Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Roots

 b    c    C    d    g    h    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    p    r    R    s    t    w    z   

*-ŋ   

-ŋa    -ŋab    -ŋaC    -ŋag    -ŋak    -ŋaŋ    -ŋap    -ŋa(q)    -ŋaq    -ŋar    -ŋaw    -ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?)    -ŋek    -ŋel    -ŋeŋ    -ŋeR    -ŋiC    -ŋik    -ŋiŋ    -ŋis    -ŋuC    -ŋuk    -ŋuŋ    -ŋur    -ŋus    -ŋut    

30008

*-ŋa gape, open the mouth wide

PMP *aŋawide open (of the mouth)
PMP *kaŋabe open, as the mouth
PMP *ŋaŋagape, open the mouth wide
PMP *paŋaforked, pronged
PMP *peŋafork of a branch
PMP *saŋaforking
Lau afaŋaopen wide, gape; uncover (< *-ŋaq?)
Javanese eŋaopening
Maranao gagaopen the mouth
Karo Batak jeraŋastand apart, as flowers in a bunch
Manggarai keŋaseize with open mouth (of an animal); eat with open mouth (< *-ŋaq?)
Kankanaey sakgaŋábranched horns (of deer)
Malagasy soŋahaving the upper lip turned upwards (< *-ŋaq?)
Malagasy tanatanawide open (door, mouth, etc.) (< *-ŋaq?)
Ngadha viŋa vaŋaopen the mouth wide (< *-ŋaq?)
Javanese weŋaact of opening

Also Cebuano ŋaŋhá 'be open-mouthed with sudden surprise'.

30009

*-ŋab gape, open, of the mouth

PWMP *qaŋabopen, of the mouth
Tiruray kaŋabtake a large bite out of something
Sangir laŋabeʔgaping; wailing
Maranao oŋabmouth naturally open
Sangir taŋabeʔwide open (of a large pair of scissors, a wide hole, a gaping wound, etc.)
Cebuano tiŋabŋábbe gaping with a huge opening or hole

30010

*-ŋaC anger, irritation

Balinese jeŋatput on a sour face; speak sternly, bitingly
Iban riŋatangry (< *-ŋeC?)
Isneg ruŋátanger (< *-ŋeC?)
Paiwan seŋatsone who characteristically dislikes things
Kayan (Busang) siŋatspeak in irritation

30011

*-ŋag look upward

Maranao aŋaglook up to imploringly
Malay caŋaksudden startled upward look
Sasak ceŋaklook up (from one's work)
Malay coŋaktilted up (of the face); chin up; head in the air, of a buffalo; pointing upward, of a bird's beak
Malay daŋakhold the head back
Malay doŋaktilting the head forward and up, of a man looking skyward
Malay jelaŋakthrow back the head, e.g. for watching an airplane
Tiruray leŋaglook up
Maranao litaŋaglook up
Maranao tiŋaglook up, as the slope of a mountain

The final consonant in Javanese deŋak, ḍeŋak 'facing upward, craning the neck', laŋak '(puppet with an) upturned gaze', and iŋakuŋak 'crane the neck in an effort to see' can only reflect *k. Since Malay and Sasak -k reflect both *-g and *-k it is possible that the forms cited from these languages contain a root *-ŋak, and are not to be compared directly with the Philippine material.

30012

*-ŋak screech, howl

PMP *ŋakraucous sound
PMP *ŋakŋakraucous sound
Javanese beŋak-beŋakto shout repeatedly
Javanese beŋak-beŋékkeep shouting or crying out
Old Javanese bureŋakto scream
Old Javanese ceŋakcry of a caŋak bird (heron sp.)
Cebuano híŋakbreathe deeply and rapidly
Banjarese huŋakgasp for breath
Manggarai kaŋakhowl, whine (of a dog that is struck)
Manggarai keŋak(of a baby) cry
Toba Batak laŋakto honk (geese)
Kankanaey ŋáŋakcry, weep (used only in tales)
Hanunóo paŋákbarking of dogs
Bikol paragŋákloud, menacing cry or shout
Bikol pusŋákburst out laughing
Malay seŋak-seŋoksob, sobbing speech
Bikol usŋáksnort

