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Updated: 9/24/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*C   

Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Ca

CabCab

CaCaw

Cakaw

Caki

Caliŋa

CaliS

CaluN

CaNem

CaNum

Caŋelaj

Caŋila

Caŋis

Capa

Capaŋ

Capel

Caqi

CaqiS

Caqu

CaSaw

Cau

Cawa

Cazem

25868

*CabCab clap, beat, hack

1935

PAN     *CabCab clap, beat, hack

Formosan
Paiwan ts-m-abtsabclap hands
  ma-tsabtsabbe beaten repeatedly with open hand (person, wall, etc.)
WMP
Bontok tabtabchop, trim with a bolo
Kapampangan tabtabcutting (sugarcane)
  tabtab-anchop off
Tagalog tabtabhew, trim, chip off by hewer or chipping tool (of wood, stone or the like)
Cebuano tabtabhack something off with several blows
Bisaya (Bukit) nantabcut grass
Old Javanese tatabknock on
Javanese tatabpound, beat on something
  tatab-anbox one another
CMP
Manggarai tatapstamp or press down, force into a small space
Ngadha tatahack to pieces, beat, kill
Rotinese tatasplit, chop (wood)

Note:   Also Balinese tebteb ‘stamp with the feet and move forward a little (in order to make crickets come out into the open, so that they can be caught)’. Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *tabtab ‘knock, pound, beat’, but cited reflexes only from western Indonesia.

25869

*CaCaw pupil of the eye

1936

PAN     *CaCaw pupil of the eye

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) muR-TaTaweyeball
WMP
Bikol (k)alin-tatawpupil of the eye

Note:   Also Hanunóo alintawu (< tawu ‘person’) ‘pupil of the eye’. This item seems clearly to be a reduplication of *Cau ‘person, human being’, with a probable morphophonemic alternation of *-u and *-w. Semantic parallels are found in many other Austronesian languages, as with Maranao tao ‘person, people’, tao a mata ‘pupil of the eye’, Tiruray etew ‘person, people’, etew moto ‘pupil of the eye’, Malay oraŋ ‘person’, oraŋ-oraŋ-an mata ‘image in the pupil of the eye’, Tae' tau ‘person’, mata tau ‘pupil of the eye’. For the relation between ‘pupil’ and ‘child’ as a semantic universal, cf. Greenberg (1966:239).

25870

*Cakaw steal

1937

PAN     *Cakaw steal     [doublet: *nakaw]

Formosan
Pazeh ma-sakawsteal, rob
  ta-sakawthief
Amis takawsteal
Thao cakawgreed; you are greedy!
  ma-cakawgreedy for food, gluttonous; tending to take things without permission; to steal
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) T-em-a-Takawsteal
Paiwan tsakawsteal; do secretly

1938

PMP     *takaw₁ steal

WMP
Itbayaten takawtheft, idea of stealing
Ilokano ag-tákawsteal, pilfer, purloin, rob, plunder, pillage, loot, harry (-an, manaN-)
Isneg tákawsteal
Casiguran Dumagat takösteal, burglarize
Pangasinan takéwsteal
Kapampangan ka-takaw-angreed
Tagalog tákawgreediness
Hanunóo tákawtheft, stealing
Aklanon tákawsteal, take (without permission)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) takewsteal, acquire by theft
Mansaka takawsteal
Samal taŋkawsteal
Murik takotheft
Kayan takaustealing
Ngaju Dayak takautheft; thing stolen
Singhi Land Dayak tokusteal
Alas taŋkowto steal
Karo Batak taŋkosteal; fig. illicit, have clandestine sexual relations
Toba Batak taŋkosteal
Nias tagõsteal
Sangir takotheft
Mongondow takowsteal, go out to steal
CMP
Manggarai takosteal

1939

POC     *tako steal or rob

OC
Fijian bu-takosteal or rob

1940

PAN     *ma-Cakaw to steal

Formosan
Pazeh ma-sakawto steal
Paiwan ma-tsakawbe or become stolen

1941

PMP     *ma-takaw stolen

WMP
Kapampangan ma-takaw, ma-takogreedy
Mansaka ma-takawthief

1942

PWMP     *maŋ-takaw steal

WMP
Itbayaten manakawsteal, rob; robber, stealer, thief
Pangasinan manakéwsteal
Aklanon manákawthief
Tboli menagawsteal
Murik nakosteal
Kayan nakawto steal
Ngaju Dayak menakausteal, steal from; clandestine
Toba Batak manaŋkosteal
Sangir manakosteal
Mongondow moakowsteal

1943

PWMP     *manaŋ-takaw thief

WMP
Ilokano mananákawthief, stealer, pilferer, robber
Ngaju Dayak mananakausteal a little
Mongondow mononakowthief; one who customarily steals

1944

PMP     *paŋ-takaw steal

WMP
Itbayaten panakawsteal
Aklanon panakáwtheft
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) penakawsteal
Tiruray fenakawsteal
Kadazan Dusun panakausteal
Kelabit penotheft; way of stealing
  menoto steal
Ngaju Dayak panakauthievish, stealing inveterately
Toba Batak panaŋkothief
Uma panakosteal

1945

POC     *panako steal

OC
Proto-Admiralty *pa-panakosteal
Manam anakothief; steal
Bauro hanagosteal
Nakanamanga panakosteal
Rotuman hanaʔosteal; cheat (at school); do surreptitiously; by stealth, without permission, surreptitiously

1946

POC     *painako steal

OC
Mussau ainaosteal
Gabadi vainaosteal
Roro veinaosteal
Muyuw veinausteal

1947

POC     *penako steal

OC
Loniu pa-hena (< *pa-penako)steal
Watut penasteal (Milke 1968)
Motu henao-asteal
  henao-henaosteal again and again; constant theft; illicit intercourse; fornication

1948

PAN     *C<in>akaw what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive)

Formosan
Paiwan ts-in-akawstolen objects

1949

PWMP     *t<in>akaw stolen; stolen goods

WMP
Isneg s-in-akawwas stolen (past)
Karo Batak t-in-ankowhat is stolen, stolen goods
Nias s-in-agostolen goods
Mongondow s-in-okowstolen (past); what is stolen

1950

PAN     *Cakaw-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Puyuma Takaw-animperative of the instrumental focus: help to steal

1951

PWMP     *takaw-an stolen goods (?)

WMP
Ilokano takaw-anrob, steal rom, plunder, pillage
Isneg takaw-ansteal
Toba Batak taŋko-anwhat is stolen, loot

1952

PWMP     *takaw-en be stolen

WMP
Itbayaten takaw-ento steal a thing
Ilokano takáw-ensteal, pilfer, filch, purloin, embezzle
Isneg takaw-anto steal
Hanunóo takáw-unbe stolen
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tekaw-ena thief

1953

PWMP     *paŋ-takaw-an the place where something is stolen (nonpast local passive)

WMP
Itbayaten panakaw-ansteal from
Kadazan Dusun panaka-anthe place where one steals
Mongondow ponakaw-anplace where something was stolen or will be stolen

1954

PWMP     *paŋ-takaw-en be stolen (nonpast direct passive)

WMP
Itbayaten panakaw-enlet one steal
Kadazan Dusun panaka-onbe stolen

Note:   Also Bontok ákew ‘steal from a house when the residents are out’, Kankanaey ákew ‘steal’, Ifugaw áko, ákaw ‘steal’, Ifugaw (Batad) ákaw ‘steal, esp. of valuable items; do something surreptitiously’, Maranao panekeo ‘steal’, Melanau (Mukah) tikaw ‘theft’, menikaw ‘steal’, t-en-ikaw ‘was stolen by’, Maori whánako, whēnako ‘steal; theft; thief; thievish’. This exceptionally complicated comparison requires extensive comment. The following numbered points concerning first the shape, then the morphology and finally the meaning of *Cakaw and its derivatives should cover the major issues:

(1) All Formosan reflexes of *Cakaw which distinguish *C from *t point unambiguously to *C in this form. Outside Taiwan, PMP *t- (the outcome of the merger of PAn *C and *t) is widely reflected as the stem-initial consonant, but there are a number of irregularities, including the unexplained loss of *t- in some of the languages of northern Luzon and the widespread nasal replacement of *t in other languages. The latter irregularities will be treated below under morphology. Although both Samal (southern Philippines) on the one hand, and the Batak languages and Nias (northern Sumatra) on the other hand, reflect a form with medial prenasalization, I take the prenasalization of *k in this word to be a product of two independent changes.

(2) Milke (1968:149) proposed a doublet *nakaw next to Dempwolff's *ta(ŋ)kaw ‘steal’. Although forms compatible with *nakaw occur in forms such as Kayan nakau ‘steal’, Singhi Land Dayak noku ‘steal’, and Karo Batak naŋko ‘steal’, these items are synchronically derived form stems with initial t. The same cannot, however, be said of Kapampangan náko, Tagalog nákaw ‘steal’ and of widespread reflexes of *nakaw in the Lesser Sundas and central Moluccas. A doublet *nakaw thus seems unavoidable, despite the fact that in some languages forms of the same shape are regual morphological derivatives of a reflex of *takaw.

(3) Although Aklanon panákaw ‘theft’, Ngaju Dayak panakau ‘thievish, stealing inveterately’ and Toba Batak panaŋko ‘thief’ are derived synchronically from underlying disyllables with initial t, Itbayaten panakaw, Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) penakaw, Tiruray fenakwa, Kadazan Dusun panakau and reflexes of POc *panako ‘steal’ are independent lexical entries. We might, therefore, posit a third PMP doublet *panakaw next to *takaw and *nakaw, an interpretation which appears to be supported by the reconstructions *panakaw-an and *panakaw-en. However, the evidence for a doublet *panakaw differs from the evidence for a doublet *nakaw in one crucial respect: PMP clearly had a prefix *paŋ- which, among other things, derived agentive nouns, whereas there is little reason to believe that active verbs were derived by simple homorganic nasal substitution (as opposed to prefixation with *maŋ-). The patterning of PMP morphology thus suggests that *panakaw is a morphological derivative of *takaw. Despite this conclusion two serious problems remain: 1. *panakaw presumably meant ‘thief’, yet of the available reflexes only Toba Batak panaŋko supports this interpretation, most languages reflecting *panakaw as a verb or as a non-agentive noun which itself can be affixed to form a verb, 2. reflexes of *panakaw have become independent lexical items in a number of widely distributed languages, yet this has not happened to other morphological derivatives of PMP *takaw.

(4) The morphology of some reflexes of *Cakaw appears superficially to be cognate, but does not stand up to closer inspection. Thus, Tetun hanaʔo ‘rob, steal’ appears at first to reflect *panakaw, but on closer examination appears instead to contain the Tetun causative prefex ha- plus a reflex of *nakaw. Similarly, Paiwan ma-tsakaw ‘be, become stolen’ and Pazeh ma-sakaw ‘steal, rob’ appear at first to be cognate with Sangir ma-tako ‘thievish’, Mongondow mo-takow ‘thievish in nature’, but the Sulawesian forms clearly contain a reflex of *ma- ‘stative’, whereas the Formosan forms do not. Likewise, the similarity of Rotinese manako (ma-nako) and of Kapampangan, Bare'e menako ‘steal’ to the Paiwan and Pazeh forms, or to Isneg mag-tákaw ‘steal’, appears to be a product of convergent innovations in languages that in any case share a common ancestral morphology.

(5) Most challenging of all is the task of interrelating the affixed forms of PAn *Cakaw and PMP *takaw. Wolff (1973) has proposed a convincing system of verbal affixation in PAn which distinguishes independent from future-general action dependent subjunctive modes. The independent mode of verbs includes active, direct passive (DP), local passive (LP) and instrumental passive (IP) voices in both nonpast (-um-, -en, -an, i- respectively), and past tense forms (-inum-, -in-, -in-...-an, i-...-an). At the PAn level the direct available evidence permits us to reconstruct *Cakaw and *C-in-akaw. The former was the stem for verb forms meaning ‘steal’, but when unaffixed probably meant ‘theft’. The latter clearly meant ‘what is stolen, stolen goods’. However, more generally PAn *-in- had two functions: (1) it was a common nominalizer (as in *C-in-akaw); (2) it marked the past tense of all four verbal voices, for the active, LP, and IP in combination with other affixes, but for the DP it occurred with a zero allomorph of the DP suffix *-en, thus acquiring a ‘portmanteau’ function. The forms which have been reconstructed above are only a fragment of what must have been a fuller paradigm, pieces of which are preserved either in the available Formosan evidence or the available MP evidence, but not in both. Taking into account the morphological evidence form other cognate sets we can tentatively posit the following PAn paradigm for *Cakaw:

*Cakaw ‘theft’
 activeDPLPIP
NonPast C-um-akaw Cakaw-en Cakaw-an?
Past? C-in-akaw ??

The active nonpast form *C-um-akaw is reflected in Paiwan ts-m-akaw ‘steal; do secretly’ and the irregular Ifugaw um-áko-áko ‘steal frequently, be a thief’. No reflexes of *C-inum-akaw (Wolff's past active) are known. The nonpast direct passive *Cakaw-en is recorded only from Philippine languages, but must have been present in PAn if *C-in-akaw functioned both as a noun and as the past tense form of the direct passive. Reflexes of *Cakaw-an are known only in WMP languages, where they do not clearly reflect a local passive meaning. This meaning is, however, clearly reflected in Kadazan Dusun panaka-an ‘the place where one steals’ and Mongondow ponakaw-an ‘place where something was stolen or will be stolen’. No past tense form of the local passive, nor any form of the instrumental voice or the future-general action dependent subjunctive mode is known for this form.

(6) The principal changes which the foregoing paradigm underwent in PMP were the innovation of *manakaw and *panakaw. Both *t-um-akaw and *manakaw must have coexisted for some time as markers of the nonpast active voice in PMP, but the latter appears to have dominated the former. It is unclear whether PWMP *mananakaw derives from a form prefixed with *manaŋ-, or from a form prefixed with *maŋ- followed by reduplication of the first stem syllable.

(7) The focal meaning of PAn *Cakaw, PMP *takaw was ‘steal’. In addition to this gloss, however, *Cakaw, *takaw evidently included the meaning ‘do secretly’, as such a sense is reflected in Paiwan, Ngaju Dayak, Rotuman, and perhaps Karo Batak and Motu (in both of which the notion of clandestine or illicit sexual relations is also expressed).

25871

*Caki feces, excreta

1955

PAN     *Caki feces, excreta     [doublet: *Caqi]

Formosan
Pazeh saik <Mexcreta
  masi-saikdefecate
Bunun takifeces
  mu-takito defecate
Rukai cakiexcrement (Tona)
  ckeeexcrement (Maga)

1956

PMP     *taki feces, excreta     [doublet: *taqi]

WMP
Itbayaten tachiexcreta, dung, manure
  t-n-achiexcreta still left in the last stomach, a type of side-dish with wine
Ilokano takkístool, feces, fecal matter, excrement, ordure; dung; rust, verdigris
  ta-takki-ánanus, cloaca
Isneg takkístool, feces, excrement, dung
Bontok takkífeces
Kankanaey takkístool; relief of the bowels; excrement; feces; dung
Ifugaw takkístool relief of the bowels; excrement, feces
Kalamian Tagbanwa takkiʔintestines, guts
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) takifeces, excrement; relieve oneself; wax in the ear; scum from the preparation of coconut oil
Singhi Land Dayak tokifeces
OC
Tolai taki-feces, excrement

1957

PAN     *C<um>aki defecate

Formosan
[Saisiyat s-om-aʔidefecate]
Rukai mo-cakidefecate (Tona)
  mu-ckeedefecate (Maga)
WMP
Ilokano t-um-akkídefecate, void excrement, evacuate the bowels
Isneg t-um-akkídefecate, evacuate the bowels

Note:   Also Isneg tukiʔ ‘dung, excrement (of birds)’, Bolinao takli ‘excrement’, Sambal (Botolan) taka ‘excrement’, Chamorro takeʔ ‘feces, droppings, manure, excrement, dung, muck’, takeʔ lulok ‘rust’.

25874

*Caliŋa ear; various types of bracket fungi

1973

PAN     *Caliŋa ear     [doublet: *Caŋila]

Formosan
Taokas saninaear
Favorlang/Babuza charinaear
Bunun taiŋaear
Saaroa caliŋaear
Rukai (Budai) caliŋaear
Rukai (Mantauran) caliŋaear
Puyuma Taŋila-ŋila-yanthe Jew's ear fungus, Auricularia-Auricula Judae
Paiwan tsaliŋaear
  tsaliŋa nua djaumeye of a needle
  tsaliŋa-liŋaColeus scutellarioides; Iresine herbstii

1974

PMP     *taliŋa ear; kind of tree fungus     [doublet: *taŋila]

WMP
Itbayaten taliñaouter ear, earlobe, auricle, ear; edible tree fungus, the Jew's ear: Auricularia auricula-judae L.
  kayuhtree, wood
  taliña nu kayuhsp. of fungus
Ilokano talíŋaear; handle; pierced ear (ta- -an)
Isneg talíŋaear
  talíŋa danāgkind of bracket fungus that resembles the xaŋgarát, but is usually much larger
  talíŋa lamán(lit. 'boar's ear'). A common herb, some four inches tall, with dark-colored leaves
  danāgthin and filthy spirits. Those who inhabit a balísi (Ficus indica) tree affect with fever or deafness anybody who dares throw stones at their abode
Casiguran Dumagat taliŋaear
Palauan diŋear
Tagalog taʔíŋaear, ears
  ma-naʔíŋalisten
Bikol talíŋaear
Kalamian Tagbanwa talíŋaear
Palawan Batak talíŋaear
Cebuano talíŋaear; notice, pay heed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teliŋaear; gills of a fish
Mansaka tariŋaear
Samal taliŋaear
Kadazan Dusun tohiŋoear
Bisaya (Bukit) teliŋoear
Miri teliŋahear
Kenyah (Long Anap) teliŋaear
Kenyah (Long Dunin) teliŋeear
Murik teliŋaʔear
Bintulu təliŋaear
Siang tolyiŋaear
Ngaju Dayak taliŋashell of the ear
Malagasy tadínythe foramen of the ear
Maloh taliŋaear
Lundu tariñekŋear
Rhade kŋaear
Malay teliŋaear (parts of the ear, various plants)
Nias taliŋaear
  oroname of a spirit
  taliŋa-orokind of mushroom
Tae' taliŋa balao(lit. 'rat's ear') kind of fungus that grows on the underside of a decayed bamboo betuŋ
CMP
Kisar kelin-naear
Selaru tliaear
Watubela telŋa-ear
Geser tiliŋaear
Bobot talikanear
SHWNG
Irarutu təŋgəra <Mear

10684

POC     *taliŋa ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish

OC
Nauna taliŋear
Lou teliŋa-ear
Penchal reliŋa-ear
Loniu teleŋa-ear
Nali daiŋa-ear
Ahus heliŋa-ear
Seimat taxiŋear
  paximalevolent bush spirit with visible, humanlike body
  taxiŋ i paximushroom
  taxiŋa-ear
Wuvulu aliaear
Mussau taliŋa-ear
Amara telŋe-ear
Lakalai la-taliŋasmall edible fungus
Wogeo talŋa-ear
Motu taiaear; gill fins of fish
Nehan taliŋa-ear
Zabana taliŋaear
Nggela taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree
Sa'a äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs
Chuukese seniŋe-n soomáany of a large number of fungi ("ghost's or spirit's ear") such as Auricularia, Ganoderma tropicum, etc.
Puluwat háliŋear, earlobe
  hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans)
  háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom
Woleaian taliŋear
  pachthunder, lightning
  taliŋe-li-pachmushroom
Motlav delepectoral fins
Rotuman faliŋapectoral fins
  faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear"
Wayan taliŋageneric for various kinds of fungi, e.g. mushrooms, bracket fungi
Fijian daliŋaear
Tongan teliŋaear
Samoan taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear,
  taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus
Rennellese tagiŋaear; side fins of fish, whale flippers; to hear, lend ear, listen

1975

PAN     *Caliŋa na kaSiw wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks

Formosan
[Pazeh kahoy saŋiraspecies of flat, thin, black mushroom (lit. 'wood ear')]

1976

PMP     *taliŋa na kahiw wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks

WMP
Itbayaten taliña no kayoha species of fungus
[Hanunóo taliŋa-bátaŋa poisonous saprophytic tree fungus]

Note:   Also Thao lharina ‘ear’, Paiwan ka-tsaluŋa ‘half-moon-shaped tree-fungus (grows in tiers)’, Kankanaey íŋa ‘ear, shell of the ear; handle, lug’ (also = kind of fungus), Tiruray keliŋo ‘ear’; keliŋoʔ mal ‘a mushroom, Auricularia auricula-judae Linn.’, Tboli keliŋu ‘ear’, Dali' liŋa ‘ear’, Melanau (Mukah) liŋa ‘ear’, Penan (Long Labid) keliŋe-n ‘ear’, Kenyah (Long Dunin) keliŋe ‘ear’, Taboyan keliŋoʔ ‘ear’, Iban keliŋa ‘ear, e.g. on a jar (poetic for pendiŋ)’, Chamorro talaŋa ‘ear’, hayu ‘stick, wood’, talaŋa hayu ‘type of fungus, dark brownish and quite slippery when wet, usually attaches to decayed wood and looks just like the ear of people’.

