqukbay
PMP *pelukcurve; embrace
PWMP *selukcorner
PWMP *silukcorner; curve
PWMP *telukbay
Balinese (e)lukcurve, bend; wave in a kris-blade
Malay beflokcurve, bend
Fijian belubend, curve, of hard things, e.g. tin
Javanese beŋkelukbent at the end (as a pen with a bent point)
Sangir biruluʔtwist up, wind into coils (as a snake)
Mongondow bolotukcurved bamboo lath inserted in the ground
Sundanese deluksomewhat bent in form (as very tall persons)
Rotinese dilubend over, turn down, bend down
Ngaju Dayak hulokbay, gulf
Rejang iloʔtortuous, winding
Malay jelokpronounced concavity
Niue peluto fold, bend; an ancient type of curved club
Iban pilokcrooked, twisted, lame
Bare'e tiŋkoluti9koyu/ curl up, as a snake; curved part of something (hoop, strand, loop)
Bare'e waluwind around


*-luŋ₁ bend, curve

PWMP *beluŋbend, curve
PWMP *kaluŋcurved
PWMP *keluŋcoil, curl, undulation
PAN *kiluŋcurved, bay
PMP *zuluŋprow
Mongondow beluŋdented, bent, curved
Mongondow boluŋbow, bend, curve
Iban galoŋcurling, rolling, billowing
Iban geloŋcoil
Kayan kuluŋcylindrically curved surface; steeply sloping, of roof
Nggela maludroop, as a branch in the heat; bow the head
Javanese meluŋto bend, bow
Ilokano palóŋwave (not breaking, or before breaking)
Javanese penteluŋbending, bowed (of a branch)

Also cp. Maranao galoŋ 'nose ring'.


*-luŋ₂ to shelter, shade

PMP *aluŋshade, shadow
PWMP *heluŋshelter, shade
PWMP *keluŋshield
Maranao daloŋhide behind, shelter
Maranao diloŋhide behind a cover or protection
Tiruray galuŋshade o.s.; in the shade
Casiguran Dumagat ilóŋcovered, sheltered (of cultivated crops)
Mongondow luluŋwhat serves to give shade
Bikol luŋáloŋhut, temporary shelter in the forest
Samoan malushelter, take shelter (Also Tongan malu 'shaded or sheltered; safe, secure')
Sangir paluŋumbrella, parasol
Kayan sekaluŋto carry protectively
Rotinese sulucover, shade, protect
Bunun taluluŋconical field hat
Tiruray ʔanluŋa shadow


*-luR flow

PWMP *aluRpond, stream
PWMP *iluRflow; saliva
PWMP *saluRpond, stream
PWMP *suluRflowing water; flood
Melanau (Matu) belohmild flood
Palauan beríuscurrent (in ocean, river, etc.)
Berawan (Long Terawan) julluto flow
Sasak oloholor/ brook, stream, waterway
Wolio sii wiluhave one's mouth water, slaver
Wolio wilusaliva, spittle


*-lus slip off

PMP *luslusslip off, slip away
Malay belusloose, slipping freely off and on (of a ring)
Tagalog bululósdiarrhoea
Casiguran Dumagat búlusdiarrhoea
Malay celusloose-fitting; fitting comfortably or easily, of a ring that slips on or off
Hiligaynon dáplusslide off
Tiruray dilus(of a surface) water-repellant
Kadazan Dusun gahusloosen and slide off
Hawu hilusnake skin
Cebuano hilúsfor something tied securely in place to slip off, move out of place by sliding
Samoan mamuluslip out, as a knife from one's hand
Tboli melusloosen, come off
Manggarai ŋgolusloose, slipping freely off and on
Hiligaynon palússlip off, free from grip
Maranao pelosslip off
Maranao tamlosfishhook that loses fish easily
Malay telusslipping through without difficulty; fitting loosely, of a ring fitting comfortably on a finger, etc.
Bare'e wuluslipped off, pushed off
Bontok ʔúlusslide down a slope


*-lut twist around

Tagalog bálotcovering, wrapping
Tagalog bílotsmall roll or pack
Dairi-Pakpak Batak buluttangled, twisted
Sasak gelutwrestle
Balinese iluttwist, turn

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 2/18/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)