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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*c   

ca    ce    ci    cu    

ca

cabut

caciŋ

cakaq

cakep

ca(ŋ)ket

calapaʔ

candur

ca(m)pak

ca(R)pit

cawi

31384

*cabut pull out with force

9476

PMP     *cabut pull out with force

WMP
Itbayaten savot-ento pull not purposefully, of small plants (grass, vegetables)
Iban cabuttake out, pull out or up (as grass); withdraw, subtract
Malay cabutextraction by force (but not with needless violence), of rooting up plants, pulling teeth, drawing a ring off a finger, or pulling a card out of a pack
Toba Batak ma-narbut-ito pluck, pull out
  s<um>arbutto borrow
Balinese ñabotto pull up plants, pluck out (hair, feathers)
Proto-Minahasan *sabutpluck out, pull out
OC
Fijian cavu-tato pull up, eradicate
  ta-cavuuprooted, pulled out (not always of itself)

Note:   Also Old Javanese pa-ñabud ‘a means or instrument to pull out (to kill)’, Javanese ñabud ‘to pull out; revoke, suspend’, di-cabud ‘be pulled out, be revoked, suspended’, ñabud ‘to pull out, draw (as in pulling teeth, or hairs from the beard with tweezers)’; ñabud ñawa ‘to kill, murder’; di-jabud ‘be pulled out’. With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.

31407

*caciŋ kind of worm

9511

PWMP     *caciŋ kind of worm

WMP
Cebuano sásiŋkind of edible white worm of the mud near the sea shore
Murung caciŋworm
Taboyan caciŋworm
Samihim sasiŋworm
Malay caciŋworm, including: caciŋ aŋin ‘Filaria loa’, caciŋ asal ‘intestinal worm, the passing of which in stools is believed to presage death; caciŋ bəsar ‘large white worm passed in stools’, caciŋ gərumit ‘pinworms, nematodes’, etc.

30444

*cakaq oppose, dispute with

7609

PWMP     *cakaq oppose, dispute with

WMP
Maranao saŋkaʔrefuse, decide, oppose
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) saŋkaʔfight each other
Iban cakahcontradict, dispute with, oppose

31502

*cakep close, shut

9623

PWMP     *cakep close, shut

WMP
Balinese ñakepto enclose, shut in tightly
  cakep-ana Balinese book, written on palm leaves and enclosed between two boards
  cakep-aŋto cause to be enclosed, be shut in by someone
Banggai saŋkopto close
  pa-saŋkopdoor

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘cover; fold over’.

25890

*ca(ŋ)ket sticky, stick to

2047

PMP     *ca(ŋ)ket sticky, stick to

WMP
Pangasinan an-sakkétstick rice
Dairi-Pakpak Batak saŋkethanging from; attached, sticking to
Old Javanese caketclose by, not letting go, (holding) tightly
CMP
Manggarai caketstick to; viscous; clayey

Note:   With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.

25872

*calapaʔ betel nut case

1958

PWMP     *calapaʔ betel nut case     [disjunct: *salapaʔ]

WMP
Maranao salapabetel nut case
Malay (Brunei) celapaoblong betel box
Iban celapaʔbrass betel box
Malay (Sarawak) celapaoblong betel box
Simalur salapametal tobacco box
Nias salafatobacco box

Note:   Also Malay (Perak, Kedah) celepa. Mills (1975:814) proposes PAn ?*salɨ(m)pa ‘container’, but the Oceanic members of his comparison (Tongan hofa ŋahau ‘quiver for arrows’, Fijian soba ‘banana blossom’) are of doubtful cognation. This cognate set probably acquired much of its attested distribution as a result of borrowing from Malay.

30018

*candur rice variety (?)

6714

PWMP     *candur rice variety (?)

WMP
Tiruray sandura nonglutinous rice
Iban bubur candursweetened rice or sago pudding

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

25888

*ca(m)pak to smack

2045

PWMP     *ca(m)pak to smack

WMP
Maranao sampakhit sideways with fist
Malay capaksmack lips while eating

Note:   Also Buruese sepak ‘stomp’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

25889

*ca(R)pit pincers, tongs

2046

PWMP     *ca(R)pit pincers, tongs     [disjunct: *sa(R)pit]

WMP
Isneg sagpítthe tongs of the blacksmith; a clasp
Malay capitpincers

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’. *s before any vowel other than *i normally became Isneg t. Its retention in this and a small number of other forms is unexplained.