This item clearly is identical with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taliŋa ‘ear’, but various compounds probably existed in PMP which indicated the widespread association of at least some types of mushrooms with ghosts on the one hand, and with thunder or lightning on the other (see, for example, Lévi-Strauss 1976 or Blust 2000). The meaning ‘pectoral fins’ in connection with this term was added to POc by Osmond (2011:133).

25873

*CaliS rope, cord, twine, string

1959

PAN     *CaliS rope, cord, twine, string

Formosan
Pazeh sarisrope, cord, string; bowstring
Tsou tresirope
Kanakanabu talísirope
Siraya tarixrope
Rukai cálisirope (Budai)
Puyuma Taliline of the gardener (used to measure garden plots)
Paiwan tsalisa hemp cord

1960

PMP     *talih rope, cord, twine, string

WMP
Ilokano talírope, cable, cord
Isneg talírope, cable
Bontok talírope
Kankanaey talícord; rope; line
Ifugaw talírope, cable, anything that serves to bind, attach, wind, etc.' (said to be from Ilokano)
Kapampangan talíʔtie, bind
Maranao talirope, cord, string, twine
  tali-aʔrope-making machine
Subanon talirope
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) talia small rope
Tiruray taleyrope, string; to wrap and tie
Bonggi talirope
Blaan (Sarangani) talirope
Kadazan Dusun tahirope
Murut (Timugon) talirope
Abai Sembuak talirope
Bisaya (Bukit) talirope
Berawan (Long Terawan) tallehrope
Kenyah talicord, rope
Kenyah (Long Anap) talirope
Murik taliʔstring, cord, rope
Kayan (Uma Juman) taliʔrope, string
Kiput talayrope
Bintulu taləyrope
Tunjung talirope
Ngaju Dayak taligeneric for any type of rope, twine or cordage
Taboyan talirope
Ma'anyan tadirope
Malagasy tádicord, rope
  voa-tádimade into cord
  tadí-natwisted into a cord or rope; bind with cords
Iban talirope, cord, string, line; tali is made from bark, palm fiber, etc. by laying the fibers together and rolling with palm on thigh or other handy surface
Maloh talirope, cord
Singhi Land Dayak tarisstring, rope
Jarai teleyrope, string
Rhade kleyrope
Malay talirope; cord; string; line; anything of cord-like appearance, including (i) ropes, strings and cords of different materials, (ii) articles of clothing suggesting cords (bandolier, girdle, etc.), (iii) harness-straps, (iv) ropes in ship's rigging, (v) miscellaneous cords and ropes (for woman in labor, spinning top, fishing line, cat's cradle, tendon below tongue, viscera, dried banana strips, navel cord, carpenter's line)
  tali puteria plant, Cassytha filiformis, the basis of a Malay hairwash
  akar taliclimbers, Gnetum spp.
Acehnese taloerope, line, string, cord
Simalur talibinding, rope, cord, string
Karo Batak talirope
Toba Batak talirope, cable, thread, string, twine
Nias talirope, cord, string
Mentawai talirope, string, cord
Lampung talirope
Sundanese taliband, cord, rope, line, and in general anything that can be used to tie; also the cordage of a ship
Old Javanese talirope, cord, string; bond, tie
Javanese talistring, rope
Madurese talerope
  a-taletied with rope
Balinese talistring, cord, rope; one thousand (primarily a cord with 1000 képéŋs strung on it, but used in Low Balinese for 1000)
Sasak talirope
  tali-n ambetslender cord around the abdomen (worn as an amulet)
Tontemboan talinet used to catch wild pigs
Gorontalo talistring, cord, rope
Uma taliheadband
Bare'e taliheadcloth, headband
Tae' taliheadband used to hold the hair in place
  tali-iput on a headband
Makasarese tali(in combination forms) cord, string
Wolio talistring
CMP
Bimanese tarirope (for bit or bridle of horse)
Komodo talicord, rope
Manggarai talirope, cord (as of rattan)
Rembong talirope (for a horse)
Ngadha talilarge rope, cord
Sika talirope
  ai talitalisman worn around the neck
  tali-ŋfibrous, of wood and tubers
Hawu darirope (sometimes made from the midrib of the lontar palm)
Rotinese talirope (different types are distinguished by the material from which they are made)
Atoni tanirope
Tetun talirope, cord, string
  tali-kof or like rope; to coil around or entwine
  tali-nrope, cord, string; yoked together, paired
Tugun talistring, rope
Kisar kalirope, cord
Leti talirope
  lare tal-lirope of a sail
Wetan talirope
Yamdena talirope
Ujir telrope
Watubela talirope
Geser talirope

1961

POC     *tali₁ rope, string, cord

OC
Nauna tIlstring, rope
Lou telstring, rope
Penchal rīlstring, rope
Seimat talstring, rope
Yapese taelrope; string; twist tobacco
Gedaged talito bend (straight or round)
Gitua talto coil, put around
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making: Hibiscus tiliaceus
Tawala talirope to hold pig net up
Varisi talirope
Eddystone/Mandegusu talifishing line
Nggela talirope
Nggeri tairope
Kwaio aliplait
Lau alitwine round, encircle; surround; coil a rope, wind a line; coil up like a dog; curled, tangled, of hair; make a loop, bend string or rope; strand of a rope
Sa'a älilie curled up as a dog or a snake
Arosi arito plait; rope; wind up, make a noose; lie curled up (dog or snake)
Pohnpeian sahlrope, cord, line, string
  salgather rope, haul in a line
Chuukese säänrope, coil of rope, heavy duty sennit
Woleaian tal(i)rope, line, be tangled up with ropes
Mota talirope, cord, made of plaited or twisted lines
Lonwolwol tElrope
Bonkovia telirope
Namakir na-talrope
Nakanamanga na-talirope
Fijian dalikind of pandanus from which ropes are made: Agave sisalana Amaryllidaceae; hence in common use, a rope. In Kadavu also a species of vine
Nukuoro dalifibers of the coconut leaf rachi
Rennellese -tagisennit noose for snaring sharks
Anuta tarisennit cord used for lashing canoes
Maori taria mode of plaiting with several strands; noose for catching birds, etc; ensnare

1962

PMP     *ta-talih cordage (?)

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ta-talilike a rope, i.e. long and slender
Sundanese ta-taliropes, cordage
Old Javanese ta-talirope, band, girdle
Sangir ta-taḷicarpenter's rope used to snap down to make a line
CMP
Rotinese ta-talito make rope by rolling fibers together on a flat surface, esp. the thigh

1963

PWMP     *talih-an mooring place, place where a boat is tied

WMP
Ilokano tali-ánto rope, to bind, tie or fasten with a rope or cord; connect or fasten together with a rope; to clench, grip, clutch, hold or grasp firmly (clinching); to entwist, entwine, twist or wreath around (snakes)
Ngaju Dayak tali-anplace where a boat is moored
Toba Batak tali-anan alloted piece of land
Sundanese nali-anto tie, bind
Old Javanese taly-anbound
Makasarese tali-tali-aŋmoor a large boat by tying in various places (as at prow and stern), esp. during the west monsoon; fig. restrain a furious person from every side

1964

PWMP     *talih-en to be manufactured, of string or rope

WMP
Ilokano tali-énto braid, twist into a rope
Kadazan Dusun tohiz-onbe made into string
Javanese tali-nact or way of tying; a tied bundle, esp. of harvested rice

1965

PAN     *C<in>aliS was made into rope; what was made into rope

Formosan
Saisiyat S-in-aLiS <Arope, cord

1966

PMP     *t<in>alih was made into rope; what was made into rope

WMP
Ilokano t-in-alírope consisting of two or more strands, for instance, a plain-laid rope, etc.
Malagasy t-in-adiwas made into rope by twisting
Karo Batak t-in-alirope
Nias s-in-alirope, string, line
Old Javanese t-in-ali gajahwith garlands hung crosswise?
  t-in-ali talimade into a string, in continuous succession
Sangir pa-poroŋ t-in-alitwisted headcloth worn by men

1967

PAN     *C<um>aliS to tie with rope, fasten with rope

Formosan
Saisiyat S-om-aLiSto fasten, tie
Puyuma T-em-aliprepare a field (by measuring off)
Paiwan ts-m-alisto manufacture hemp cord

1968

PMP     *t<um>alih to twist into rope (?)

WMP
Ilokano t-um-alíto rope, be formed into rope, twist in the shape of a rope, draw out or extend into a filament or thread
Malay tali t-em-alicordage generally
Old Javanese t-um-alīto tie, bind, string

1969

PWMP     *ma-nalih make a rope or string, make something into rope or string

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ma-nahito make string
Ngaju Dayak ma-nalimake a string or rope, as for attaching a fishhook
Malagasy ma-nadito twist, make a rope by twisting; bind with cords
Iban nalitwist into rope, prepare fibre for rope; continue the line, inherit bilik and share of property
Toba Batak ma-nalito bind or tie
Nias ma-nalimake something into a rope
Javanese nalitie for someone; tie something
Sangir ma-naliwork with a measuring line, make a line by using a string that has been dipped in paint or coated with charcoal and snapping it down against the wood being marked (carpenter's term)

1970

PWMP     *pa-nalih material used to make rope

WMP
Kapampangan pa-nalíʔsomething to tie with
Ngaju Dayak pa-naliwhat is often used to make rope
Malay p-en-alitying material

1971

PWMP     *pa-talih twine together, as strands of rope

WMP
Acehnese peu-taloetie with a rope or string
Karo Batak pe-talito copulate, of snakes
Nias fa-talitwist around one another

1972

PWMP     *talih pusej umbilicus, navel cord

WMP
Malagasy tadi-m poítrathe navel string
Malay tali pusatumbilicus, navel cord
Acehnese talòë pusatnavel string

Note:   Also Tagalog táliʔ ‘twine, anything used for tying’, Bikol mag-táliʔ ‘to thread a needle’, Cebuano táliʔ ‘tie, bind’, Simalur taliʔ ‘kindred, lineage’, Sasak taliʔ ‘to tie, specifically of binding smaller bundles of rice stalks into larger ones’, Sa'a ʔäli ‘cord’, Lonwolwol tali ‘rope handle of- (suffix-taking)’.

It seems clear that the fundamental sense of PAn *CaliS and its reflexes was ‘rope, twine, string’ --- that is, manufactured cordage as opposed to natural tying materials. Nonetheless, this word often is replaced by a reflex of *waRej ‘vine’ in OC languages, presumably because in POc society vines had become a major material for ropes (cp. Nauna of the eastern Admiralties, where way < *waRoj can mean either ‘vine’ or ‘rope’, but tIl < POc *tali can mean only ‘rope’, never ‘vine’). The reference to pig nets or a rope to hold up a pig net in Tontemboan of northern Sulawesi and Tawala of southeastern Papua may be a result of convergence, but it seems at least as likely that PMP *talih was part of the name for some type of trap for ensnaring wild pigs. Similarly, the reference to entangling snakes in Ilokano and Karo Batak may reflect a metaphorical or high frequency phrasal usage of PWMP *talih.

25875

*CaluN fallow land; secondary forest

1977

PAN     *CaluN fallow land; secondary forest

Formosan
Amis talodall kinds of grass, weeds (generic term)
Puyuma Taƚungrass; waste
  T-in-a-Taƚun-anluxuriant vegetation
  Taƚu-Taƚunforest, woods
  Taƚun i ƚaƚiabanedible seaweed (T)

1978

PMP     *talun₁ fallow land; secondary forest

WMP
Ilokano tálonrice field
  ag-tálonto work a rice field; farm
  ma-tálonto be suitable for farming, arable
  ta-talón-enarable, suitable for farming
Isneg tálonthe small patch of ground, about a square yard, that is cleared on the first day, when a farmer begins to clear the ground for a new rice field
Bontok tálonforest
Casiguran Dumagat talónjungle, forest
  i-talonwild chicken, Gallus gallus; scrutinize an area of forest (to see if it is suitable for making a swidden)
Hanunóo tálunjungle, forest; an extensive, continuous, forested area
Aklanon táeonfield; underdeveloped or overgrown land
Agutaynen talonforest, woods, jungle (some people believe that evil spirits and elves live in places like this)
Palawan Batak tálonwoods, forest
Subanen/Subanun talonwild
  baboy talonwild boar
Tiruray talunforest
  t-en-alunswidden site planted in grain
Kadazan Dusun tahunjungle, wilderness
Kayan (Busang) talunbrushwood, bushes, new growth on land that has served as a swidden (but is now fallow)
Tunjung talunwoods
Iban talunturn up soil, dig, till
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) taruna place inland, etc., a wood; dwelling site, place
Singhi Land Dayak torunforest
Simalur talonspot, place, locale
Karo Batak taluna bit of wilderness where one can secure rights of ownership through cultivation; a place with sugar palms which are tapped for wine
Toba Batak talunfallow land
  ma-nalun-ito cultivate land
Sundanese talunnewly reclaimed swidden land
  dukuh talunnewly settled areas resulting from the expansion of a village, farm, house with farmland; also a piece of land planted in fruit trees, orchard
  sawah-talunricefields and gardens
Old Javanese talunouter gardens (on the edge of the wood, not long opened up)
  anawuŋ talunlive in the woods
  ayam talunwood-fowl
Javanese talunfield which has no irrigation system, and hence is planted only during the wet season
  pa-talun-ana mountain plain
Madurese talonfallow swidden land
Sasak taluncultivated land
Proto-Minahasan *talunforest
Mongondow talun mo-nalunclear or work a piece of land, removing the native growth, planting
Banggai man-talunto weed
  pan-talunweeding implement
  ta-talunknife for cutting weeds
  mon-tolun-ito weed, of multiple objects
Bare'e taluabandoned piece of ground, cultivated field which has gone to weeds
  mon-talulet a field go to weeds, let land go fallow
Makasarese taluŋpast the time of bearing (of fruits); bear no more fruit
OC
Nggela taluforest, but not virgin forest, where the land has been cultivated
Kwaio alugarden, of second or third crop, or having been opened for harvest
  alu siisiian old garden plot returning to secondary growth, beginning to be overgrown
  lala-aluearly secondary bush from old garden
Lau alugarden ground, last year's garden
'Āre'āre ʔāru masiuabandoned, overgrown; last year's garden
Sa'a älulast year's yam garden; bananas and pawpaws and oha planted there
Arosi arua dug garden; an overgrown garden, land formerly used for a garden
Niue talu-ēfallow, unproductive
  talu-melieproductive (soil), fertile
  talu-taluland out of cultivation
  talu-ŋaplants remaining on an old plantation
  talu-tūvaothick bushland
Samoan talu-talufresh growth of weeds; growth, development (of feature, phenomenon, etc.); young trees grown up where there had been a plantation (Pratt 1984)
Rarotongan taru-taruweeds that have been cut down and laid about on the ground
Maori taru, taru-taruherbage, small vegetation, grass

1979

PPh     *talun-an clear land for cultivation

WMP
Isneg talón-anclear a patch of ground for cultivation
Mongondow talun-anremove the growth from land, clear land for planting

10439

PPh     *talun₂ wild fowl, jungle fowl

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat i-talónwild chicken: Gallus gallus
Bikol tálonwild fowl
Hanunóo tálun manúkwild jungle fowl, wild chicken: Gallus gallus gallus Linn.


Note:   Probably from *talun₁ ‘fallow land’ by reduction of an earlier construction *manuk talun ‘jungle fowl’, or the like.

10739

PPh     *ka-talun-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano ka-talón-antenant farmer
Aklanon ka-taeón-anrural areas
Agutaynen ka-talon-anforest, woods, jungle

30378

*CaNem grave; to bury

7437

PAN     *CaNem grave; to bury

Formosan
Kavalan tanemgrave
Amis tademgrave, tomb
Saaroa c<um>a-calhəməto cover with earth

7438

PMP     *tanem grave; to bury; to plant

WMP
Ilokano tanémtomb, grave
Itawis tanámgrave
  mat-tanámto bury, to inter
Bontok tanəma cutting, as of sugarcane
Ifugaw tanómact of planting what must grow; transplanting (e.g. rice seedlings); tanóm is not applied to putting seeds in the earth, only to rice, trees, bushes
  mun-tanómto plant a plant crown, cutting, rhizome, seed, shoot, vine into soil
Ifugaw (Batad) tanómseed rice, selected during main-crop rice harvest for planting main-crop rice
Pangasinan tanémto plant, sow
  panag-tanémplanting season
Tagalog tanímplant
Bikol tanómplant, bush, shrub
Hanunóo tanúmplanting
Masbatenyo tanóma plant
  tánomrice seedling
Aklanon tánomrice seedling, rice shoot
  tanómto plant
  ka-tamn-anorchard, plantation
Waray-Waray tanómto plant something; raise crops
Hiligaynon tanúmplant
Cebuano tanúmto plant, grow plants; implant, nurture in the mind
  t<al>amn-án-anarea prepared for planting
Mansaka tanumto plant
Mapun tanomto plant something
Yakan mag-tanemto plant something
  nanemto plant something
Tausug tanumto plant (something); to bury (something)
Kadazan Dusun tanomplant, crop
  ta-tanomdibble for planting
Ida'an Begak tanombury
Lun Dayeh tanema grave, a tomb
Kelabit tanemgrave; sunken, as a stick pounded into the ground
Murik tanəmgrave
  nanəmto bury
Kayan tanəmburied; a grave; covered with earth; to plant
  nanəmto bury; to plant
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanəmbury
  nanəmto bury; to become submerged
Malay tanamplanting, burying in soil
Simalur tanəmto plant, to bury
  ma-nanəmto plant, to bury
  tanəm-tanəmplants, growing things
  tanəm-ənwhat is planted = seedling
Karo Batak tanemto bury
  nanemto plant
  nanem-kenbury a corpse; plant a tree
Toba Batak ma-nanomto bury
  tar-tanombe buried
  tanom-angrave
Lampung tanomto plant something
Old Javanese tanembeing planted in something, having gone in and stuck fast
  tanem-tanem-anthat which has been planted, plants, crops
Javanese tanemto plant
Balinese tanembury in the ground (seeds, plants, a corpse); grave
Tontemboan tanemto plant
Totoli tanomto plant
Dampelas tanoŋto bury
Balaesang tanoŋto bury
Banggai man-tanomto bury
  ba-tanomdig oneself in
Uma mo-tanato bury
Bare'e tónom-ito plant a crop because the seeds or pits are too large to broadcast
Tae' tananto plant; also to put, place, erect
  man-tananto plant, especially rice
  tanan-anwhat is planted
  tanan-nito plant with
Buginese taneŋplant
  mat-taneŋto plant
  taneŋ-eŋplantation
Makasarese an-nanaŋplanting of young seedlings in the rice paddy (after they have been pulled up from the seedbed)
  ase tanaŋrecently transplanted rice seedlings
Muna tanuto bury
Palauan mə-láləmto plant
Chamorro tanomto plant seeds or seedlings
CMP
Kédang taneŋto bury, cover with earth
Kambera taniŋuto bury
Hawu dane ~ danato bury
Rotinese taneto plant
Kisar kaman <Mto plant
Leti tomnato plant; to bury
Wetan tamnato bury
Yamdena n-tanamdibbling for maize, rice, peanuts, beans, seeds
Kamarian taneto plant
Buruese tane-hto plant (object is either thing or area planted)
  tane-kto implant (object is thing planted)
Soboyo tanoŋto plant, plant in
  t<an>anoŋwhat is planted, crop
SHWNG
Kowiai/Koiwai tanomland, soil

