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Updated: 11/5/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Roots

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*-t   

-tak₁    -tak₂ (or *-taqak?)    -taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?)    -taq    -tas    -taw    -tay    -teb    -teg    -tek₁    -tek₂    -tem    -teŋ₁    -teŋ₂    -teŋ₃    -teq    -ter    -tes    -tik₁    -tik₂    -til    -tiŋ    -tir    -tug    -tuk₁    -tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?)    -tuk₃    -tuk₄    -tuq    -tus    -tut    

30091

*-tak₁ mud; earth, ground

PCEMP *bitakmud (replaces Manggarai bitak in ART)
PSS *litakearth, ground
PWMP *lutakearth, mud; muddy
PMP *pitakmud
Manggarai bitakmud
Kadazan Dusun buntakthrow with mud
Toba Batak bustakdeep mud
Malagasy fotakamud, slime, bog
Sundanese l+takmud, slime, mire
Gorontalo lataʔomud

30092

*-tak₂ (or *-taqak?) sound of cracking, splitting, knocking

PAN *betakto split
PMP *ketakmake noise
PWMP *le(t)aksplit, crack
PWMP *litakclick, clatter
PWMP *pe(R)takknock; pop, burst
PWMP *qe(n)(t)akknock
PWMP *re(t)akburst, split
PMP *takcrack! clap!
PMP *taktakcrash, clatter
Kankanaey beltákto hit a top with a top
Bontok dəltáksplit a log without using wedges
Bikol gatáksplit, cracked
Cebuano hagtákmake a cracking or banging sound (of objects on colliding or falling)
Javanese kluṭaka clatter
Karo Batak kurtakmake a clicking sound with the tongue to urge a horse forward
Toba Batak latakmake a knocking sound (Also Sasak lantak 'clack the tongue; call dogs')
Maranao letakclapper used to frighten birds
Javanese oṭak-aṭikto ram, batter
Tagalog palatákclacking of tongue or smacking of lips
Kankanaey pátakto begin raining; the rain comes down in thick drops
Gorontalo peletaʔosound of person being struck by flat object
Kankanaey pitákto split, cleave (a cane, etc.)
Manggarai rantakto chatter (of teeth, because of cold)
Iban satakknock off or out (as a knife to get the handle off)
Kankanaey segtákknock out, collide with, dash against, strike against (as two spinning tops)
Toba Batak siltakburst, split, crack
Ilokano tarakátaksound of heavy rain, of water falling from the eaves, etc.

30093

*-taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?) clanging sound

PWMP *kulintaŋan ensemble of gongs, the gamelan
Isneg bátaŋaudible echo
Malay dentaŋclang, e.g. of metal
Ngaju Dayak garuntaŋscarecrow, noise-making device in the fields to frighten off pigs, deer, etc.
Javanese grantaŋxylophone-like gamelan instrument (t for expected )
Malay lentaŋclang
Malay lentaŋ-lentoŋding-dong
Kankanaey litáaŋclang, clank, ring, clink
Malay taŋa bang or clang; the sound of metal falling heavily
Bikol taŋtáŋclang, the clanging sound of a bell

30094

*-taq mud; earth, ground

PWMP *buRtaqearth, ground, land
Amis ditaʔclay
Puyuma litaHmud
Casiguran Dumagat lútaground, dirt, earth
Itneg (Binongan) pítaearth, ground
Amis pota7soil, soft mushy dirt
Amis sotaʔearth, dirt; mud; land
BUNGKU witaearth, land

30095

*-tas sever, rip, cut through; short cut

PWMP *bentascut open, cut through
PMP *betastear, rip
PWMP *bitastear, rip
PWMP *bu(n)tascut through
PWMP *ge(n)tasbreak, break off
PMP *ketascut (a knot, etc.)
PWMP *pi(n)tascut off, break
PWMP *retassplit (of a seam)
PMP *Retasrip
PWMP *ri(n)tastear off, separate
PWMP *Ri(n)tastear open, rip
PMP *ru(n)tassever, tear
PWMP *tascrack, snap!
PWMP *tastastear off
PCMP *tetassnap, break off
PWMP *utassever, divide
Tagalog agtásan opening that is a possible path in dense forests
Tagalog bagtáspassage or trail across wilderness
Cebuano baktáscut across (take a short cut)
Tagalog bigtásunstitched
Dairi-Pakpak Batak burtasbreak, of a dyke or dam
Manggarai detascut something that is tied til it comes loose
Tiruray fagutasgame in which contestants cut through a bundle of reeds with one stroke of a bolo
Kankanaey kísatsound of tearing up cloth
Kankanaey lísatto crack, as when tearing up cloth
Rejang nitastake a shortcut
Kankanaey piŋsáttear, rend, lacerate, rip up
Bikol rugtáspull or tear apart

Cebuano baktás may reflect earlier *bagtás, with voice assimilation.