30013

*-ŋaŋ amazed; gaping

PMP *baŋaŋto gape
PMP *beŋaŋdisconcert, confuse
PWMP *leŋaŋamazement, astonishment
Old Javanese aŋaŋwide open, gaping
Sasak biŋaŋharelip
Sundanese buŋaŋaŋwide open, wide opening
Old Javanese bureŋaŋamazed, aghast
Malay ceŋaŋbewilderment, amazement, astonishment
Karo Batak jeŋaŋamazed, dumbfounded
Rembong laŋaŋsurprised, startled
Balinese seŋaŋstartled, surprised look
Rembong siŋaŋstartled, alarmed
Ilokano suŋáŋhave the upper jaw and teeth protruding
Manggarai teŋaŋdizzy; confused
Ilokano tuŋŋáŋfool, simpleton, idiot, imbecile

30014

*-ŋap open, of the mouth; gaping

PMP *aŋapopen the mouth, gape
PMP *beŋapsurprised, amazed
PWMP *ciŋapcatch one's breath
Sundanese calaŋapgape
Javanese caŋapa wide opening
Malay ceŋapcatch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath
Javanese craŋap(of mouths) wide open
Malay cuŋap-caŋippuffing and blowing; panting
Pangasinan laŋápforce a dog to eat by holding its mouth open and inserting food
Minangkabau ŋaŋapto snap at flies, of a dog
Ngaju Dayak raŋa-raŋapopen (mouths of crocodiles, etc.)
Banjarese uŋapopen (of the mouth)

30015

*-ŋa(q) gape, open the mouth wide

Malay belaŋawide-mouthed cooking pot
Malay belaŋahto gape
Malay beŋaamazed; dumbfounded
Gilbertese beŋa-beŋalarge opening, separation; separated, wide
Mongondow beŋaʔbe open, of the vagina (term of abuse)
Cebuano buŋáŋafor something to be open wide or ajar (as the mouth falling open in surprise)
Rotinese fiŋaopen the mouth with force, as the mouth of a sick person in order to give him medicine
Gilbertese ka-beŋaenlarge, widen
Melanau (Mukah) maŋaʔcrack, fissure
Gilbertese te ka-beŋaclimb (trees) with feet apart

30016

*-ŋaq gape, open the mouth wide

PMP *baŋaqwide open
PMP *beŋaqto open, as the mouth
PWMP *heŋaqpant, breathe
PMP *laŋaqgaping, wide open
PMP *paŋaqforked, pronged
Malay belaŋahgape
Dairi-Pakpak Batak dalŋahwide open, as the mouth
Aklanon iŋaʔto bellow (carabao) (< *-ŋaq?)
Hawu kejaŋabranches of a tree
Cebuano ŋaʔnáʔstuttering
Sundanese raŋahbit (for horse's mouth)
Maranao siŋaʔto laugh
Karo Batak talŋahopen very wide (door)
Cebuano tasŋaʔgrin idiotically

30017

*-ŋar howl, shout, scream

PMP *ŋarŋartalk loudly or angrily; howl
Balinese saŋaryell, scream
Yamdena taŋarto bark, of dogs
Hiligaynon uŋá1drawl, howl
Bontok ʔáŋalanswer back angrily; to challenge

30018

*-ŋaw fly (insect)

Ilokano buŋáwkind of large green dragonfly
Tagalog laŋawhousefly
Puyuma veRaRŋawbluebottle fly

-ŋa    -ŋab    -ŋaC    -ŋag    -ŋak    -ŋaŋ    -ŋap    -ŋa(q)    -ŋaq    -ŋar    -ŋaw    -ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?)    -ŋek    -ŋel    -ŋeŋ    -ŋeR    -ŋiC    -ŋik    -ŋiŋ    -ŋis    -ŋuC    -ŋuk    -ŋuŋ    -ŋur    -ŋus    -ŋut    

ŋe

30019

*-ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?) angry; gnash the teeth

PWMP *buŋetanger, angry
PWMP *ŋetŋetgnash the teeth
PAN *reŋeCangry, annoyed
PAN *ReŋeCangry, annoyed
PPh *suŋetangry
PWMP *uŋetanger, wrath
Maranao gaŋetcrush with teeth, chew
Kankanaey getgrate, creak, gnash (doors, teeth, etc.)
Mansaka iŋet-iŋetanger (Also Mongondow iŋot 'angry')
Kankanaey kiŋétcholeric, irascible
Kankanaey liŋéetgrate, produce a harsh sound
Kankanaey ŋaŋŋétchide, scold, rebuke, speak harshly to
Ilokano rupaŋétfrown, scowl, look angry
Kadazan Dusun soŋotangry
Kayan tuŋetscolding, being angry
Ilokano uŋétget angry, irate, incensed; scold, berate, upbraid, chide
Paiwan vereŋetswrinkled; scowling (face)
Tiruray ʔaŋetshort-tempered, easily angered