7439

POC     *tanom to bury; to plant

OC
Manam tanoto plant
  tano-mito plant something
  tano-tanoto plant
Tawala tanogarden; clearing around house
Tubetube tanogarden
Kwaio ano-abury; camouflage a foot trap with dirt
  ano-miato plant, bury
Lau anoto bury
  ano-midig heel in ground
  ano-mi-laburying
Toqabaqita ano-aplant a seed, tuber; plant by covering with soil or piling up soil around
  ano-miabury in the ground (impolite to use for burying a person)
'Āre'āre ano-ato bury, fill a grave with sand, to fill a hole, cover with earth
  ano-miato bury
Sa'a ano-anoto bury
  ano-mito cover with earth, to inter
Arosi ano-ito bury
  ano-mito hide, conceal
Tongan tanoplace of burial, cemetery (obsolescent)

7440

PPh     *i-tanem to bury, to plant

WMP
Ilokano i-tanémto bury, entomb
  ma-i-tanémbe buried, be forgotten
Agta (Dupaningan) i-tánamto bury
Isneg i-tanámto carry to the grave
Bontok ʔi-tanəmto plant a cutting, as of sugarcane
Tagalog i-tanímto plant, to put in the ground to grow; to implant (morally), to inculcate
Bikol i-tanómto plant, to raise plants
Masbatenyo i-tanómto plant, sow, place in the ground, transplant
Cebuano i-tanúmto plant; implant, nurture in the mind

7441

PWMP     *ma-tanem able to plant or bury

WMP
Tagalog ma-tanímto be engrafted; to be implanted; to be instilled, to be put in little by little; well-planted, covered with plants, having plenty of plants growing
  ma-tamn-ánto be able to be planted in
Lun Dayeh me-tanemable to bury

7442

PWMP     *ma-nanem to bury; to plant

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ma-nanomto plant
Ida'an Begak mə-nanomto bury
Lun Dayeh nanemto bury someone
Malay me-nanamto plant; to implant (as common sense)
Totoli ma-nanomto plant
Dampelas ma-nanoŋto bury
Balaesang ma-nanoŋto bury
Tae' man-tananto plant, especially to plant rice

7443

PWMP     *maR-tanem to bury, to plant

WMP
Isneg mag-tanámto inter, to bury
Bikol mag-tanómto plant, to raise plants; to plant in
Hanunóo mag-tanúmto plant, will plant
Masbatenyo mag-tanómto plant, sow, place in the ground, transplant
Hiligaynon mag-tanúmto plant, to allow to grow
Tausug mag-tanumto plant (something), as vegetables
Bahasa Indonesia ber-tanamto plant, engage in the work of planting

7444

PWMP     *pa-nanem (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog pa-nanímreferring to seeds or seedlings used for planting and for propagation
Cebuano pa-nanúmplanting, farming, agriculture
Tausug pa-nanumplants, that which has been planted, a crop
Malay pe-nanamperson who plants
Tae' pan-tananwhat is planted; riceplants that have already been transplanted into the paddy

7446

PWMP     *taR-tanem (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog tag-tanímplanting season
Bahasa Indonesia ter-tanamalready planted
Toba Batak tar-tanombecome buried

7447

PAN     *ka-tanem-an area that is planted(?)

Formosan
Kavalan qa-tanm-angraveyard, cemetery
WMP
Aklanon ka-támn-anorchard; plantation
Mapun ka-tanom-anto be able to be used for planting (as land that is available)
Tausug ka-tanum-anto be planted on (a plot of land)
Kadazan Dusun ka-tanam-anact of planting
Old Javanese ka-tanem-anto plant with, to make something enter into and stick

7448

PWMP     *t<in>anem what has been planted (?)

WMP
Masbatenyo t<in>anóma plant
Mapun t<in>anomanything planted, a crop
Yakan t<in>anemwhat has been planted, the plant, seed, seedling, etc.
Lun Dayeh t<in>anemburied by someone
Kelabit s<in>anemwas buried by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anemto plant
Palauan d<əl>áləmplanted

7449

PAN     *t<um>anem to plant

Formosan
Kavalan t<m>anemto bury
WMP
Tausug t<um>anumto plant something
Old Javanese t<um>anemto enter into and stick fast, to be deeply implanted
Tontemboan t<um>anemto plant

7450

PAN     *tanem-an area that is planted(?)

Formosan
Kavalan tanm-anburied
WMP
Tagalog taním-anplace for planting, plantation
  tamn-ánto plant in (emphasis on place); to have a place planted with
Bikol tanom-ánarable, suitable for planting or farming
Masbatenyo tanom-anto plant in a place
Aklanon t<ae>ámn-anfield [for planting]
Mapun tanom-anto plant something
Tausug tanum-anto plant something
Kadazan Dusun tanam-anto plant
Toba Batak tanom-angrave
Old Javanese tanem-anthat which has been planted, plants, crops
Tontemboan t<in>anem-anplantation, area that has been planted with crops

7451

PAN     *CaNem-en what is buried or planted

Formosan
Amis tadem-ento bury
WMP
Waray-Waray tanom-onplants to be planted; something to be planted
Hiligaynon tanum-unto plant, to allow to grow
Mapun tanom-unto plant something
Kadazan Dusun tonom-onto be planted
Malay tanam-ana thing planted
Simalur tanəm-ənwhat is planted, seedling
Nias tanõmõseed, seedling

7452

PWMP     *tanem-i to plant on or in

WMP
Waray-Waray tanom-íto plant on something
Malay me-nanam-ito plant something in
Tae' tanan-nito plant (with)

Note:   Also Isneg mag-tamán ‘to inter, to bury’, Lun Dayeh tinem-en ‘will be buried’. As a concrete noun *CaNem seems to have meant ‘grave’, as shown by reflexes in Kavalan, Ilokano, Itawis, Lun Dayeh, Kelabit, Kayan, Murik, and Balinese (morphological derivatives in Toba Batak and Tuvaluan suggest that the base alone is now primarily a verb or abstract noun in these languages). As a verb both ‘to plant’ and ‘to bury’ are widespread in Malayo-Polynesian languages, and evidently co-occurred in PMP. However, it should be noted that PMP *mula also meant ‘to plant’. Although this observation might be taken as evidence to favor the gloss ‘to bury’ for PMP *tanem, the glosses of reflexes suggest that this form referred especially to the planting (and transplanting) of rice, while PMP *mula referred to the planting of other cultigens.

All Cristobal-Malaitan forms cited here are listed under ano ‘earth’ (< PMP *taneq) in the individual dictionaries, but the thematic consonant –m strongly suggests that they derive from *tanem; in a number of other Oceanic languages it is unclear whether bases of the shape tano reflect *taneq ‘earth, soil’, or *tanem ‘to bury, plant’, and it is likely that the two forms became derivationally related in the thinking of many speakers. Proto-Oceanic *tanom underwent an irregular change to Proto-Polynesian *tanu, with the innovative vowel then passed on to its descendants. A similar irregular change is seen in Muna tanu ‘bury’, but this agreement is treated as a convergent irregularity rather than evidence for a doublet *tanum.

30380

*CaNum carry water

7454

PAN     *CaNum carry water

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) tsalʸumto carry water

7455

PMP     *tanum₁ fill with water

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tanumfill it with water! (imperative of danum)

Note:   It is hard to know what to do with this comparison, as the Ngaju Dayak form is given as an allomorph of danum, while Paiwan (Western) tsalʸum is given as a dialect variant of standard Paiwan zalʸum. This may simply be a product of convergence.

32388

*Caŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea

10710

PAN     *Caŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea

Formosan
Paiwan tsaŋladmiscanthus grass

10768

PMP     *taŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea

WMP
Itbayaten taŋxada plant of the reed family: Themeda gigantea
Ilokano taŋlágelephant grass
Ifugaw taŋlága kind of grass which has long and sharp leaves; therefore it cannot be used to cover roofs: Themada gigantea
Bikol taŋládlemon grass, plant possessing a root which is pounded and used as a seasoning: Andropogon citratus
Aklanon táŋeadlemon grass (used for seasoning): Andropogon citratus DC
Cebuano taŋládkind of tall grass that smells of lemon and is used as a spice, lemon grass: Andropogon citratus
Binukid taŋladlemon grass
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋladlemon grass, Andropogon citratus, used in flavoring meat, and as a poultice

25886

*Caŋila ear

2037

PAN     *Caŋila ear     [doublet: *Caliŋa]

Formosan
Pazeh saŋiraear
Amis taŋilaear, ears
Bunun taŋiaear
Siraya taŋiraear
Rukai cŋiraear (Maga)
Puyuma Taŋiƚaear
  Taŋiƚa-ŋiƚa-yanJew's ear fungus

2038

PMP     *taŋila ear

WMP
Ifugaw taŋílahudhúd word for 'ear', instead of íŋa

Note:   Also Atayal (Mayrinax) caŋia ‘ear’, Amis taŋiŋa ‘ear, ears’.

25887

*Caŋis weep, cry; mourn; to beseech

2039

PAN     *Caŋis weep, cry; mourn; to beseech

Formosan
Amis taŋiccry; expressed or unexpressed grief
Thao canitto cry
  kun-canitto suddenly burst into tears
Bunun taŋisto cry
Puyuma Taŋisweep

2040

PMP     *taŋis weep, cry; mourn

WMP
Itbayaten tañiscrying; weep
  ka-tañisact of crying
Ilokano sáŋitcrying; cry
  ag-sáŋitto cry, weep
  maka-saŋ-saŋítto feel like crying
Agta (Dupaningan) saŋetcry, weep
  mag-saŋetto cry, to weep
Isneg sáŋitweep, cry
  mag-sáŋitto weep, to cry, to shed tears
  pag-saŋ-saŋit-tánto cause weeping
Itawis táŋitcrying
  mat-táŋitto cry
Casiguran Dumagat saŋétto cry, to wail, to weep
Tagalog táŋisweeping, crying; mourning, lamenting
  i-táŋisto weep over, to mourn
Bikol táŋiscry
  mag-táŋisto cry
Aklanon táŋisto cry, bawl (tears)
Waray-Waray taŋísto cry, weep, shed tears
Kalamian Tagbanwa taŋitcry
Hiligaynon táŋisa cry, a lament
  mag-taŋísto cry, to lament
Palawan Batak taŋíscry, shout, moan, cry out
Cebuano taŋísto cry, weep; a cry, weeping
Central Tagbanwa taŋitgrief, weeping, crying
Mapun taŋiscrying
Yakan mag-taŋisto cry, weep (audibly, or inaudibly with tears)
Tausug mag-taŋisto cry or weep, shed tears
Berawan (Long Terawan) taŋehcrying, weeping
  bə-taŋehbe prone to crying, cry a lot
Miri taŋaycrying, weeping
Kenyah (Long Dunin) taŋecrying, weeping
Murik taŋihweeping, crying
Kayan taŋihcrying, weeping
Kayan (Uma Juman) taŋiweep, cry; a cry
Kiput taŋaycry, weep
Melanau (Mukah) taŋiha cry; crying
  t<ən>aŋihwas wept over
Ngaju Dayak taŋisweeping, crying
  ta-taŋischoking up, of the voice of someone about to cry
Malagasy tanicrying, tears, lamentation
  fara-tanithe close of funeral ceremonies (fara = ‘last’)
Malay taŋisweeping, in contrast to cries (raung) or lamentations (ratap)
Gayō taŋiscrying, weeping
  pe-naŋis-enregret, regrets
Karo Batak taŋisto weep, to cry
Toba Batak taŋisto weep, to cry
Old Javanese taŋisweeping, tears
  a-taŋistearful; addressing (imploring, etc.) with tears
Javanese taŋiscrying, weeping
Balinese taŋisweeping
Sasak taŋisweeping, crying
Sangir saŋiʔweeping, crying
Tae' taŋiʔweeping, crying; lamentation, funeral dirge
  si-taŋir-anweep for one another
Chamorro taŋesa cry, a sob
CMP
Lamaholot tanito weep, cry; to complain
Solorese kaniweep, cry
Rotinese tanito cry, whine
Tetun tanisto cry, to weep tears
Ujir tanito cry
Bobot rakitweep, cry
Asilulu tanito cry
  tani pak-anituto wail and keen (on the death of a loved one)
Soboyo taŋi ~ daŋito weep, to cry
SHWNG
Buli taŋisto weep, cry; howl
Irarutu taŋgto cry
Numfor kanəsto weep, cry; howl
OC
Lou teŋto weep, cry
Penchal tɨŋto weep, cry
Loniu taŋto weep, cry
Titan taŋto weep, cry
Leipon teŋto weep, cry
Ahus a-teŋto weep, cry
Kuruti taŋto weep, cry
Levei e-tæŋto weep, cry
Bipi takto weep, cry
Seimat taŋto weep, cry
Wuvulu ʔaito weep, cry
Mendak tIŋto weep, cry, mourn
Tanga taŋto weep, cry
Label taŋisto weep, cry
Tolai taŋito cry, weep, wail; make a noise, as of water shaken in a bottle, also of water about to boil; to sing, of birds and musical instruments; sound
Bali (Uneapa) taŋichito mourn for the dead
Vitu taŋito cry
Lusi -taŋito cry
Kove taŋiweep, cry
Wogeo taŋto weep, cry
Manam taŋto weep, cry
Numbami taŋicry, sing, sound
Motu taito cry, to howl (of dogs)
Mono-Alu taito cry
Bugotu taŋito cry, cry aloud, lament, wail; crying, lamentation
  taŋi mateto wail (for the dead)
Nggela taŋito sound, make a sound; a sound; to pronounce a word, be pronounced; to cry
  te taŋi na tavulithe sound of the conch shell trumpet
Kwaio aŋi-aŋi-ʔasorrowful
Lau āŋito cry, produce a sound, e.g. bird singing, trumpet, thunder
Toqabaqita aŋito cry; to produce a sound (as cicadas, musical instrument)
Arosi aŋito cry; to sound, of bell, gong, panpipes, trumpet; to sing, of birds; to shout; indeed, almost any sound, as the swish of water or the whistle of a steamer
Gilbertese taŋicomplain, sigh, lament
Kosraean tʌŋto cry
Marshallese jaŋto cry; to play music on radio or phonograph; to lament, mourn, weep; wail
Pohnpeian seŋto cry, to weep, to moan
Mokilese joaŋto cry
Puluwat háŋto cry, weep
Woleaian taŋ(i)to weep, cry, sob
Buma e-teŋito cry
Tanema taŋito cry
Mota taŋito weep, cry, with reference both to tears and sounds; to cry, of birds, animals; sound of musical instruments; to weep, as a tree when chopped
  taŋi-vacrying, grief
Mosina teŋto cry
Mafea taŋito cry
Fortsenal tanito cry
Visina -taŋito cry
Makatea taŋito cry
Rotuman fạŋito cry aloud; to announce what is going to happen
Wayan taŋito cry, wail, weep (usually refers to audible weeping but may refer to silent flow of tears); of birds and some animals, make the sound, call or cry characteristic of a species
  vaka-taŋi-taŋipretend to cry, put on a crying act
  i-vaka-taŋiinstrument for making a sound, musical instrument
Fijian taŋito give out sound: of humans, to cry, weep, lament; of animals, to cry, mew, crow, etc.; of clocks and musical instruments, to give out their sounds; to give an alarm (as of war)
  taŋi-cato cry for (in order to get a thing); to chime in, of a meke or song
  taŋi-cakato cry on account of, to lament the dead
Tongan taŋito cry, weep; (of horses) to neigh or whinny, (of dogs) to howl, (of cats) to mew; to ask or appeal or make a petition
Niue taŋito weep, cry; a wake over the dead
Futunan taŋito weep; to take a complaint to the chief
Samoan taŋito cry, weep; to make a noise, utter a cry characteristic of a given animal (birds, crickets, cicadas); ask for, beg for, request
Tuvaluan taŋito weep, cry; to sound (as an instrument); the sound of weeping or an instrument
Kapingamarangi daŋito cry, to wail; to apologize
Rennellese taŋito cry, weep, sound, ring, bark; tears
Anuta taŋito cry, to moan
Rarotongan taŋiany noise or sound, peculiar quality of tone, report, empty or meaningless noise; any sound or noise, such as crying in grief or pain; a fit of weeping; the particular cry or call uttered by birds or beasts; to cry, to lament, to weep, to bawl; to sympathize with
Maori taŋisound, give forth a sound, cry, of things animate or inanimate; weep, utter a plaintive cry, sing a dirge; fret, cry; salute, weep over; resound; mourn; cry for; lamentation, mourning, dirge
  ta-taŋito jingle, rattle; gurgle
Hawaiian kanisound of any kind; pitch in music; to sound, cry out, ring, peal, tinkle, roar, rumble, crow; to strike, of a clock; voiced

2041

PAN     *ma-Caŋis tearful, crying easily

Formosan
Puyuma ma-Taŋisto weep

2042

PMP     *ma-taŋis tearful, crying easily

WMP
Bikol ma-táŋis(-on)describing someone who cries a lot
Sangir ma-saŋiʔtearful, crying easily

2043

PMP     *ma-naŋis to weep, to cry

WMP
Ibaloy naŋisweeping, crying
Tagalog ma-náŋisto lament; to wail; to cry loud and long because of grief or pain
Yakan naŋisto cry, weep
Berawan (Long Terawan) naŋehto cry, to weep
Tring naŋito cry
Narum naŋayto cry, to weep
Miri naŋayto cry, to weep
Kenyah (Long Wat) naŋeto cry, to weep
Kenyah (Long Anap) mə-naŋeto cry, to weep
Kenyah (Long Dunin) naŋeto cry, to weep
Murik naŋihto weep, to cry
Kayan naŋihto cry, to weep
Kayan (Uma Juman) naŋito weep, to cry
Kiput naŋayto cry, to weep
Melanau (Mukah) mə-naŋihto cry, to weep
Melanau (Matu) mə-naŋisto cry, to weep
Tunjung naŋito cry
Ba'amang ma-naŋisto cry
Taboyan naŋisto cry
Malay mə-naŋisto weep
Sundanese naŋisto cry, to weep
Old Javanese a-naŋisto weep, cry
Balinese naŋisto cry, to weep
Sasak naŋisto cry, to weep
CMP
Bimanese naŋito weep, cry
Komodo naŋihto cry
Lamaholot nani loūto shed tears

2044

PAN     *pa-Caŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry

Formosan
Amis pa-taŋic-ento beseech, try to force someone to comply
Thao pa-canitto make someone cry; let someone continue crying
Puyuma pa-Taŋisto make someone cry

7770

PMP     *pa-taŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry

WMP
Ngaju Dayak (mam)-pa-taŋisto make someone cry
Bare'e mam-pa-pa-taŋito make someone cry, bring someone to tears
Tae' pa-taŋiʔto make someone cry

7771

PMP     *paka-taŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) pə-taŋito make someone cry
OC
Gilbertese ka-taŋi-taŋto make music, to play an instrument; to make (someone) cry
Mokilese ka-joaŋ-eto make someone cry
Wayan vaka-taŋito cause tears, be the cause of sorrow
Tongan faka-taŋihaving a doleful sound, sounding like a lament; to appeal to someone after one’s request has been rejected by someone else
Tuvaluan faka-taŋito entreat
Rennellese haka-taŋito complain; to feel bitter, peeved, or angry; to tease, torment; a type of chant or lament, formerly popular
Maori whaka-taŋicause to sound
  whaka-taŋi-taŋiapplied to the largest and final wedge used in splitting a tree; cajole, appeal to sympathy of
Hawaiian hoʔo-kanito play a musical instrument, to cause to sound; to crack, as a whip; to ring up on the telephone

7772

PWMP     *pa-naŋis (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog pa-náŋisa wail; a long cry of grief or pain, or a similar sound
Mapun pa-naŋis-anwhat is cried over, thing that induces crying
Ngaju Dayak pa-naŋisprone to crying; one who cries easily
Old Javanese pa-naŋisto weep, cry

7773

PAN     *C<um>aŋis to weep, cry, mourn

Formosan
Saisiyat h<œm>aŋih <Ato weep, cry
Amis t<om>aŋicto cry, weep
Thao c<m>anitto cry, to mourn
Tsou m-oŋsito cry, weep
Kanakanabu t<um>-á-taŋito cry, weep
Saaroa t<um>-a-taŋi-ito cry, weep
Paiwan (Western) ts<m>aŋitj <Ato wail
WMP
Itbayaten t<om>añisto cry; to cry involuntarily
Isneg s<um>áŋitto weep, to cry, to shed tears
Tagalog t<um>áŋisto mourn; to weep; to grieve
Central Tagbanwa t<um>aŋitto weep or cry
Yakan t<um>aŋisto cry, weep
Tausug t<um>aŋisto cry or weep, shed tears
Malagasy t<om>anito cry, to weep, to lament, to complain
Toba Batak t<um>a-taŋisto weep, to cry
Sangir s<um>aŋiʔto weep, to cry
Dampelas t<um>aŋisto weep, to cry
Balaesang s<um>aŋitto weep, to cry
Bare'e mo-t<um>aŋito weep, to cry
Tae' t<um>aŋiʔto weep, to cry
Chamorro t<um>a-taŋesto be crying

7774

PAN     *Caŋis-an to cry over something or someone

Formosan
Thao canit-anbe mourned, be wept over

7775

PMP     *taŋis-an to cry over something or someone

WMP
Ilokano saŋit-anto lament
Ibaloy neŋis-anto cry over, about something
Tagalog taŋis-anto weep over, to mourn, to lament; to bemoan, to express grief by moaning
Bikol taŋis-anto cry over
Mapun taŋís-anto cry over something or someone
Malagasy tanì-anato be cried for
Sundanese silih taŋís-anto cry on one another’s shoulders
Javanese taŋis-anthings cried over
Sasak taŋis-aŋto cry over something, mourn something or someone
Sangir sa-saŋit-aŋplace where one weeps

7776

PWMP     *taŋis-en to cry over something or someone (?)