30220

*cawi small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo

7074

PWMP     *cawi small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo

WMP
Ilokano sáwikind of hawk
Isneg tawíkind of small hawk
Kankanaey sáwia species of bird of prey, a kind of kite, smaller than the labáan (buzzard)
Hanunóo sáwismall bird with shiny black plumage; it imitates the calls of other birds and of some mammals
Kelabit awiha bird, bluish-black in color, with V-shaped tail feathers
Malay buroŋ cawi-cawia bird, the drongo (Dicrurus spp.); black and with long forked tail

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat sawe ‘black and white chicken hawk’.

TOP      ca    ce    ci    cu    

ce

ceguk

cekas

cekcek

cekel

cekep

cekig

cekuk

celeb

celep

celuk

ceñeb

ceŋap

ceŋis

cep(e)qak

cepuk

ceray

cerik

ce(R)neb

32580

*ceguk hiccough

10948

PWMP     *ceguk hiccough     [disjunct: *seguk]

WMP
Tagalog sigókhiccough, hiccup
Kayan (Uma Juman) həŋgukhiccough
Javanese ceguka hiccup
  ceguk-ento have the hiccups
Balinese cegukto make the sound ‘guk’

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.

25896

*cekas quick, swift

2058

PMP     *cekas quick, swift

WMP
Malay cekasnimble, agile, quick

9094

POC     *sokas nimble, agile, quick

OC
Nggela sogajump, leap, move swiftly
  soga-sogato hop hither and thither, as a bird

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.

30707

*cekcek gecko, house lizard

8287

PWMP     *cekcek gecko, house lizard     [doublet: *cikcek, *tektek]

WMP
Hanunóo suksúkcommon house lizard (Hemidactylus frenatus, Dumeril and Bibron); also the sound made by this lizard
Aklanon súksukhouse lizard (small)
Hiligaynon súksukhouse lizard
Ida'an Begak soksokhouse lizard
Malay cecakcommon house lizard
Malay (Jakarta) cecekcommon house lizard
Minangkabau cacakcommon house lizard
Old Javanese cecekhouse-lizard
Balinese cekcekgecko, lizard
Totoli sosokhouse lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus
Dampelas ʔali-sosoʔ ~house lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus
Makasarese caʔcaʔgecko, house lizard

Note:   Also Old Javanese cecak ‘house-lizard’, Javanese cecak ‘small lizard commonly found on interior house walls’, Balinese cecak ‘lizard, gecko’. *cekcek and its doublets *cikcek and *tektek appear to be onomatopoetic forms imitating the staccato clicking sound made by the gecko as it hangs from the wall or ceiling of a house.

25898

*cekel choke, strangle

2061

PMP     *cekel choke, strangle

WMP
Bontok səkə́lstrangle; have something stuck in the throat
Ifugaw hokólto strangle, throttle
Kapampangan sakal-anchoke, strangle
Tagalog sakálchoked, strangled
Agutaynen mag-tekelto grab tightly around the neck; to choke or strangle a person or animal; to accidentally be strangled
Iban cekalthrottle, strangle
Malay cekalgrip
Sundanese cekelstrike, seize, hold firmly with the hand
Old Javanese cekelseize, clutch
OC
Nggela ndokochoke, strangle
Arosi tokochoke

Note:   Also Paiwan zekel ‘something stuck in the throat’, ma-zekel ‘have something stuck in the throat’. Replaces *cek[ae]l ‘strangle’ (Blust 1970), for which Oceanic cognates were not cited.

25899

*cekep seize, grasp

2062

PMP     *cekep seize, grasp

WMP
Kenyah sekepscoop net
Malay cekapgrip
Bare'e sokoseize, catch, take hold of
OC
Motu dogo-aseize, take hold of, restrain

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.

32282

*cekig constriction around neck

10582

PWMP     *cekig constriction around neck

WMP
Tagalog sikígtight-fitting around necck or under the armpits
Malay cəkekseizing the neck; throttling; (fig.) choking with food or guzzling
  manek cəkektight bead necklet

32098

*cekuk choke, gag

10342

PWMP     *cekuk choke, gag

WMP
Ida'an Begak səkkukfood or drink going the wrong way
Old Javanese ma-cəkuk-cəkukto choke (or to hiccup?)

Note:   With root *-kuk₂ ‘sound of a sob, cackle, etc.’.

25902

*celeb sink, submerge

2066

PMP     *celeb sink, submerge

WMP
Balinese celebdip in water, baptize
CMP
Buruese selesubmerge
  sele-hdive for

Note:   With root *-leb ‘sink, disappear’.

25903

*celep soak, steep in water

2067

PWMP     *celep soak, steep in water

WMP
Bontok sələ́pdrenched; soaked, of animals or people
Malay (Jakarta) celepsteep, soak, dye

Note:   Also Malay celup ‘steep, soak, dye’, Balinese celeb ‘dip in water, baptize’.