30096

*-taw float

PWMP *lantawto float
PWMP *le(n)tawto float
PWMP *paletawto float
PWMP *Rátawto float
Cebuano hátawappear for a moment on a surface (Also Maranao atao 'float, drift')
Bare'e nantoto float, to raft
Pangasinan patáwbuoy; to float
Maranao taltaobuoyant
Ilokano taŋgaltáwbuoy, float
Cebuano utaw-útawto float

30097

*-tay suspension bridge

PWMP *kitaysuspension bridge
PWMP *lantaybridge, floor
PCMP *letaybridge
PMP *taytaysuspension bridge
PMP *titaysuspension bridge
Itawis balátaybamboo bridge
Nias etesmall bridge
Kambera líndibridge
Mentawai nitaybridge
Ilokano ontáyhanging, suspended, dangling (being fastened at one end)
Ilokano raŋtáybridge
Bontok ʔalátəya bridge, usually a single log across a small stream
Molima ʔitetebridge

-tak₁    -tak₂ (or *-taqak?)    -taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?)    -taq    -tas    -taw    -tay    -teb    -teg    -tek₁    -tek₂    -tem    -teŋ₁    -teŋ₂    -teŋ₃    -teq    -ter    -tes    -tik₁    -tik₂    -til    -tiŋ    -tir    -tug    -tuk₁    -tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?)    -tuk₃    -tuk₄    -tuq    -tus    -tut    

te

30098

*-teb prune; graze

PWMP *tebtebcut off, prune, cut down
Balinese entebcut off, prune, to top (trees), poll
Maranao gatebgnaw, chew
Maranao kitebgrind, sharpen, gnash the teeth
Maranao retebgnaw, nibble
Maranao tatebgraze, browse, feed, eat, bite, gnaw
Bontok ʔaŋtəbto graze, of cattle

30099

*-teg hit, beat

Singhi Land Dayak gatogto tap
Ngaju Dayak hentekwhat is struck, be struck against
Kadazan Dusun hontogto shake (of floor); tap, knock, rap
Javanese ketegpulse
Balinese panteghit, beat, smack, bang
Bontok təgtə́ghit sharply; pound; massage by striking with the edges of one's hands
Ilokano teltégknock, thump, strike, beat

30100

*-tek₁ clicking or light knocking sound

PWMP *ketekmake a noise
PWMP *patekmake a dull clicking sound
PWMP *saletekclicking sound
PWMP *teka knock
PMP *tekteka knock; gecko (onom.)
Bare'e dintopound rice
Sasak entekknock, pound
Ngaju Dayak garetekknocking, sound of knocking
Sundanese geleteksound of commotion
Ilokano kitékto tick (as clocks do)
Javanese kluṭeka clatter; to make continuous soft sounds (as a mouse gnawing in the kitchen)
Melanau (Mukah) latekto hammer (a nail, etc.)
Sasak lintekpounded fine
Bontok palpatəkfrog (onom.)
Javanese perketekcracking or crackling sound (/t/ for expected /ṭ/)
Malay rentakstamping the foot in anger or excitement
Ilokano saltékthe common house lizard; its cry is supposed to announce the arrival of visitors
Maranao tentekcluck, as hen calling chicks; make sound with tongue

30101

*-tek₂ mud

PWMP *lutekmud
PWMP *pitekmud
Kayan atekmuddy or discolored -- of water, etc.
Old Javanese itekto live (play, wallow) in the mud
Old Javanese latekmud, bog
Karo Batak litekturbid, muddy, of water

Also Cebuano hútik 'be all mud; for an area to turn to mud', Maranao potik 'mud; paddy'.

30102

*-tem dark color

PMP *qitemblack
Maranao datemdark cloud; darkness
Mongondow kintomdark brown
Toba Batak lintompitch black
Maranao rotemdark, as clouds in stormy skies

30103

*-teŋ₁ hum, drone

PMP *teŋbuzz, hum
Isneg battáŋto beat (said of the heart)
Ifugaw getéŋrattling of metals that collide against each other
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kerteŋhum made by a wasp when it comes to attack
Ilokano kuteŋtéŋthe sound of the guitar
Itbayaten teŋteŋ-ento strum, pluck the strings of musical instruments

Also Ilokano weŋweŋ 'a buzzing sound produced in the ear', yeŋyeŋ 'bothered, confused, bewildered, flurried (with noise)'.