30020

*-ŋek grunt, groan

PMP *ŋekgrunt
PMP *ŋekŋekmumble, etc.
PMP *seŋekdifficulty in breathing
Kankanaey ataŋŋékresound loudly, ring
Kankanaey ŋækŋékto bubble, as boiling rice

30021

*-ŋel deaf

PMP *beŋeldeaf
PCEMP *peŋeldeaf
Maranao iŋelhard of hearing, deaf
Malagasy réninadeafness (Also Kenyah deŋen 'deaf')
Madurese teŋeldeaf
Sasak toŋeldeaf

30022

*-ŋeŋ buzz, hum

PMP *ŋe(ŋ)ŋeŋbuzz, hum
PMP *ŋeŋbuzz, hum
Malay beŋaŋdrumming or buzzing in the ear
Javanese beŋeŋeŋbuzz, whine, hum
Toba Batak loŋoŋbuzz, drone, of mosquitoes
Javanese reŋeŋsoft singing or humming voice
Tiruray ʔeŋeŋbuzzing sound, as of flies or mosquitoes

30023

*-ŋeR hear; noise

PWMP *beŋeRdeafened
PMP *deŋeRhear
PWMP *diŋeRhear
PWMP *qiŋeRloud, noisy
Malay baŋarclamor
Kankanaey batúŋegdull of hearing; deaf
Sasak biŋerdeafened by noise
Puyuma kiŋeRhear, listen
Toba Batak piŋorfull of sounds, so that it cannot hear clearly (of the ear)
Bikol tíŋogvoice

-ŋa    -ŋab    -ŋaC    -ŋag    -ŋak    -ŋaŋ    -ŋap    -ŋa(q)    -ŋaq    -ŋar    -ŋaw    -ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?)    -ŋek    -ŋel    -ŋeŋ    -ŋeR    -ŋiC    -ŋik    -ŋiŋ    -ŋis    -ŋuC    -ŋuk    -ŋuŋ    -ŋur    -ŋus    -ŋut    

ŋi

30024

*-ŋiC anger, irritation

PWMP *biŋitmoody, irritable
PMP *haŋitanger
PAN *reŋiCgrimace at pain
PWMP *seŋitirritated, annoyed
PWMP *siŋitviolent emotion
PWMP *uŋittease, vex, annoy
Cebuano aliŋítshort-tempered, irritable
Kankanaey báŋittease, plague, trouble, vex, annoy
Maranao beŋitquarrelsome, irritable
Kankanaey buláŋitto tease; to plague; to trouble; to vex; to annoy; to pester (used only in tales)
Kankanaey gáŋitprovoke, challenge, defy
Aklanon iŋítcrabby, out of sorts, in a bad mood
Iban leŋit(of words) unkind
Kankanaey miŋítgabble, jabber, chatter, as when slightly angry
Pangasinan ŋitŋítannoyance
Maranao raŋitanger
Kavalan RŋiRŋitgnash the teeth
Kankanaey saŋíŋitresent, be offended, get angry
Ilokano súŋitdisobedient, refractory, intractable
Malagasy ténitraabused, despised, spoken of contemptuously by a person of despicable character
Paiwan vigeŋnitsto make faces
Paiwan vireŋitsgrimace at pain

30025

*-ŋik shrill throaty sound

PWMP *eŋikpeep, squeak, squeal
PMP *ŋiksqueal, screech, shriek
PMP *ŋikŋiksqueal, screech, shriek
Malay beŋékcatch in the breath
Old Javanese bureŋikshriek
Balinese ceŋikmake a mournful sound: ŋik
Sundanese deŋékletting out a scream or shriek
Javanese éŋékplaying of a stringed instrument
Iban reŋik(of children) crying and pestering; gasp, grunt, squeal
Iban riŋikgiggle
Iban teŋikloquacious, garrulous (as in nagging)
Ilokano uŋíkthe shrill cry of a pig, e.g. when caught by men

30026

*-ŋiŋ shrill buzz or hum; ring

PMP *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋbuzz, hum
PMP *ŋiŋbuzz, hum
Malay céŋéŋcontinuous whining (of infants)
Malay deŋiŋto buzz (of the ear)
Malay doŋéŋtell a story in recitative; the whining of a young child
Puyuma iŋiŋwhining of a dog
Kadazan Dusun soŋiŋtinkle
Ngadha viŋiring, tinkle, clink