25904

*celuk curved area; corner, angle

2068

PWMP     *celuk curved area; corner, angle

WMP
Tagalog súlokcorner, nook
Kayan selukcrevice or corner in a house
Balinese celukbay, bight

Note:   With root *-luk ‘bend, curve’.

25913

*ceñeb immerse, submerge

2080

PWMP     *ceñeb immerse, submerge

WMP
Maranao senebdive, immerse in water (person)
Karo Batak ce-r-nemon the point of sinking out of view, of the sun; momentarily submerge, as carabaos in a watering hole
Toba Batak so-r-nopextending into the water
  ma-nornop-honplunge something into the water

Note:   With root *-ñeb ‘dive, submerge’.

25912

*ceŋap seize in the mouth or beak

2079

PMP     *ceŋap seize in the mouth or beak

WMP
Malay ceŋapcatch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath
CMP
Manggarai ceŋap <Mpounce on, catch in the mouth

Note:   With root *-ŋap ‘open, of the mouth’.

25914

*ceŋis stench

2081

PWMP     *ceŋis stench

WMP
Malay ceŋisodor that "puts one off", odor that spoils the appetite
Mongondow toŋitstench (as of sweaty armpits, burned rice, etc.)

25907

*cep(e)qak crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking

2071

PMP     *cep(e)qak crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking     [disjunct: *sapak]

WMP
Cebuano supʔáksplit something lengthwise, esp. along the grain, break off (said of tree branches)
Tiruray sefakbreak off, as a branch from a tree trunk
Iban cepakslapping, lapping (as water under a boat)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak cepaksnap, break off
CMP
Buruese sepakstomp

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘clap, slap; split, break’. Possibly equivalent to PPh *sep(q)ak ‘cut; piece; chip’ (Zorc n.d.:93).

25906

*cepuk dull sound

2070

PMP     *cepuk dull sound

WMP
Iban cepoknoise of movement in water
Malay cepokdull sound, as when a dhoby strikes cloth against a stone
CMP
Manggarai cepukbreak (teeth, tubers), crunch (corn cob)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘thud, clap, break’.

25909

*ceray part, separate, divide

2075

PWMP     *ceray part, separate, divide

WMP
Ilokano serráyforce one's way through a fence, crowd, etc.
Maranao seraypart, as hair or tall grass; divide geographically or politically
Melanau (Mukah) serayseparate
Malay ceraisundering; parting; divorce

25910

*cerik shrill, of the voice

2076

PMP     *cerik shrill, of the voice

WMP
Iban cerik-ceriktalk in a shrill voice
Toba Batak soriklet out a shrill scream as a battle-cry
CMP
Manggarai cerikscream shrilly

Note:   Also Malay serék ‘cracking sound’.

25915

*ce(R)neb dive, immerse

2082

PWMP     *ce(R)neb dive, immerse

WMP
Maranao senebdive, immerse in water (person)
Karo Batak cernemon the point of setting (of the sun), momentarily submerged, of buffaloes in a watering hole
Toba Batak sornopextend into the water; immerse something

Note:   With root *-neb ‘dive; sink, disappear under water’.

TOP      ca    ce    ci    cu    

ci

ciak

ciap

cibít

ciderit

ci(n)duŋ

cik

cikcek

cikep

ci(ŋ)kuk

cilak

ciŋaŋ

ciŋap

cirit

31017

*ciak twitter, call out (bird)

8947

PWMP     *ciak twitter, call out (bird)

WMP
Agta (Eastern) siyákcry, yelp
Maranao siaknoise made by chicks, cry
Binukid siyak-siyakfor chicks to chirp loudly (as when their mother has died)
Malay ciaktwitter of small bird; bird that tweets or twitters; a generic name for birds like sparrows and finches

31018

*ciap chirp, peep

8948

PWMP     *ciap chirp, peep

WMP
Tagalog siyápchirping of birds, chicks or certain insects
  s<um>iyápto chirp
Bikol mag-siyápto chirp
Hanunóo mag-siyápto chirp, cluck (as a chick)
Cebuano siyáppeep, chirp (as a chick)
Iban ciapcheep, cheeping (as chicks)
Malay ciapto twitter (of birds); to squeak (of mice)
  buroŋ ciap-ciapcrested woodquail: Rollulus roulroul
Mongondow mo-siappeeping of chickens

31020

*cibít hook on, catch with hook

8950

PWMP     *cibít hook on, catch with hook

WMP
Bontok sibítgeneral term for thorny plants; thorn
Kankanaey sibítthorn, prickle; bramble, briar
Cebuano sibítsafety pin; fasten with a safety pin
Mansaka sibítsafety pin
Tausug sibíta claw (of a crab, etc.)
Iban cibitpinch between thumb and forefinger knuckle

Note:   With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp’.