30104

*-teŋ₂ stare, look fixedly

Hawu etestare at something
Kadazan Dusun intonŋstare at, observe
Maranao pateŋstare
Maranao tenteŋstare, look over carefully

Also Bontok téeŋ 'stare at'.

30105

*-teŋ₃ stretch; taut

PWMP *benteŋstretch taut
Tagalog bagtíŋtaut
Maranao binteŋstretch
Tagalog igtíŋtaut
Maranao korinteŋstretch
Maranao tagenteŋstretch
Makasarese tantaŋstretched taut; steadfast

30106

*-teq sap, gummy secretion

PWMP *geteqtree sap
PWMP *giteqtree sap
PMP *liteqsap of a tree or plant
PWMP *muteqgummy secretion of the eyes
PAN *Niteqsap of a tree or plant
Tagalog dagtáʔsap, resin
Rotinese ditesticky; sap, bird lime (Also Kambera ritu 'gum')
Tiruray gataʔcoconut milk
Tagalog gitatáʔsticky with moist dirt
Maranao kamontaʔsticky sap
Hanunóo pútaʔstickiness, glutinousness
Sasak tataʔtap latex for birdlime

30107

*-ter shiver, tremble

PWMP *ketertremble, vibrate
PAN *tertershiver, tremble
Manggarai denterquiver, tremble (of a wall)
Sundanese geterquake, tremble
Manggarai tertremble violently

30108

*-tes tear, rip

PMP *ge(n)tessnap, break
PWMP *re(n)tessever, cut
PMP *testear
PWMP *testestear
Sasak botesbroken; piece (of rope)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak eteshack a path by felling trees and bushes
Maranao ketescutting
Sundanese pitessnap, break; snap or break to pieces
Sasak putesbreak (of a rope)

-tak₁    -tak₂ (or *-taqak?)    -taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?)    -taq    -tas    -taw    -tay    -teb    -teg    -tek₁    -tek₂    -tem    -teŋ₁    -teŋ₂    -teŋ₃    -teq    -ter    -tes    -tik₁    -tik₂    -til    -tiŋ    -tir    -tug    -tuk₁    -tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?)    -tuk₃    -tuk₄    -tuq    -tus    -tut    

ti

30109

*-tik₁ spring up; flicking motion

PWMP *bala(n)tikspring-set spear trap
PMP *bitikjerk, spring up suddenly
PWMP *pale(n)tikspring-set spear trap
PWMP *pilantikspring-set spear trap
PMP *pitikfly off with a jerk
Fijian betipluck fruits
Bontok bulintika child's marble
Tetun fetikflick something away with the fingers
Iban gitikshivering, quivering (as with cold)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak gutikmove momentarily, as a fishing line by the tug of a fish on the bait
Cebuano hutíkfor a fish to snap at the bait
Ilokano kallátikrebound; spring back on collision or impact
Balinese ketikstrike fire, make a spark ( < *ketik 'make a noise'?)
Tiruray latiksnap one's fingers sharply against someone's shin
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) letikflick something with the fingers
Sangir lintiʔspring, spring loose
Ifugaw pagtíkwhat is hurled away, what bounds away by itself as if it were exploding
Ifugaw pátikact of flying away, of being flung away; applied only to splinters
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) petikslingshot
Ifugaw pultíkfillip, snap with the finger
Dairi-Pakpak Batak putikto pick, as a fruit
Kadazan Dusun titikstrike a match