30027

*-ŋis bare the teeth

PMP *ŋisŋisgrin, bare the teeth
PMP *riŋisbare the teeth in smiling or laughing
Tiruray beŋéhforce the lips open
Pangasinan buŋisharelip (McFarland 1977)
Ilokano búŋiswith bared, uncovered genitals. Said of women; occasional meaning: with bare, uncovered buttocks
Javanese ceŋiŋisjeering grin
Manggarai ciŋisto grin, showing the teeth
Old Javanese duŋiswith a short (curled) upper lip
Old Javanese iŋisbared, visible (teeth, etc.), bare the teeth, grin, smile
Manggarai nciŋisof the teeth, to be visible because of a congenital curvature of the upper lip
Javanese n-eŋiŋisto bare the teeth
Makasarese paʔŋisiʔgrin (as a monkey that shows its teeth)
Bikol uŋísgrimace, snarl
Manggarai wiŋisof the lips, to be open so that the teeth are visible

-ŋa    -ŋab    -ŋaC    -ŋag    -ŋak    -ŋaŋ    -ŋap    -ŋa(q)    -ŋaq    -ŋar    -ŋaw    -ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?)    -ŋek    -ŋel    -ŋeŋ    -ŋeR    -ŋiC    -ŋik    -ŋiŋ    -ŋis    -ŋuC    -ŋuk    -ŋuŋ    -ŋur    -ŋus    -ŋut    

ŋu

30028

*-ŋuC anger; make a face

Paiwan vuteŋutsmake a wry face

30029

*-ŋuk deep throaty sound

Javanese beŋok-beŋokshout repeatedly
Old Javanese ceŋukof the cry (songs? warble?) of a quail
Aklanon iŋókto grunt (like a pig)
Ngaju Dayak nanteŋokdrink water
Ngaju Dayak ŋoksound of swallowing
Kankanaey ŋokŋókto bay, to bark (many dogs together)
Kankanaey ŋóŋokto grunt
Maranao reŋoksnore
Malay seŋokto sob

30030

*-ŋuŋ deep buzz or hum

PMP *beŋuŋhumming sound
PMP *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋbuzz, hum
PMP *ŋuŋbuzz, hum
Malay deŋoŋboom, deep hum
Hawu keŋucry, howl (as a dog)
Kayan meteŋuŋsound of a swarm of bees or other flying insects
Yami (Iranomilek) reŋoŋgroan, growl; humming, drone, whine

30031

*-ŋur low-pitched sound

PWMP *uŋurmoan, growl
Pangasinan daŋólto bark
Kelabit deŋurlow-pitched, of sound (Also Kenyah deŋun 'chant in a low voice')
Singhi Land Dayak ŋurgrowl
Kelabit piŋurecho

Also PMP *ŋurut 'growl, whine'

30032

*-ŋus snout

PWMP *deŋussnout
PMic *faŋus-blow the nose
PWMP *iŋus₁sniffle; snot
Pazeh babaŋutthe whole area around the mouth and the nose
Tagalog balúŋossnout of a fish
Sundanese baŋussnout, beak, nose of an animal
Javanese beŋusto snort
Casiguran Dumagat dúŋosnose
Arosi heŋuhold the nose
Rotuman heŋublow the nose
Tagalog ŋusŋóstip of nose
Rotinese pinumucus, snot (of nose, etc.)
Kadazan Dusun tuoŋuspig's snout, elephant's trunk
Kadazan Dusun umpoŋusto snort
Bikol uŋóssnout, nose of animals

Proto-Micronesian *faŋus- may be cognate with Sundanese baŋus, but for the present I treat the resemblance as a product of chance convergence.

30033

*-ŋut mumble, murmur, mutter

PWMP *eŋutgrunt, whine
PMP *huŋutgrumble, sulk
PWMP *ŋutŋutmumble, whimper
Ngadha beŋusullen, sour, angry, have a grudge; growl, grumble
Toba Batak biruŋutmorose, sulky in appearance
Aklanon buriŋótbad-humored, moody, out-of-sorts, crabby
Iban deŋutmurmur, grunt, whine, squeal (as young pigs), any protesting sound
Pangasinan iŋóŋotannoyance
Ifugaw kayŋótbite on one's lower lip thereby to show one's anger or displeasure
Tagalog múŋotfrown, sour face
Kankanaey ŋalutúŋutmurmur, grumble, mutter
Tolai ŋutwhine, murmur, cry
Puyuma paŋaLudŋutmumble, mutter, grumble
Malay reŋutfrown, look dissatisfied, grumble
Malay réŋutmurmuring note of the quail (Also Dairi-Pakpak Batak riŋut 'frowning; sour face')
Malay roŋot, ruŋutmumble angrily

 b    c    C    d    g    h    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    p    r    R    s    t    w    z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Roots-Index-ŋ