WMP
Ilokano arin-saŋít-enon the verge of tears
Hiligaynon taŋis-unto cry, to lament
Mapun taŋis-unto cry over something or someone
Malay taŋis-an buroŋplant-name (variously identified, but lit. ‘wept over by a bird?)
Karo Batak taŋis-en kaka vine with hard, round, bitter fruits that are used as marbles (lit. ‘wept over by a crow’?)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-taŋis-ento weep, of many people at once
Sundanese pi-taŋis-ɨnweeping, crying, tears
Balinese taŋis-inbe wept over
  saliŋ taŋis-into weep over one another

7777

PMP     *taŋis-i to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead

WMP
Karo Batak naŋis-iweep for the dead, mourn the dead
Dairi-Pakpak Batak me-naŋis-ito cry over someone or something
Toba Batak ma-na-naŋis-ito cry over someone or something
  ta-taŋis-ito cry over someone or something
Old Javanese t<um>aŋis-ito address (entreat, etc.) with tears
Javanese naŋis-ito weep over, mourn for (as someone who has died)
Bare'e man-taŋis-ito mourn, weep for someone
Tae' taŋiʔ-ito cry over, initiate a lamentation for the dead
CMP
Kisar kanih-ito lament
OC
Tolai taŋi-eto mourn, bewail
Bugotu taŋi-hito desire, want; to bewail
Nggela taŋi-hito cry for
  taŋi-hagito make someone cry
Lau āŋi-sito cry for; follow about, as a woman a man
Arosi aŋi-hi ~ aŋi-sito cry for
Kosraean tʌŋ-ito be sorry for
Marshallese jaŋi-tto cry for someone
Mokilese jaŋi-dto cry for
Mota taŋisto cry for
Wayan taŋi-cicry for something, ask for help in something, plead or cry for assistance; lament something, bewail something
Tongan faka-taŋi-hito cause to cry

7778

POC     *taŋis-ia to cry for someone or something

OC
Vitu taŋi-ziato cry for
Toqabaqita aŋi-siato cry for someone or something
Arosi aŋi-siacried for
Tongan teŋi-hiato weep for
Hawaiian kani-hiato be sounded, cried out

7779

PMP     *taŋis-taŋis to weep continuously or incessantly

WMP
Karo Batak taŋis-taŋisto weep continuously or incessantly
Toba Batak taŋis-taŋisto weep, to cry

7780

POC     *taŋi-taŋis cry continually, weep a lot

OC
Seimat taŋi-taŋweeping, crying
Lau āŋi-āŋito cry
Toqabaqita aŋi-ŋi-awailing, lamentation for a dead person
Arosi aŋi-aŋicry or sound long continued
Gilbertese taŋi-taŋcomplaints, sighs, lamentations, claims, sobbing; to complain, to whine, to moan, to cry, to grieve; song of birds, music, playing musical instrument
Kosraean tʌŋ-tʌŋto cry continuously
Woleaian taŋi-teŋto cry a lot, weep frequently
Motlav teŋ-teŋto cry
Wayan taŋi-taŋicry and cry, keep crying, cry a lot
Futunan taŋi-taŋito whimper, whine, snivel
Samoan taŋi-taŋito jingle, as coins in pocket; be high-pitched, shrill
Kapingamarangi daŋi-daŋito beg, to ask forgiveness
Nukuoro daŋi-daŋito cry a lot; beg; apologize; a type of aboriginal chant
  daŋi taliŋatinnitus, a ringing sound in the ear [an omen]
Rennellese taŋi-taŋito sound empty (as a coconut that has no liquid); to cry, weep (especially of children)
Rarotongan taŋi-taŋito cry, to lament, weep or bawl in a continuous manner, etc.
Hawaiian kani-kanito shout loudly; jackknife, from the sound of opening and shutting

Note:   Also Murut (Timugon) taŋiʔ ‘weeping; crying’, Tombonuwo taŋiʔ ‘to cry’, Lun Dayeh taŋiʔ ‘a cry or weeping for something’, Kelabit taŋe ‘a cry’, Kayan aŋih ‘weeping; crying’, Palauan lmáŋel ‘to cry; whine’, Kambera kaŋí ‘to cry, shriek, as a young child’, Fordata n-tanit ‘to mourn the dead’.

25876

*Capa to smoke fish or meat for preservation

1981

PAN     *Capa to smoke fish or meat for preservation

Formosan
Kavalan tapafirewood storage shelf (above the hearth)
Puyuma Taparoast from a distance, roast gently (as meat over a fire)
Paiwan tsapadried meat or fish

1982

PMP     *tapa₁ to smoke fish or meat for preservation

WMP
Itbayaten tapajerky
Ilokano tápathin slices of meat, salted, occasionally dipped in vinegar, and dried in the sun
Isneg tápato dry (venison) over the fire
Itawis tápadried meat
Ifugaw tapámeat or fish which has been laid to dry in the sun, or held over the fire
Ifugaw (Batad) tapafor someone to smoke meat over a fire (as beef, catfish, venison, eel, frog, mudfish)
Casiguran Dumagat tápadried meat; to dry meat in the sun
Tagalog tápajerked beef or pork
  tapásmoked, exposed to smoke
Bikol tápasmoked beef
  mag-tápato cut thin for the purpose of smoking; to smoke (beef, fish)
Hanunóo tapásmoked fish
Aklanon tapá(h)to dry out
  tápadried meat
Cebuano tapáto smoke fish; broil fish not close to the embers; kiln-dry copra
  tápamake jerked meat
Maranao tapadry by smoking
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapasmoke something over the fire
Mansaka tapato roast (as fish)
Tiruray tofocook fish or meat over a very smoky fire; dry something over a fire
Malay tapa-tapapieces of fish sliced very thin, spiced, salted and dried in the sun
  dagiŋ tapa-tapameat treated in the same way
  te-tapathin slices of pineapple treated with sugar
Sangir tapato smoke, prepare by smoking
Gorontalo tapoto smoke something over a fire
  mo-lapoto smoke something over a fire
Uma -tapadry by a fire
Bare'e masapi nda-tapasmoked eel
Tae' tapa-ihang up to smoke, leave to dry over a fire, of meat, fish, paddy
Mandar tapato roast, to dry, as copra over a fire
Buginese tapaslow roasting, as of fish over a fire
Wolio tapa-ito smoke (fish, etc.)
CMP
Manggarai tapaburn, roast
Rembong tapato roast (a pig), to burn (a field)
Soboyo tapasmoking of meat and fish

1983

PWMP     *man-tapa to smoke fish or meat for preservation

WMP
[Itbayaten man-taapamake jerky]
Banggai man-tapaplace something on a (drying) rack
Bare'e mon-tapahang up to smoke, of meat, salt, etc. so as to prevent it from spoiling
Tae' man-tapadry something over a fire

1984

PWMP     *tapa-an place where fish or meat are smoked

WMP
Isneg tap-ānto dry venison over the fire
Kankanaey tapa-ánan arrangement consisting of canes of bamboo grass interwoven with rattan; used to store up palay, etc.; it covers the hearth and the sóba, below the ceiling
Bikol tapa-ansmokehouse
Aklanon tapah-ándrying rack
Cebuano tapah-áncopra kiln-drier; grate for broiling
Gorontalo to-tapo-waplace where something is smoked
Banggai tapa-anrack on which something is dried
Tae' tapa-nplace where anything is dried over a fire, in particular the rack over the hearth where the firewood is stored

1985

PPh     *tapa-en be smoked by someone, of meat or fish

WMP
[Itbayaten taapa-enmake jerky, make into jerky]
Gorontalo tapoː-lobe smoked by someone, as copra

1986

PAN     *C<in>apa smoked fish or meat

Formosan
Puyuma T-in-apawhat is grilled or roasted; smoked millet (used against hemorrhages for women in childbirth)

1987

PMP     *t<in>apa smoked fish or meat

WMP
Ifugaw t-in-apámeat or fish which is already dry
Ifugaw (Batad) t-in-apasmoked meat
Pangasinan t-in-apásmoked fish
Tagalog t-in-apásmoked, exposed to smoke; exposed to embers; smoked fish
Bikol t-in-apásmoked fish
Cebuano t-in-ápajerked meat; canned fish
Maranao t-in-apaanchovies; any food preserved by smoking
Binukid t-in-apafish packed in a small cylindrical can; sardines
Sangir kinaʔ t-in-apasmoked meat, smoked fish

Note:   Also Itbayaten taapa ‘dried meat, jerky’, Cebuano tapʔ-an ‘broil fish not close to the embers’, Tiruray tafah ‘to dry meat, make jerky’. Ere taha-su, Loniu taha-su-e, Sori tap-oh and similar forms in other languages of the eastern Admiralty Islands, all meaning ‘to dry or smoke over a fire (as fish)’ may be a pleonastic phrase reflecting earlier *tapa ‘dry or smoke over a fire’ + kasu ‘smoke’. If so, these are the only known reflexes of PAn *Capa in OC languages. This item clearly referred to the practice of drying or smoking fish, meat and perhaps some other food substances (copra presumably is late) to enhance the chances of their preservation.

25877

*Capaŋ a patch, as on clothing

1988

PAN     *Capaŋ a patch, as on clothing

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *c-um-apaŋto patch
Puyuma Tapaŋpatchwork; to patch up

1989

PMP     *tapaŋ₁ a patch, as on clothing

WMP
Itbayaten tapaŋcontinuation, addition
  pi-tapaŋ-enconnect two together
  tapaŋ-anmake a continuation of (building, story, acting, etc.)

Note:   Also Thao tapʔan ‘patch, repair by patching’, Mansaka tapak ‘to patch’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tapuŋ ‘patch, piece of cloth, etc. put on to mend a rent; patchwork’.

25878

*Capel a patch; to patch

1990

PAN     *Capel a patch; to patch     [doublet: *tapal]

Formosan
Paiwan tsapela cloth patch

1991

PMP     *tapel a patch, as on clothing

WMP
Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tapólto close up an opening; obstruct, stand in a doorway where others want to pass
Hanunóo tampúlplaster, poultice
Aklanon támpoemedicinal leaf used as plaster
Agutaynen mag-tampelto cover up a hole in something; plug something so that the contents will not spill out; put a patch on something (as a patch of oregano on the head to cure headache)
Kayan tapenpatched, repaired; a patch; things folded up
Iban tapalpoultice
Maloh tampalto stick, attach to
Malay tampalpasting up; patching, plastering
Sundanese tapelstick, stick to (as leeches to the skin)
Old Javanese tapelclosely linked, joined; close together
Javanese tapelpoultice of herbs used for babies
Balinese tampelto cover up, plaster (a wound), patch (a hole), plaster something and make it watertight; plaster, a covering
Muna tampoto dress a wound, cover with leaves, etc.
  ka-tampobandage, dressing, covering
CMP
Manggarai tampelto stick on (as a paper on the wall)
Selaru tabalto stick, paste, glue, adhere to
Fordata tafaladhere to; to stick, paste, glue

Note:   Proposed as *[Ct]a(n)pel ‘poultice’ in Blust (1970) where, however, only WMP witnesses were cited.

25881

*Caqi feces, excrement

2004

PAN     *Caqi feces, excrement

Formosan
Saisiyat sæʔiexcrement
Thao caqifeces, excrement
Puyuma Taʔifeces, excrement
Paiwan tsaqiexcrement, feces

2005

PMP     *taqi feces, excrement

WMP
Bontok táʔifeces
  tat-taʔikind of vine having an unpleasant smell (Asclepiad)
Kankanaey táistool relief of the bowels; excrement; feces; dung; crotel; treadle; rust, rustiness
  tái di gáyaŋa variety of taro with dark-colored shoots (lit. ‘crow feces’)
Ifugaw taʔístool relief of the bowels, excrement, feces
Ibaloy taifecal excrement, dung, crap, poop; waste material
  man-taito move one’s bowels, defecate
  tai-anto defecate on something (as a child on his shirt)
Pangasinan taíexcrement
  man-taídefecate
Tagalog taʔe ~ taʔiexcrement; waste matter expelled from the body
  mag-taʔéto have loose bowels, to have diarrhea
  pag-táʔethe act of moving one’s bowels
Masbatenyo taifeces, excrement
Aklanon táistool, feces; to defecate
Waray-Waray táʔihuman or animal excreta or waste
Agutaynen takifeces, manure
  man-takito defecate
  mag-taki-takito have diarrhea
Cebuano táʔifeces of people and animals; dross from molten metal
Maranao taʔifeces, stool
Binukid taifeces (of people and animals), excrement; manure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔifecal matter
Mansaka taiexcrement, feces
Kadazan Dusun taidung
  buhavangold dust
Tombonuwo to-taifeces
Kelabit taʔihfeces
Bintulu taʔəyrust, rusty
Melanau (Balingian) taʔəyfeces
Malagasy taidung, excrement, refuse
  tai-m-biiron slag, scoria
  tai nifithe scurf on the teeth
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tai-nstomach; womb; belly; lower part of human body that contains the stomach and bowels
Malay tahidregs; lees; sediment; dirt of any sort; ordure
  tahi besirust
  tahi lalatmole-freckle (lit. ‘fly dropping’)
  tahi ulat (= tulat)three or four days after tomorrow
  mabok tahi teliŋadazed by talk or nagging; talked down’ (lit. ‘drunk with waste in the ear’)
Gayō taifeces; dirt, waste product
Simalur taifeces, excrement
  man-taito defecate
Toba Batak tedirt, filth, feces
  te ni hudonsoot on a cooking pot
Nias taexcrement, feces; slag; lightning
Enggano e-kaifeces, excrement
Old Javanese tahiexcrement, dropping; rust
  ma-tahi-tahirusty
Javanese taifeces; rust; sawdust
Balinese tahidirt; rust; scale (metal); dung
Sasak taifeces; filth
Sangir taidregs, filth; feces; sediment
Tontemboan taʔifilth, excrement
  tan-taʔibeetle that rummages in horse and pig feces
Totoli ta-taiexcrement, feces
Balaesang taiexcrement, feces
Uma taʔifeces, excrement
Bare'e taʔithe waste produced by something; feces; dregs, sediment; also belly, stomach
  mo-to-taʔito defecate
  tan-taʔibuttocks, bottom, base of something
Tae' taithe waste produced by something; feces; dregs, sediment
  tai tuaksediment of palm wine
  tai uaygreen duckweed on the surface of water
  kat-tai ~ tit-taito defecate
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taqifeces
Mandar taifeces
  tit-taito defecate
Buginese taifeces; to defecate
Makasarese taiwaste, dregs; feces; rust
  tat-taito defecate
Wolio taʔiexcrement, filth, residue; rust
Muna taghibelly
Palauan daʔexcrement, shit; residue; secretion
CMP
Bimanese taʔito defecate; feces, filth
  taʔi garagajisawdust
Komodo taifeces, droppings
Manggarai taʔito defecate; feces; filth
Rembong taʔifeces, filth
Ngadha taʔifeces, excrement; to defecate
  taʔi kabakind of mushroom
Li'o taʔifeces; to defecate
Kambera taifeces, excrement, filth; accretion
  tai bàhirust
Tetun teto defecate (a vulgar word)
Erai tefeces
Tugun teifeces
Kisar koiexcrement; rust
Leti teifeces; rust
Wetan teeexcreta (of all kinds)
Asilulu taifeces, excreta, filth
  roko taicigarette ashes
Larike teifeces
Buruese taifeces, excrement, dung
SHWNG
Irarutu tafeces
OC
Gapapaiwa tai-feces, excrement
Nehan taifeces, excrement
Mafea tai-excrement
Northeast Ambae tai-excrement
  tai-excrement

2006

PAN     *C<in>aqi small intestine

Formosan
Amis tinaɁiintestines
Puyuma T<in>aʔiintestines
OC
Nali drina-intestines
Ere dine-intestines
Kuruti drine-abdomen
Lindrou drine-abdomen

2007

PMP     *t<in>aqi small intestine

WMP
Itbayaten tinayiintestines
  hi-tinay-anremove intestines
Isneg sináybelly or abdomen; bowels, guts, entrails, intestines; the abdominal and pelvic viscera
Itawis sináystomach; intestine
Masbatenyo tináʔiintestines
Waray-Waray tenaʔiʔabdomen; intestine
Palawan Batak tináʔibelly, intestines, stomach
Cebuano tináʔiintestines
Mansaka tinaiintestines; umbilical cord
Paitan tinaistomach
Kelabit sinaʔihintestines, guts
Kenyah tenaʔiintestines
Murik tenaʔi-nlarge intestine, of humans
  tenaʔiʔintestines of animals
Palauan dəlaʔintestines, bowels
  dələʔi-lhis/her intestines
CMP
Lamboya tanaiguts
Kambera tanaiintestines
OC
Ghari tinae-guts
  tinae-guts
Talise tinae-guts
Merlav tinae-guts
Aore tine-guts
Peterara tinae-guts
Raga sine-guts
Makatea tinaeguts
Mele-Fila sinaeguts

2008

PAN     *C<um>aqi to defecate

Formosan
Saisiyat s<om>aʔito defecate
Puyuma mu-Taʔito defecate

2009

PMP     *t<um>aqi to defecate

WMP
Bontok t<um>áʔito defecate
Ifugaw t<um>aʔíto defecate
Tagalog t<um>áʔeto move the bowels

2010

PWMP     *taqi ni bituqen shooting star

WMP
[Tagalog taʔe naŋ bituʔínshooting star; meteor]
[Malagasy tai-n kintanaa meteor, a shooting star]
[Malay tahi bintaŋshooting stars; small bright yellow caterpillars]
[Toba Batak te ni bintaŋshooting star]
Makasarese tai bintuŋshooting star

7974

PWMP     *taqi nu Caliŋa ear wax, cerumen

WMP
[Bontok táʔi-n si kúləŋear wax]
[Kelabit taʔih lalidear wax]
Malagasy tai-n-tadinithe wax from the ear

7975

PMP     *taqi nu haŋin wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds

WMP
Malay tahi aŋinlight clouds driven before the wind
Sasak tai-n aŋinkind of lichen, Lichen capillaris
CMP
Bimanese taʔi aŋitype of cloud
Komodo tai aŋiŋkind of clouds


Note:   Also cf. Fijian dē ni laŋi ‘light scudding clouds’, from the PMP doublet *taqay nu haŋin.