32567

*ciderit diarrhoea

10932

PWMP     *ciderit diarrhoea

WMP
Tagalog síritsquirt of a liquid
Cebuano sidlítsquirt out in a stream
  sílitflow in a continuous stream from where it is pent up
Malay ceretlooseness of the bowels; diarrhoea
Minangkabau ciritlooseness of the bowels; diarrhoea

25927

*ci(n)duŋ shelter

2103

PWMP     *ci(n)duŋ shelter

WMP
Isneg síduŋthe space under the house
Tagalog s-um-íloŋtake shelter
Sundanese cinduŋanything used to cover the head or the head and face (as against the sun, or to conceal it from sight)
Proto-Sangiric *siduŋto shelter

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’.

25921

*cik sound used to shoo away domestic animals

2092

PWMP     *cik sound used to shoo away domestic animals     [disjunct: *sik]

WMP
Malay cikexclamation for driving away dogs
Toba Batak siksound used to shoo away chickens
Tae' sikswishing sound, as of something struck with a

30708

*cikcek gecko, house lizard

8288

PWMP     *cikcek gecko, house lizard     [doublet: *cekcek, *tektek]

WMP
Iban ticakwall lizard
Malay cicakhouse lizard, Hemidactylus spp., esp. H. frenatus
Duri ciʔcakhouse lizard
Buginese cicaʔhouse lizard

25919

*cikep catch with the hands

2089

PMP     *cikep catch with the hands

WMP
Maranao sikepcatch with bare hand; grey bird of prey
Malay cikapchopsticks
Karo Batak cikephold something in the hand
Mongondow sikopcatch fish with hand
OC
Tongan hikof-ipick up with tongs
Rennellese sikoto catch, as a ball or wave
Maori hikosnatch

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *sikep ‘narrow’, but his cognate set is suspect, and his reconstructed gloss almost certainly in error. The present gloss accords closely with that of the root *kep as it appears in other reconstructed word-bases (as *dakep ‘embrace’, *kepkep ‘seize, apprehend’)

25928

*ci(ŋ)kuk bent, curved

2104

PMP     *ci(ŋ)kuk bent, curved     [disjunct: *si(ŋ)kuk]

WMP
Old Javanese céŋkokconcave
CMP
Tetun ka-sikukbent, of a tree or beam

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.

25922

*cilak to shine, of heavenly bodies

2093

PMP     *cilak to shine, of heavenly bodies     [disjunct: *silak]

WMP
Cebuano sílakfor the sun to be shining clear and bright
Malay célakshining, glistening
OC
Fijian cilato shine, of the heavenly bodies

25926

*ciŋaŋ gape, open the mouth

2102

PMP     *ciŋaŋ gape, open the mouth

WMP
Sasak ciŋaŋharelip
CMP
Rembong siŋaŋstartled, alarmed

Note:   With root *-ŋaŋ ‘amazed; gaping’.

25924

*ciŋap catch one's breath

2097

PWMP     *ciŋap catch one's breath

WMP
Tagalog siŋáploss of breath, gasping for breath
Malay ceŋápcatch in the mouth; snap at; panting or catching one's breath

Note:   With root *-ŋap ‘open, of the mouth’.

31031

*cirit to squirt, of liquids; diarrhoea

8969

PWMP     *cirit to squirt, of liquids; diarrhoea

WMP
Tagalog síritsizzling sound; gurgling sound of a liquid; hiss, a hissing sound; squirt of a liquid
Cebuano sílitflow in a continuous stream from where it is pent up; drive, move swiftly forward; for firecrackers to fizzle or sputter; leaky (as a tank of water)
Iban ciritdiarrhoea, have diarrhoea
Malay ceretlooseness of the bowels; diarrhoea
Minangkabau ciritdiarrhoea
Sundanese ka-pa-cirit-andefecate slightly when farting
Old Javanese ka-pa-ciritto defecate inadvertently
Javanese ciritfeces
  cirat-ciritemerging little by little (of feces)
  ke-ciritto discharge feces inadvertently

Note:   Also Malay cerek diarrhoea, daun sə-cerek ‘plant used in the treatment of diarrhoea’.

TOP      ca    ce    ci    cu    

cu

cubit

cukcuk

cu(ŋ)kup

cu(l)cul

culcul

cuŋ(e)qab

cuŋkub

cupcup

cupit

curik

curit

cutcut

25929

*cubit take with the fingers

2105

PWMP     *cubit take with the fingers

WMP
Isneg tùbítto touch, pat, tap
Malay cubitpinching; pressure between finger and thumb

Note:   With root -bit₁ ‘hook, clasp, grasp with fingers’.