30110

*-tik₂ ticking sound

PWMP *detikthrob, tick
PMP *gi(n)tiktap or beat lightly on
PMP *ketikmake a noise
PWMP *letiksound of snapping or cracking
PWMP *pa(n)tiksound of ticking, flipping, light tapping
PAN *peCikclicking sound
PMP *pi(n)tikthrob, beat
PWMP *tiksound of a click or tick
PMP *tiktikto click or tick
Malay belatékwoodpecker (Sumatra)
Tetun betikclick the fingers, fillip
Ilokano bitíkpalpitate, throb, flutter, pulsate violently
Ilokano bulintíkplay at marbles
Fijian calidiburst, explode, detonate
Balinese eṭikknock, tap, rap
Old Javanese gaṭikstrike, clash
Balinese getikmake a knocking sound (t for expected )
Cebuano hagtíksharp clicking sound
Ifugaw hultíkmarbles
Yamdena itikbeating of heart or pulse
Kambera katikurap, tap, knock
Dairi-Pakpak Batak keritiksound of sand ground between the teeth, oil sizzling in a frying pan
Malay kertékcontinuous ticking, the sound of a clock
Manam kitiknock, tick (of a clock)
Javanese kluṭika metallic plink
Kadazan Dusun koitikto rap, to knock
Ilokano labtíkpulsation, beat, throb (heart, arteries)
Bikol lagatíkticking sound
Tagalog lagitíkcreak, creaking (<*-tek₁?)
Tiruray latiksnap the fingers
Fijian lavidislight ticking, cracking of joints
Kankanaey litíkclick, tick
Bikol lubtíksnap (rubber band, bowstring)
Chamorro pantekhandslap
Gorontalo polotiʔopulse; blow
Ifugaw putíksound produced by a boulder that bursts
Javanese rekitiklight crackling sound, e.g. of paper burning (t for expected t.)
Maranao satikhit a marble (children's game)
Iban setikclick
Kankanaey simtíksmack lightly; smacking of tongue and lips
Kankanaey sitíkchirp, chirrup
Ilokano tarakítiksound of drizzling rain, etc.
Cebuano witíkstrike something with a flick

30111

*-til small protruding part

PWMP *i(n)tilclitoris
PWMP *ku(n)tilwart
Itbayaten atilpart of the female gonads
Sundanese bentilpimples
Malay bintilpustule; pimple; heat-spot; mosquito bite
Malay pentilsprout, rudimentary fruit
Malay sentilstick out so as to be partly visible, as a quid of betel from the mouth (Also Javanese sentil 'uvula, small soft protuberance')

Also Toba Batak binsil 'clitoris'.

30112

*-tiŋ clear ringing sound

PWMP *tiŋclear ringing sound
PMP *tiŋtiŋring clearly
Hiligaynon bágtiŋto ring a bell, to toll
Tiruray bantiŋa bell
Subanen/Subanun bastiŋbell
Maranao betiŋbell, ring a bell
Malay dentiŋto chink or clink -- of coin or thin metal
Aklanon eantíŋhigh-pitched (voice)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kertiŋringing sound, as of a coin
Malay keruntiŋcattle-bell (of wood)
Malay letiŋa tinkle such as the note of a mandoline or guitar
Manggarai rentéŋtuneful, melodious (of the voice of a person or animal)
Bikol sagtifŋsoprano, high-pitched
Maranao talintiŋshrill

30113

*-tir tremble, quiver

PWMP *kitirtremble, shake
PMP *tirtirshiver, tremble
Sika betirflutter (as the wings of a caged bird)
Manggarai tetirflutter, shake, shiver

-tak₁    -tak₂ (or *-taqak?)    -taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?)    -taq    -tas    -taw    -tay    -teb    -teg    -tek₁    -tek₂    -tem    -teŋ₁    -teŋ₂    -teŋ₃    -teq    -ter    -tes    -tik₁    -tik₂    -til    -tiŋ    -tir    -tug    -tuk₁    -tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?)    -tuk₃    -tuk₄    -tuq    -tus    -tut    

tu

30114

*-tug pound, hit

Ifugaw (Batad) bitugbump oneself as by hitting the head against a beam, by falling
Itawis bitúgslap on the back

30115

*-tuk₁ bend, curve

PWMP *be(n)tukbend, curve
PWMP *hu(n)tukbend, flex
PWMP *lentukbend, flex
PWMP *litukbend, twist
Maranao balitokbend
Tetun bitukmake an edge or border; to fold, bend or double strips of palm leaf when weaving so that it is neat and tidy
Mansaka botokto bend down (as a tree limb)
Fijian koduto bend a thing; arch, like the back of a cat
Bunun latukbow-like musical instrument
Tiruray lontukconcavely curved
Hawu ŋetubend, bow, curtsy
Fijian rodubent, curved
Buruese tutukto bow
Manggarai witukswaying the body, posturing