7976

PWMP     *taqi nu kuku dirt under the nails

WMP
Malagasy tai-n-kuhudirt under the nails
[Sundanese taiʔ kukudirt under the nails]

7977

PMP     *taqi nu lalej dark mole

WMP
[Mapun tayiʔ laŋawmole on one’s skin]
Malay tahi lalatmole-freckle (lit. ‘fly speck’)
Sangir tai lalarəʔspecks of dirt on the laundry
Tae' tai laliʔwart (lit. ‘fly speck’)
CMP
[Bimanese taʔi larumole, beauty spot]
Manggarai taʔi lalimole, beauty spot (lit. ‘fly speck’)

10535

PAN     *pu-Caqi to defecate

Formosan
Thao pu-caqito defecate
Puyuma pu-Taqito spread manure on the fields
Paiwan pu-tsaqito defecate

Note:   Also Kavalan tal ‘feces, excrement’, t<n>al ‘guts, intestines (large and small)’, Waray-Waray taʔíʔ ‘rust, corrosion’, Mapun tayiʔ ‘excrement; dung; feces’, Tiruray téʔék ‘feces; defecate’, téʔék keliŋoʔ ‘earwax’, Tboli ‘fecal matter’, me-ké ‘defecate’, Kadazan Dusun taiʔ ‘filth, dung’, taiʔ do amas ‘gold dust’, taiʔ do buhavan ‘meteor’, Kelabit taéʔ ‘feces’, naéʔ ‘defecate’, Berawan (Long Terawan) taʔiʔ ‘feces’, Murik, Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔíʔ ‘feces, excrement’, Bintulu taʔiʔ ‘feces’, Iban taiʔ ‘excrement, dregs, discharge’, Maloh taiʔi, tahi ‘excrement’, Sundanese taiʔ ‘filth; feces; rust; sawdust; scum; slag (of metal)’.

Although the great majority of Oceanic languages unambiguously reflect PMP *taqay, a few appear to have regular unambiguous reflexes of PAn *Caqi, and so are assigned to this variant. A number of languages have reflexes with an unexplained final glottal stop, and these may point to yet another doublet, although this option is not chosen here. In addition it should be noted that many languages have non-cognate expressions for various plants that use this morpheme as a component element, but because of their number and wide variety only a few of these are cited here.

25880

*CaqiS to sew

1997

PAN     *CaqiS to sew

Formosan
Kavalan taissewing
  tais-isew it!
Amis (Kiwit) mi-taqisto sew
Thao shaqishsew
Bunun taqissew and mend
  ma-taqisembroider
Puyuma Taʔimend, repair, darn, sew
Paiwan tsaqismake clothes by sewing; sew (-en)

1998

PMP     *tahiq to sew

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) tayiʔto sew
Kapampangan tahíʔto sew
  ma-nahíʔdressmaker
Tagalog tahíʔsewing, stitch; cloth to be sewn (manaN-, paN- -an)
Bikol mag-tahíʔto sew, tailor; to mend (i-, magpa-, ipa-, ka- -an)
Hanunóo tahíʔsewing
Aklanon tahíʔto sew (manaN-, paN-)
Hiligaynon tahíʔsewing, stitch (mag-, -un)
Cebuano táhiʔsew, stitch
  tahiʔ-an-andress, tailor shop (maN-REDUP, -un-un)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tahiʔto sew
Mansaka taìto sew

1999

PAN     *Ca-CaqiS thread used for sewing (?)

Formosan
Saisiyat Sʌ-SʌʔiSthread for sewing
Paiwan tsa-tsaqis-enclothes being made by sewing

2000

PAN     *CaqiS-an place of sewing

Formosan
Paiwan ts-in-aqis-ansewn seam

2001

PMP     *taqih-an place of sewing

WMP
Tagalog tahíʔ-antailoring shop or millinery

2002

PAN     *C<um>aqiS to sew

Formosan
Kavalan t-em-aisto sew
Saisiyat S-om-ʌʔiS <Ato sew
Pazeh mu-saisto sew
Thao sh<m>aqishto sew
Siraya t<m>ahito sew
Paiwan ts-m-aqissew, make clothes by sewing

2003

PAN     *C<in>aqiS work produced by sewing or stitching

Formosan
Thao sh<in>aqishwas sewn by someone
Bunun t-in-aqispiece of embroidery
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) T-in-aHi-yana seam

Note:   Also Kapampangan tayíʔ ‘to sew’, Kalamian Tagbanwa tik ‘sew’.

30546

*Caqu to know how, be able to, be skilled at

7838

PAN     *Caqu to know how, be able to, be skilled at     [doublet: *tuqu]

Formosan
Paiwan tsaquto be able to
  ki-tsaqu-anto practice, learn skill
  pa-ki-tsaqu-anto cause to learn skill

7839

PMP     *taqu₂ to know how, be able to, be skilled at

WMP
Bikol ta-taʔóproficient, knowledgeable; to know, fathom; to have the knack of
Hanunóo táʔuknowledge of a fact; denying knowledge of a fact; in a verbal sense, not to know (something)
Agutaynen takoto know a fact; to know how to do something; to learn something
  ipa-takoto make known
  pa-tako-onto make known
Maranao taʔoknowledge
Binukid tatauclever, wise, skilled; intelligent
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eɣ-ke-taʔuto know how
Mapun tauto know something
  maki-tauto make something known to someone; to inform
  paki-tau-unto make something known to someone; to inform
Yakan taʔuto know how to do something; to be able to do something
  magin-taʔu, pagintaʔuto make something known
Samal taʔuto know something
Melanau (Mukah) taʔəwto know
Ngaju Dayak taucapable, able; to know, understand
  ta-tauto know, understand
Iban tauʔbe able, can, may, know how
Salako tahuto know
Jarai thəwto know
Rhade thəwto know
Malay tahuto know; knowledge
  tahu-kanto be aware of
Bahasa Indonesia tahuunderstand after seeing (witnessing, experiencing, etc.); familiar with; clever, capable; aware; already
Acehnese thɛəto know, have knowledge of something, be able
Toba Batak tauskilled
  pa-tauh-onto make skilled
Old Javanese tahuskilled, practiced, trained, used (to)
  t<um>ahuto think that one should know or be familiar with (being still uncertain)
Balinese tahuknow, perceive
Proto-Minahasan *taʔuknow
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taquclever
OC
Hawaiian m-ā-kau(-kau)able, competent, capable, efficient, adept, skilled, expert, qualified; prepared, ready; competence, proficiency; to know how, to to well

7873

PWMP     *ka-taqu₁ ability, skill, knowledge how to do something

WMP
Binukid ka-tatauability, skill; wisdom, knowledge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ke-taʔuability, skill, wisdom
Yakan ka-taʔuknowledge (especially of supernatural things)
Ngaju Dayak ka-tauknowledge
Tontemboan ma-ka-taʔuto give knowledge of, inform

7840

PWMP     *ka-taqu-an skilled, knowing how (to do something)

WMP
Tiruray getuwanknowing something
Yakan ka-taʔuh-anto know something
Salako ka-tahu-an-andiscovered, found out
Bahasa Indonesia ke-tahu-anknowledge, what is already known
Old Javanese ka-tahw-anskilled, used (to), familiar (with)

7841

PAN     *ma-Caqu to be capable, able, knowledgeable

Formosan
Paiwan ma-tsaquto be able to; capable, skilled, knowledgeable
  ma-ma-tsaqu-anto be very skilled

7842

PMP     *ma-taqu₁ to be capable, able, knowledgeable

WMP
Maranao ma-taʔoto have knowledge, know how (as in knowing how to act in a given situation)
Binukid ma-tatauclever, wise, skilled; intelligent
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-taʔuskilled, clever, wise
OC
Rarotongan matauaccustomed, customary, habitual, familiar practice; formed or acquired by frequent use; to have a knowledge of, to know how a thing is done, observed or performed, etc.

7843

PAN     *Caqu-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) tsaqu-anskill

7844

PMP     *taqu-an to know

WMP
Palawan Batak taw-anto know
Mapun toonto know something or someone
  ka-toon-anto know something or someone
Balinese tawaŋ (tahu-aŋ)to see, perceive, know

Note:   Also Tagalog tahóʔ, pagka-tahóʔ ‘comprehension, understanding; knowledge, information’ (< Malay), Berawan (Long Terawan) tauʔ, Bintulu taʔuʔ, ‘to know’, Palauan dáʔelbai ‘skillful (in doing things with the hands); clever’ (=dáʔ-elbai?). Glosses in several languages make it clear that the basic sense of this term was not so much ‘to know facts’, as ‘to know how (to do something)’, a distinction that is hardly surprising in a traditional society where abstract knowledge had no value if it was not manifested in practical consequences. In addition, it was clearly distinct from *kilala ‘to know (a person), be acquainted with someone’.

25882

*CaSaw open-air; outdoors

2011

PAN     *CaSaw open-air; outdoors

Formosan
Paiwan tsasawoutdoors, outside
  i tsasawbe outdoors

2012

PMP     *tahaw outdoors, outside

WMP
Itbayaten tahawthe sea as salt water, sea water as material of the sea or ocean
Ilokano taáwsea, ocean
Pangasinan taéwmiddle of river; ocean, deep sea
Tagalog táhawclearing in a forest; open-air; exposed to view

2013

PAN     *ka-CaSaw-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan ka-tsasav-ancourtyard (in front of house)
WMP
Itbayaten ka-tahaw-ancause something to be wet with salt water

25883

*Cau person, human being

2014

PAN     *Cau person, human being

Formosan
Papora person, human being
Pazeh sawperson, human being
Thao cawperson, human being
Tsou couperson, human being
Puyuma Tawto be human
  T-in-u-Ta-Tawstatue, mannequin, scarecrow

2015

PMP     *tau₁ person, human being

WMP
Itbayaten tawoperson (kap-, ka-, manta-, mapay-, mat-, micha-, mi-)
Ilokano táoman, person, human being, individual; people (i-REDUP, ka-REDUP)
Isneg táoman, human being, people
Pangasinan táopeople, persons (ka-)
Tagalog táʔohuman being, person
  taʔómortal (maka-, mag-pa-ka-, ma- -an, pag-REDUP, paN-, paN- -an, paN- -in, -an, -in, -um-)
Bikol táwoman, individual, person, human being, people, a creature (human) (REDUP -um-)
Hanunóo táwuman, person; human being, not man in the sense of male opposed to female
  táwu dágatsea supernaturals in human form
  táwu danúmwater spirit
  táwu sa tálunforest spirit(s)
Aklanon táwoperson, people; man
Kalamian Tagbanwa taoperson, human being
Hiligaynon táwuman
Palawan Batak táoperson
Cebuano táwuman, person; follower; face card; someone left to watch the house; visitor; to stay and watch the house; be born; prepare for guests on special occasions; attend an affair or special occasion; pay a visit (pa-, paka-, hi/ha-, -an, -an-un, pagka-, k-in-a-)
Blaan (Koronadal) toperson
Maloh tau(tu)person
Dampelas tooperson
Balaesang tooperson
Uma tauheadhunter; (sometimes) human being
Bare'e tauperson, human being
Tae' tauperson, human being
Proto-South Sulawesi *tauperson
CMP
Komodo touperson; each other
Anakalangu tauperson
OC
Lakalai tauman, person (used only in connection with sib and village affiliation and in expressions showing relations between two or more persons; in both cases it is in apposition to a pronoun, usually expresssed)
Motu tauthe body; a man
  tau-badaan elder
  tau-haua youth
Kilivila tauman
Sudest taupeople
Proto-Micronesian *tauperson

2016

PAN     *ka-Cau-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan ka-tsau-anthe world (of living beings); what is actual, existent, not dead

2017

PMP     *ka-tau-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-taw-anpupil of the eye
Tagalog ka-tauh-anpersonality
Aklanon ka-tawóh-anhumanity
Cebuano ka-tawh-anpeople, masses

2018

PAN     *k<in>a-Cau-an nature, character

Formosan
Paiwan k<in>a-tsau-tsau-ancharacter; humanity; body

2019

PMP     *k<in>a-tau-an nature, character

WMP
Cebuano k<in>a-táwunature, inborn character or inherent tendencies of a person

2020

PPh     *ma-tau crowded with people

WMP
Itbayaten ma-tawopeopled, crowded (of persons)
Tagalog ma-táʔocrowded with people
Hiligaynon ma-táwuto be born

2021

PAN     *Cau Cau (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan tsau tsauperson, human being; (in some contexts) living being (as embryo found in egg, or bee as opposed to the nest)

2022

PMP     *tau tau human effigy; pupil of the eye

WMP
Ilokano tao-táopupil, apple of the eye
Tagalog taú-tauh-aneffigy, marionette, mannikin
  balin-tatáopupil of the eye
Bikol ta-táwowooden figures or statues made in honor of the dead (17th century Bikol)
  alin-tatáwcenter of the eye containing the iris and the pupil
Agutaynen tawtawpupil of the eye
Cebuano tawu-táwusomething like a person, e.g. scarecrow or the like; figurehead; pupil and iris of the eye
  t-in-awu-táwucomic strips


Note:   Also Maranao tao a mata ‘pupil of the eye’.

10132

PMP     *tau-mata person, human being

WMP
Sangir taumataperson, human being
CMP
Ujir tamataperson, human being
Alune tamataperson
OC
Lou ramatperson, human being
Loniu amatperson, human being
Nali damatperson, human being
Ere dimatperson, human being
Likum camakperson, human being
Wuvulu kamaʔaperson, human being
Mussau taumataperson, human being
Manam tamwataperson, human being
Kilivila tommotapeople
Dobuan tomotaperson, human being
Nehan tamatperson, human, man
Wayan tamataperson, human being
Fijian tamataperson, human being
Tongan taŋataman (human being), man (not woman), man (not boy)
Niue taŋataman, person, mankind
Samoan taŋatahuman being; native (of a place)
Tuvaluan taŋataman; person; human; male
Kapingamarangi daŋadaperson
Nukuoro daŋadaperson, human being; relative (when preceded by a possessive pronoun)
Rennellese taŋataman, male, person; to be a man, male or person
Anuta taŋataman, person; male
Rarotongan taŋatageneral name for mankind
  aka-taŋataassume human shape or form, to attain adult age; to act like a man; to be or become manly
Maori taŋataman, human being; serf, slave
  whaka-taŋataassume human shape; become adult
Hawaiian kanakahuman being, man, human, mankind, person, individual


Note:   Also Kei umat, Kairiru ramat, Wogeo ramata, Molima tomotau, Proto-Micronesian *aramata ‘person, human being’. Dempwolff (1938) posited *tau-mataq ‘(unripe = not yet dead) living person’, citing an earlier publication by Adriani for the interpretation that the second morphological element in this word is identical to PAn *ma-qetaq ‘raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked’. However, no known reflex of this form preserves final consonants, leaving this interpretation uncertain. Whatever this added element was, it contributed nothing discernible to the semantics of the base, as both Sangir and Proto-Oceanic have reflexes of PAn *Cau next to the longer form with no difference of meaning.

Note:   Also Bontok tágo ‘person’, Bikol táo, táho ‘person, human being’, Kalamian Tagbanwa taʔaw ‘person, human being’.

25884

*Cawa to laugh

2023

PAN     *Cawa to laugh

Formosan
Kavalan m-tawato laugh
  m-taw-tawato laugh repeatedly
Saisiyat sawalaugh
  s-om-awato laugh
Amis tawageneric for laugh with positive and negative meanings
  ma-tawato laugh
  paka-tawa-enmake someone laugh
Siraya mat-tawato laugh

2024

PMP     *tawa₁ to laugh

WMP
Tagalog táwalaughter (ka-REDUP)
Cebuano tawájovial of face or visage (hika/haka-, hinga-, ka-tawʔ-an-an)
Berawan (Long Terawan) tabehto laugh
Kenyah tawalaughter
Bintulu tabalaughing
  bə-tabato laugh
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tawuhlaughter, a laugh; to laugh, scoff at
Singhi Land Dayak tawixlaugh
Proto-South Sulawesi *tawato laugh
CMP
Manggarai tawato laugh, laugh at
Rembong tawato laugh, laugh at
Ngadha tawarejoice, be glad, laugh
Palu'e tawato laugh
Li'o tawato laugh
Kédang taweto laugh, laugh at

2025

PAN     *Ca-Cawa to laugh

Formosan
Thao ca-cawalaugh
  ma-cacawato laugh
  pa-cacawato smile
Tsou co-cvolaugh; to laugh
Rukai ma-ca-cavato laugh (Tona)

2026

PMP     *ta-tawa to laugh

WMP
Ifugaw ta-táwalaughter; to laugh conveys a passive meaning, since the duplicated word-base takes the prefix ma- or na-, never the prefix mun- or maŋ-
Tagalog ka-ta-tawa-n-ansomething humorous, laughable
Melanau (Mukah) te-tawato laugh
Ngaju Dayak ta-tawElaughing; to laugh
Maloh ta-tawato laugh

2027

PWMP     *ka-tawa to laugh

WMP
Cebuano ka-tawáto laugh
Mamanwa ka-tawato laugh
Iban ketawaʔlaughter, laugh
Bahasa Indonesia kətawato laugh

2028

PAN     *ma-Cawa to laugh

Formosan
Amis ma-tawato laugh
Saaroa ma-caa-caato laugh
Siraya ma-tawato laugh

2029

PMP     *ma-tawa to laugh

WMP
Cebuano ma-tawajovial face or visage

2030

PPh     *maka-tawa to laugh

WMP
Gaddang maka-tawato laugh
Subanon moko-tawato laugh

2031

PWMP     *maR-ka-tawa to laugh

WMP
Agta (Central Cagayan) meg-ke-teweto laugh
Tausug mag-ka-tawato laugh

Note:   Also Bikol ma-tatáwaʔ ‘laugh at’; mapa-tatáwaʔ ‘feel like laughing’; ma-tatáwaʔ-on ‘describing someone who easily smiles or laughs; pleasant, agreeable’; ka-tatáwaʔ-an/ ‘laughable, funny’.

25885

*Cazem sharp (of point or blade)

2032

PAN     *Cazem sharp (of point or blade)

Formosan
Saisiyat saLemsharp
  s-om-aLemsharpen, make sharp

2033

PMP     *tazem sharpened blade or point

WMP
Itbayaten taremsharpened edge, sharpened part, cutting edge (kapaN-, maN-, mant-, mit-, ni-, paN- -an, -an, -en, -n-)
Ilokano tadémedge, the cutting side of the blade of a knife, an axe, a saw, etc. (na-, pa- -an)
Isneg na-tadámsharp, keen (knives, etc.)
Itawis tarámsharpness
  na-tarámsharp
Bontok tadə́msharp, of a blade
Kankanaey men-tadémsharp; cutting; edged
Ifugaw tadómsharpness of the blade of a knife, a spear, an axe, etc.; it is also applied to the balíga, i.e. the sword among the weaving rods
Casiguran Dumagat tademsharp (of a knife or axe); fish-hook
Pangasinan tarémblade, edge
Kapampangan ma-tarámsharp
Tagalog talímsharpness of edge; blade; steel edging; penpoint
Bikol taróma point (as on a knife); spike or spire; blade or cutting edge (mag-, -an, magpa-, pa- -on)
Hanunóo tarúmblade of a knife, bolo or other cutting instrument
Aklanon taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp
Kalamian Tagbanwa taremsharp
Binukid talemsharpen the point of something
Mansaka tarumsharp (as a blade)
Tombonuwo o-taromsharp
Lun Dayeh tademsharpness of a blade
Kelabit tademsharp, of a blade
  nademto sharpen
Iban tajamsharp, keen-pointed (as a knife); excitable, excite, incite
  tajam mata(fig.) sharp-eyed
Malay tajamsharp, as a weapon; (fig.) sharp mentally
  tajam mulutcaustic, sharp-tongued
Toba Batak tajomsharp, of knives and the like; cutting, of words
  me-najom-isharpen something
Rejang tajeumsharp
Lampung tajomsharp
Old Javanese tajemsharp
Javanese tajemsharp, cutting
  najemto sharpen, hone
Sasak tajemsharp, pointed
Tontemboan tarəmsharp, of a pointed tool or weapon, as a nail, pin, etc.; kind of fieldmouse with a sharp snout
Uma taja-hisharpen
Bare'e ka-tajasharpness
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tasoNsharp
Makasarese taraŋsharp (of something pointed); sharp, of taste, sight, or understanding
  taraŋŋito sharpen
  taraŋ matasharp-sighted, sharp-eyed
Palauan kə-dórəmsharp

2034

PWMP     *ka-tazem sharpness

WMP
Itbayaten ka-taremstate of being sharp
Hiligaynon ka-talúmsharpness

2035

PWMP     *ma-tazem sharp (of blade or point)

WMP
Itbayaten ma-taremsharp (as a knife), can sharpen
Bikol ma-tarómsharp, keen, pointed
Aklanon ma-taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp
Hiligaynon ma-talúmsharp, as of knives and blades
Binukid ma-talemsharp-pointed
Mansaka ma-tarumsharp (as a blade)
Lun Dayeh me-tademsharp
Uma mo-tajasharp
Bare'e ma-tajasharp, as a knife
Tae' ma-taransharp
  ma-taran matahave a sharp expression

2036

PWMP     *pa-tazem (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Bontok pa-tadə́ma leader; one who initiates action, who encourages or inspires
Tagalog pa-talímsharp cutting instruments

7164

PWMP     *t<in>azem sharpened

WMP
Lun Dayeh t<in>adema blade that has been sharpened by someone
Tae' t<in>arandart of a blowpipe; blowpipe
Palauan d<əl>órəmsharpened

7165

PAN     *t<um>azem sharpen

Formosan
Saisiyat s-om-aLemsharpen, make sharp
WMP
Tontemboan t<um>aremto sharpen

Note:   Also Pangasinan ma-kdem ‘sharp’.