25932

*cukcuk skewer

2115

PMP     *cukcuk skewer     [disjunct: *suksuk]

WMP
Iban tucokpierce, stab, prick, give injection
Malay cucokpricking; stabbing; driving a point into anything
Balinese cukcukpick up with the beak; poke repeatedly, peck at
OC
Arosi susuʔ-iprick, pierce, sew
Tongan hūhūk-iapricked in many places, having many small holes as if pricked
  hūk-iapricked

25950

*cu(ŋ)kup close, cover

2178

PWMP     *cu(ŋ)kup close, cover     [doublet: *cu(ŋ)kub, *su(ŋ)kub 'cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave']

WMP
Kankanaey súkupshutter; cover (of a basket)
Malay (Java) cuŋkupover-arching cover, e.g. a dish cover
Balinese cukupto close (umbrella, book)

Note:   In Blust (1983-1984) Kankanaey súkup was erroneously cited as súkub and assigned to *cu(ŋ)kub or *su(ŋ)kub.

25947

*cu(l)cul insert

2175

PMP     *cu(l)cul insert

WMP
Maranao sosolput one piece inside another; cap
Malay (Jakarta) cocoldip (food into sauces, etc.)
OC
Motu dudu-ainsert in armlet
Tongan huhuprick, pierce (with a small hole); of a bee, to sting; give an injection to

30445

*culcul set alight, apply fire to

7610

PWMP     *culcul set alight, apply fire to

WMP
Maranao sosollight a fire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sulsulset fire to something with a torch
Iban tuculapply fire to

25948

*cuŋ(e)qab gasp, pant

2176

PWMP     *cuŋ(e)qab gasp, pant

WMP
Ilokano soŋʔábrespire convulsively, gasp, pant violently, be breathless or out of breath
Malay cuŋap-caŋippuffing and blowing; panting; blown and breathless

25949

*cuŋkub cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave

2177

PWMP     *cuŋkub cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave     [disjunct: *su(ŋ)kub]

WMP
Maranao sokobmoveable hand fish trap; fit
Malay cuŋkupover-arching cover, e.g. a dish cover
Javanese cuŋkubroofed shelter erected over a grave
Balinese cuŋkubone of the places where offerings are made, worship offered
Mongondow tuŋkubcover over (as with a basket)

Note:   Also Kankanaey súkub ‘shutter, cover (of baskets)’ Cebuano sakab ‘kind of fishing trap of shallow waters put directly over the fish to be trapped’.

25937

*cupcup sip, suck

2139

PMP     *cupcup sip, suck     [doublet: *sepsep, *sipsip]    [disjunct: *supsup]

WMP
Ilokano súsupsuck, puff at a pipe or cigar
Pangasinan sopsópsuck, take repeated big sips
Maranao sosopsuck
Minangkabau cucupsuck (e.g. the blood from a wound)
Old Javanese cucupdrink or suck in big gulps
OC
Bipi susu-hsuck
Seimat susu-isuck
Tongan huhusuck

25938

*cupit narrow

2140

PWMP     *cupit narrow     [disjunct: *su(m)pit]

WMP
Bontok súpitmake something narrow, as a pondfield or a house
Balinese cupitnarrow (space)
Sasak cupitnarrow
Mongondow tupitpinch, clip; pincers of lobsters
  to-tupitpincers or tongs of bamboo

Note:   With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

25941

*curik spotted, speckled

2145

PWMP     *curik spotted, speckled

WMP
Malay corékgrain in wood; veining; long parallel lines (broken or otherwise) in cloth patterns
Karo Batak curikcovered with fine speckles
Tae' surrikspotted, speckled, not only of the hair, but also of the skin of a pig

Note:   With root *-rik ‘spot, freckle’.

25943

*curit mark, line, dash

2148

PWMP     *curit mark, line, dash

WMP
Kelabit uritline, dash, writing
Malagasy soritraa mark, as of sculpture
  man-òritrato mark, to engrave
Malay (Jakarta) corétmark
Sundanese corétdraw a line through something

Note:   With root *-rit ‘scratch a line’. Also Malay (Jakarta) codét ‘distinguishing mark’.

30019

*cutcut suck noisily

6715

PWMP     *cutcut suck noisily

WMP
Tagalog sutsótsibilant sound used to call someone or urge silence
Cebuano sutsutslurp; eat or drink noisily in a sucking way
Bahasa Indonesia men-cucutsip, suck

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-c