30116

*-tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?) knock, pound, beat

PAN *balalaCukwoodpecker
PWMP *belatukwoodpecker
PWMP *getukknock, pound on
PMP *katukknock
PMP *ketukknock, pound
PMP *letukcrashing, thudding or knocking sound
PMP *pa(n)tukknock, strike against
PWMP *petukknock, bump against
PWMP *pitukflick, tap
PMP *retuksound of chopping, etc.
PWMP *tuksound of knocking, pounding, beating
PMP *tuktukknock, pound, beat
Sundanese beletoksound of an explosion, the crackling of fire, etc.
Mansaka bontokheavy hammer
Sasak dantukkick against with the foot
Hawu detuknock, beat
Ifugaw duntúkblow of one's fist
Kelabit etukheartbeat
Ngaju Dayak garutoksound of rudder striking against boat
Manggarai gatukchatter of the teeth
Malay gelatokchatter of the teeth
Ilokano gotókpalpitate, throb, flutter, pulsate violently
Cebuano hagtúkloud knocking sound
Tetun hak-latukthresh maize
Balinese intukstamp, grind, pulverize
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kastukresound, of bamboo water containers that strike together when they are carried in fetching water
Old Javanese kiṭukmake a knocking sound
Tagalog lagutókshort, sharp sound (as of end-bones -- carpal or tarsal -- snapping upon being stretched on hand or fingers)
Sangir lentuʔexplode, burst open with a bang (as chestnuts in hot ashes)
Kankanaey litókto crack, snap (as finger joints) (also Kankanaey litóok idem)
Toba Batak lutukbeat loudly
Puyuma mu-palTukexplode
Kambera nútukuknock, beat, tap on
Old Javanese palatukwoodpecker
Gorontalo peletuʔasound of finger joints being cracked
Bikol putókexplode
Javanese rekutu:kloud cracking sound
Ilokano rittókthe crackling sound of the joints of the fingers
Fijian rotubeat at with fists or stick
Makasarese runtuʔpounding of the heart (Also: Bare'e rutu 'sound of pounding or knocking')
Malay santokknocking or tripping up against
Ilokano sintókknock on the head
Aklanon súntokrap or hit with one's knuckles
Tetun tanutukhammer
Iban tatokknock, tap, peck
Ngadha vitustick for beating clothes in washing; to beat with such a stick
Fijian vutupound with pestle and mortar
Komodo wetoʔwoodpecker
Manggarai wetukhit with something

30117

*-tuk₃ nod

PWMP *qatuknod
Pangasinan toékbow the head
Banggai tutuknod the head
Banjarese untuknod the head

Possibly identical to *-tuk₁.

30118

*-tuk₄ top, summit, crown

PMP *tuktuktop, summit, crown
Casiguran Dumagat búntokhead; top of the head
Pazeh ituktop of the head
Ilokano pantóktop, apex, summit (mountains, houses); tip of the nose (when long)
Ilokano pátoksummit, apex, top, peak, crest
Sasak potoktip of the nose; nipple of the breast
Kapampangan puntukcarry on the head
Kavalan tekitukmountaintop
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) utukcarry on top of the head

30120

*-tuq fall

PWMP *zatuqfall
Bintulu gatuʔfall
Malay rentohtoppling down, crashing down
Malay runtohtoppling down, crashing down
Berawan (Long Terawan) sitoto fall, of fruit
Kelabit tutuʔfall from a height

30121

*-tus break under tension

PWMP *putusbreak off
Sundanese betustear, as an overfilled pillow under pressure
Tiruray buntusbreak a string or rope by putting too much tension on it
Tontemboan éntosto separate, of married persons
Ngaju Dayak getuswhat is broken or torn (string, strap, rattan)
Cebuano hagtúsfor a line or rope to break under tension
Tiruray ketusbreak a string or rope due to excess tension (< *-tes?)
Tiruray kuntus(of string or rope) to break because of excess tension
Bikol lugtósbreak or snap under pressure (as a string holding a kite or bird, a fishing line with a fish on the hook (< *-tes?)
Samoan motu(-sia)(of long things such as a rope or stick) break, snap
Balinese tustusbreak off, pluck
Nggela utuh-ibreak, be severed, of a rope
Nggela utuutupull and break, as a string
Itbayaten vitosidea of being cut apart
Kadazan Dusun vutusto pluck up

30122

*-tut flatulence

PWMP *ke(n)tutflatulence
PAN *qe(n)tutflatulence
PMP *u(n)tutflatulence
Kankanaey boŋtótbreak wind
Simalur fetudflatus ventris
Sundanese hitutfart
Hanunóo laŋtútrepulsive odor of long-standing water and the like
Ilokano luŋtótrotten, putrified, decomposed, spoiled, putrid
Maranao tagtotmake wind due to stomach gas
Kankanaey ubtútstink, smell badly
Bontok ʔuptúthave the smell or taste of old rice that has begun to go mouldy

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/5/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Roots-Index-t