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Ce

Cebak

Cebiq

Cebuj

Cebuk

CebuS

CegCeg

CekCek

Celaq

CelCel

Cenek

CeRab

Cesek

25891

*Cebak smack against

2048

PAN     *Cebak smack against     [doublet: *debak, lebak 'pound, thud']

Formosan
Paiwan ts-alʸ-ebakmake the sound of one object falling (as stone, book)

2049

PMP     *tebak fall with a loud smack

WMP
Sundanese tebakcollide with force (as in running or being blown against something); pound against with force (as waves against the rocks)

Note:   Probably identical to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *te(m)bak ‘shoot’. With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.

29879

*Cebiq split, divide, break off

6538

PAN     *Cebiq split, divide, break off

Formosan
Paiwan tseviqa portion of something left after shares have been taken
  p<n>e-tseviqdivide something; break in pieces

6539

PMP     *tebiq split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut

WMP
Isneg tabbísection of a betel nut
Casiguran Dumagat tebicut a betel nut in half
Maranao tebiʔbreak off a piece, split
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teviʔpiece which is split off; split something in pieces
Tiruray tebéʔto chip
Balinese nebihbreak s.t. into pieces; the natural divisions of a betel nut; section, quarter, piece, slice
  tebihbreak in pieces; the natural divisions of a betel nut, section, quarter, piece, slice
Proto-Minahasan *tebiʔbreak off (piece of something)
Mongondow tobibreaking off, collapse, landslide
  mo-nobicollapse of the ground from floodwaters or a heavy rain
CMP
Tetun tohichip off little pieces
  tohi ahistrike a spark (with a flint)

6540

POC     *topiq split, divide, break off

OC
Tongan toficut, cut up, cut off
  tofi-ŋapiece cut off, esp. from a yam
  tofiʔ-ainheritance, patrimony
Niue tofichisel; cut into strips
  to-tofibreak up
Samoan tofisplit, cleave, divide (as section of a breadfruit); a chisel
Tuvaluan tohiinstrument for dividing pandanus leaves into fine strips for weaving
  tohi-tohidivide pandanus leaves into fine strips
  tofia chisel
Nukuoro dohi-dohidivide up
Rennellese tohito hew, as a sounding board; divisions within a single garden
  tohi-tohibreak into pieces, as sticks or bones
  tohi guato break in two
Maori tohicut, divide, separate


Note:   Also Hawaiian kōhi ‘to break off neatly, as taro corm from the stalk; to split, as breadfruit’.

Note:   Also Mongondow tobi ‘crumbling off, erosion, collapsing, landslide; break up or collapse, of the ground in a flood’.

25892

*Cebuj natural spring, fresh water spring

2050

PAN     *Cebuj natural spring, fresh water spring     [doublet: *tebuR]

Formosan
Amis tfona well, a source of water
Amis (Kiwit) tevunwell (water source)
Paiwan tsevudspring-water; water from a natural source
WMP
Isneg tabbúgwell; a pit or hole sunk into the earth (-um-)
Aklanon tubódflow out, gush, well up (said of liquids)
  tubor-ánspring, well
  t-ue-úbd-anspout, place where water flows out
Hiligaynon tubúdleak, drop, flow
  mag-tubúdto leak, flow in small drops
Cebuano tubúdflow in a steady stream; for liquid to leak out of a container or boat; water spring; leak
  tubur-ánspring; source of something that gushes in abundance
  t-in-ubd-ánsource, origin
Mansaka tobodspring (i.e. source of water)
Kadazan Dusun tovuda fountain, spring
Chamorro tupoʔwell, pit sunk into the earth to reach a supply of water

2051

POC     *topuc natural spring, fresh water spring

OC
Mota tovspring below high water mark; the brackish water of such a spring
Fijian tobua pool in a river, bathing hole; a well; a deep hole in a reef or inside it, but surrounded by shallower water

Note:   Also Saisiyat ka-sbəz ‘spring (of water), Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tubuŋ ‘a swell of water’.

25893

*Cebuk thud

2052

PAN     *Cebuk thud

Formosan
Paiwan tsebukmake a "bong" sound

2053

PMP     *tebuk₂ fall with a dull thud

WMP
Balinese tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, heavy splash’. PAn *-b- normally became Paiwan v; the retention in this case may be for reasons of onomatopoeia.

25894

*CebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

2054

PAN     *CebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum     [doublet: *tebuS]

Formosan
Hoanya sibussugarcane
Rukai cobososugarcane (Tona)

2055

PMP     *tebuh₂ sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

WMP
Tagalog tubósugarcane
Murik tebuʔsugarcane
Malay tebusugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
SHWNG
Ansus tobusugarcane
OC
Sudest rosugarcane

Note:   Also Bunun sibus ‘sugarcane’.

25895

*CegCeg beat, pound, hit

2056

PAN     *CegCeg beat, pound, hit

Formosan
Paiwan tsegtsega nail
  ts-m-egtsegdrive a nail into something
  pa-tsegtsegnail something onto something else

2057

PMP     *tegteg knock, pound, beat

WMP
Ilokano tegteg-énto mince, to hash, to chop
  t-in-egtégmincemeat, minced meat, hash
Bontok təgtəghit sharply; pound; massage by striking with the edges of one's hands; kill a chicken by chopping off the head (in-, -en)
Kankanaey tegteg-énto chop, chop up, hew, cut to pieces; break to pieces; crush; beat to pieces; bruise; squash
Ifugaw togtógonomatopoetic word imitating the sound produced by carving statues, handles of knives, spoons, ladles, wooden plates, wooden cups and other things
Ifugaw (Batad) togtogfor someone to pound something in a downward motion with something, as a stone to crush another stone; a heavy piece of wood or stone to tamp soil; for someone to use something for pounding as described above
Pangasinan tegtégsever or divide with a sharp instrument

Note:   With root *-Ceg ‘hit, beat’. Zorc (n.d.:105) gives PPh *teGteG ‘chop up’.

25897

*CekCek pierce, penetrate

2059

PAN     *CekCek pierce, penetrate

Formosan
Paiwan tsektseka stake, pointed stick

2060

PMP     *tektek₂ pierce, penetrate

WMP
Ilokano tektékpeg, pin (of the gagan-áyan or warping frame)
Bontok təktəkmake a hole in wood, as in order to ascertain whether it is resinous or not
Ifugaw toktókbore (as in boring a hole in a plank), drill; prick (as a thorn pricking the finger)

Note:   Kankanaey tek ‘pricker; pipe cleaner. Either metal or wood, mostly used to prick the tobacco in the pipe, to clean the pipe, etc.’.

25900

*Celaq crack, split, fissure

2063

PAN     *Celaq crack, split, fissure

Formosan
Paiwan tselaqa crack or split (e.g., in wood, foot, fruit)

2064

PMP     *telaq₁ split, crack, fissure

WMP
Kayan telawidely opened -- of the hull of a dugout canoe
CMP
Manggarai telacrack marking; to split, show a crack; thwart (in boat)
Ngadha telasplit, crack
Buruese telato part; gap; in a parting manner; sit between

Note:   With root *-laq ‘split’. Apparently distinct from Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tela ‘split off’.

25901

*CelCel beat, pound

2065

PAN     *CelCel beat, pound

Formosan
Paiwan tseltselpound in a nail
WMP
Kankanaey teltélchop, chop up, hew, cut to pieces, beat to pieces, bruise

25905

*Cenek thorn

2069

PAN     *Cenek thorn

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *cənəkəthorn
WMP
Tagalog tiníkthorn, spine
Bikol tunókthorn
Maranao tenekthorn, spine
Tausug tunuka thorn, spine (of plants and fish)
OC
Fijian tono, tono-kapierce, probe, poke

Note:   Based on the Tagalog and Fijian forms, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *(t)e(n)ek ‘point, peak’.

25908

*CeRab a belch

2072

PAN     *CeRab a belch

Formosan
Saisiyat seLaba belch
  s-om-Labto belch (as after drinking soda)
Puyuma Teraba belch
  T-em-erabto belch

2073

PMP     *teRab a belch

WMP
Tagalog tigábweak gasp of one dying
Maloh tan-tarapto belch
Sundanese teurabto belch
Javanese a-toba belch; to belch
Sasak (ken)-terapa belch, to belch
Makasarese teraʔbelching, a belch; to belch
Chamorro tugapburp, belch, eruct
CMP
Komodo teraʔa belch; to belch
Manggarai terapto belch
Murnaten ma-torato belch (Ludeking 1868:217)

2074

POC     *toRap belch

OC
Sa'a ora lulubelch

Note:   Also Isneg tarìgāb ‘to eructate. If a person eructates immediately after drinking water at the end of a meal, he loses all feeling of satiety and is not aware of having eaten anything at all’, Casiguran Dumagat tehëb ‘to belch, to burp’, Bontok tegʔéb ‘to belch’, Kankanaey tegʔáb ‘to eructate, to belch’, Tagalog tikáb ‘weak gasp of one dying’, Bikol tiʔgáb ‘belch, burp’, Palawan Batak tirʔáb ‘belch’, Hanunóo tígʔab ‘eructation, belch, belching’, Cebuano tigʔáb ‘make a jerky gasp for breath’, dugʔáb ‘belch’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tirʔab ‘to belch’, Mansaka tigaʔ ‘to belch’, Tboli telyob ‘to belch’, Toba Batak terap-on ‘to belch’, Javanese an-tob ‘a belch; to belch’, Balinese tahag ‘a belch’, ma-tahag ‘to belch’, Mongondow uriab ‘to belch’, Yamdena terak ‘to belch’. Reflexes of PAn *CeRab are relatively few and far between, although they are widely scattered, and permit a secure and unambiguous reconstruction. For reasons that remain unclear almost all Philippine reflexes are phonologically irregular, and in a variety of different ways.

25911

*Cesek insert, pierce, penetrate

2077

PAN     *Cesek insert, pierce, penetrate

Formosan
Amis tsekpierce, stab
Paiwan tsetekhave an injection

2078

PMP     *tesek pierce, penetrate

WMP
Mansaka tosokto stick through (as a needle through cloth)
Miri tasak aminhousepost
Kiput təsəkenter the ground (as a javelin when it lands)

Note:   Also Hiligaynon túsluk ‘pierce, prick with a pointed end’, Cebuano tuslúk ‘prick or poke something by driving something pointed into it; plug into a socket’. With root *-sek₂ ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’.

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Ci

Cidu

Cikel

CiŋaS

Ciqaw

25916

*Cidu spoon, ladle, dipper

2083

PAN     *Cidu spoon, ladle, dipper

Formosan
Paiwan tsirularge dipper

2084

PMP     *tidu spoon, ladle

CMP
Manggarai (West) tisuspoon

25918

*Cikel return, go back

2088

PAN     *Cikel return, go back

Formosan
Paiwan ts-m-ikelto return (somewhere)
  tsikel-ucome back!
WMP
Iban tikalturn back, go back

Note:   Possibly identical to *tikel (q.v.).

25925

*CiŋaS food particles caught between the teeth

2098

PAN     *CiŋaS food particles caught between the teeth

Formosan
Saisiyat shiŋash <Afood particles caught between the teeth
Pazeh siŋas-en a lepeŋto get in (of food particles) between the teeth
Amis tiŋashave food caught in one's teeth
Bunun tiŋas-an nipunirritated by food fibers (of the teeth)
  man-tiŋas nipusclean the teeth
Saaroa lhi-u-tiŋa-afood particles caught between the teeth
Rukai mua-cíŋasəfood particles caught between the teeth (Budai)
Puyuma Tiŋafood particles stuck between teeth
Paiwan tsiŋasfood particles between teeth

2099

PMP     *tiŋah food particles caught between the teeth

WMP
Itbayaten tiñahfood particles inserted in between the teeth
Casiguran Dumagat tiŋafor meat or particles of food to be stuck between the teeth
Kapampangan tiŋaʔparticles of food which adhere to teeth
  pa-niŋaʔtoothpick
Tagalog tiŋáforeign matter lodged between the teeth
Bikol tiŋáparticles of food caught between the teeth
  maka-tiŋáget stuck between the teeth (particles of food)
Hanunóo tiŋáfood particle stuck between the teeth
  hi-niŋápicking of one's teeth
Aklanon tiŋáfood particles caught between teeth
  hi-níŋa(h)take out food particles between one's teeth
Cebuano tiŋáfood particle lodged between the teeth; have food particles lodged in the teeth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tiŋafood which is stuck between a person's teeth, generally meat; a toothpick; to pick the teeth
Mansaka tiŋafood between the teeth
Ida'an Begak tiŋofood rests between the teeth
Iban tiŋaʔshred, splinter, esp. food stuck between teeth
  tiŋaʔ kayuwood splinter
  tiŋaʔ pelandokhangnail
Proto-Minahasan *tiŋafood caught between teeth; pick the teeth
Ampana tiŋafood or other matter between the teeth (Adriani 1928)

2100

PAN     *ma-CiŋaS have food particles caught between the teeth

Formosan
Paiwan ma-tsiŋashave food particles between teeth

Note:   Also Amis tiŋal ‘have food caught in one's teeth’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tiŋun ‘anything stuck between teeth during meal (meat, food)’. Although reflexes of *CiŋaS are common in Taiwan and the Philippines they are rare in other geographical areas, being attested so far in a single language of Borneo (Iban) and a single non-Philippine language of Sulawesi (Ampana). This word referred to particles of food (probably meat fibers in particular) that become lodged between the teeth in eating. It is likely that morphologically derived forms of the same word meant ‘toothpick’ (*Ca-CiŋaS?) and ‘to pick the teeth after eating’.

25923

*Ciqaw fish sp.

2094

PAN     *Ciqaw fish sp.

Formosan
Tsou czoukind of tasty river fish
Kanakanabu ciʔáukind of tasty river fish
Paiwan tsiqawfish (generic)

2095

PMP     *tiqaw₂ goatfish, family Mullidae

WMP
Aklanon tiáwa delicious soft-boned fish
Cebuano tiawkind of goatfish
Chamorro tiʔaogoatfishes: Upeneus vittatus (family Mullidae)
CMP
Rotinese tiokind of small, but ritually important fish

2096

POC     *tiqo goatfish, family Mullidae

OC
Loniu tiwthe Samoan goatfish: Mulloidichthys samoensis
Seimat tio-tibarbelled fish 4-5 feet in length
Motu siofish sp.
Nehan tioyellowstripe goatfish: Mulloidichthys flavolineatus
Mota tioa fish with barbels, like mullet

Note:   Also Palauan dech ‘golden-banded goatfish: Mulloidichthys auriflamma’. Tsuchida (1976:165) posited "Proto-South Formosan" *Ciq₁au ‘fish’. Zorc (1981) extended this to "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *Ciqaw ‘fish’, but cited no supporting evidence. It seems clear that PMP *tiqaw referred to the goatfish, a member of the mullet family, and hence a saltwater fish. Paiwan tsiqaw is given as a generic term for ‘fish’, and the unidentified fish in the Tsouic languages must be freshwater species. In view of these observations it is impossible to determine the meaning of PAn *Ciqaw on present evidence. Alternatively, the Formosan and extra-Formosan forms may simply not be cognate.

TOP      Ca    Ce    Ci    Cu    

Cu

Cubuq

CugCug₁

CugCug₂

Cukul

Culi

Cumek

CumeS

CuNuh

CuŋCuŋ

CuqelaN

Curis

CuSuR

Cuzuq

25946

*-Cu 2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then

2168

PAN     *-Cu 2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then

Formosan
Paiwan tu-tsunow

2169

PWMP     *-tu this

WMP
Ilongot (i)tuthis
Berawan (Long Jegan) tawthis
Berawan (Batu Belah) tuhthis
Kenyah (Long Wat) tewhere
Seru tohthis/that
Siang tuhthis

2170

PMP     *a-tu away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer     [disjunct: *wa-tu]

WMP
Berawan (Long Jegan) atawhere
Chamorro guatuthere -- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee)
OC
Roviana atuan expletive implying movement away of speaker or those addressed
  atu-atugo on!
Bugotu atugo away, go forth; forth, out, onward
Mota atof direction from the speaker, outward, forward
Tangoa atuhither
Rotuman afuaway, hence (Pawley 1972)
Tongan atuhence, away from here, out, forth, outwards, onwards, to or towards you; thither to the place aimed at or journeyed towards; onward in time
Niue atudirective particle, away form the speaker, towards the person addressed
Samoan atuaway, out (generally denotes a literal or figurative movement away from a particular position where the speaker is and in the direction of the person addressed)
Nukuoro adutoward the hearer
Rennellese atucommon directional particle indicating distance away from
Maori atucorrelative to mai, used with verbs, etc., to indicate a direction or motion onwards, or away from the speaker in reference to either time or space
Hawaiian akuparticle expressing direction away from the speaker, and time either past (with nei) or future

2171

PWMP     *di-tu there (2p)

WMP
Tagalog d-itóhere
Subanun (Sindangan) d-ituʔthere (3p, remote)
Blaan (Koronadal) d-ituʔthere (3p)
Melanau (Balingian) d-itewhere

2172

PAN     *i-Cu that (2p)

Formosan
Thao c-icu3sg; he, she, it
Paiwan a-i-tsuthis, this one
WMP
Yami u-ituthat
Tagalog itothis
Bikol itothat (3p)
Palawan Batak ʔituhere
Aborlan Tagbanwa ituthat (2p)
Samal ituthis
Narum itawthis
Kenyah (Long Wat) itewthis
Kenyah (Long San) ituthis
Melanau (Balingian) itewthis
Dusun Deyah ituthis
Malagasy ítothis
Muna ituthat (2p)
CMP
Manggarai h-ituthat

2173

PWMP     *si-tu there (2p)

WMP
Ifugaw hitúhere; this
Aborlan Tagbanwa s-ituthere (2p)
Kenyah (Long San) s-itewhere
Malay situposition over there

2174

PMP     *wa-tu away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer

WMP
Muna watuthere (far, neutral)
Chamorro guatuthere -- in that direction (away from speaker and addressee)
OC
Lau kouaway
Kwara'ae kwauaway
Sa'a wauadverb of place; there
Arosi wouaway from, there, yonder
Proto-Micronesian *watudirectional suffix: towards addressee

Note:   Also Tsou sico ‘that’, Wuvulu wau ‘postverbal particle: away from speaker’, Nggela ŋgatu ‘away, hence’. Balangao yato ‘this’ is assumed to reflect *ia-tu, and the agreement of the initial syllable of Samal ma-itu ‘here’, Muna ma-itu ‘that’, the initial consonant of SUBC k-ituʔ ‘that (3p remote)’, Manggarai hitu ‘that’, and the final glottal stop of SUBC -ituʔ ‘that; there (3p remote)’, Blaan (Koronadal) d-ituʔ ‘there (3p)’, Malay (Sarawak)) toʔ ‘this’, si-toʔ ‘here’, and Sebop tuʔ ‘here’, i-tuʔ ‘this’ is attributed to convergence.

25930

*Cubuq plant sprout

2106

PAN     *Cubuq plant sprout     [disjunct: *tubuʔ]

Formosan
Kanakanabu cuvuʔubamboo shoot
Saaroa cuvuʔubamboo shoot
Paiwan tsuvuqa free-standing sprout; bamboo sprout

2107

PMP     *tubuq, tumbuq grow, germinate, sprout

WMP
Itbayaten tovoshoot (as of bamboo), growth, shoot
Ilokano túbosprout, shoot (from a seed)
Isneg mag-túboto sprout, to shoot, to germinate
Itawis túhusprout
  mat-túhuto grow (of plants)
Bontok túbuto sprout leaves; to grow; a leaf
Kankanaey túboleaf
Ifugaw túbuleaves of trees, shrubs, and plants in general; not applied to leaves which serve for special purposes, such as chewing leaves or banana leaves
Ifugaw (Batad) tūbunew growth, of a plant, weed, grass, tree growing from a seed; of a branch or plant stalk; of a fingernail, hair, tooth (also refers to new growth issuing from a pit, nut or fruit such as coconut
Pangasinan tobógrowth; to sprout, grow, increase
Kapampangan túbuʔgrow; gain, profit
Tagalog túboʔa sprout; a shoot of a plant; growth; what has grown or is growing
Bikol túbuʔinterest (as on money in a bank)
  mag-t'uboʔgerminate, sprout; to grow or mature (plants); gain or accrue interest (money)
Hanunóo túbuʔgrowth, growing
Aklanon túboʔto grow, sprout, develop; increase; interest on loan, growth
Hiligaynon pag-túbuʔgrowth
  mag-túbuʔto grow, germinate, sprout
Cebuano túbuʔgrow, become larger; earn interest; develop feelings; for water, dough or land to rise; growth; interest on a loan; leavening agent; wall stud of bamboo
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuvuʔof a seed or plant, to sprout or grow
Mansaka toboʔto grow (as plants)
Kayan (Uma Juman) tubuto grow (intr.); thing grown; rising, of the sun
  mata-n do tubudirection of the rising sun
  nubuto grow (trans.)
  tuvuto grow (intr.)
Iban tumbohshoot up, grow, arise; begin, broach (subject); call together; organize; form (group or society)
Malay tumbohplant-growth; sprouting up; eruption (of plants springing up out of the ground, and pustules on the skin)
  peñakit ke-tumboh-anskin eruption; smallpox
  tumboh-tumboh-anthings that grow; plants; crops; eruptions
Toba Batak tubuto arise, be born, grow; child; sprout
Old Javanese tuwuhgrowth, growing; life, age, span of life; condition of life, lot; body
Javanese tuwuhoutgrowth, sprout; fig., descendant; to come into existence, grow
Balinese tubuha young coconut palm which is about to fruit
  tumbuhthe first shoot of a plant; to grow, sprout, come up, emerge (of teeth); be born
  tubuha young coconut palm which is about to fruit
Proto-Sangiric *tuboto grow
Sangir tuwoyoung, still unfurled palm leaves; to grow
Mongondow tubuʔyoung or new leaves in general
Palauan dubəʔcoconut sprouting on ground

8783

POC     *tubuq, tupuq to grow, spring up

OC
Tolai tubuto grow, of men or animals but not plants
Motu tubugrow; ferment; swell
  tuhu-tuhuyoung shoot
Arosi subuto begin to grow; to burst, of seed
Rotuman fuputo grow, to increase; growth, increase; interest (on money lent, etc.); persons of the same or about the same age
  fup-ʔakito cause to spring up or grow; to originate or create; to propose, move (a resolution)
Fijian tubugrow, increase, spring up (of plants)
  tuvushoot up, of a tree
  tuvu-ka-nathe top of a tree
Tongan tuputo grow up, spring up or come into existence, originate; to grow, increase in size, etc. (of cake, rice, etc.) to rise or swell; to bring in profit; growing, bringing in profit; and more, and one or more over; coming into existence, originating; origin, growing, growth, etc.
Niue tuputo grow, spring up; to be descended from
  tupu noaby chance, to grow by itself
Futunan tuputo grow, increase, sprout, spring up; bud; to reveal; more (in counting)
Samoan tupugrow; arise, break out; happen, occur; growth
Tuvaluan tupushoot (of a plant); grow; happen; be exceeded (of numbers; tekau tupu ‘more than twenty’)
Nukuoro dubuexceed (the amount required), too (e.g. many)
Rennellese tupusprout, as of yams, panna, coconuts; life principle and growth, of children; to sprout, grow; to rise, as a boil, cooked rice or a tidal wave; to sprout forth
Anuta tuputo grow
Rarotongan tupugrowth of any kind; a growth, a gradual increase; progress or development; a product, as of the earth; a sprout or growing shoot, a germ inception, a beginning, etc.; occurrence, that which happens, etc.; to grow, to become enlarged by natural process, to advance towards maturity; to produce, as the earth; to sprout forth or to germinate; to occur or to happen
Maori tupugrow, increase; spring, issue, begin; shoot, bud; growth; social position; genuine, own
Hawaiian kupusprout, growth; offspring; upstart, as one rising suddenly and conspicuously to high position; to sprout, grow, increase; to occur

8784

POC     *paka-tupuq make something grow

OC
Arosi haʔa-subuto beget
Rennellese haka-tuputo make a sprout or life principle thrive
Hawaiian hoʔo-kuputo cause growth, sprouting; to sprout

2108

PAN     *C<um>ubuq to sprout, to grow

Formosan
Paiwan ts-m-uvuqto sprout

2109

PMP     *t<um>ubuq to sprout, to grow

WMP
Itbayaten t-om-ovogrow up, germinate, sprout
Ilokano t-um-úboto sprout, to shoot, to germinate
Bontok t<um>úbusprout leaves, grow
Kankanaey t-um-úboto shoot, to spring up, to sprout, sprout forth, to bud, grow
Ifugaw (Batad) t-um-ūbufor something to issue new growth
Kapampangan t-um-úbuʔto grow, to gain
Hanunóo t-um-úbuʔgrow
Sundanese t<um>umbuhto shoot up, of plants
Old Javanese t<um>uwuhto grow, live; come out, arise (feelings); that which grows or lives, living creature
Sangir t<um>uwoto grow

2110

PPh     *pa-tubuq let something grow, make something grow

WMP
Isneg pa-túboa coconut used for seeds
Aklanon pa-túboʔto let grow; lend with/on interest

2111

PWMP     *pa-tubuq-en let something grow, make something grow

WMP
Itbayaten pa-tovo-ento let grow
Bikol pa-tuboʔ-oninvest money so that it gains interest

2112

PWMP     *tubuq-an place where something grows or is added

WMP
Itbayaten tovo-anends (of cloth, rope, etc.
Tagalog tubúʔ-anto be overgrown; to grow on or over something; to sprout or grow out from; to put forth
Bikol tubóʔ-anadd interest to
Toba Batak tubu-angive birth, beget
Old Javanese tuwuh-anplace of growing
  tuwu-tuwuh-anplants
Javanese tuwuh-anceremonial decoration for weddings symbolizing prosperity and fertility

Note:   Also Kalamian Tagbanwa tubuʔ ‘grow’, Iban tubuʔ ‘young edible shoot of bamboo’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) timbu ‘sprout up (plants, hair, teeth, seeds)’. Apparently distinct from *tu(m)buq ‘grow, thrive; swell’ (cp. Iban tumboh ‘shoot up, grow, arise’, Motu tubu ‘grow; ferment; swell’), Fijian tubu ‘grow, increase, spring up (of plants)’).

25931

*CugCug₁ hit something against something else

2113

PAN     *CugCug₁ hit something against something else     [doublet: *tigtig 'glancing blow, chop']

Formosan
Paiwan ts-m-ugtsughit something against something else
  ma-tsugtsugbe hit (as on the head) by something

2114

PMP     *tugtug₂ beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding

WMP
Ilokano ag-togtógto knock (on a door, etc.)
  togtóg-ento beat (a drum); to knock (on a door, etc.), to rap upon for admittance
Bontok tugtúgcrush by beating, as with a stone or a piece of wood
Kankanaey tugtúghit, run, knocked, struck against; run afoul of; come into collision
Ifugaw (Batad) tugtugbullfrog
Casiguran Dumagat togtogrhythm (of music, or of a rhythmic beat); to beat out a rhythm, to play music
Pangasinan tógtogplay a musical instrument
Tagalog tugtógsound of music; playing on a musical instrument; ringing (of bells or alarm clocks); stroke of the hour
Bikol tugtógmusic
  mag-tugtógplay a musical instrument, beat a drum
Cebuano tugtúgplay a piece of music or an instrument
Maranao totogknock, hit, sounding board
Melanau (Mukah) tutugto pound
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tutoga knock (as on a door)

Note:   Also Mansaka titig ‘strike with a hard object’. Tsuchida (1976:149) posits Proto-South Formosan *C₁ugC₁ug ‘bumped on head’.

30566

*CugCug₂ knock or bump the head

7931

PAN     *CugCug₂ knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Formosan
Saaroa m-utu-tukutukubump the head
Rukai (Maga) me-tgútgubump the head
Paiwan ma-tsugtsugto be hit (as on head) by something
  ma-pa-tsa-tsugtsugto bump together (as two persons’ heads)
  se-tsugtsugto bump one’s head against something

7932

PMP     *tugtug₁ knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

WMP
Itbayaten togtogmusic; knocking or knock
  ma-nogtogto knock
  togtog-ento knock at
Ilokano ag-tugtógto knock
  tugtog-ento knock on something, beat on a drum
Bontok tugtugto crush by beating, as with a stone or a piece of wood
Ibaloy ma-nogtogto bump heads
  may-togtogto bump one’s head
  me-nogtogto knock, using repeated raps with the knuckles (as in asking to be received at a house)
Bikol mag-tugtógto play a musical instrument; to beat a drum
Maranao totogknock, hit; knock-kneed, bowlegged; sounding board
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Teh) tutugto pound food substances; knock someone’s head
Old Javanese tutugto strike (knock, bump) against, hit

7933

PAN     *C<um>ugCug knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

Formosan
Paiwan ts<m>ugtsugto hit something against something else; to knock on (door)

7934

PMP     *t<um>ugtug knock or bump the head     [doublet: *tuktuk 'knock, pound, beat']

WMP
Old Javanese t<um>utugto strike (knock, bump) against, hit

28578

*Cukul huddle, bow the head

5706

PAN     *Cukul huddle, bow the head

Formosan
Puyuma ʈukulhunchbacked; bent
WMP
Ifugaw túkolhuddling position of a chicken or a bird which neither moves nor gives a sign of life
Old Javanese tuŋkulbending down, bowing the head
Balinese tuŋkulbow the head, be subject to

Note:   With root *-kul₁ ‘curl, bend’.

30161

*Culi deaf

6917

PAN     *Culi deaf

Formosan
Papora sulideaf
Thao ma-lhurihard of hearing, deaf
  kun-lhuribe suddenly deafened, as by a very loud noise

8577

PMP     *tuli₁ earwax; deaf

WMP
Tagalog tu-tulíearwax
Bikol tulíear wax
  hiŋ-tuli-ónto clean wax from the ears
Hanunóo túliear
Masbatenyo tulíearwax
Aklanon tulíear wax; ear drainage
  pa-nulíto clean one’s ears (of ear wax)
Hiligaynon a-tu-túliearwax
Cebuano a-tulíearwax; materials like earwax; a yellow paste, tobacco tars; yellow, hardened grease sticking in corners of machinery
  hin-a-tulíinstrument for getting earwax out
Maranao toli-toliearwax
Binukid tuliearwax
  pa-nuliremove wax from one’s ears
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tulicerumen
  tuliy-enhave a running ear infection
Iban tuliʔdeaf; ear-wax
Malay tulideaf; usually (but not invariably) stone-deaf, in contrast to pekak (hard of hearing)
Gayō mu-tulideaf
Old Javanese tulideaf
  tuli-tulipretend not to hear?
  kapa-tulibe deafened (temporarily) by a loud noise
Sasak tuliʔear-wax
Mongondow tuliear wax
  tuli-anto have ear wax
Dampelas an-tuliʔearwax
Ampibabo-Lauje tai nu tuliʔearwax
Tae' ka-tuli-ŋearwax
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tuliearwax
Muna tuliclean out (ear, nose), scratch in
  ka-tulisomething used to clean out one’s ears or nose
CMP
Li'o tuliear wax

6918

POC     *tuli₁ deaf     [doublet: *tule]

OC
Kilivila tulideaf
Eddystone/Mandegusu tuliwax in the ear
Mota tulwax in the ear
Rotuman fulito be deaf
Tongan tulideaf
  teʔe-tuliwax in the ear (teʔe = taʔe ‘excrement’, in compounds)
Niue teliŋa tulideaf
Futunan tuli ~ tulitulideaf
Samoan tu-tulideaf
  faʔa-taliŋa tuliturn a deaf ear
Tuvaluan tulideaf
Kapingamarangi loŋo dulideaf (lit. ‘hearing deaf’)
Rennellese tugibe deaf, hard of hearing
  tugi-aŋadeafness
Anuta tu-turideaf
Rarotongan turideafness, the state or condition of being deaf; deaf, dull of hearing or unable to hear at all
  tariŋa turithe condition of being deaf or hard of hearing; obstinacy, stubbornness
Maori turideaf; obstinate
  whaka-tu-turiturn a deaf ear to, be obstinate, be unyielding
  turi-turinoisy
Hawaiian kulideafness, deaf person; deaf; noisy
  hoʔo-kulideaf; to feign deafness; (fig.) disobey, be disobedient

Note:   Also Mbula tiili ‘earwax’, Nggela taliŋa ni kuli ‘wax in the ear’, kuli ‘ear’ (with irregular *t > k, and reanalysis of original taliŋa ‘ear’ as ‘cerumen, earwax’. This form seems clearly to have meant ‘cerumen, earwax’ in PMP, as it is in competition with better candidates for the meaning ‘deaf’ (as *beŋel). The shift from ‘cerumen’ to ‘deaf’ appears to have occurred more than once, presumably because of a cultural belief that deafness may be caused by an excess accumulation of earwax.

25934

*Cumek pulverize; crumble

2118

PAN     *Cumek pulverize; crumble

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-Tumek(of trees and bamboos) crumbling, falling to pieces
WMP
Bontok túməkcrush, as stone; break into small pieces, as lumps of rice
Kankanaey tumék(be pounded, etc.) to pieces, fine; crushed, pulverized

Note:   With root *-mek ‘crush, pulverize; powder’.

25935

*CumeS clothes louse; body louse

2119

PAN     *CumeS clothes louse; body louse

Formosan
Kavalan tumesclothes louse
Saisiyat somæhbody louse
Amis (Kiwit) tumushead louse

2120

PMP     *tumah clothes louse; body louse

WMP
Itbayaten tomahkind of tick or flea, small lice-like insect on clothes
Ilokano túmabody louse
Bontok túmakind of louse found in clothes and bedding
Kankanaey túmabody louse
Ifugaw túmabody louse
Ifugaw (Batad) tūmaa small white blood sucking clothing louse which infests soiled clothing; rascal! a jocular expletive
Pangasinan tomábody louse
Ayta Abellan tomahtiny insect like a louse found on dirty clothes
Kapampangan tumaclothes louse
Tagalog túmaclothes louse
Bikol túmaclothes louse
  tumá-onbe infested with clothes lice
Hanunóo túmaitch mites or immature lice; tiny, almost invisible insects on clothes, fabrics, or the human body
Kalamian Tagbanwa tumaʔclothes louse
Cebuano túmabody louse, similar to the head louse (kútu) in appearance and habits, but found in clothing
  tumáh-uninfested with body lice
Binukid tumabody, head louse that inhabits humans
  tumah-enbe infested with lice
Mansaka tomato have lice (in the clothes)
Kelabit tumehsmall white clothes louse
Sa'ban hmahclothes louse
Punan Tuvu' tumohlouse
Ngaju Dayak tumeclothes louse, body louse
Iban tumaʔparasitic insect, esp. louse (kutu) or nits
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tumuhflea
Malay tumainsect-parasite; louse. The insect that coolies are sometimes seen picking out of each other's hair
Karo Batak tumaclothes louse
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tumaclothes louse
Toba Batak tumadragonfly larva
Rejang tumeya bug, found usually in unclean clothes
Sundanese tumaclothes louse
Old Javanese tumalouse
Javanese tumahair louse
Madurese tumalouse
Balinese tumaclothes louse
Sasak tumakind of red clothes louse
Proto-Sangiric *tumaclothes louse
Sangir tumaclothes louse
Tontemboan tumaclothes louse
Mongondow tumaclothes louse
Gorontalo tumoclothes louse
Totoli tumaclothes louse
Dampelas tumaclothes louse
Bare'e tumaclothes louse
Tae' tumaclothes louse
  tuma-nhave clothes lice
  maʔpe-tumasearch for lice in the clothes
Mandar tumaclothes louse
Buginese tumaclothes louse
Makasarese gan-tumaclothes louse
Wolio tumalouse

2121

PCEMP     *tuma clothes louse; body louse

CMP
Komodo tumaclothes louse
Manggarai tumaclothes louse: Pediculus vestimenti
Ngadha tumaclothes louse
Rotinese tumaclothes louse
Tetun tumawhite mite which attacks clothes
Leti tumaclothes louse
Yamdena tumekind of louse
Soboyo tumahead louse
  tuma gofolawall louse
  tuma-n tolunit
  asu-n-tumaflea on a dog
OC
Lusi tumalouse
Lakalai la-tumaflea, house louse, bedbug
Gapapaiwa tumakind of large louse
Suau tumalouse
Magori tumalouse
Mailu tumalouse, bug
Tubetube tumalouse
Nggela tumaa moth that gets into clothes and destroys them
Wala ne-tumlouse
Tongan tumakind of louse
Niue tumaclothes louse
Futunan tumaclothes louse

Note:   Also Pazeh umah ‘body louse’, Thao tumbush ‘clothes louse’, Bunun tumbus ‘body louse’, Maranao tom ‘human body louse’, Sasak ke-tuma ‘kind of red clothes louse’, Tetun ka-tuma ‘white mite which attacks clothes’, Kedayan tumoʔ ‘clothes louse’, Wetan toma ‘louse’, Selaru tum-lef ‘wall louse’, Kei tuman ‘small louse’, Buruese tuman ‘flea, an insect that infests clothing’, Buli tun ‘clothes louse.

This important term provides one of the key pieces of evidence that PAn *-aS and *-eS merged as PMP *-ah. Although reflexes of *CumeS are widespread they are not nearly as common as those of *kuCu ‘head louse’, thus suggesting that the latter term had greater psychological salience than the former. This observation is perhaps related to the fact that delousing as a socially significant grooming activity almost invariably involves the removal of head lice rather than body lice --- a behavioral trait which appears to be shared with other primates (as chimpanzees), and which therefore probably has pre-human origins. In the absence of other evidence for a prefix *ka- which could be added to animal names I tentatively assume that the initial elements in Sasak ke-tuma and Tetun ka-tuma are products of historically unrelated morphological processes.

25936

*CuNuh roast food over a fire

2122

PAN     *CuNuh roast food over a fire

Formosan
Saisiyat solœhroast over a slow fire
Amis todohto burn (generic); to roast, barbecue
  todoh-ento burn something
Bunun ma-tunuhto roast right on the fire
Tsou c<m>uhuto roast right on the fire
Kanakanabu c<um>á-cunuto roast right on the fire
Saaroa c<um>a-cuɬuto roast right on the fire
Rukai (Budai) ua-cuɬuto roast right on the fire
Paiwan tsulʸuto roast something

2123

PMP     *tunu roast food over a fire

WMP
Isneg túnoto roast
Casiguran Dumagat tunóroast in or over a fire (of meat, fish, bananas, root foods)
Kelabit tunuhburning, roasting
Murik tunuʔroasting
Malagasy tónoroast, grilled
Iban tunuburn up, consume by fire; to roast, toast (as fish)
Malay tunuconsume by fire, burn up. Of the destruction of forest by fire when clearing land for cultivation; of burning incense; of slaying one's enemies by burning; of the walls of a house being burnt
Old Javanese a-tunuon fire, ablaze; seek death by fire, throw oneself into the fire
  pa-nunw-ancremation place, pile, pyre
Javanese tunua small fire
  di-tunuput in the fire, burn; roasted (over a fire, in the ashes)
Madurese tonoto burn
  ka-tono-nburned
Balinese tunuroast on a fire, bake on glowing coals; cremate
Proto-Sangiric *tunuto bake, roast
Sangir tunuscorch, singe
  ta-tunuthe instrument or means (hot water, etc.) by which something is scorched or singed
Proto-Minahasan *tunuburn, bake, roast
Tontemboan tunuto burn, bake, roast
Gorontalo tulufire
Balantak tunuto burn
Uma -tunuto burn
Tae' tunuto burn, roast, broil, bake; slaughter animals
  tunu kuliʔroast over a fire in the skin, as tubers
  man-tunuto burn, bake; slaughter (sacrificial) animals for one who has died
Mandar tunuto roast; roasted (as fish)
Buginese tunuto roast (as fish)
Makasarese tunuto burn, lay in the ashes; light (a lamp), bake in an oven, roast over a fire; lay in a fire (of golden ornaments, as one of the operations needed to make them beautiful; to heat up (stones); slaughter (of buffalos, goats
  at-tunu rotito bake bread
  pat-tunu-aŋoffering feast; place where burnt offerings are made
Wolio tunuto light (lamp, fire), set afire, burn, heat up, roast, bake (also pottery)
Chamorro tunuburn, barbecue, scald, broil
CMP
Komodo tunuto burn (a field), to roast (meat, corn)
Manggarai tunuto roast (young corn in the husk, unpeeled manioc)
Rembong tunuto roast (young corn) in the husk
Ngadha tunuto burn, burn off
  tunu ŋanasinge off the bristles of a sacrificial pig, an oath
Anakalangu tunuburn
Kambera tunuset on fire (as a house); burn (as lime), roast, bake (as a chicken or young corn
Hawu tunuburn; fry, grill, roast (as a chicken); to light, ignite (as a lamp)
Rotinese tunuroast, bake, cook without fat (meat, fish, corn, etc.); singe off the fur of a pig, goat, etc. in making a sacrificial offering
Tetun tunuto roast, to bake (in an oven or over a fire)
  tunu fahisinge a pig (to scrape off hair and skin)
  tunu ahumake quicklime
  tunu-nbaked in an oven
Erai tunuto roast
Tugun tunuto burn, roast
Kisar kunuburn, roast, bake
Leti tunuset on fire, burn, roast or bake; shoot a firearm
Wetan tuniburn, roast, often combined with naja, to cook: ra-tuni ra-naja they roasted and cooked, they prepared food
Selaru tunshoot with a firearm; burn, roast on the fire; ignite, set on fire
Yamdena tunuto fry, to bake, to roast in the fire; shooting of firearms; shining, scorching of the sun
  in tu-tunufish baked in the fire
Fordata tunuroast in a fire; shooting of a firearm
  (tan)tunu-nroasted in the fire
Kei en-tunroast or stew in the fire, to bake; shoot off firearms
Dobel tunstove
Paulohi tunuroast, burn; shoot with a weapon', tunu 'to burn; to shoot
Proto-Ambon *tunuto burn, to shoot
Asilulu tunuto burn; to roast or bake; to shoot
  ta-tunusomething roasted or burned
  ai ta-tunufirewood
  katihu ta-tunuroasted shrimp
Buruese tunu-hheat the midsection of (cylinder, rod, or tube) in a flame
Soboyo tunuto burn, singe off hair, feathers, etc. over a fire: roast
SHWNG
Numfor kunto fry
  kunburn, fry, roast; ignite a fire or lamp
Serui-Laut tunuto cook

2124

POC     *tunu roast food over a fire

OC
Nali tun-tunto burn, roast
Titan tunu-tunto burn, roast
Wuvulu unucook, roast
  unu-m-iacook it!, roast it!
Tigak tuncook
Label tuncook, burn
Tolai tunto burn, cook, roast, broil; burn down the grass on a new plantation
Lakalai tulu-luto burn (of a burn); be burned
  e-tulu-luhot taro
Wogeo tunuroast, burn; cook it!
Gedaged tun-icause to burn, light (a fire so it burns well), set fire
Gitua tunburn, hot
Motu tunu-ato bake pottery
Tawala tunu-yashine a light, light up
Tubetube tunto burn down, as a house or garden
Cheke Holo tunuburn with fire
  thunube burned (living being)
Roviana tunuburn scars on the arm, as is often done by young boys
Bugotu tunumark, blot, cicatrix caused by burning
Kwaio ununative torch; to light, illuminate; divine a thief using a magical torch, unu-a cook vegetables (or edible insects) by steaming in a leaf-plugged bamboo tube on an open fire
Lau ūnua torch of dried coconut leaves tied together
'Āre'āre ūnutorch made from dry coconut leaf; go fishing at night with this torch
  haneia ūnuordeal, judgement by hot stones, trial by fire
Arosi unuraise cicatrices on the body with a burning brand
Mota tunto roast on embers, toast
Lonwolwol tUnuto light, set fire to
Rotuman fun-to cook (esp. by boiling)
Fijian tunuwarm food up again
Tongan tunucook over an open fire, to roast, grill or toast; roasted, grilled, toasted; roasting, etc.; what is roasted or being roasted, etc.; fire for roasting, etc.
Niue tunuto boil, broil, roast (as yam over the fire)
Futunan tunuroast over a fire (as breadfruit)
Samoan tunubroil; boil; (of hot drink) make; to roast, to toast, to broil, to fry, to boil (Pratt 1984)
Tuvaluan tunucook
Kapingamarangi dunucook over an open fire, boil
Nukuoro dunucook, heat up, boil (water)
Rennellese tunuto cook, roast on hot coals
  tunu kapekapecook directly on a fire, as fish, birds; barbecue
Anuta tunuroast something over an open fire; roasted
Rarotongan tunuto cook as in cooking food; to boil, as in boiling a kettle of water; to roast or bake
  tunu pakato roast on fire embers
Maori tunuto roast, to broil; inspire with fear
Hawaiian kunubroil on coals, as meat or fish

2125

PAN     *C<in>uNuh be roasted (by someone)

Formosan
Paiwan ts-in-ulʸube burnt, slaughtered

2126

PMP     *t<in>unuh be roasted (by someone)

WMP
Ilokano t-in-únobroiled or roasted meat, fish, etc., toasted bread, etc. It is stuck on a piece of bamboo or wire and held over live coals
Isneg s-in-únoroasted
Itawis s-in-únuroasted, that which is to be roasted
Old Javanese t-in-unube burned, burned up, burned down, set fire to, be put in the fire, heated; cremated
Sangir ni-tunube singed by someone
Palauan dəlúlbroiled; roasted; sunburned

2127

PAN     *C<um>uNuh to roast (intr.)

Formosan
Paiwan ts-m-ulʸuto roast meat; burn something or someone; kill a pig or chicken

2128

PMP     *t<um>unuh to roast (intr.)

WMP
Old Javanese t-um-unuto burn, burn up, burn down, set fire to, put in the fire, heat; cremate
Tontemboan t-um-unuto roast, as corn on a fire
Palauan d-m-ulto broil, to roast

2129

PAN     *CuNuh-an to roast

Formosan
Paiwan tsulʸu-anheat

2130

PAN     *tunuh-an to roast

WMP
Isneg tuno-ánto roast
Old Javanese tunw-an, tuno-nwhat is burnt down, burnt remains; pile, pyre
Tontemboan tunu-anthat on which something is burned, the fire; place where something is burned
  tu-tunu, i-tunumaterial used for burning something
Makasarese tunu-aŋwhat can or will be offered in sacrifice (as a burnt offering); to sacrifice something for someone
  tedoŋ tunu-aŋbuffalo fattened for sacrifice

2131

PAN     *ki-CuNuh (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan ki-tsulʸuburn oneself; join in a sacrificial feast

2132

PAN     *ki-tunuh (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Palauan kə-dúlburn each other

2133

PAN     *ma-CuNuh roasted

Formosan
Paiwan ma-tsulʸuto be hot

2134

PAN     *ma-tunuh roasted

WMP
Itawis ma-túnuthat which is to be roasted
Old Javanese ma-tunw-a-tunw-anto set everything on fire
Tontemboan me-tunuto burn, bake, roast
Tae' ma-tunucooked thoroughly, well-cooked
Buginese ma-tunucooked well
SHWNG
Irarutu ma-tunto fry

2135

PMP     *maŋ-tunuh to roast

WMP
Isneg ma-núnoto roast
Kelabit nunuhto burn, to roast
Murik nunuʔto roast over a fire, as meat
Nias ma-nunulight, kindle, ignite; roast in a fire; burn; to shoot, fire a weapon
Balinese nunuroast on a fire, bake on glowing coals; cremate
Sangir ma-nunuscorch, singe; burn, pour hot water over a pig to facilitate scraping off the bristles
Gorontalo mo-luluroast in hot ashes (as cassava)
Palauan mə-lúlto broil, roast; get oneself sunburned
  mə-lúl a ʔadcremate
  mə-lúl a ʔausmake lime from coral
SHWNG
Serui-Laut nunuto cook

2136

PWMP     *maR-tunuh to roast

WMP
Isneg mag-túnoto roast
Itawis mat-túnuto roast
Malagasy mi-tónoto roast
Mandar mat-tunuto ignite, light (as a lamp); to roast (as a fish)
Buginese mat-tunuto roast (as fish)

2137

PPh     *tunuh-en be roasted by someone

WMP
Ilokano tuno-énto roast, to broil, to toast; to singe, to scorch, to sear
Gorontalo tulu-woloroasted, as cassava in hot ashes

2138

POC     *tunu tunu roast food over a fire

OC
Titan tunu-tunto burn
Tanga tun-tunhot (water, weather)
Label tun-tunto cook, to burn
Gitua tun-tunhot
Motu tunu-tunubake pottery (collective)
Cheke Holo tu-tunumake small fires in a garden area to remove the debris which has been cut down to clear the ground
Nggela tunu-tunudot, spot, blot
  tunu-tunu-gaspots all over; brand with fire, touch or prick with burning brand
  tu-tunubranding
Sa'a u-unu, u-unu-unuburn in the fire, roast flesh on the embers; raise cicatrices on the body by burning
  u-unu-unuyoung men's game played on sand, two sides each with its oven (umu); the game is to wrest one of the opposite side and put him into the oven
  u-unu-hito burn
Mota tun-tuna roasted, toasted yam
  tu-tunhot; dear (as a friend)
Fijian tunu-tunuhot
Kapingamarangi dunu-dunucook over an open fire, boil
Nukuoro dunu-dunucook, heat up, boil (water)
Maori tunu-tunuto roast; faint-hearted, afraid

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak tino ‘what is singed, singed off (hair, feathers); what is roasted on hot coals’; ma-nino ‘to singe off hair or feathers, roast on hot coals’, Lou nunun ‘roast over hot coals’. The basic sense of this term seems to have been ‘to roast (tubers, meat, fish, etc.)’, with reference either to an open fire or to a bed of embers --- in other words, to cook without water or fat by direct exposure to heat. Reflexes in Wolio and Motu suggest that PMP *tunu also applied to the firing of clay pots, a concept which is in every sense similar to that of roasting except that the object is inorganic. In many of the available sources a reflex of *CuNuh is additionally given as the translation equivalent of ‘to set on fire, to kindle, to ignite (as a lamp)’ and ‘to burn (something)’.

Reflexes in Kambera, Tetun and Palauan suggest that this verb was applied to the burning of calcium carbonate to make quicklime, but it is not entirely clear whether it could be applied to any type of object. In addition the agreement of Paiwan and several languages of central and southern Sulawesi in supporting the meaning ‘to sacrifice animals’ suggests that *CuNuh referred to burnt offerings, presumably as a part of funeral ceremonies. One other recurrent semantic reflex --- that of the firing of a weapon (Nias, many CMP languages) is assumed to be a convergent innovation following the introduction of firearms. Finally, in parts of the central Solomons the ritualistic practice among young males of raising cicatrices on the skin through burning evidently led to a semantic shift to ‘mark left by burning’, and then just ‘dot, spot, blot’ (Nggela).

The Formosan part of this comparison was first recognized in print by Tsuchida (1976:133).

32265

*CuŋCuŋ make a booming sound

10559

PAN     *CuŋCuŋ make a booming sound

Formosan
Amis toŋtoŋthe sound of drums
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-Tu<a>ŋTuŋ-andrum
  pa-TuŋTuŋ-ito beat a drum
WMP
Malay tontoŋbamboo gong
Toba Batak tuŋtuŋa wooden bell
Javanese ṭoŋṭoŋ-anslitgong (Pigeaud 1938 )
Sangir tuntuŋsound of a type of large drum
Chamorro toŋtoŋpound, beat, batter, bang against, strike heavily or repeatedly with fist

Note:   Also Thao tumtum ‘beating of a drum, sound of a drumbeat’. With root *-Cuŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.

25940

*CuqelaN condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish

2143

PAN     *CuqelaN condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish     [doublet: *tuqelaŋ]

Formosan
Tsou cərhəbone
Kanakanabu cuʔúanəbone
Saaroa culalhəbone
Rukai cooɭalebone (Budai)
Paiwan tsuqelalʸbone
  tsuqelalʸ nua kasiwheartwood
  ts-m-uqelalʸbe bony, have prominent bones

2144

PMP     *tuqelan condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish

WMP
Hiligaynon túlʔanbone
Cebuano tulʔánknee joint of human being or large animals; legs or lower limbs of man or animals
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tulanbone
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) tuʔelanbone
Manobo (Sarangani) toʔlanbone
Moken kelanbone
  kelanbone
Karo Batak tulanbone
Proto-Lampungic *tuhelanbone
Old Javanese tahulan <Mbone, fish bone
  kayu tahulantree stump?; leafless tree?
Mongondow tuḷanbone
Gorontalo tulalobone
Palauan dəʔóylspine; backbone

Note:   Also Bunun tuqnađ ‘bone’. Moken regularly lost the prepenultimate syllable if it began with *q; cp. *baqeRu > keloi ‘new’, *buqaya > gaya (expected **kaya) ‘crocodile’, *RuqaNay > kanai ‘male’. The Palauan reflex of this form was first pointed out by Smith (n.d.).

25942

*Curis scratch a line

2146

PAN     *Curis scratch a line

Formosan
Kavalan turislines, stripes, pattern (Li and Tsuchida 2006); line (that you draw); marks on snake skin; tattoo (Blust, fieldnotes)
  sa-turiscolorful
  t<m>uristo draw
  turis na rimalines in the palm of the hand; fortune
Amis toris, tosira line on paper or a line of planted rice plants
Paiwan tsurisa scratch, gash (wound); a line

2147

PMP     *turis₂ scratch a line

WMP
Maranao torisetch a line on
  toris-anstriped
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) turismark out a design, a boundary, or a pattern
Malay turisskin-deep slash; long but shallow cut
CMP
Ngadha turidash, stroke, line; draw a line; lined, striped
Tetun tuito scratch a line; to scratch with a fingernail or any similar object
  tui-ka line, scratch, score, or mark

Note:   With root *-ris₂ ‘scratch a line’.

25944

*CuSuR string together, as beads

2149

PAN     *CuSuR string together, as beads

Formosan
Kavalan tusuRthreading of beads, etc.
Bunun ma-tusulto string together, as flowers
Paiwan tsusua cord for stringing something on (as beads, millet)

2150

PMP     *tuhuR stringing of beads, skewering of fish, etc.

WMP
Itbayaten too-tohoyrunning stitch
Tagalog túhoga stringing together of things, piercing through them to hold them
Bikol túhogto string (as beads); to skewer, place on a stick; to impale
Hanunóo túhugstringing of beads or similar objects
  pa-nuhúg-anbeads, literally 'that which is used for being strung'
Aklanon túhogpierce, pass or cut through, penetrate
  t-in-uhog-anpierced ears (for earrings)
Cebuano túhugpierce through with a string (as pearls for a necklace), a stake (as a fish impaled on a harpoon), or something else, hang something on something long
Maranao togpass something through a hole
Tausug mag-tuhugto string (something, as fish or beads)
Sangir tuheʔstring things together
CMP
Manggarai turto string, as beads on a thread; to stitch (a mat); to pile up (stones)
Rembong turto string beads
Ngadha tuto put in, insert (as firewood in a fire); pierce; to thread (a needle)
Tetun tuuthe spike of a fish's dorsal fin, any sharp object capable of pricking the skin; to prod, to poke, to touch with the point of a finger, or any other object for prodding
SHWNG
Numfor kurto string (as beads)

2151

POC     *tuRi₁ to string (beads, fish, etc.); to skewer (candlenuts, etc.)

OC
Tolai turto pierce, as a spear or arrow; to perforate, bore through
Motu turi-aplait an armlet; sew; string fish together
Rotuman fuisingle piece of Rotuman necklace or garland
  fui-ʔakito string together, make a necklace or garland
Fijian tuilift up with a string
  tui-tui vakastring together
Tongan tuiput in, insert, e.g. hand into pocket, or thread into needle; to thread (needle, beads, etc.); make by threading (as a necklace); to stab, pierce, gore; thing for threading with, such as the small forked stick used for threading sennit when reeding a house; put on, wear (clothes)
Niue tuito sew; to pierce (with a needle or other sharp point); to wear, to put on clothes
Samoan tuistab, jab; prick, pick (with a fork, etc.); (of insect, etc.) sting; (of horse) spur; given an injection, inject; thread something through (as thread through a needle)
Tuvaluan tuithread on string (as fish); stab; pierce
Kapingamarangi duito sew; to patch; pierce with an object; skewer; to spill; to insert an extra leaflet in mat plaiting
Nukuoro duistab with a sharp object, pierce with a sharp object, sew, string (flowers or fish, etc.); straight course (of a canoe)
Rennellese tuibone, as of whale; awl or stick used as an awl; to string together, as fish, beads, coconuts; to sew, as a bugho seine or baghu mat; eat with a coconut-leaf midrib; fork; to be sharp; to insert, stick in or through
Rarotongan tuito sew, join or fasten together with a needle or thread; thread a wreath; thread shells into a neck or head ornament; thread or join up candlenut kernels on the mid-rib of the coconut frond; to pierce
Maori tuipierce; thread on a string; lace, fasten by passing a cord through holes; sew; put the hand or arm through a loop, pass the arm through another person's arm; string on which anything is threaded
Hawaiian kuito string pierced objects, as flowers in a lei, or fish; to thread, as beads; needle, pin, spike, nail, screw, any pointed instrument of wood or metal; to sting

2152

PAN     *CuSuR-en be strung, be skewered

Formosan
Bunun tusul-unto string
WMP
Itbayaten tohoy-enpierce or prick through something
  tohy-ento needle the stems of the leaves of tobacco to dry
Bikol tuhóg-onbe strung (as beads), skewered, placed on a stick, impaled

2153

PAN     *C<um>uSuR to string beads, etc.

Formosan
Kavalan t-m-usuRto thread beads, etc.
Paiwan ts-m-usuto string (beads)

Note:   Also Itbayaten ni-tohey ‘held together by passing an instrument (as tatari) through the things to be cooked’, tohey-en ‘pass through a hole (as a needle)’, Casiguran Dumagat tuhók ‘to string together, to thread on a string; pierce through, put a spit through pieces of meat (as to string fish on a line, or beads on thread)’, Sangir tuheʔ ‘string together’, Mongondow tuog ‘bead, beadwork’, mo-tuog ‘to string, as beads on a thread’, Bare'e tua ‘string on a line (as beads), skewer on a stick (as fish)’.

Zorc (n.d.) proposed PPh *tuheR ‘pass through a hole; string (beads); spit (meat)’. The fundamental idea expressed by PAn *CuSuR and its typical reflexes is that of connecting a series of similar objects by stringing or skewering. The prototypical object for stringing was beads, which were strung into necklaces, while that for skewering probably was fish, which were skewered for roasting. The loss of the medial consonant of this form through regular sound change produced a canonically anomalous monosyllabic content word in some languages, and it was perhaps in response to this situation that the POc transitive suffix *-i was reanalyzed as part of the stem.

32266

*Cuzuq index finger

10560

PAN     *Cuzuq index finger     [disjunct: *tuzuq₁]

Formosan
Paiwan ts<aly>udjuq-anfinger

10561

PMP     *tuzuq₂ to point out, instruct

WMP
Yami tanorofinger
Ilokano tudópointer, indicator
Bontok tuduto reveal; to make known; to show; to point out
Tagalog túroʔinstruction; teaching; education
  i-túroʔto instruct; to teach (emphasis on subject taught)
  i-pa-túroʔto order the teaching of a particular subject
  mag-túroʔto teach
Hanunóo túruʔpointing; direction
Malay tudohaccusation, esp. slanderous accusation; pointing out a person guilty of some heinous act
Toba Batak ma-nuduto point at something
Sundanese tuduhpointing out
Old Javanese tuduhinstruction, direction, directive, order, guidance
  a-tuduhto give directions, give guidance, point out, give orders
Javanese tuduh-tuduhto point to; to point out, advise
Balinese nuduhto command, set a task, give instructions
Tae' turopoint out, show, demonstrate
CMP
Tetun tuduto indicate, designate or nominate
  tudu liman bato point the finger at
  ha-tuduto show, to indicate, to point out, to direct

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/24/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-C